10187 - E2S2

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10187 - E2S2

Solutions to Unique Challenges in Sustaining the Navy’sReadiness at San Clemente Island RangesJoe Skibinski (Science Applications International Corporation, SAIC), Geoff Buckner (Naval Facilities EngineeringCommand – Southwest, NAVFAC-SW), and Mike Barta (SAIC)14 June 2010Environment, Energy Security and Sustainability (E 2 S 2 ) Symposium and ExhibitionColorado Convention Center, Denver, CO


2Agenda• Overview• Evolutionary Policy Development forRange Sustainability EnvironmentalProgram Assessment (RSEPA)• San Clemente Island (SCI) RangeCondition Assessment (RCA)F/A-18F Super HornetCourtesy of www.navy.milSustainability is the ability to meet mission requirementswhile fulfilling environmental stewardship goals within economic constraints


3Evolutionary Policy DevelopmentAugust 1999DoDD 4715.11/4715.12(U.S. Department of Defense Directive)Pre-2001• Tactical TrainingTheaterAssessment andPlanning Program(TAP) created andRanges toReadiness (R2R)Study completed• RangeEnvironmentalVulnerabilityAnalysis (REVA)developedSeptember 2003Office of Secretary of Defense (OSD)Interim Perchlorate Sampling Policy2002-2003• Prototypeassessmentsconducted andREVA transformedinto RangeSustainabilityEnvironmentalProgramAssessment(RSEPA) (Rev. 0)(Dec 2003)May/July 2004DoDD 4715.11/4715.122003-2004• Conductedassessments andcommencedchanges toRSEPA based onlessons learnedand changingguidanceNovember 2005DoDI 4715.14(U.S. Department of Defense Instruction)Navy Operational Range Assessment Policy Development2005-2006• Continuedassessments andrevised RSEPA(Rev. 1) (Nov2006):• Required five-yearreviews•Predictive modelvalidation required•Clarified definitions•Includedrequirements fromDODI 4715.14•Required finalapproved reports bemade available to thepublic and regulatorsJanuary 2006Policy on DoD RequiredActions Related to Perchlorate2007-2009• Completed initialassessments andstarted five-yearreviews• Navy Policy forConductingOperational WaterRangeSustainabilityEnvironmentalProgramAssessments(WRSEPA) (Aug2008)Challenges for developing policy include the lack of other range sustainment implementation guidanceand of the limited munitions constituents (MC) fate and transport data available in early 2000s


Range SustainabilityEnvironmental Program Assessments (RSEPA)4• Executes a range compliancemanagement process to ensure longtermsustainability using a phasedapproach▫ Ensures compliance with applicableregulations▫ Identifies and assesses potential for offrangemigration of munitions constituents(MCs) at land-based ranges• Provides a technically defensibleapproach for assessing theenvironmental condition of land-basedoperational ranges• Provides a framework for informeddecisions about when and how toproceed with a comprehensiveassessment and protective measures, ifnecessary


Range SustainabilityEnvironmental Program Assessments (RSEPA) Approach• Range Condition Assessment (RCA)▫ An RCA is conducted to determine if steps are necessary to maintaincompliance and to determine if further analysis is required to assess arisk of an off-range release. Review every five years.• Comprehensive Range Evaluation (CRE)▫ If further analysis is required after the RCA, a CRE will be conducted toverify and confirm if an off-range release of MCs has occurred or if thereis significant risk that an off-range release could occur. Conduct asneeded.• Sustainable Range Oversight During Off-Range ComprehensiveEnvironmental Restoration, Compensation, and Liability Act(CERCLA) Response (SRO)▫ An SRO is conducted in the event an off-range release has occurred.The focus of this phase is to ensure range sustainability is maintainedwhile proceeding through the CERCLA process for off-range releases.Conduct as needed.5


NAVY RANGE SUSTAINABILITY ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAM ASSESSMENT (RSEPA)Process Overview6Range Condition Assessment (RCA – conducted every 5 years)RCA Phase IRangeSelectionRCA Phase IIPre-Site Visit InformationCollectionRCA Phase IIIOn-Site Visit InformationCollection and ReviewAre further steps required tomaintain compliance? 1Decision Point 1YesNoImplement protective measuresRCA is complete 2Selection will be based on:• Impact to Navy mission• Regulatory environment• Public interest• Litigative risk• Management in-brief• Information will be collected andanalyzed for impact to rangeoperations• Archival records search• Archival records search• Interviews• On-site assessment• Initially develop ORSM• Predictive modeling (PM)• PM Validation if concern is NOTidentifiedIs further analysis requiredto assess risk of potentialoff-range release? 1NoYesProceed to CRE after consultingwith Executive Team andrepeat RCA in five yearsComprehensive Range Evaluation (CRE)CRE Phase IPreliminary Screening• Limited on-range sampling andtesting outside of impact areas• Evaluate potential for off-rangemigration• Predominantly on-site laboratorychemical testing• Refine ORSMDecision Point 2Is there likely to bean off-range release? 2NoCRE complete 2YesCRE Phase IIVerification Analysis• Sampling and testing at rangeboundary (ideally on Navyproperty)• Characterization of range boundaryrisks• Refine ORSMOn-Range PortionDo on-range testing results exceedpromulgated regulatory criteria (e.g., MCLs)? 1,2Is there a substantial threat ofan off-range release?Decision Point 3Do off-range testing results exceedpromulgated regulatory criteria (e.g., MCLs)? 1,2Does the off-range release pose an unacceptablerisk to human health and the environment? 2Off-Range PortionYesNoNoYesImplement protective measuresCRE complete 2Proceed to SRO after consultingwith Executive Team .Implement protective measuresas necessaryProtective MeasuresSustainable Range Oversight (SRO) During Off-Range CERCLA ResponseSRO• Start CERCLA at RI step to address off-range release• Involve regulators and stakeholder• Evaluate and propose preferred response action alternatives that protect human health and the environment• Ensure environmental response actions do not adversely affect the long-term sustainability of range operations• Select and implement actions, for example:•Remedial, removal, and long-term management actionsSRO complete 2Notes: 1. Protective measures can be implemented at any point in the process2. RCA will be repeated every 5 years regardless of whether a CRE and/or SRO are conducted3. Implement concurrently with CERCLA response when applicableProtective Measures 1, 3• Range-related protective measures to sustain range operations• Range-related protective measures to maintain environmental compliance• Range-related protective measures to address migration of munitions constituents 3• Inform the community of protective measures taken to address the off-range migration of munitions constituentsProcess overview diagram taken from U.S. Navy Range Sustainability Environmental Program Assessment (RSEPA) Policy Implementation Manual (Rev 1), November 2006CERCLA = Comprehensive Environmental Restoration, Compensation, and Liability Act; ORSM = Operational Range Site Model; RI = Remedial Investigation


7Navy Operational Ranges• 22 Navy range complexes (CONUS andOCONUS)▫ 11 training range complexes▫ 8 Research, Development, Test andEvaluation (RDT&E) rangecomplexes▫ 3 overseas/U.S. territories rangecomplexesAll Range Condition Assessments (RCAs) completed by the end of fiscal year 2008Comprehensive Range Evaluations (CREs) conducted at three range complexesFive-Year Reviews completed at three range complexes


8San Clemente Island (SCI)• Southernmost of eight CaliforniaChannel Islands• 50 nautical miles (nm) south of LongBeach, Calif., and 68 nm (126kilometers) west of San Diego• Approximately 18 nm long and 4 nmacross at its widest point• Controlled by Navy since 7 November1934 under President Roosevelt’sExecutive Order• Land- and water-based ranges andoperations areas (OPAREAs)• Maritime setting and proximity tomainland make it ideally situated andfrequently usedW-291 (Special Use Airspace) too big to depictDue to its unique capabilities, SCI supports multiple training activities from every Navy Primary Mission Area(PMAR), and provides critical training resources for Expeditionary Strike Group (ESG), Carrier Strike Group (CSG),and Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) certification exercises


Summary of Land-BasedRanges with Munitions Usage• Special Warfare Training Areas (SWATs)▫▫▫▫Munition use limited to inert rounds and small quantities of explosives composition C4 and bulk2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)SWATs 1 through 6 used for Special Operations basic and advanced trainingDemolition practice on land takes place in the existing bermed demolition range in SWAT 2 and,occasionally, in SWAT 1Grenade explosions occur within a certified grenade range located in the Northwest Harbor area(SWAT 2)• Missile Impact Range (MIR)▫▫▫▫▫Developed as heavily instrumented, threat representative target set for research and developmentaltesting of missiles (for example, the Joint Standoff Weapon and the Tomahawk Land Attack Missile)Equipped with multiple camera stations to record impacts and detonations of weaponsContains fixed ground targets, including simulated structures and actual aircraftNo live munitions recorded fiscal year (FY) 01, FY02Space and Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR) recovers missile remains after each shot• Shore Bombardment Area (SHOBA)▫▫▫Two impact areas for live-fire and inert ordnance training exercises for ships, aircraft, and groundforcesEncompasses almost 14,000 acres with over 3,000 acres designated as impact areas (more than2,000 acres for Impact Area I, 1,000 acres for Impact Area II, and 70 acres for the Bomb Box)Small arms, air-to-ground weapons, surface-to-surface weapons, ship-to-shore, and othercategories of munitions (such as surface-to-air, air-to-air)10


11Summary of Range Condition Assessment (RCA) – 2004• Ranges complied with environmental laws, regulations, and self-imposed military requirements with fewexceptions that were already in process of being addressed (for example, multi-year EnvironmentalImpact Statement)• Potential for migration from Special Warfare Training Areas (SWATs) 1 and 2, and Missile Impact Range(MIR) was considered unlikely▫ Limited munitions usage (few locations, limited quantities, few types) in the SWATs 1 and 2, and MIR▫ Predictive modeling not necessary• More munitions usage at Shore Bombardment Area (SHOBA)▫ Operational range site models (ORSMs) indicated greatest potential for migration from SHOBA▫ Predictive modeling was conducted in RCA▫ Predictive modeling in SHOBA showed potential for dissolved munitions constituents (MCs) to migrate toland-water interface via overland flow▫ Modeling assumptions were known to be overly conservative (for example, concentrations at solubility limits,little/no degradation or adsorption), but there was no way to quantify the degree of conservatism or reduce theconservatism without additional data collection▫ Navy decisions: (1) site-specific media sampling in SHOBA to be collected during five-year review to providemore data to evaluate off-range migration potential and (2) policy revision needed to require predictive modelvalidation if concern is NOT identifiedAdditional challenges for RCA at the time – Range Sustainability Environmental Program Assessments (RSEPA) policydevelopment was in early phase and no other RCAs were completed or under way


Operational Range Site Model(ORSM) for Shore Bombardment Area (SHOBA)12GroundwaterRecharge5.5 inches ofrainfall/year• Air-to-ground, ship-to-shore, andindirect-fire training• Beach assault trainingEvapotranspirationImpact Area 2Surface RunoffImpact Area 1SevereErosion


13Summary of Five-Year Review• Collected 35 multi-incremental surface soil and five discrete surface water samples from Shore BombardmentArea (SHOBA) in March 2007 and analyzed all samples for perchlorate (SW6850) and explosives (SW8330B)• Collected samples from various points inerosion channels running through SHOBAand into Pacific Ocean to determine ifmunitions constituents (MCs) are migrating toland/water interface• Collected soil samples from the upper 2inches or water samples from standing pools• More sampling in Impact Area II than inImpact Area I due to access/safety issues,but Impact Area II used more heavily thanImpact Area I (therefore, bias seemsappropriate)• Ensured sampling included down-gradientfrom Bomb Box and at land/water interfaceChallenges for sampling included presence of sensitive munitions, hazardous work environment,restricted work schedules, limited accessibility, and transportation/shipping constraints


14Summary of Five-Year Review (cont’d)• Only seven munitions constituents (MCs) were detected: 2,6-dinitrotoluene (DNT);octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX); nitrobenzene; nitroglycerin; perchlorate;hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX); and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)• Only HMX was detected in any water sample and only detected in one sample (not detected in duplicate)• Primary spatial trend observed in results was explosives detected in up- and mid-gradient sample locationswith degradants detected in mid- and down-gradient sample locations (natural attenuation)▫ More compounds detected in samples collected at the land/water interface than mid- and up-gradient▫ Many of compounds detected at the land/water interface were degradation products▫ No explosives detected in samples downstream from the Bomb Box at the land/water interface, suggestingeither complete degradation and/or limited mobility in the erosion channelMost explosives weredetected in SC-S-05Location SC-S-36 wasnear the land-oceaninterfaceLocation SC-S-32illustrates all of thesampling incrementsLocationSC-SW-04 shows thetypical amount ofstanding water inchannelsSC-SW-01 was takenfrom this natural poolSample SC-S-14 wastaken in mid-gradientzoneAll detected concentrations fall below action levels established in the Field Sampling Plan

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