Chapter 5: The Enlightenment and the American Revolution

Chapter 5: The Enlightenment and the American Revolution

1: The EnlightenmentEssential Question: What effects did EnlightenmentPhilosophers have on government and society stilltoday?

Terms, People, and Places• Natural Law• Thomas Hobbes• John Locke• Social Contract• Natural Right• Philosophe• Montesquieu• Diderot• Rousseau

Natural Law• Rules discoverable by reason that governscientific forces◦ Gravity◦ Magnetism• Reformers thought they could studyhuman behavior using the ScientificMethod• This thinking of the Scientific Revolutionlead to the Enlightenment

Thomas Hobbes and John Locke• Two 17 th century English thinkers that setforth the ideas that were key to theenlightenment• Both lived through the terrors of theEnglish civil war• However both had conflicting views ofthe world

Hobbes believed in a powerfulgovernment• If people are notgoverned they wouldresort to violence• People entered into aSocial Contract that gaveup certain freedoms forsecurity• Believed the best formof government for thiswas a monarchy

Locke advocates natural rights• Thought people werereasonable and moral• Had certain “naturalrights”◦ Life, Liberty, and Property• Believed people formedgovernments to protectnatural rights andgovernment• Best kind of governmentwas a limitedgovernment

The Philosophes• A group of Enlightenment thinkers inFrance that applied the methods ofscience to understand and improvesociety◦ Baron de Montesquieu◦ Denis Diderot◦ Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Montesquieu Advances the idea ofSeparation of Powers• Criticized Absolute Monarchy• 1748 published The Spirit of the Lawswhich discussed the history ofgovernments• Thought government should be separatedin branches that can check and balanceeach other• Great influence on the formation of TheUnited States government

Diderot edits the Encyclopedia• Worked for years the create 28 volumeof books called and Encyclopedia• Covered topics like government,philosophy and religion• Helped spread the ideas of TheEnlightenment

Rousseau Promotes the SocialContract• Like Locke felt all people were basicallygood• Felt society was corrupted by unequaldistribution of property• Wrote The Social Contract◦ Society placed too many limitations onbehavior◦ Some controls necessary◦ Freely elected government should imposecontrols

Writers Face Censorship• Most governments did not agree with thethoughts of the Enlightenment• Would often use censorship to controlthe spread of ideas◦ Banned books◦ Burned books◦ Imprisoned writers

Ways around Censorship• Writers would often disguise their worksas fiction• Montesquieu’s Persian Letters used totravelers tales to mock French Society

Ideas Spread in Salons• New Literature, arts, science andphilosophy were regular topics ofdiscussion among the Enlightened• They would gather in groups or Salonsfor these discussions• All were invited middle class andNoblemen• This put the middle class and nobles onlevel with each other

Enlightened Despots Embrace NewIdeas• The ruling courts of Europe become filledwith philosophes trying to get their ideasaccepted by ruling class• Enlightened despots - rulers thataccepted the enlightened ideas◦ Frederick the Great◦ Catherine the Great◦ Joseph II

Frederick the Great of Prussia• Imposed tight control but saw himself as aservant of the state with a duty to workfor the common good• Reforms were directed to makegovernment more efficient• Practiced religious toleration stating “Inmy kingdom one can go to heaven onones own fashion.”

Catherine the Great of Russia• Had written correspondence withPhilosophes• Reforms included◦ Abolished torture◦ Granted religious tolerance• She also criticized serfdom

Joseph II of Austria• Son of Maria Theresa• Most radicle of the Enlightened despots• Would dress as a commoner and travelamong the people• Allowed for religious toleration• Ended censorship in his country• Sold monasteries not involved incommunity service

Lives of the Majority Change Slowly• Most Europeans were un touched by themiddle class• Made up of peasants• Eventually ideas of equality made theirways into the lives of the peasant class• Led to revolution on the continent by thelate 1800’s

Essential Question:• What effects did EnlightenmentPhilosophers have on government andsociety still today?• Separation of Powers• Religious tolerance• Freely elected governments

3. Birth of the AmericanRepublicEssential Question : Did we ever get no taxation without representation?

Terms, People, and Places• George III• Stamp Act• George Washington• Thomas Jefferson• Popular sovereignty• Yorktown, VA• Treaty of Paris• James Madison• Benjamin Franklin• Federal Republic

King George III• King of Englandduring the AmericanRevolution

The Colonies in the Mid 1700’s• Home to a diverse groupof people and socialdistinctions were blurred• Governed local affairs,appointed their ownrepresentatives,• were prosperous,• did not enforce Britishrule

Colonist Express Discontent• Seven Years’War/French IndianWar• 1765 Stamp Act• “No taxationwithoutrepresentation”

Colonist Rebel• A series of violentclashes betweencolonist and GreatBritain escalate◦ Boston Massacre◦ Boston Tea Party◦ Lexington andConcord

Drafting of the Declaration of Independence• 1775 Revolutionary War hasbegun• Leads the creation of aColonial army led by GeorgeWashington• Continental Congress metand declared independencefrom Great Britain 1776• Drafted The Declaration ofIndependence written byThomas Jefferson• The Declaration inspired byideas of John Locke

Locke's Idea’s Used• People had the right toalter or abolish unjustgovernments• Power comes from thepeople• Life Liberty and thePursuit of Happiness

American RevolutionRevolutionaries fightusing guerrilla warfare• Battle of Saratoga:American victoryconvinces France tosupport the revolution• France’s blockadeenables Washington todefeat the British atYorktown Virginia wherethey surrender• Treaty of Paris ends thewar, recognizes Americassovereignty

A New Constitution• Articles ofConfederation are notworking• 1787 Philadelphia torevise the Articles• end up scrapping themand draftingconstitution unitingthe states of America• Established agovernment of thepeople, by the peopleand for the people

Enlightenment Ideas have a great impact• Framers used the ideas of Locke,Montesquieu and Rousseau• “We the people of the United States”• Constitution provides for an electedgovernment• Creates a Federal Republic Power dividedbetween the Federal government and States• Allows for a system of Checks and Balances• Insures individual rights with the Bill ofRights

Essential Question• Did we ever get no taxation with outrepresentation?

The French Revolution• Essential Question:How was the Frenchrevolution the same asours? How was itdifferent?

French Society Divided• Before the revolution, France is ruled under anancien regime, or old order in which thecountry is divided into three classes• The three classes are called the Estate◦ The First estate is the Clergy◦ The Second Estate is the Nobility◦ The Third Estate is the Peasant Class

First EstateSecond Estate• Clergy• 1 % of population; had 10%of land• Highest officials were verywealthy• Only paid a 2% “gift tax”• Titled nobility• 2% of Population• Nobles were granted topjobs• Paid little to no taxesThe First and Second Estates

BourgeoisieLower Class• Vastly Diverse• -middle class lawyers,bankers, doctors, journalist,merchants• Philosophes• Salons• Birth of the Enlightenment• Working class• Unskilled labor• Peasant classThird Estate (two parts)

Financial Troubles• France finicaltroubles came fromDeficit Spending• Louis XIV lost SevenYears’ War• Louis XV spent onan extravagantlifestyle• Louis XVI (dullwitted) lost moneyon the AmericanRevolution

Liberte, Egalite, and Fraternite• Under Pressure Louis XVIcalls the Estate General• 1st & 2nd estates hadalways dominated the 3rdestate 2-1 vote• 3rd estate now demandedequality and a popular vote• 3 rd estate met nextdoor(tennis court) andcreated the NationalAssembly• Demanded a Constitution

Parisians Storm the Bastille• July 1789 Violence breaksout in the streets of Paris• Looking of weapons andgunpowder the peoplehead to the Bastille• Bastille – a medievalprison for politicalprisoners• The Captain Launaydenies entry• Parisians storm theBastille and chop off hishead

The French Revolution UnfoldsHistorians divide the French Revolution into phases• The moderate phase (1789-1791) The nationalassembly turned France into a constitutionalmonarchy• The radicle phase (1791-1794) period of escalatingviolence which led to the end of the monarchy andthe Reign of Terror• The Directory (1795-1799) a movement away fromthe radicle ideas if the revolution• The Age of Napoleon ( 1799-1815)

Political Crisis Leads to Revolt• People are starving because no bread• Rumors run wild of soldiers attacking townsand stealing grains• This leads to a “Great Fear”• Peasants motivated by famine and fear attacknobles

Women March on Versailles• Riots broke out over the price over breadOver 6000 women marched 16 miles• Louis & family “agreed” & moved to Paris

ModeratesRadicles / Jacobins• Largely Middle Class• Organized the NationalGuard against the Royaltroops• Replaced the RoyalGovernment in the City• Could mobilize wholeneighborhoods to violence• Had newspapers andpolitical clubsTwo Main Factions

Maxmillian Robespierre• Leader of theJacobins• Jacobins-a group inNationalConvention-extremeradicals-defenders ofthe Revolution

End of the Monarchy• June 1791-Louis &family try to flee toAustria-caught & go toParis• King agrees to limitedmonarchy, but peoplewant a republic• August 1792-kingimprisoned & radicalscall for newconstitution• Jan. 1793-Louis XVIbeheaded

National Convention• National Convention met from 1792-1795: wrote the1st democraticconstitution:• Power in a single national legislature• Every male could vote

Reign of Terror• Jacobins set out tocrush oppositionRevolution• Committee of PublicSafety –hunted“traitors” down• MaximillienRobespierre• 40,000 people killedmostly peasants

The Guillotine• A new executiondevice invented byDr. Guillotin• Thought to be amore humane formof execution• Became a symbol ofterror in France• First to be guillotinedwere the kingsguards at the palace

End of the Reign of Terror• Robespierre accused hisfriends of treason-othersturned on him, and hewas put to death• After his death theJacobins lost powerwealthiermiddle classtook control• Many people evenfavored bringing back themonarchy• The people looked tothe army to bring orderto France

The Directory• 1795: New convention, new constitution• Government in the hands of wealthy middleclass• Upper house and lower house• Five member executive – “Directory”• Moderates not radicals• The Directory 1795-1799◦ high prices and food shortages◦ royalists and radicals have uprisings• Napoleon

The French Revolution• Essential Question:How was the Frenchrevolution the same asours? How was itdifferent?

Napoleon“I grew up on the fieldof battle and a mansuch as my self careslittle for the life of amillion men”

Essential Question:• What long term effects did Napoleonhave on Europe?

Napoleon Rises to Power• Born in Corsica• Sent to France tolearn how to be asoldier• Favored Jacobins andrepublic rule

Napoleon Seizes Power• Appointed by Directoryto lead army againstAustria in 1796. Became ahero!• Staged coup d’etat –seizes government• Holds plebiscite on newconstitution which givesNapoleon total power• Drew up a newconstitution

Napoleon Crowns Himself Emperor• Declared himselfCouncil for Life• Later assumed thetitle of Emperor• Took crown from thePope and placed it onhis own head• Forced Spain toreturn Louisianaterritory to France

Napoleon Reforms France• Order, Security, and Efficiency replaced Liberty, Equality,and Fraternity• Controlled prices, encouraged industry, built roads, setup a system of public schools• Made peace with the Catholic Church with theConcordat of 1801• Lasting reforms and laws set up were called theNapoleonic Code• The Napoleonic Code Replaced many of the reforms ofthe Revolution

Napoleon Builds an Empire• 1804 -1812 gained areputation as askilled military leader• Attacked using a fastmoving army• By 1812 built aGrand Empire• Invaded Russia

The Map of Europe is Redrawn• Napoleon createdFrench Empire heredrew the Map ofEurope• Annexed land fromSpain, NetherlandsBelgium and Germany• Dissolved the HolyRoman Empire• Created new countriesand inserted relativesat the rulers

Napoleon Strikes Britain• Britain was onlycountry that stood inthe way of totalEuropean domination• Set up the ContinentalSystem which wasblockade againstBritish Imports toEurope• Fought Brian in Egyptto cut off their access• Discovered theRosetta Stone in Egypt

Russian Winter Stops The Grand Army• Invaded Russia• Russia used aScorched EarthPolicy• Harsh Winterconditions forcedthe Grand Army toRetreat• 500,000 reduced toabout 20,000

Napoleon Falls from Power• After his defeat in Russia forced to Abdicate the throne• Abdicate-to give up• Sent into exile in the island of Elba with 1000 troops• When British administrator leave the island Napoleonand his troops escape• Upon his return to France he is treated as a hero• France had re instated a monarch King Louis XVIII andwent back on revolutionary reforms• Louis sent troops to stop napoleon and they ended upjoining him• Marched on Paris forcing Louis to flee and reclaimed histitle as Emperor

Battle of Waterloo• Fearing Napoleons Power Europe raced to raise anarmy ageist him• Napoleon also raised his army of one million strong• Met in battle at Waterloo• Was against Arch Duke Wellington first time he met acommander equal to him in skill• Wellington knew Napoleons tactics and was able todefeat him• Napoleon was again sent into Exile to the island if StHelena• Died six years later

Congress of Vienna• Chief Goal was to suppress revolutionaryuprisings• Strived for peace in Europe• Re instated the legitimate rulers of thecountries• Created the Concert of Europe a system inwhich European powers met an periodicallydiscussed any problems affecting the peace inEurope

Essential Question:• What long term effects did Napoleonhave on Europe?

Activity• Work with a partner and Compare andcontrast the American and FrenchRevolution using the worksheet

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