IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 38, NO. 1, JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2002 85An Integrated Tactile-Thermal Robot Sensor WithCapacitive Tactile ArrayFranco CastelliAbstract—A capacitive tactile sensor and a thermal sensor thatcan be combined into one compact device with both modalities areillustrated. The tactile sensing portion is composed of an 8 8array of capacitive cells. By using as thermoresistors the rows’traces of the matrix of the capacitive tactile array sensor thermalsensing is obtained. This allows the detection of the gradient of thetemperature. A prototype of the new sensor, which has been developed,is briefly illustrated and the so-obtained results are shortlydiscussed. On account of the simplicity and cheapness of the integratedsensor as well as its high linearity and sensitivity, it appearsto be useful for the robots of future generations.Index Terms—Calorimetric test, capacitive tactile array, dielectriclayer, integrated sensors, robot sensor, strain-buckling characteristic,tactile shape discrimination.I. INTRODUCTIONFOR THE operating of actual robots, many types of visionmachines and proximity sensors have already been developed.Contrary to vision tactile recognition is an active processin which it is the sensor moving on the object that identifiessuperficial characteristics such as roughness, temperature, andthermal resistance.A wide variety of tactile sensors has been reported, based onboth digital and analog readout schemes. Among various transductiontechnologies, the most successful designs are  the capacitivetechnology  and the ultrasonic technology , whichare based on sensing strain, and the piezoresistive technology, which is based on sensing stress. Universal design methodsof ferropiezoelectric tactile array  appear impossible. Themajority of the more recent development efforts are based onthe use of piezoelectric polymeric films. These structures arestill relatively simple; however, they lack dc response, are difficultto scale to different force ranges, and are not noted for highstability.Both piezoresistive and capacitive structure are being used.Piezoresistive devices offer higher linearity and somewhatsimpler packaging than capacitive devices; however, capacitivepressure sensors are about one order of magnitude more sensitivefor a given device size and more than an order of magnitudeless sensitive to temperature. All existing tactile sensors  areof relatively high cost, on the order of $550–$1000/in .Paper MSDAD-S 01–34, presented at the 1995 Industry Applications SocietyAnnual Meeting, Lake Buena Vista, FL, October 8–12, and approved for publicationin the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS by the IndustrialAutomation and Control Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society.Manuscript submitted for review January 1, 2000 and released for publicationOctober 9, 2001.The author is with the Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica, Politecnico di Milano,20133 Milan, Italy (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).Publisher Item Identifier S 0093-9994(02)00604-7.A cheap tactile capacitive sensor integrated with a resistivethermal sensor, having a higher linearity, and somewhat simplerpackaging than current sensors is illustrated. Moreover, thethermal sensor, with spatial resolution, allows uncommon temperaturegradient detection.II. DESIGN ISSUEA robotic tactile-sensing system for object recognition andmanipulation, in essence, emulates the mechanism of humantactile perception . This is a complex process with two distinctmodes. The first is passive touch, produced by the “cutaneous”sensory network that provides contact force, contactgeometric profile, and temperature information. The second isactive tactile sensing, which integrates cutaneous sensory dataand “kinesthetic” information (i.e., limb/joint positions and thestate of the muscle). Desired specifications of a tactile sensitivestructure are as follows:• composed of a sensible tactile matrix able to ensure a spatialresolution of 1 or 2 mm;• sensitive to axial forces of about 0.01 N with a superiorlimit above 15 N;• dynamic range between 0–100 Hz.Tactile sensing technology currently is being developed toenhance the robots’ sensors integration, especially the passivetouch to emulate the integrated human tactile–thermal perception.The most common technologies employed by tactile sensors are based on optics, resistance, magnetics, and capacitance.All sensors, regardless of their underlying transduction principle,must convert an applied force into a measurable electricalsignal. The approach selected for our tactile sensor is based onmeasuring the capacitance between two surfaces of traces separatedby a dielectric compressible material.Two parallel electrically conductive plates generate a capacitancethat is a function of their separation. If a compressibledielectric is placed between them, a force applied to the top surfaceof the capacitor will reduce the plate separation distance.The resulting change in capacitance can be used to infer the appliedforce. This principle is the basis of the force transductionof the capacitive tactile sensor.Contact geometric profile information can be attained by anarray of capacitive cells formed by sandwiching a dielectriclayer between two sets of parallel conducting traces, with the topetches perpendicular to the bottom ones. A capacitor is formedeach time an upper trace intersects a lower trace. To make anarray of 64 force sensing capacitors, 8 upper traces and 8 lowertraces are used.0093–9994/02$17.00 © 2002 IEEE
86 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 38, NO. 1, JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2002A. Design of the Dielectric LayerAs previously mentioned, the basic operating principle forthe capacitive tactile sensors is the measurement of an appliedpressure by detecting the variation in the gap of two parallelcapacitive plates. Hence, the material between the two plates isa crucial component of the device; it forms both the elastic layerthat compresses in response to pressure, and the dielectric layerthat provides the capacitance between the two plates.Ideally, this material should compress linearly as force on itincreases, with a spring-like behavior, and be impervious to hysteresis.Having a material that closely approximates these characteristicsmakes it easy to translate the output of the sensor backto the applied force, since the detected capacitance will thenvary in correspondence to the force. Thus, the material selectedshould have linear compression over the range of pressures tobe applied. Moreover, it should have a high dielectric constantimperious to thermal influence in the temperature range of use.A general outline for designing the dielectric layer is proposedbefore illustrating the sensor.On the basis of a survey performed of the available elastomericdielectric layers, the selected one is composed of a fluoroelastomerdenoted “Tecnoflon FLOR 421” (TFOR), currentlyused as a gasket, kindly offered by Montefluos s.p.a. The TFORcharacteristics have been quantified by the following preliminarytests.• Permanent Buckling Test—The dielectric sheet has beencompressed at a speed-compression 2 mm/min up to 15%of its thickness. The deformation 60 s after having zeroedthe pressure has been within 1.67%; the speed of relaxationhas been 1.33 m/s.• Strain-Buckling Characteristic—The test has been performedin the force range 0–100 kN corresponding tothe pressure range 0–124.4 N/mm ; the characteristichas a high linearity in the ranges 1.23–3.69 N/mm and57.89–124.4 N/mm . Nevertheless, this second pressurerange is not apt for tactile object recognition and manipulation.• Differential Calorimetric Test—The difference of temperaturebetween the tested sample and the surrounding atmosphereof azote, , has carried on. It has been possibleto detect every structural change in the sample material inthe tested range of temperature. The TFOR has been testedin the temperature range from 150 Cto 300 C. Thistest has underlined a vitreous transition at about 13.6 C.This transition has to be further tested. Nevertheless, thetemperature range 0 C –150 C may be assigned as thesensor temperature rated range.• Dielectric Constant and Thickness—The dielectric constanthas been measured at 100 kHz, with an automaticPM6304 Philips bridge, to be about 17.6. The currentlayers’ dielectric constant is about 4 . A high dielectricconstant increases the overall performance of the deviceby increasing each cell’s effective capacitance. Forthe same reason, in our prototype, the dielectric layerthickness has been lowered to 0.5 mm and, to double thecells’ effective capacitance, the capacitive array has beendesigned in a sandwich configuration.Fig. 1. Photograph of the component parts of the sensor prototype during itsconstruction and the contact test station. 1: Column traces; see their verticalterminals, fastened between the dielectric layers and the row traces (horizontal)before being enveloped and fastened on the external surfaces of the dielectriclayers. 2: Composed sensor, with its terminals unconnected and the upper shieldremoved to illustrate the rows’ traces (see the white horizontal rows) coveringthe surface of the upper dielectric layer. 3: Removed upper shield. 4: Wholesensor with the terminals unconnected.B. Capacitive ArrayAs outlined, to double the cells’ effective capacitance, thecapacitive array has been designed in a sandwich configuration.The array is indeed formed by two dielectric layers of squareshape. The column traces of the matrix array are formed (see 1 inFig. 1) by a set of parallel conducting traces fastened by the twodielectric layers. The rows’ traces are obtained by envelopingand fastening the outer surfaces of the dielectric layers by a setof parallel conducting traces with the direction perpendicular tothe columns (see 1 in Fig. 1).The traces have been fastened to the dielectric by acianoacrilic glue used only at the edge of the dielectric layerswithout interfering with the cells’ dielectric. With the elementsarranged on about 3 cm (0.5 tetragon inch), the lengths of thetraces forming the columns and rows, respectively, are about 2and 4 cm in length. The sensor has the top and bottom surfacesformed by the rows’ parallel traces (see 2 in Fig. 1) fastened onthe two dielectric surfaces, series connected forming the matrixrows. Two parallel-connected capacitors are formed each time,a column trace intercepts a row trace, distributed on the twooutside surfaces of the sensor. These two surfaces of the sensor
CASTELLI: AN INTEGRATED TACTILE–THERMAL ROBOT SENSOR 87Fig. 2. Block diagram of the readout system. 1 is the actile capacitive array.ADMPX is the analog demultiplexer. AMPX is the analog multiplexer. On thebottom, on the left side, is the readout thermal unit, and on the right side is thereadout capacitive tactile unit.have to be shielded by a thermally conductive, both mechanicaland electric shield. Our prototype used a shield made ofpolyamide with a 35- m copper intermediate layer (see 3 inFig. 1), kindly offered by Kunze Folien GmbH. This thermallyconductive shielding foil has a high electrical isolation and anoverall thickness of 140 m. The foil is extremely flexible andvery tough.C. Readout System DesignThe block diagram of the tactile sensor matrix and its interfacecircuitry along with signal conditioning is shown in Fig. 2.For our prototype system with 8 rows and 8 columns, a 6-bitcounter generates rows and columns addresses. The three LSBsare fed to the analog DMPX and are used for the row addresses.The three MSBs are fed to the analog MPX and are used for thecolumn addresses.The sinusoidal signal generator supplies the selected row; thevoltage drops on each of the eight rows’ cells are amplified andsampled in a holding system. Then, through an A/D converter,they are processed by a microprocessor.D. Thermal SensorThe thermal sensor has been obtained by the rows’ traces ofthe capacitive array. The spatial thermal resolution is obtainedby the resistance of each of the 8 rows’ traces (2-mm spaced)detected by a multiplexing system similar to the one in SectionII-C.A thermal sensor with spatial thermal resolution appears uncommonin the sensor’s current literature and seems to respondto the actual trend to improving the ability of recognition of theobject by identifying the superficial characteristics such as temperatureand thermal resistance.Fig. 3.Tactile sensor output to applied pressure.E. Prototype Rated CharacteristicsA prototype of the illustrated sensor has been designed andconstructed. A photograph of its component parts is shown inFig. 1. This photograph illustrates the rows’ traces during theconstruction and before their assembling. More precisely, wehave only to detail the construction of the traces. They havebeen constructed by the technique of photochemical- etchingof a copper sheet 0.1-mm thick. The rated characteristics of theprototype are as follows:• 8-by-8 matrix of force-sensing capacitive cells;• overall dimensions, 18 mm 18 mm;• thickness of the dielectric sheet of Tecnofon FOR 421, 0.5mm;• cells’ capacitance 0.62 pF;• cells’ interax 2 mm;• overall pressure and force rang, respectively, 0–0.25N/mm and 0–81 N with buckling from 0% to 66%;• resistance of each row’s trace thermoresistor 100 m ;• copper thermoresistors interax 2 mm;• temperature range 0 C–150 C.III. TEST RESULTSThe illustrated prototype and material have been used in carryingon a series of tests intended to detect the sensor performanceand operativeness. For test results, the tactile sensor andthe thermal sensor have been tested separately. Nevertheless, itcould be possible to merge the two devices together. Test resultson the dielectric layer have been illustrated in Section II-A.A. Tactile Force SensitivityTo performing the tactile force test, a contact sensor test sectionhas been used. The station allows applying precise forceto the selected location. A preliminary test has been carriedout, to detect the characteristic of the capacitance to a uniformpressure on the whole sensor’s surface in the pressure range0–120 mN/mm (see Fig. 3). The characteristic of the mean
88 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 38, NO. 1, JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2002TABLE ICELLS’ CAPACITANCES, IN PICOFARADS, AT ZERO PRESSUREFig. 4.Cells capacitance to temperature.capacitance of the parallel-connected cells related to the pressurecan be approximated with a linear regression characteristicwith , linearity 0.3%, and sensitivity 0.05 pFper N/mm . The cells’ capacitances have been detected within0.01 pF. The same test in the same pressure range has beenrepeated on single cells, e.g., on the central one. Similar characteristicsin a wider pressure range, with an overload of 2.35mN/mm , have been detected on six cells (the central one andthe two lateral ones on the same central row and three on thecentral column consecutive from the column edge). The slopesof the six characteristics are within 0.25%. Moreover, the followinghave also been detected.1) The cells capacitance at zero pressure (see Table I) hasbeen detected. The cells capacitance mean value deviatesonly 2.1% with from the rated value.2) The tactile sensor hysteresis, with tactile force appliedover 1 min has been 2% and over 3 min has been 3.5%.3) Repeatability has been better than 5%.4) The influence of temperature on the cells’ capacitanceat zero pressure has also been detected. From test results(see Fig. 4), the cells’ capacitance in the rated 0C–150 C temperature range appears impervious to temperature.The illustrated capacitive tactile array appears much simplerthan previous ones both in construction and use (see, e.g.,). It is characterized by a higher sensitivity. For example,Fig. 5.Tactile spatial selectivity.experimental results in  outline measured capacitive valuesin femtofarads instead of picofarads found in the proposeddesign.B. Tactile Spatial ResolutionThe spatial resolution of the sensor is limited by the spacingbetween the capacitive cells centers and the elastomeric propertiesof the dielectric and protective covering. For a sensor thatrecords just surface standard force, the one or more cells directlyin contact with the stimuli should only detect a point source. Obviously,having a sharp sensor response will give more detail intactile force outlines of probed objects.To determine the spatial resolution or selectivity of our device,the contact sensor test section has been used to apply auniform pressure at different locations along a row. The probe,a rod of 1-mm radius, was advanced at 2-mm intervals applyingabout 100 mN/mm pressure at each point.The results of this test are summarized in the plots of Fig. 5.The curves show the response of three adjacent sensor cellswhen the probe is linearly stepped across them. The top of theplots is spaced with good approximation 2-mm apart as expected,since this is the array center-to-center spacing. Noticethat there is some response overlap between adjacent cells. Thatis, when probing on a cell, the neighboring cell will show some
CASTELLI: AN INTEGRATED TACTILE–THERMAL ROBOT SENSOR 89Moreover, the thermal sensor with spatial thermal resolutionof our prototype appears useful in the actual trend of improvingthe ability of this sensor to recognize an object. Identifying thesuperficial characteristics of a composite object using temperatureand thermal resistance difference can do this.IV. CONCLUSIONSFig. 6.Thermal sensor’s output resistance to the applied temperature.response as well. This behavior is desirable since it avoids thedead zones between cells that should otherwise result.By observing the spatial cells’ responses, we can concludethat the blurring between adjacent sensor cells is very low. Ineach of the three cases, the force tops occur directly at the pointof contact.C. Tactile Shape DiscriminationPressing the tactile sensor against an object and recording theresultant force profile gives the shape of an object. If visual inspectionis impossible, such as when a manipulator end-effectorobscures the view, this is especially desirable. The spatial resolutionof the previous section indicates that the shape discriminationability of our sensor’s prototype is adequate for currentmanipulation tasks.D. Thermal Temperature SelectivityThe measured characteristic of one trace of the thermal sensorresistance related to temperature is illustrated in Fig. 6. Thecharacteristic is linear with linearity and temperature coefficient0.4%, sensitivity 0.4 m / C on an overall resistance 100m .E. Thermal Material RecognitionOne of the primary applications for the thermal sensor isrecognition of an unknown material from a library of thermalprofiles. We can expect that the temperature at the surface ofthe sensor, if previously indirectly heated, will drop at an exponentialrate when placed in contact with an object. The shapeand the final value of this curve are related to both the thermaldiffusivity and conductivity of the sensed object, in addition tothe characteristics of the sensor itself. Material recognition canbe established by matching the sensor’s response curves to a libraryof response curves, where a good match constitutes identification.Simple construction models were used to design the integratedtactile–thermal sensor. The sensor is formed by an 8 8array of capacitive cells (tactile sensor). A feature of this sensoris that thermoresistors are integrated into the row armatures ofthe capacitive tactile sensor matrix. This makes it possible to detectthe temperature gradient which seems uncommon and improvesthe ability to recognize an object. Recognition is accomplishedby identifying superficial characteristics of a compositeobject, both by detection of the differences in temperature andthermal resistance. This allows bettering the robot’s characteristicof manipulation and aspect recognition.A sensor’s prototype has been designed and constructedusing simple packaging. Test results on this prototype provea high linearity and sensitivity, adequate for current manipulationtasks. The prototype also shows a high immunity frominfluence variables. These characteristics overcome some ofthe disadvantages of previous capacitor sensors that had lesslinearity and more complex packaging than piezoresistivedevices. The sensor is a very cheap device that has a tactileand thermal sensitivity, with unusual spatial resolution fortemperature gradient detection.ACKNOWLEDGMENTThe author wishes to thank Montefluos s.p.a. and KunzeFolien GmbH for having kindly offered the “Tecnoflon FOR421” and thermal conducting shield, respectively, and the graduatestudents V. Liggieri and A. Saviola for their cooperation inthe design and construction of the prototype and in performingthe experimental tests on it.REFERENCES E. So, H. Zhang, and Y. Guan, “Sensing contact with analog resistivetechnology,” in Proc. IEEE SMC’99, vol. 2, 1999, pp. 806–811. R. S. Fearing, “Tactile sensing mechanism,” Int. J. Robot. Res., vol. 9,pp. 3–23, June 1990. B. L. Hutchings, A. R. Grahn, and R. J. Petersen, “Multiple-layer crossfieldultrasonic tactile sensor,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robotics andAutomation, vol. 3, 1994, pp. 2522–2528. Product Design Guide, Interlink Electronics, Camarillo, CA, 1989. V. Todorova, “Ferropiezoelectric array as a primary sensor for processingtactile information,” in Proc. IEEE MIEL 2000, vol. 2, May2000, pp. 615–618. S. K. Yeung, E. M. Petriu, W. S. McMath, and D. C. Petriu, “High samplingresolution tactile sensor for object recognition,” IEEE Trans. Instrum.Meas., vol. 43, pp. 277–282, Apr. 1994. D. M. Siegel et al., “Performance analysis of a tactile sensor,” in Proc.IMTC’87, 1987, pp. 1493–1499. D. Siegel, I. Garabieta, and J. M. Kollerbach, “An integrated tactile andthermal sensor,” in Proc. IMTC’86, 1986, pp. 1286–1291. T. A. Chase and R. C. Luo, “A thin film flexible capacitive tactilenormal/shear force array sensor,” in Proc. IEEE IECON’95, vol. 2,1995, pp. 1196–2001.
90 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 38, NO. 1, JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2002Franco Castelli was born in Milan, Italy. He receivedthe M.S. degree in electrical engineering from the Politecnicodi Milano, Milan, Italy, in 1958.He was with the Compagnia Generale di Elettricità,Milan, Italy, for one yer, working in theservomechanism field. In 1961, he joined thePolitecnico di Milano as an Assistant Professorof Electrical Measurements. In 1971, he becamequalified for university teaching on electricalmeasurements. Since 1974, he has been an AssociateProfessor of Advanced Electrical Measurements. Hehas authored publications on various aspects of electrical measurements.Prof. Castelli was awarded the “Angelo Barbagelata” premium in 1965 andthe “Lorenzo Ferraris” premium in 1967 on the basis of his publications onelectrical measurements.