Making difference, measuring change: an ... - PreventionWeb

Making difference, measuring change: an ... - PreventionWeb

Author: Munas KaldenThe views and interpretations expressed in this report are those of the author and do notnecessarily reflect those of the UNICEF, Lesotho.Date of Final Report: September 2011Evaluation Methods and Layout: Munas KaldenContact Details:Dr. Naqib SafiDeputy RepresentativeUNICEF LesothoPrivate Bag A171Maseru 100, LesothoE-mail: nsafi@unicef.orgMunas KaldenConsultant,Emergencies and Disaster Risk ReductionUNICEF, Lesotho.Email: mkalden@unicef.orgmunas.kalden@gmail.comMaking Difference2

© Munas Kalden/UNICEF/2011Measuring ChangeMaking Difference, Measuring ChangeAn Experience of Capacity Developmenton Education in Emergencies from Lesotho3

EFA targets are all too often the mostfragile, beset by socio-economic crises andpolitical instability or recovering from yearsof civil conflict and natural disaster.Achieving EFA goals are obliterated bydisasters. They leave gab in accessing toquality education. It requires capacitydevelopment on education in emergencies(EiE). While capacity development (CD)becomes popular concept, focus and activityin recent years, the challenges andpreoccupation involved in capacitydevelopment are not new. Over time, therehave been changes in the terminology, frominstitution building to capacity building tocapacity development. But, these differentterms, basically, refer to similar challengesand issues. There has been success achieved.Nevertheless, the overall record remains asource of concern, especially in the leastdeveloped countries, like Lesotho, and thecountries face devastating disasters, whichare most in need of stronger, internallysustainable capacities.1.2 Capacities: Concept andDefinitionThe theories and expertise behind capacitydevelopment (CD) have grown over theyears in response to perceived failures andachievements in development. CD itself,however, has remained a complex issue,often wrapped in convoluted and specializedterminology (UNESCO, 2011 a: 15).Discussion and debate around capacitydevelopment tend to be complex for at leasttwo reasons. Firstly, the concept itself ismultifaceted. The definitions that variousagencies propose are a good illustration.While such broad definitions have theadvantages of being comprehensive, they areof limited use when government andagencies need to identify successfulstrategies to overcome specific constrains.Secondly, the success and failure of capacitydevelopment efforts may depend as muchof the specific modalities as on nationalcontext within which these modalities areimplemented-and national context differprofoundly (Hite, Steven., and De Grauwe,Anton, 2009:23).Prior to entering into the mechanisms ofhow capacity development works, or isfacilitated, it therefore seems vital toestablish a clear notion of what is meant by‗capacity‘ itself. Over the past ten years, thedevelopment literature and intergovernmentalagreements have often usedthe terms capacity development and capacitybuilding interchangeably. Although the twoare related, they have different connotations.It is, therefore, important to clarify theconcepts and to use them as appropriate to agiven context (UNDP, 2008: 4).To begin with, one could say that capacity isability or aptitude. It is the capability or skillto carry something out. It can also mean acompetency, a qualification: the strength andtalent to perform a function or task. This, inturn, implies understanding, will andmotivation which themselves requireresources, conditions and knowledge, aswell as management of rules and relations,control and comprehension of procedures. Inshort, definitions of capacity give scope toinfer anything from skills to perform a giventask or function successfully, to the actual10

effectiveness, authority, productivity andresources which go with it. Moreover, ifstrengthening capacities is abouttransformation and change, it invariablyintegrates psychological as much as materialfactors. Capacity, then, is both attitudinaland substantive.Anton De Grauwe (2009), a prominentcontributor to the field of capacitydevelopment, in recent years, and is attachedto the International Institute for EducationalPlanning (IIEP) of UNESCO, defines theCapacity development as any activitywhich aims explicitly at strengthening acountry so that it can better achieve itsdevelopment objectives by having a positiveand sustainable impact on any of thefollowing: individual officers with the necessarycapacities and incentives; organizations that have a clearmandate and are run effectively; a supportive public service; A motivating, stable and structuredcontext; without having negativeeffects on any of these levels (DeGrauwe, 2009: 53).Until recently, capacity development wasviewed mainly as a technical process,involving the simple transfer of knowledgeor organisational models from North toSouth. Not enough thought was given to thebroader political and social context withinwhich capacity development efforts takeplace. This led to an overemphasis on ―rightanswers‖, as opposed to approaches that bestfit the country circumstances and the needsof the particular situation (OECD, 2006:15).In this backdrop, the United NationsDevelopment Programme (UNDP) haspresented the definition of capacitydevelopment reflects the viewpoint thatcapacity resides within individuals and alsoat the level of organisations and within theenabling environment. In the literature oncapacity development, variations on thebasic distinction among these three levelscan be found. For example, theorganisational level is sometimes referred toas the institutional level and the enablingenvironment is sometimes referred to as theinstitutional or societal level. The threelevels of capacity are the following:Enabling environment - Individuals andorganisations do not function in isolation butare part of a broader system, whichfacilitates or hampers their existence anddevelopment. This system is referred to asthe enabling environment and constitutes thefirst level of capacity. This level is not easyto visualise, but it is extremely important tothe understanding of capacity issues.Capacities at this level include the policies,legislation, power relations and socialnorms, all of which govern the mandates,priorities, modes of operation and civicengagement across different parts of society.These factors determine the ―rules of thegame‖ for interaction between and amongorganisations.The second level of capacity is theorganisational level. This comprises thepolicies, procedures and frameworks thatallow an organisation to operate and deliveron its mandate and that enable individualcapacities to connect and achieve goals. If11

these are well aligned, an organisation‘scapability to act will be greater than that ofthe sum of its parts. At the individual level,capacity refers to the skills, experience andknowledge that are vested in a person. Eachand every person is endowed with a mix ofcapacities that allow us to perform, whetherat home, at work or in society at large. Someof these are acquired through formal trainingand education, others through learning-bydoing.The UNDP, also, relates capacitydevelopment to broader issues of humandevelopment. Its approach to supportingcapacity development brings together avalue base, a conceptual framework and amethodological approach. It is underpinnedby the following basic principles:It gives tangible expression to theconcept of national ownership,which is about the capabilities ofmaking informed choices anddecisions.It is not power-neutral and involvesrelationships, mind sets andbehaviour change. It thereforeemphasises the importance ofmotivation as a driver of change.It is a long-term process and can bepromoted through a combination ofshorter-term, often externally drivenresults and more sustainable, locallydriven, longer-term ones.It requires staying engaged underdifficult circumstances.It links the enabling environment,the organisational level and theindividual level, promoting aninterdependent approach.It moves beyond a singular focuson training to address broaderquestions of institutional change,leadership, empowerment, andpublic participation.It emphasises the use of nationalsystems, beyond the use of nationalplans and expertise. It questions theuse of stand-alone implementationunits; if national systems are notstrong enough, they should bereformed and strengthened, ratherthan bypassed.It demands adaptation to the local‗It moves beyond asingular focus on trainingto address broader questionsof institutional change,leadership, empowerment,and public participation‘.reality. There are no blueprints. Itmust start from the specific capacityrequirements and performanceexpectations of the environment,sector or organisation it supports.It demands a link to a broader setof reforms, such as education12

eform, wage reform and civilservice reform, to be effective. Thereis little value in capacitydevelopment initiatives that aredesigned as one-offs or in isolation.It results in unintended (capacity)consequences. This must be kept inmind during the design phase andshould be valued, tracked andevaluated.It provides a systematic approachto measuring capacity development,with the use of ―good practice‖indicators, case evidence andavailable data analysis. It also bringstogether quantitative and qualitativedata to give grounding andobjectivity to perceptions andjudgments on capacity assets, needsand progress.―Without robust capacity –strong institutions, systems,and local expertise –developing countries cannotfully own and manage theirdevelopment processes.We agreed in the ParisDeclaration that capacitydevelopment is theresponsibility of developingcountries, with donorsplaying a supportive role,and that technical cooperationis one meansamong others to developcapacity.‖Paris Declaration on AidEffectiveness (2005)This is perhaps an over-simplification as it isalso important not to see capacity as oneunfathomable, nondescript block. Thecapacity development challenge is not onlyone of addressing gaps, weaknesses or a lackof capacity. If this were the case, theresponse would be simple and mainly one offilling gaps. Yet, in many cases, thechallenges are related to more complexissues: capacity is available and present, butis ineffectively used. What we do know isthat capacities must be reinforced over thelong term and result from the strengthened‗power to perform‘ of relevant leaders,decision-makers, task managers andindividuals working for an institution ororganization. Capacity development issubject to, and can result in, unforeseenevents. It requires flexibility and adaptabilityto national and local circumstances(UNESCO, 2011 a: 16). Ownership onlyhas meaning if priorities are nationallydetermined and are carried by a broad groupof actors (UNDP, 2008: 4).And, capacity and capacity developmentissues have been on the development agendafor decades. As early as the 1950s and1960s, donors and academics didconsiderable work on public sectorinstitution building, with a substantialemphasis on human resource development(education, training and scholarships). Thiswas heavily influenced by notions ofknowledge transfer from North to South.Technical co-operation emerged as an13

instrument for filling perceived institutionalor skills gaps. In many poor countries, muchof this assistance yielded very low returns,Period Terminology Focusleading to attempts at improvement, butgenerally within the same broad paradigm.1950s Institution Building Provide public sector institutions individual functioning Organizations1960s Development Management /Administration improving delivery systems and publicprogrammes to reach target groups1970s Institutional Strengthening Strengthening rather than establishingand Development Provide tools to improve performance1980s Capacity Building Reassessment of the notion of technicalcooperation (TC) Participatory approaches as ‗the way to dodevelopment‘1990s Capacity Development Increased participation in capacityDevelopment Emphasis on continuous learning andadaptation Balancing results-based management andlong-term sustainability2000s Institutionalism Capacity building broadened to sector level Attention to shaping national economicbehaviourTable 1 Chronology of Capacity Development, tabulated by Munas Kalden (2011), based on the literature on capacitydevelopmentCapacity development was about nurturingand unleashing capacity from within(UNESCO, 2011 a: 19). This has beenreflected in the UNDP articulation ofcapacity development. It, generally, prefersto use the broader term capacitydevelopment since this best reflects itsapproach: starting from capacities that existand supporting national efforts to enhanceand retain these. This is a process ofendogenous transformation that is based onnationally determined priorities, policies andobjectives and cannot be driven from theoutside.Whilst the notion of capacity is normallyassociated with individual, organisationaland societal ―capabilities‖ to performfunctions, the notion of willingness ormotivation is equally important since itholds the key to the effective utilization ofsuch competencies. By distinguishingbetween ability on the one hand, andwillingness on the other, attention is drawnto the centrality of ownership to capacity14

development, and of the influence ofincentives and motives on transformingcapacity into performance (JICA, UNDP,CIDA and World Bank, 2003: 11).In summary, then, it could be said that therehas been a gradual movement away from alinear blueprint approach to developmentand capacity development, going beyondtraining aimed at improving humanresources towards a concern for the overallpolicy framework and environment in whichindividuals and organizations operate andinteract with each other, as well as theformal and informal relationships betweeninstitutions (Global Environment Facility2003:16). And, it is integral party ofsustainability (Kalden, Munas 2009).Improving education, the EFA-FTI argued,is not simply a matter of inputting ‗moremoney‘ into national Ministries ofEducation. It must take place in the contextof a much broader discussion about thechallenges of education provision, qualityand delivery, and putting the best formulatedplans into practice (Federal Ministry forEconomic Cooperation and Development,2007). It becomes obvious that capacitydevelopment is needed as a strongfoundation for effective change (UNESCO,2011 a: 27).1.3 Education in Emergencies(EiE):Education in emergencies (EiE) is theformal and non-formal education providedto children and youth whose access tonational or community education systemshas been destroyed by war or otherhumanitarian calamities (AED, 2003:7).Education in emergencies compriseslearning opportunities for all ages. Itencompasses early childhood development,primary, secondary, non-formal, technical,vocational, higher and adult education(INEE, 2010:2). Education in emergenciestakes different forms according to the stageof a particular emergency. In the acute phaseof an emergency, just after populations flee,education efforts often offer recreationprograms or basic literacy and numeracy. Asthe situation stabilizes and security isassured, more formal schools areestablished, utilizing curricula from thecountry of origin or from the host country.Education in emergencies also includesefforts to reestablish education systemswhen the conflict has ended. Formal schoolsare just one of the services offered. Nonformalclasses for youth and adults,preschools, vocational education, and othernon-formal programs are others.The importance of education in emergenciesgained momentum in the 1990s with therecognition that at the time half of some 100million out-of-school children lived conflictordisaster- affected states (GlobalEducation Cluster, 2011: 5). Education inemergencies was recognized as anEducation for All flagship as part of theDakar Framework for Action in 2000.Further, the recognition of the education as aneed and right for disaster and conflictaffected population increased significantlyafter the subsequent founding of INEE 1 and1 The INEE, Inter-Agency for Education in Emergencies, isan open global network of practitioners and policy makersworking together to ensure all persons the right to qualityeducation and a safe learning environment in emergenciesthrough to recovery.15

the development of the INEE MinimumStandards for Education in Emergencies,Chronic Crises and Early reconstruction in2004. The establishment of the Educationhumanitarian response and recovery. Afurther important development was theadaption, in July 2010, by the UN GeneralAssembly, of the resolution on education inCluster has succeeded in further affording emergencies entitled ‗The Right toeducation in emergencies greater recognition Education in Emergency Situationand funding as part of immediate (A/64/L.58)‘.Table 2 Development of Education in EmergenciesYearMilestone in EiE1990 Gaining momentum in education in emergencies2000 EiE recognized in Education for All2004 Development of Minimum Standards for Education in EmergenciesThe establishment of Global Education ClusterJuly 2010The UN General Assembly, of the resolution on education in emergencies entitled ‗TheRight to Education in Emergency Situation (A/64/L.58)‘.Organized by Munas Kalden (2011)1.4 Capacity Development forEducation in Emergencies:After having understood the meaning ofcapacity development, it is important foreducation in emergencies practitioners toknow about what are the skills, ability andcapabilities needed in order to perform, andcreate space for access to quality educationin the context of education in emergencies.1.4.1 Five Core CapabilitiesBaser and Morgan (2008: 34) distinguishbetween competencies, which are individualattributes; capabilities, which are collectiveones; and capacity as the ‗combination ofthe two that enables an organization tocreate value‘. Such a definition implies thatthe specific competency of an individualstaff member (in a supportive organizationalframework with clear job descriptions,satisfactory salary, sufficient training), orthe collective capability of a department(able to adapt to the constraints of nonformalprocesses of the institutional cultureand to the instability of the socio-economicpoliticalcontext), can only be consideredcapacity when they are part of a creative andcollaborative process (De Grauwe, 2009:55).16

Figure 1: Five Core CapabilitiesThe core capabilities are 1) to commit andengage, 2) to carry out technical, servicedelivery, and logistical tasks, 3) to relate andto attract resources and support, 4) to adaptand self-renew and 5) to balance diversityand coherence.1.5 Competencies, Capabilitiesand EiE:If we convinced to the unpacking ofcapacity: competencies, which areindividual attributes; capabilities, which arecollective ones; and capacity as the‗combination of the two that enables anorganization to create value‘ for prepare for,respond to and recover from emergencies.Then, the question remains that are therespecific competencies and capabilities forperform the business of education inemergencies in other world: what is thecapacity meant for education inemergencies? This needs deliberation. Iwould prefer to visualize this puzzle andequation, C+C=C, as follow.Figure 2 the Equation of Capacity: C+C=C {Exponent: Munas Kalden (2011)}17

‗Yes‘ is the simple answer to the question:does education in emergencies need specificcompetencies. And, also ‗yes‘ that EiErequires set of capabilities, derived fromcollective one in an organization, engaged inthe business of education in emergencies, inorder to prepare for, respond to, and recoverfrom an emergency ,collectively, as well asThe core capabilityrestore of, and access to education services,as early as possible.1.5.1 Key Competencies for EiE:The following is the set of key competenciesneeded to carry out education inemergencies related activities.Competencies and capabilities related to education inemergenciesto commit and engage (ineducation emergencies relatedactivities)to carry out technical, servicedelivery, and logistical taskspolitical will for education in emergencydevelop its own motivation and commitment and then to act onand around emergenciesemergency leadershipworking with the elite groups who form the educationalleadershipunderstanding the incentive and interest structures that motivateand shape the behaviour and interaction of elite groupsthe leadership of the Minister/y of Educationthe leadership of the Disaster Management Authority/CentreEnsuring that education policy on emergencyApplying Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencieso Community Participationo Analysiso Access and Learning Environmento Teaching and Learningo Teachers and Other Education Personnelo Education Policy and CoordinationImplementing Temporary Learning Spaceso Temporary Learning Space PlanningCoordination of Education Cluster/Sectoro Structure and Governance of an Education Cluster /Sectoro Emergency Coordinationo Emergency Fundingo Disaster Preparednesso Capacity Mapping for Education Emergency ResponseStrategic planning and management for education inemergenciesPlanning Emergency Education CurriculaPlanning Teacher Mobilisation and TrainingPlanning School Repair and Construction18

to relate and to attract resourcesand supportThe core capability to adapt andself-renewPlanning Resumption of Formal EducationEducation in Emergencies Assessmento Education Assessment Planningo Multi-Sectoral Rapid AssessmentPlanning Emergency Education Responseo Data Analysis Planning for Education ResponsePlanning Monitoring of Education ResponseFiduciary managementDelivery of servicesHuman and Financial Resourceso Staff Identification and Mobilisation PlanningSupplies and Logisticso Emergency Education Kitso Supply and Distribution Planningo Supply Delivery and MonitoringDisaster Risk Reductiono School Disaster Reduction & Readinesso Ensuring Access to Education during and after ArmedConflicto Preparedness and response planningo Preparedness and Contingency Planningo preparedness and policy planning for education inemergenciesRelating and surviving by securing support and protection, oftenin competitionCooperation with other actorsEarning credibility and legitimacy,Mobilisation and Training of Teachers and other EducationPersonnelStrategies for teacher compensationRehabilitation and Construction of Schoolso Engaging Stakeholders in School Repair andConstructionBuffering the organizationSystem from intrusions and political capture during emergenciesEearning the trust of others, such as donors and clients,Combining political neutrality and assertive advocacyDiplomacy and communicationPsychosocial Support and Strategieso Reconciling the symptom of stress in children inemergencieso Psychological supports and strategies for children inemergencieso Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency19

Settings Emergency Education Curriculao Survival skills: learning to live where you liveo Learning skills: learning to learn Resumption of Formal Educationo Student Reintegrationo Reintegration of Teachers Adaptability Self-renewal Seizing the many positive opportunities for change Monitoring and Evaluation Improving individual and organizational learning Fostering internal dialogue Reposition and reconfigure the organization incorporating new ideas mapping out a growth path Strategizing, prioritizing, and restructuring itselfto balance diversity and Manage diversity and to manage paradox and tension.coherence Gender and Inclusion in Emergency Educationo Inclusion Strategies for Education in Emergencieso Prevention strategies for sec and gender based violence Encouraging both stability and innovation, and balancing theother four core capabilities Doing with the necessary trade-offs, for example between beingtechnocratic and political at once, having ‗hard‘ and ‗soft‘capabilities, focusing externally as well as internally, focusingon the short versus the long term Decentralizing Balancing act between direction and participation Managing paradox and tensionFigure 3 Applying Five Capabilities in Education in Emergencies, Munas Kalden (2011)20

They are interconnected and one is contributing to another.21

The consensus view is that capacitydevelopment, in education emergencies, isthe primary responsibility of partnercountries, Ministry of Education (MoET), incollaboration with Disaster ManagementAuthority (DMA) with donors playing asupportive role. While clear enough inprinciple, this raises an important set ofissues for those responsible for itsoperationalization at country level. Onceagain, there are questions at the enablingenvironment, organisational and individuallevels of analysis. The above are the set ofcompetencies and capabilities contribute tocapacity in education in emergencies. Thesecompetencies are tailored through capacitydevelopment training package of 1)Minimum Standards for Education inEmergencies, 2) Coordination of EducationCluster/Sector, 3) Education Assessment, 4)Emergency Education Response Planning,5) Human and Financial Resources, 6)Supplies and Logistics, 7) TemporaryLearning Spaces, 8) Psychosocial Support,9. Emergency Education Curricula, 10)Mobilisation and Training of Teachers andOther Education Personnel, 11)Rehabilitation and Construction of Schools,12) Resumption of Formal Education, 13)Gender and Inclusion in EmergencyEducation, 14) Monitoring and Evaluation,15) Disaster Risk Reduction, 16) EmergencyEducation during and after Armed Conflict,and 17) Preparedness and ContingencyPlanning.22

© Munas Kalden/UNICEF/2011Measuring Change inCapacity Development23

2. Measuring Change in Capacity Development2.1. Evaluability: MethodologyRight-based approaches to developmenthave been prompted since the late 90s, butvery little progress has been made in findingways to measure the effectiveness of suchapproaches. The contested concept ofempowerment is generally regarded as thekey outcome of right-based approaches, buthas eluded quantification and attempt atmeasurement are often dismissed asanecdotal (Jupp and Ali, 2010:15). Withouteffective planning, monitoring andevaluation, it would be impossible to judgeif capacity development (CD) is going in theright direction, whether progress and successcan be claimed, and how future efforts mightbe improved.The many angles of capacity demonstratethe richness and daunting nature of thesubject. Monitoring and evaluation arefundamentally about measurement, whichwe look to in order to help decipher thiscomplex puzzle of CD (Oritiz and Taylor,2009:12). Therefore, the assessment is alsoan effort to identify the knowledge gap torespond to the expectation of theparticipants. On the other hand, it also helpscapacity developers on how capacitydevelopment strategies on DRR and EiE areused, what results are achieved, and howappropriate these results are in bringingabout desired changes in humandevelopment for building culture of safety inschools. This is also encourages emergencymanagers and development agencies tofocus on building partnerships andcollaboration and ensure greater coherence.Similarly, it promotes stronger focus onsustainability through measures that enhancenational ownership and capacitydevelopment.24

© Munas Kalden/UNICEF/20112.2. Participatory Collective WebThis is a participatory tool tailored,specifically, for this exercise by theconsultant. All the topics, that were includedin the capacity development training oftrainers training (ToT) were printed andpasted in the web, as given in the figure 4.From center to the edge of the circle, it wasgive value starting from 0, 10, 20, 30-100. Ifthe participant assumes that s/he does nothave any knowledge, it is explained to make‗0‘ against the particular topic, given in theweb. If the participant assumes of s/heknowledge on a given topic is very good,then s/he has to mark at the values of ‗100‘.Each and every participant wants to mark inall topics given in the web, before theworkshop starts.5. Education in EmergenciesAssessment6. Education in Emergencies: ResponsePlanningBefore the workshop:All the participants were given enough timeto mark their levels of understanding againsteach topic that covered in the workshop. Thepre knowledge of the each and every topicwas captured as baseline. The workshoptopics are as follow:1. Emergencies and Their Impact onChildren and Education2. Rationale for Education inEmergencies3. Framework for Education inEmergencies: Technical Components4. Framework for Education inEmergencies: Minimum StandardsFigure 4: Participatory Web: Assessing Preknowledge7. Temporary Learning Spaces8. Gender and Inclusion inEmergencies9. Education in Emergency: Monitoringand Evaluation10. Disaster Risk Reduction inEducation11. Action Planning for Education inEmergencies: Preparedness andContingency Planning25

© Munas Kalden/UNICEF/2011After all the participants marked their levelsof understanding individually, they werecalled and given time to reflect, collectively.They knew their knowledge gap againsteach topic. This is also provided theopportunity to reflect themselves theremaining knowledge gap and commitmentexpected from them to fill, throughout theworkshop. Additionally, printed set ofreading material also provided to theparticipants.On the other hand, the facilitators were, also,given time, before beginning the session andforaying into the real exercise, to criticallyreflect on the challenge posed andfacilitative knowledge cascading role infilling the gaps. This tool helped facilitatorsto set strategies in bridging the knowledgegap portrayed by the participants.After the Workshop:End of the closure of the workshop, theparticipants were asked to tick their level ofunderstanding, again, by ticking off theirpresent knowledge gained against theworkshop topics in the same evaluation tool,they have marked at the beginning of theworkshop. The evaluation tool was kept in aseparate place, enabling them to make theirattainment freely.Figure 5 Participatory Web: Assessing Postknowledgeemployed to get individual level ofunderstanding on the same. Each and everyparticipant was given separate envelopeconsisting of a questionnaire. They markedtheir level of understanding against thetopics, before they get into to the workshop.The closed envelopes were collected andkept with the facilitators. At the end of theworkshop, the same envelopes were returnedto the corresponding participants for selfassessment.They had marked the sameworkshop topic, after the workshop, theyhave gained, in terms of knowledge andskills.Individual Questionnaire:In addition to the participatory collectiveweb (PCW) tool, the questionnaire is also26

Not at allPoorFai rGoodV. GoodNot at allPoor goodFai rGoodVerygoodNot at allPoorFai rGoodV. goodNot at allPoorFai rGoodVerygoodLesotho National Training of Trainers on Education in Emergencies (26-28 Sep 2011):-Training Impact Assessment on Knowledge and SkillBefore the TrainingAfter the TrainingKnowledge Skill Knowledge SkillNoSession Topic1. Emergencies and Their Impact on Children and Education2. Rational for Education in Emergencies3. Framework for Education in Emergencies: TechnicalComponents4. Framework for Education in Emergencies: MinimumStandards5. Education in Emergencies Assessment6. Education in Emergencies: Response Planning7. Temporary Learning Spaces8. Gender and Inclusion in Emergencies9. Education in Emergencies: -Monitoring and Evaluation10. Disaster Risk Reduction in Education11. Action Planning for Education in Emergencies :Preparedness and Contingency Planning27

© Munas Kalden/UNICEF/2011Participants:There were 37 participants. Of them, 24female and 13 were male. The selectionwas in consultation with the Ministry ofEducation, Disaster ManagementAuthority and UNICEF. The prioritywas given for those who engaged ineducation in emergencies and theiravailability for future works.The workshop reflected theFigure 7: Heterogeneity in Participation and Institutional Representationheterogeneity in participation,represented from government: Ministryof Education (MoET), DisasterManagement Authority (DMA), the FireBrigades, National CurriculumDevelopment Centre (NCDC) andINGOs: Save the Children, Red Cross,as well as UN agency: UNICEF-Lesotho.Improved Working Relationship:The residential workshop, in addition tothe content on EiE, also created space tointeract among participants and createdattachment points which in turnimproved a working relationship amongthem. This is of twofold: vertical andhorizontal. The participants from theMinistries and government departmentsconsisted of fourkey institutions:Ministry ofEducation andTraining(MoET), whichthe prime bodyfor policyformulation andimplementation,in relation toeducation andemergencies, represented by the ChiefOfficer Curriculum Development,Disaster Management Authority, the FireBrigades and National CurriculumDevelopment Centre (NCDC). Thesegovernment official interacted amongthem ad strengthened their workingrelationship. Vertically, therepresentatives from I/NGOs, Save theChildren and Red Cross maximized therelational aspect of the workshop adrelationship skills, during the three days.A participant from UNICEF,procurement and supply division, is,also, capitalized this opportunity. Thisrelationship is important to engage inemergencies.28

Knowledge Gained:Based on the questionnaire, receivedfrom the participants, the followingassessment strongly supports theassertion that this workshop enhanced orstrengthened the ability, competencies ofthem in the topics of education inemergencies, tailored to develop thecapacity. It attempts, in the case ofLesotho, by trying to improve, replicateor scale up other primary education inemergencies activities and programmaticintervention. (Key to the followingassessment-na: not at all; p: poor; f: fair;g: good; and vg: very good)29

Capacity development, in education inemergencies, is UNICEF‘s corefunction. Capacity is competencies,which are individual attributes;capabilities, which are collective ones;and capacity as the ‗combination of thetwo that enables an organization tocreate value‘ for prepare for, respond toand recover from emergencies. It isachieved through training of individuals,training of teams in the field,organizational development and thepromotion of enabling coordinatingenvironment.Therefore, the objective of this ToTtraining was to build and strengthensustainable national emergencypreparedness and response capacity inthe education sector in ESAR holisticallyand strategically, by supporting nationalauthorities at all levels(UNICEF,ESARO, 2010). A first step in achievingthis objective is training of frontlineresponders from Ministries of Educationand other authorities from national,provincial and district levels, and keyeducation actors (ibid). The content, ofthe training, has substantially contributedto developing the capacity of frontlineresponders in Lesotho by laying afoundation for developing corecapabilities to commit and engage, carryout technical, service delivery, logisticaltasks in education in emergencies, andsupport, adapt, self-renew in recovery,balance diversity and coherence in thelocal emergency setting.31

© Munas Kalden/UNICEF/2011Lessons Learnt:Done Many, Want to Do More32

3 Lessons Learnt: Done Many, Want to Do MoreThis section shares the lessons learnt indeveloping capacity of education inemergencies, involved in Lesotho‘seducation sector. The views andopinions expressed in this section thoseof the consultant do not necessarilyrepresent the views of UNICEF.3.1 Education in EmergenciesCapacity DevelopmentOutcomesThe following is few that theteam has achieved through thisToT training.1) Raised Awareness: theparticipants improved theirunderstanding and increasedconfidence on education inemergencies. They are motivatedto work on improving EiE.2) Enhanced Knowledge and Skills:the process ofcascadingknowledgeFigure 8: Education in Emergencies- CapacityDevelopment Outcomesand skill on EiE has providednew knowledge and skills. Thishas been lustrated in the sectiontwo of this report.33

3) Improved Consensus andTeamwork: the training broughtdifferent elements, engaged ineducation in emergencies,Disaster Management Authority(DMA), MoET, Fire Brigade,Red Cross, & the Save thechildren and laid the foundationfor coordination.4) Enhanced Networks: alsothese different bodies hasexpressed their willingnessto continue to commit andengaged in EiE relatedactivities in schools. Thecomment interest andprocess for collaborationare two key factors forenhancing network amongthem.5) New Implementation Know-how:the assertion is that they haveimproved their implementation ofknow-how in education inemergencies technical and nottechnical components.3.2 Lessons Learnt:Give practitioners the tools to do theirjobs betterWe do expect the national staff attachedto the Ministry of Education andpractitioners to be proactive and preparesfor emergencies. It requires set of toolsto perform. The tools provide confidenceand make them being proactive. ‗A lackof these skills among national staff alsomakes it more probable that internationalTAs will simply ‗do the work‘ ratherthan invest in transfer the skills‘ (DeGrauwe, A. 2009:102). The training hasequipped them with the tools to do theirbusiness better.Figure 9: Training of Trainers o Education inEmergencies- Lessons Leant in LesothoProvide a capacity developmenttraining, even if it is for limited daysThe full package of the training, onEducation in Emergencies, is designedfor one week. Considering the resources,including the time, it was advised toshorten for three days. This is achallenge for the facilitators, as well ascascading ‗the wholeness‘ of training.The topics are logically structured;removing one from ‗the wholeness‘ hasimplication on the process of cascadingknowledge and skills. Albeit, expected toconduct the training for three days, withwell thought selected topics. Go aheadwith capacity development training, evenif it is for limited days. But, the material,tailored for one week, provided to theparticipants to benefit from the ‗thewholeness‘.34

Pre-knowledge assessment makes thefacilitation more meaningfulThe facilitators must know the levels ofunderstanding of the participants on thesubjects. This has to be done inparticipation with the learners. Thishelps the facilitators in redesigning themethodologies and time to be spent forthe subject areas that are needed moreattention. And, participants also reflecton the filling knowledge gap and theircommitment. Share the result with bothparticipants and facilitators, beforebeginning the training and adjustfacilitation methodologies takingknowledge gap into account.Fun for resultsPedagogy for adult differs. In the recentpast, it is known as kinesthetic learning.It is a learning style in which learningtakes place by the student actuallycarrying out a physical activity, ratherthan listening to a lecture or merelywatching a demonstration. It is alsoreferred to as tactile learning. Peoplewith a kinesthetic learning style are alsocommonly known as do-ers(Wikipedia). The activities could beintroduced through participatory tools,known as participatory appraisal tools(PRA). It is, really, fun; but for results.And, also the leaning is interesting withactive contribution of participants.Create network among thepractitionersLearning is an ongoing process. It needsto be connected to the participants andpractitioners. Even, those who have beentrained by the Regional Office (ESAR)need to practice what they have gainedin 2009. Networking is one of strategiesfor further learning and engaging in thefield.The art of the possible: Ministries,DMA, NCDC, Fire Brigade, UNICEFand NGOsIn the context of education inemergencies, the key actors are Ministryof Education, Disaster ManagementAuthority, UN agencies, Fire Brigades,psychosocial service providers, andI/NGOs involved in education. Most ofthe actors, brought together for thistraining, are of the art of the possible ineducation in emergencies.Begin with local and nationalThe training was facilitated by nationalstaff. This is salient feature of thecapacity development and ensuring theownership. This could be also used asentry point for improving education inemergency in Lesotho. We have donemany and want to do more.35

ReferencesAED, 2003, The Education Imperative, Supporting Education in Emergencies,Produced by the Academy for Educational Development (AED) and the Women‘sCommission for Refugee Women and Children with support from AED and theMellon Foundation .Baser, H.; Morgan, P. 2008. Capacity, change and performance. DiscussionPaper 59B. Maastricht: European Centre for Development Policy Management(ECDPM). Retrieved1 November2011from:$FILE/PMB21-e_capacitystudy.pdf based on thequotation in On the road to resilience Capacity development with the Ministry ofEducation in Afghanistan Edited by Morten Sigsgaard, France: UNESCO, 2011,p. 34De Grauwe, A. 2009. Without capacity, there is no development. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved 30 October 2011 from: Jupp and Sohel Bin Ali, 2010, Measuring Empowerment? Ask ThemQuantifying qualitative outcomes from people‘s own analysis Insights for resultsbasedmanagement from the experience of a social movement in Bangladesh,SODA.Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, BMZ, 2007,Capacity Development for Education for All: Putting policy into practice – AnInternational Forum, Summary of Outcomes. Bonn, Germany.Global Education Cluster, 201, Education Cluster Strategic Plan 2011-2013,Geneva: Global Education Cluster.Global Environment Facility, 2003, Strategic Approach to Enhance CapacityBuilding. Washington: Global Environmental Facility.Hite, Steven., and De Grauwe, Anton, 2009, Capacity Development inEducational Planning, Learning from successes and failures, France: UNESCO-IIEP.36

IIEP the International Institute for Educational Planning World Bank, 2005,Capacity Building in Africa, an OED Evaluation of World Bank Support,Washington: The World Bank.INEE, 2010, (second edition). Minimum Standards for Education: preparedness,response, recovery, USA: Interagency Network for Education in Emergencies.JICA, UNDP, CIDA and World Bank,2003, Report- International Symposium onCapacity Development and Aid Effectiveness Manila, Philippines January 14-16,2003 capacity/symposiumKalden, Munas. (2009). Knowledge Management as Integral Part ofSustainability. Canada: 19 th World Conference on Disaster Management.Retrieved 01 November 2011 from:, Carlos., and Theisohn, Thomas., 2003, Ownership, Leadership andTransformation can we do better for capacity development?, UNDP.OCDE, 2006, The Challenge of Capacity Development working towards goodpractice, france: organisation for economic co-operation and development.Ortiz, Alfredo., and Taylor, Peter, 2009, Learning Purposefully in CapacityDevelopment, Why, What and When to Measure? France: UNESCO.UNESCO, 2011 a, TRANSLATING THEORY INTO PRACTICE, United NationsThe CapEFA Programme, France: UNESCO.UNESCO,2011, EFA Global Monitoring Report 2011. The Hidden Crisis: ArmedConflict and Education. Paris: UNESCOUNICEF (ESARO), 2010, National Capacity Development for Education inemergencies in the Eastern and Sothern African RegionWikipedia, Kinesthetic learning accessed on 28 September2011.37

Appendix:Appendix01- Participants ListParticipants ListNAMEGENDER GEOGRAPHY/DISTRIC ORG/INSTMabatlokoa FDMAMoloiMatseliso FMOET - SSRFUMorahanyeMamoipone F Thaba-Tseka MOETSenauoaneFlora M. FNCDC - CentralMokhitliTsepo Mohale M MOET - SSUThato H. Lebetsa F MOETManapo Mabea F Mokhotlong MOETMamoeresi F Mokhotlong DRTLebekoMosiuoa M Qacha'sNek DRTNthakongMotlatsi M Mohale'sHoek DRTChobobaneLebenya M Qacha'sNek MOETMothibeliTanki Motumane F MOETLeemisa Mokone M MOET - EFUHalieo Lebesa- FMOET - EFUPitsoMampoi Theko F LeribeMabatho Fransi F Quthing DRTLimakatso F Berea MOETRakeketsiMatsikoaneTsikoaneF Berea DRT38

Maselebalo Kali F MOET - ECCDDeborah FLRCSNkokanaSylvia Nkuebe F LRCSBorane Mofatisa M Quthing DRTMampho F Maseru DRTMakakoleMamohlabinyane F Maseru DRTRamoseekaMathato Mabote F MafetengB.B. Matsunyane M Mafeteng DRTI. S. Rasalemane M Thaba-Tseka DRTM. R. Molise M MOET - NCDCM. Mosoang M QuthingM. Matjeli F Butha-Buthe DRTM. Makibi F Butha-ButheL. J. Sechache M Fire BregadeLati Makara F Maseru UNICEFMpewi Semoli F Maseru UNICEFMotselisi Shale F Maseru Lesotho Save theChildrenMakhaola Koatsi M MOETLebohang MDMAMoletsaneNtsilane E.BaholoFDMA39

Making DifferenceMeasuring ChangeAn Experience of Capacity Developmenton Education in Emergencies from Lesotho40

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