Lake Merritt Station Area Plan - City of Oakland

Lake Merritt Station Area Plan - City of Oakland

Lake Merritt Station Area PlanA Specific Plan for the Area Around the Lake Merritt BART StationPublic Review Draft December 2012NOTE: The Lake Merritt Station Area Plan DEIR contains themost recent anaylisis, including clarifications to proposedGeneral Plan Map amendments, proposed Height Limit Map,map of existing Historic Resources, Opportunity Sites

AcknowledgmentsThis Plan was generously funded through a grant from the Metropolitan Transportation Commission, the Bay Area Rapid Transit District, the PeraltaCommunity College District, and the City of Oakland. Thank you to the following individuals who participated in the development of this Plan:City of OaklandEdward Manasse, Strategic Planning ManagerChristina Ferracane, PlannerAlicia Parker, PlannerBARTTim Chan, Senior PlannerPeralta Community College District andLaney CollegeJosé D. Ortiz, Peralta District ChancellorAbel Guillén, Peralta Board TrusteeElñora Webb, Laney College PresidentMarco Menéndez, Laney College DeanMetropolitan TransportationCommissionTherese Trivedi, Transportation PlannerAssociation of Bay Area GovernmentsGillian Adams, Regional PlannerProject Website City CouncilJane Brunner, Council District 1Patricia Kernighan, Council District 2Nancy Nadel, Council District 3Libby Schaaf, Council District 4Ignacio De La Fuente, Council District 5Desley Brooks, Council District 6Larry Reid, Council President, Council District 7Rebecca Kaplan, Councilmember At LargeOakland City Planning CommissionVien Truong, ChairC. Blake Huntsman, Vice ChairrMichael ColbrunoJim MooreJonelyn WhalesChris PattilloMichael ColemanMadeline Zayas-Mart**Former Planning Commission Member.Community Stakeholders Group andTechnical Advisory CommitteeAbel Guillen, Peralta Board of TrusteesAda Chan, Council aide, City of OaklandCityCouncil At LargeAlan Yee, Oakland Chinatown Advisory CommitteeAliza Gallo, City of OaklandAllen Dreyfuss, Coalition of Advocates for LakeMerrittAnna Naruta, Landmarks Board MemberArnie Fong, Business Owner – Lake PharmacyBerit Eriksson, Sailors Union of the Pacific –Director of Workforce DevelopmentBill Harvey, Lake Merritt Business Association,Comm Workers of AmBill McMorris, Oakland Museum of CaliforniaBilly Wu, Hotel Oakland Tenants AssociationBruce Williams, City of OaklandCalvin Wong, Parks and Recreation AdvisoryCommitteeCarletta Starks, Council aide, City of OaklandCity Council District 3Carole Ward-Allen, Peralta Community CollegeDistrictChris Hwang, Walk Oakland Bike OaklandChristia Mulvey, City of Oakland

Christopher Buckley, Oakland Heritage AllianceChristy Riviere, Bay Area Air Quality ManagementDistrictColland Jang, Business owner, Architecture, AIACorinne Jan, Family BridgesCory LaVigne, AC TransitDana Riley, City of OaklandDavid Kakishiba, Oakland Unified School DistrictBoard, District #2Diane Stark, Alameda County TransportationCommission (ACTC)Doug Cole, City of OaklandEd Loo, Madison Square Park Tai Chi & OtherExercisersElnora Webb, Laney CollegeEner Chiu, East Bay Asian Local DevelopmentCorporationEsther Tam, City of OaklandGarret Fitzgerald, City of OaklandGary Knecht, SONIC, Jack London DistrictAssociation, Artists’ Legacy FoundationGilbert Gong, Lincoln Recreation CenterGillian Adams, Association of Bay AreaGovernmentsHamid Ghaemmaghami, City of OaklandHeather Lee, City of OaklandJackie Trevino, CIM GroupJason Patton, City of OaklandJeff Ordway, BARTJennie Gerard, Council Aide, City of Oakland –District 2Jennie Ong, Oakland Chinatown Chamber ofCommerceJens Hillmer, City of OaklandJoann Pavlinec, City of OaklandJoel Peter, City of OaklandJoel Ramos, TransFormJohn Covert, Chinatown Salvation ArmyJohn Rennels, BARTJon Gresley, Oakland Housing AuthorityJose Macias, Business Owner/La Estrellita Café,East Lake Merchants AssociationJose Martinez, City of OaklandKaren Engel, Oakland Metropolitan Chamber ofCommerceKathleen Kennedy, Alameda CountyKeira Williams, City of OaklandKristen Zaremba, City of OaklandLaura Jerrard, CCE Red. District PAC, CDBG.D2Adv. Board, 17X NCPC, ASLALeroy Griffin, City of OaklandLesley Estes, City of OaklandLori Fogarty, Oakland Museum of CaliforniaMadeline Zayas-Mart, Oakland PlanningCommissionMarco Menendez, Laney CollegeMaria Rocha, City of OaklandMarina Carlson, ResidentMark Hall, City of OaklandMichael Coleman, League of Women Voters ofOaklandMichael Lok, National Council on Crime andDelinquencyNancy Nadel, Councilmember, Oakland CityCouncil, District #3Nathan Landau, AC TransitNhi Chau, Oakland Asian Student EducationalServicesNoel Pinto, City of OaklandObaid Khan, City of Alameda Public Works Dept.Pat Kernighan, Councilmember, Oakland CityCouncil, District #2Peter Chun, City of OaklandPhuc H. Tran, Oakland Vietnamese Chamber ofCommerceRebecca Kaplan, Councilmember, Oakland CityCouncil At LargeRobert Raburn, BART, Board for DirectorsSandra Taylor, City of OaklandSara Bedford, City of OaklandSean A. Diest Lorgion, AC TransitSherry Hirota, Asian Health Services, CommunityEngagement Process contractorSteve Terusaki, Buddhist Church of Oakland

Susan Tom, Lincoln Elementary SchoolTadashi Nakadegawa, Oakland Unified SchoolDistrictTeri Green, MTCTim Chan, BARTVal Menotti, BARTVictor Uno, International Brotherhood of ElectricalWorkers, Port of OaklandVivian Yi Huang, Asian Pacific EnvironmentalNetwork (APEN)Wilma Chan, Supervisor, Alameda County Board,District #3Consulting TeamLead ConsultantsLeslie Gould, PrincipalRajeev Bhatia, PrincipalHannah Lindelof, Senior AssociateChris Ford, Senior AssociateMark Chambers & Diana Nankin, Graphics ManagersMelinda Hue, AssociatePeter Winch, PlannerBottomley Design & PlanningTerry BottomleyRoy Chan, Cultural ResourcesConley Consulting Group, EconomicsDenise ConleyLauren PittsKittelson & Associates, Inc., TransportationSteve ColmanAlice ChenField Paoli, ArchitectsFrank FullerKimley-Horn Associates, Inc., Transportation and InfrastructureJames M. DaisaBenjamin Q. HuiePeter ReinhoferFelicia DeanWillliam Wong, Historic Resources

Lake Merritt Station Area PlanA Specific Plan for the Area Around the Lake Merritt BART StationPublic Review Draft December 2012

Table of ContentsTABLE OF CONTENTS1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................1-11.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................1-21.2 Purpose and Definition of a Specific Plan........................................................................................1-51.3 Planning Context...................................................................................................................................1-61.4 Community Based Planning Process..............................................................................................1-151.5 Document Overview...........................................................................................................................1-192 EXISTING CONDITIONS...............................................................................................2-12.1 Community..............................................................................................................................................2-22.2 Land Use Context................................................................................................................................. 2-62.3 Plan Districts: Existing Context........................................................................................................2-132.4 Market Conditions...............................................................................................................................2-212.5 Circulation and Parking..................................................................................................................... 2-242.6 Infrastructure...................................................................................................................................... 2-283 VISION...........................................................................................................................3-13.1 Lake Merritt Station Area Plan Vision and Goals...........................................................................3-23.2 Plan Concepts....................................................................................................................................... 3-63.3 Vision by Plan District......................................................................................................................... 3-84 LAND USE.....................................................................................................................4-14.1 Land Use Character............................................................................................................................. 4-24.2 Height and Massing Concepts........................................................................................................... 4-94.3 Developer Incentive Program...........................................................................................................4-144.4 Summary of Development Potential................................................................................................4-154.5 Affordable Housing Strategy............................................................................................................4-164.6 Public Health and the Built Environment....................................................................................... 4-28Policies......................................................................................................................................................... 4-31LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | i

TABLE OF CONTENTS5 OPEN SPACE.................................................................................................................5-15.1 Existing Open Space.............................................................................................................................5-25.2 Community Needs Assessment......................................................................................................... 5-65.3 Proposed Park Improvements and New Open Spaces..................................................................5-75.4 Existing Policies and Best Practices...............................................................................................5-17Policies..........................................................................................................................................................5-186 STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATION............................................................................6-16.1 Vision and Phasing................................................................................................................................6-26.2 Circulation Improvements.................................................................................................................6-116.3 Parking and Loading.......................................................................................................................... 6-236.4 Recommendations for Key Streets................................................................................................. 6-28Policies......................................................................................................................................................... 6-597 COMMUNITY RESOURCES.........................................................................................7-17.1 Historic Resources................................................................................................................................7-27.2 Cultural Resources..............................................................................................................................7-107.3 Community Facilities...........................................................................................................................7-157.4 Educational Facilities..........................................................................................................................7-16Policies..........................................................................................................................................................7-218 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT........................................................................................8-18.1 Economic Development Objectives...................................................................................................8-28.2 Components of the Economic Development Strategy.................................................................. 8-4Policies..........................................................................................................................................................8-10ii | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

9 INFRASTRUCTURE AND UTILITIES ...........................................................................9-19.1 Dry Utilities............................................................................................................................................ 9-29.2 Sanitary Sewer Service...................................................................................................................... 9-39.3 Water Service....................................................................................................................................... 9-69.4 Recycled Water System Service....................................................................................................... 9-89.5 Storm Drain...........................................................................................................................................9-109.6 Solid Waste Disposal..........................................................................................................................9-12Policies..........................................................................................................................................................9-12TABLE OF CONTENTS10 IMPLEMENTATION.....................................................................................................10-110.1 Regulatory Actions............................................................................................................................. 10-310.2 Implementation Strategy Elements................................................................................................ 10-410.3 Improvement and Infrastructure Funding Mechanisms.......................................................... 10-2210.4 Overview of Community Benefits................................................................................................. 10-2910.5 Detailed Infrastructure and Improvement Costs....................................................................... 10-33APPENDIX A: LAKE MERRITT STATION AREA PLANDEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL............................................................................................. A-1LAKE MERRITT STATION AREA PLAN DESIGN GUIDELINES............ Under Separate CoverLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | iii

TABLE OF CONTENTSLIST OF FIGURESFigure 1.1: Local Context of the Planning Area...........................................................................................1-3Figure 1.2: Planning Area Context..................................................................................................................1-4Figure 1.3: Planning Boundary........................................................................................................................1-8Figure 1.4: Project Timeline...........................................................................................................................1-18Figure 2.1: Existing Land Use (2010)............................................................................................................. 2-8Figure 2.2: Opportunity Sites (Sites Most Likely to Redevelop) ............................................................2-12Figure 2.3: Plan Districts................................................................................................................................2-14Figure 2.4: Pedestrian Activity..................................................................................................................... 2-26Figure 2.5: Street Classifications by Existing Traffic Volumes.............................................................. 2-28Figure 3.1: 14th Street Corridor Plan District.............................................................................................. 3-9Figure 3.2: Upper Chinatown Plan District.................................................................................................3-11Figure 3.3: Chinatown Commercial Center Plan District..........................................................................3-13Figure 3.4: BART Station Area District.......................................................................................................3-15Figure 3.5: I-880 Freeway Plan District.......................................................................................................3-17Figure 3.6: EastLake Gateway Plan District...............................................................................................3-19Figure 3.7: Laney/Peralta Plan District....................................................................................................... 3-21Figure 4.1: Draft Area Character .................................................................................................................. 4-3Figure 4.2: Proposed General Plan Amendment......................................................................................... 4-5Figure 4.3: Active Ground Floor Uses........................................................................................................... 4-8Figure 4.4: Draft Height Map.........................................................................................................................4-13Figure 4.5: Existing and Future Area View Looking Southeast..............................................................4-16Figure 4.6: Existing and Future Area View Looking East.........................................................................4-17Figure 4.7: Condo Conversion Impact Area............................................................................................... 4-20Figure 4.8: Toxic Air Contaminants in the Planning Area....................................................................... 4-29Figure 5.1: Public Parks and Other Publicly Accessible Open Spaces.................................................. 5-4Figure 5.2: Open Space Opportunities.........................................................................................................5-13iv | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

Figure 6.1: Streetscape and Circulation Vision.......................................................................................... 6-5Figure 6.2: Short-Term Circulation Improvement Strategy.......................................................................6-7Figure 6.3: Long-Term Circulation Improvement Strategy........................................................................ 6-8Figure 6.4: Street Improvement Phasing: Existing..................................................................................... 6-9Figure 6.5: Measure DD Improvements.......................................................................................................6-12Figure 6.6: Priority Pedestrian and Bicycle Improvements.....................................................................6-13Figure 6.7: Street View Pedestrian Improvements...................................................................................6-14Figure 6.8: Transit Hub................................................................................................................................... 6-20Figure 6.9: Streetscape Improvements (Phase I)..................................................................................... 6-29Figure 6.10: 14th Street.................................................................................................................................... 6-30Figure 6.11: 12th Street.................................................................................................................................... 6-31Figure 6.12: 10th Street (West of Madison Street).................................................................................... 6-33Figure 6.13: 10th Street (East of Madison Street)...................................................................................... 6-33Figure 6.14: 9th Street Chinatown Core....................................................................................................... 6-36Figure 6.15: 9th Street East of Chinatown Core.......................................................................................... 6-38Figure 6.16: 8th Street Chinatown Core....................................................................................................... 6-41Figure 6.17: 8th Street East of Chinatown Core..........................................................................................6-43Figure 6.18: 7th Street East of Fallon............................................................................................................ 6-45Figure 6.19: Webster Street............................................................................................................................ 6-47Figure 6.20: Harrison Street............................................................................................................................ 6-49Figure 6.21: Alice Street.................................................................................................................................. 6-50Figure 6.22: Madison Street............................................................................................................................ 6-51Figure 6.23: Oak Street.................................................................................................................................... 6-52Figure 6.24: Fallon Street................................................................................................................................ 6-54Figure 6.25: Clear Pedestrian Access........................................................................................................... 6-63TABLE OF CONTENTSLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | v

TABLE OF CONTENTSFigure 7.1: Historic Resources........................................................................................................................7-4Figure 7.2: Historic Resources and Opportunity Sites...............................................................................7-5Figure 7.3: Community Facilities...................................................................................................................7-13Figure 9.1: Sanitary Sewer System............................................................................................................... 9-5Figure 9.2: Potable Water System..................................................................................................................9-7Figure 9.3: Recycled Water System ............................................................................................................. 9-9Figure 9.4: Storm Drain System ...................................................................................................................9-11LIST OF TABLESTable 2.1:Table 2.2:Existing Land Use within One-Half Mile of the Lake Merritt BART Station......................2-7Association of Bay Area Governments and Alameda County TransportationCommission Projections 2009...................................................................................................2-10Table 2.3: 2010 Market Opportunity Analysis (2010-2035).....................................................................2-21Table 4.1: Planning Area Development Potential ...................................................................................4-15Table 4.2: Regional Housing Need Allocation (RHNA) for the Planning Area................................... 4-22Table 5.1:Existing Land Zoned as Open Space within One-Half Mile of the Lake MerrittBART Station................................................................................................................................. 5-3Table 5.2: Other Publicly Accessible Open Spaces in the Planning Area............................................ 5-3Table 6.1:Table 6.2:Table 7.1:Table 7.2:Table 7.3:Overview of Advantages and Disadvantages of Two-Way VersusOne-Way Streets........................................................................................................................ 6-21Summary Circulation and Streetscape Improvement Phasing andRecommendations...................................................................................................................... 6-57City of Oakland Historic Resource Rating System..................................................................7-3Community Services, Cultural Resources, and Public Facilities........................................7-12Schools that Service the Planning Area.................................................................................7-18Table 10.1: Implementation Responsibility, Costs, Timing, and Funding Mechanisms..................... 10-6Table 10.2: Infrastructure and Improvement Costs................................................................................ 10-34vi | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

1 INTRODUCTIONIN THIS CHAPTER1.1 Introduction........................................ 1-21.2 Purpose and Definition ofa Specific Plan .................................. 1-51.3 Planning Context .............................. 1-61.4 Community BasedPlanning Process.............................1-151.5 Document Overview........................1-19

1INTRODUCTION1.1 IntroductionThe Lake Merritt Station Area Plan is a SpecificPlan for the roughly one-half mile radius aroundthe Lake Merrit BART Station in DowntownOakland, as shown in Figure 1.1. The purposeof the Plan is to provide a roadmap to bring thecommunity-based vision to reality: it establishespolicies and improvements that support the vision,then outlines an implementation action plan torealize a range of programmatic and project-basedimprovements that together realize the vision. Overthe next 25 years the Plan looks to add 4,900 newhousing units, 4,100 new jobs, 404,000 square feetof additional retail, and 1,229,000 square feet ofoffice uses to this neighborhood.The Lake Merritt Station Area (referred to hereinas the Planning Area) encompasses a diverse communityof residents, students, employees, andcommercial business owners in the heart of DowntownOakland, including Chinatown, Laney College,the Oakland Museum of California, andAlameda County Courthouse and offices. Thecentral context of the Planning Area is shown inFigure 1.2. The Lake Merritt Station Area Plan(referred to herein as the Plan) connects the manyexisting assets in this unique and vibrant area tocreate a destination and a highly livable, vibrant,pedestrian-oriented, safe, healthy, and economicallydiverse neighborhood.The City of Oakland, community members, SanFrancisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART), and thePeralta Community College District have workedtogether over the past four years to develop thisPlan. It has been developed with extensive communityinput, as well as consideration of local andregional Transit-Oriented Development (TOD)goals. It reflects the desires and aspirations of a widerange of community members, stakeholders, Citystaff, the Planning Commission, and City Council.Objectives and PoliciesThe Plan seeks to address the diverse needs of thecommunity, as well as the needs of BART relatedto ridership, and the needs of the College Districtrelated to education. BART has stated thatit envisions the area transitioning from its currentstatus as an “Urban Neighborhood Station” to a“Regional Center” station type.The Plan seeks to achieve a nuanced vision for thearea and a wide range of goals and objectives. Keyobjectives include:• Increasing activity and vibrancy of the area;• Improving connections both within thePlanning Area as well as to major destinationsoutside the area;• Improving safety and pedestrian-orientation;• Accommodating the future population,including residents of all incomes households ofall sizes, including families;• Increasing the number of jobs and developingthe local economy;• Identifying additional recreation and openspace opportunities and improving existingresources;• Establishing a clear identity as a center forequitable and sustainable development; and• Defining an achievable vision for the area’sfuture that is compelling for implementation offuture projects and public improvements.The Plan provides policies at the end of each chapter(with the exception of Chapters 1, 2, and 3).Design Guidelines are provided under separatecover and Zoning and General Plan amendmentswill be adopted concurrently. Policies are developedto identify a range of actions that togetherrealize the Plan objectives, vision, and goals. Somepolicies direct the City to adopt standards for newdevelopment. Other policies recommend publicimprovements to support a physically attractiveand economically healthy neighborhood thatis also a cultural and community activity center.In many cases, policies identify opportunities forvarious community groups, institutions, business,and public agencies to work together. Designguidelines are meant to influence the design ofnew buildings and public spaces so that they contributeto a better overall whole.The Station Area Plan aims to cultivate the alreadydiverse range of uses existing in the neighborhoodto ensure opportunities to live, work and play; andfurther promote and expand the rich businessesenvironment of Chinatown. It calls for enhancingthe pedestrian, bicycle, transit, auto circulationnetwork, and streetscape to ensure safe andefficient access within the Planning Area andimproved connectivity to nearby destinations.1-2 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012



1INTRODUCTION1.2 Purpose and Definition of a Specific PlanThis Plan is a Specific Plan, as defined by theGovernor’s Office of Planning and Research. Itincludes policies and programs that address landuse, buildings, housing, design, circulation, transitimprovements, streetscape improvements, andparks and public spaces. It identifies actions theCity and other entities should take to improve thearea, and establishes regulations for developmentprojects on private property. It is a long-term documentconsisting of written text and diagrams thatexpress how the community should develop, and isa key tool for improving quality of life.The Plan will be adopted and approved concurrentlywith General Plan and Planning Codeamendments, Design Guidelines, and any updatesto the City’s Standard Conditions of Approval.These documents include additional details onallowable land uses, and detailed standards for newdevelopment. Together, these documents establishthe basis for development project review and otherdecision-making by policymakers, such as thePlanning Commission and the City Council.Specific Plans cover land use, development density,circulation and infrastructure, and have legalauthority as a regulatory document. Because SpecificPlans are mechanisms for executing the goalsand policies of a community’s general plan, Statelaw requires that specific plans are consistent withthe general plan, and that they must include textand a diagram or diagrams which specify a rangeof topics in detail, including:1. The distribution, location, and extent of theuses of land, including open space, within thearea covered by the plan.2. The proposed distribution, location, and extentand intensity of major components of publicand private transportation, sewage, water,drainage, solid waste disposal, energy, andother essential facilities proposed to be locatedwithin the area covered by the plan and neededto support the land uses described in the plan.3. Standards and criteria by which developmentwill proceed, and standards for theconservation, development, and utilization ofnatural resources, where applicable.4. A program of implementation measuresincluding regulations, programs, public worksprojects, and financing measures necessary tocarry out paragraphs (1), (2), and (3).The Plan will guide all new development in thePlanning Area, which will be required to followthe policies, programs and guidelines set forth inthis Plan and related documents. Consistent withState law, an Environmental Impact Report willbe completed to identify and analyze any environmentalimpacts that may result from implementationof the Plan, consistent with California EnvironmentalQuality Act, prior to the Plan’s adoption.What is a Specific Plan?According to the Governor’s Office of Planningand Research, “A specific plan is a toolfor the systematic implementation of thegeneral plan. It effectively establishes a linkbetween implementing policies of the generalplan and the individual developmentproposals in a defined area. A specific planmay be as general as setting forth broadpolicy concepts, or as detailed as providingdirection to every facet of developmentfrom the type, location and intensity of usesto the design and capacity of infrastructure;from the resources used to finance publicimprovements to the design guidelines of asubdivision.”LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 1-5

1INTRODUCTION1.3 Planning ContextKey existing assets include the Lake Merritt BART Station, theChinatown Commercial core, and Laney College (numbers 7, 5,and 8 on Figure 1.3, respectively).Regional Context and Planning AreaBoundariesThe Planning Area encompasses 315 acres in theheart of Oakland, a major urban center within theSan Francisco Bay Area. Adjacent neighborhoodsand destinations include Downtown Oakland,Lake Merritt, the Jack London District, Old Oakland,and Uptown. The Planning Area’s strategiclocation within this context is shown in Figure1.1, and a closer look at the Planning Area itself isshown in Figure 1.3Building on Existing AssetsThe Planning Area is located within a vibranturban community, complete with urban amenitiesas well as community, cultural, and historicresources. Several key assets include (but are certainlynot limited to):• Lake Merritt BART: The Lake Merritt BARTStation provides rail transit service to thePlanning Area and throughout the Bay Area.The two Lake Merritt BART blocks located atthe center of the Planning Area are historicallypart of Oakland Chinatown, and are currentlypotential development sites.• Oakland Chinatown: Chinatown is a vibrantcommercial and residential neighborhood.Chinatown has active streets in the commercialcore, a vibrant retail trade, and acts as acultural center in the east Bay Area for theAsian community. Chinatown also makes upthe core residential community within thePlanning Area and a multitude of invaluablecommunity resources and services are locatedin Chinatown.• Laney College: Laney College is the largest ofthe four Peralta Community Colleges, locatedadjacent to the Lake Merritt BART Station onabout 60 acres of land devoted to classrooms,vocational technology workshop/classrooms,and computer and science labs, as well as abookstore, library, gymnasium, swimmingpool, childcare center, two large auditoriumsand a performing arts theater. The school servesa diverse student population of over 14,000students each semester and has more than 400full-time and adjunct positions.• The Pacific Renaissance Plaza: The PacificRenaissance Plaza houses the Asian BranchPublic Library, the Oakland Asian CulturalCenter which offers a range of culturalresources, the Chinatown Chamber ofCommerce, two levels of shops and restaurants,residential units above the ground floors, andunderground parking. A large plaza with afountain acts as a gathering space for residentsand visitors to the area.• The Oakland Museum of California(OMCA): Established in 1969 as a “museumfor the people,” OMCA is a leading culturalinstitution of the Bay Area and a resource forthe research and understanding of California’s1-6 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

dynamic cultural and environmental heritage.OMCA is located one block north of the LakeMerritt BART Station.• Oakland Public Library: The Main Libraryfor the Oakland Public Library system is oneof the largest public library facilities in the BayArea. It includes an extensive collection andincludes a large and active Children’s Roomand a TeenZone.• Lincoln Square Recreation Center: TheRecreation Center is located in Lincoln SquarePark and features programs such as arts andcrafts, cooking, games and cultural programs,excursions, and annual traditions such as theLunar New Year art contest. The Center has amulti-purpose gym and an outdoor playgroundwhich offers a wide range of classes such asChinese calligraphy, Chinese lion dance,Chinese orchestra, table tennis, basketball, linedance, and youth dance. The Center serves asan active open space and community gatheringspace for youth during and after school; and foradults and seniors throughout the day.• The recreational amenities of Lake Merritt,the Estuary, and the Lake Merritt Channel:Lake Merritt was declared a Wildlife Refugeunder the California Wildlife Act in 1870and plays an important role as a recreationalasset for the City. The trails around the lakeare very popular for walking and jogging.The Channel, which connects Lake Merrittto the Estuary, runs through the PlanningArea. Recent improvements to the Lake edgehave been completed through Measure DD,with additional improvements underway. LakeMerritt is also listed in the National Registerof Historic Places, and the Lake Merritt WildDuck Refuge is a National Historic Landmark.• The Kaiser Convention Center: Originallyopened in 1914 as a multi-purpose arena, theCenter is currently closed. The conventioncenter is located adjacent to the OMCA, southof Lake Merritt and north of Laney College.The Center has historically been a venue for avariety of cultural events and entertainment,and has great potential for future reuse.• Alameda County Offices: A major source ofemployment and services, the County officesand County Courthouse are located primarilyalong Oak and 12th Streets.Key assets include the Pacific Renaissance Center, LincolnSquare Recreation Center and Madison Square Park (numbers1, 2, and 6 on Figure 1.3, respectively).LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 1-7

19TH ST17TH STATHOLAVEFigure Fig. 1.31.3:PLANNING Planning Boundary BOUNDARYE. 18TH ST15TH STLAKESIDE DRLakeMerrittFOOTHILL BLVDPlanning AreaKey Assets12th StBARTBROADWAYFRANKLIN STPacificRenaissancePlazaWEBSTER STHARRISON ST14TH ST13THST12TH ST1 211TH STLincolnSquarePark10TH STPostOfficeLincolnElementaryJACKSON STMADISON STPublicLibraryCountyOfficesOAK ST11THLAKECountyCourtST TUNNELMERRITT BLVDOaklandMuseum ofCalifornia34KaiserAuditoriumLAKESHORE AVEOaklandUnifiedSchoolDistrict1ST AVEE. 15TH ST2ND AVEINTERNATIONAL BLVDE. 12TH STOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampus3RD AVE4TH AVEE. 11TH ST5Oakland Chinatown9TH ST8TH STALICE STMadisonSquarePark6LakeMerrittBARTMTC/ABAG7BARTParkingLaney College89aC hn ne lE. 10TH ST5TH AVEChineseGardenPark7TH ST6TH STLaneyParkingE. 7TH STBROADWAYFRANKLIN STWEBSTER STWEBSTER PLHARRISON STALICE STJACKSON ST5TH ST4TH ST3RD ST2ND STMADISON STOAK ST4TH STFALLON STVICTORY CT880Peralta CommunityCollege DistrictAdministrationEMBARCADEROEMBARCADERO WESTWATER STAMTRAK1ST STE s t u a r y0 500 1000100FEET1-8 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

1INTRODUCTIONRange of IssuesWhile the Planning Area has many assets to buildon, there are also challenges and issues that thePlan seeks to address. Issues identified and concernsexpressed by community members include:• Need to ensure active community participationin the planning process.• Concerns regarding safety, related to crime andtraffic.• Lack of sufficient housing, both affordable andnew market rate housing.• Need to improve the pedestrian environment,bicycle circulation, and transit access.• Need to better connect the area to otherneighborhoods and destinations.• Need to preserve and enhance the historic andcultural resources in the Planning Area.• Need for economic development by buildingon the existing vibrancy of Chinatown andadding more high quality jobs.• Need to ensure access to community services,including educational and community facilitiesand high quality open spaces.• Concerns related to environmental quality andhealth, in particular as related to the I-880freeway.Key concerns and issues identified at the outset ofthe process were developed over an iterative processworking with the community into a series ofvision statements and goals, outlined in Chapter 3.Relationship to Other PlansAs a Specific Plan, the Plan has been developed tostrategically implement the goals and policies ofthe General Plan, and must be consistent with theGeneral Plan per State law.The Plan will be adopted concurrently with GeneralPlan and Planning Code amendments that areconsistent with the Plan and include additionaldetails on allowable land uses, and detailed standardsfor new development.The following section outlines the Plan’s consistencywith the City of Oakland’s General Plan elementsand other relevant planning documents.Oakland General Plan ConsistencyThis section provides additional detail related toPlan consistency with key elements of the OaklandGeneral Plan. The Oakland General Plan outlinesa vision for Oakland’s long-range development andgrowth. The General Plan provides policies andactions to help implement this vision. The GeneralPlan includes the following elements: LandUse and Transportation (LUTE); Open Space,Conservation, and Recreation (OSCAR); HistoricPreservation; Bicycle Master Plan; Pedestrian MasterPlan; Noise; Safety; Housing; and the EstuaryPolicy Plan.Land Use and Transportation Element (LUTE)Overall, the concepts included in this Plan furtherand help implement the goals of the Oakland GeneralPlan elements, including the LUTE’s specificKey assets include the Oakland Museum of California, theKaiser Convention Center, and recreational assets along theLake Merritt Channel (numbers 3, 4 and 9 on Figure 1.3, respectively).LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 1-9

1INTRODUCTIONgoal of Transit-Oriented Development for DowntownOakland. The LUTE designates the majorityof the Planning Area as part of the “Central BusinessDistrict” (CBD), which is intended to encourage,support and enhance the downtown area as ahigh density mixed-use urban center of regionalimportance and a primary hub for business, communications,office, government, high technology,retail, entertainment, and transportation inNorthern California. The CBD land use classificationincludes a mix of large-scale offices, commercial,urban (high-rise) residential, institutional,open space, cultural, educational, arts, entertainment,service, community facilities, and visitoruses. The General Plan designates parks in the areaas “Open Space,” while the Oakland Museum andthe Kaiser Center are designated as “Institutional.”The area east of the Kaiser Convention Center andNorth of Laney College is designated as “UrbanResidential.” Peralta Community College Districtproperty is designated “Business Mix” and themajority of Laney College land is designated as“Institutional.”Key General Plan LUTE objectives supported bythe Plan include:Industry and Commerce• I/C1: Expand and retain Oakland’s job baseand economic strength.• I/C3: Ensure that Oakland is adequatelyserved by a wide variety of commercial uses,appropriately sited to provide for competitiveretail merchandising and diversified office uses,as well as personal and professional services.Transportation and Transit-Oriented Development• T2: Provide mixed use, transit-orienteddevelopment that encourages public transit useand increases pedestrian and bicycle trips atmajor transportation nodes.• T3: Provide a hierarchical network of roadsthat reflects desired land use patterns andstrives for acceptable levels of service atintersections.• T4: Increase use of alternatives modes oftransportation.• T6: Make streets safe, pedestrian accessible,and attractive.• T7: Reduce air pollutants caused by vehicles.Downtown• D1: Enhance the identity of DowntownOakland and its distinctive districts.• D2: Enhance the visual quality of downtownby preserving and improving existing housingstock and encouraging new, high quality,development.• D3: Create a Pedestrian-friendly downtown.• D4: Increase the economic vitality ofdowntown.• D5: Enhance the safety and perception ofsafety downtown at all hours.• D9: Emphasize the establishment, promotion,and retention of commercial businesses thatserve the needs of downtown workers andresidents.• D10: Maximize housing opportunities inthe downtown to create a better sense ofcommunity.• D11: Foster mixed use developments to helpcreate a diverse, lively, and vibrant downtown.• D12: Make downtown Oakland a regionaldestination for innovative learning programs,cultural resources, art, and entertainment.• D13: Create and coordinate a well-balancedregional and local transportation system toserve the downtown.Neighborhoods• N1: Provide for healthy, vital, and accessiblecommercial areas that help meet localconsumer needs in the neighborhoods.• N2: Encourage adequate civic, institutional,and educational facilities located withinOakland, appropriately designed and sited toserve the community.• N3: Encourage the construction, conservation,and enhancement of housing resources to meetthe current and future needs of the Oaklandcommunity.• N4: Actively encourage the provision ofaffordable housing throughout the Bay Area.• N6: Encourage a mix of housing costs, unitsizes, types, and ownership structures.• N8: Direct urban density and mixed usehousing development to locate near transitor commercial corridors, transit stations,the Downtown, waterfront, underutilizedproperties where residential uses do notpresently exist but may be appropriate, areaswhere this type of development already existsand is compatible with desired neighborhoodcharacter, and other suitable locations.1-10 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

1INTRODUCTION• N10: Support and create social, informational,cultural, and active economic centers in theneighborhoods.• N11: Provide adequate infrastructure to meetthe needs of Oakland’s growing community.Open Space, Conservation, and Recreation(OSCAR) ElementA major objective of the OSCAR Element of theGeneral Plan is to reduce deficiencies in park acreageand recreational facilities in the most equitable, costeffective way possible. The general strategy describedin the Plan implements that objective, first, by makingthe most out of existing spaces; secondly, byrecommending shared use of open space and recreationalfacilities owned by public entities such as theOakland Unified School District and Laney College;and third, expanding the amount of new parksacreage and recreation facilities. Key objectives andpolicies include:Objective OS-2: Urban Parks, Schoolyards, andGardens• OS 2.2: Schoolyard Enhancement. Enhancethe availability and usefulness of Oakland’sschoolyards and athletic fields as open spaceresources.• OS 2.6: Street Closures for Parks, Plazas andGardens. Where there is broad community andlocal support and where legally permissible,allow local street closures as a way of creatingnew parks, plazas, and garden sites in urbanneighborhoods.Objective OS-7: Shoreline Access• OS 7.5: Lateral Access and Links to theFlatlands. Improve lateral access along theOakland shoreline and linkages betweenthe shoreline and nearby neighborhoods...[including] a connection between EstuaryPark and the linear park along Lake MerrittChannel... The connection requires a bridgespanning two sets of railroad tracks betweenI-880 and the Embarcadero.Objective OS-11: Civic Open Space• OS 11.1: Access to Downtown Open Space.Provide better access to attractive, sunlitopen spaces for persons working or living indowntown Oakland. The development ofrooftop gardens is encouraged.• OS 11.1.2: Downtown Open SpaceRequirements and Bonuses. Study thefeasibility of (a) useable open spacerequirements for downtown commercialdevelopment (or an in-lieu fee for downtownopen space); and (b) density bonuses fordevelopers providing plazas, rooftop gardens,and other amenities within new developmentprojects.• OS 11.1.3: New Civic Open Space. Createnew civic open spaces at BART Stations, inneighborhood commercial areas, on parkinggarages, and in other areas where high-intensityredevelopment is proposed.Objective REC-2: Park Design and Compatibility ofUses• REC 2.2: Conflicts Between Park Uses. Sitepark activities and facilities in a manner whichminimizes conflict between park users.• REC-2.3: Environmentally Sensitive Design.Protect natural areas within parks.• REC-2.4: Off-site Conflicts. Manage parkfacilities and activities in a manner whichminimizes negative impacts on adjacentresidential, commercial or industrial areas.• REC-2.5: Park Visibility. Plan and design parksin a way which maximizes their visibility, whileminimizing conflicts between pedestrians,bicyclists and automobiles.• REC-2.6: Historic Park Features. Respecthistoric park features when designing parkimprovements or programming new parkactivities.Objective REC-4: Maintenance and Rehabilitation• REC 4.3: Renovation and RehabilitationPriorities. Where cost savings and equivalentbenefits would be achieved, renovate andrehabilitate existing facilities before buildingnew facilities.Objective REC-5: Park Safety• REC 5.1: Increased Range of Activities.Provide an increased range of activities withinOakland’s parks as a means of introducingnew users to the parks and improving safetythrough numbers.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 1-11

1INTRODUCTION• REC-5.2: Safety-Oriented Design. Use a widerange of physical design solutions to improvesafety at Oakland’s parks, including lighting,signage, landscape design, fencing, vandalresistantbuilding materials, and emergencyresponse features.Objective REC-6: Joint Use of Recreational Facilities• REC 6.1: Joint Use Agreements. Promote jointuse agreements between the City, the OaklandUnified School District, and other publicagencies to maximize the use of school andother non-park recreational facilities duringnon-school hours.• REC 6.2: Public-Private Partnerships.Encourage “public-private partnerships” as ameans of providing new recreational facilitieson privately-owned sites.Objective REC-7: Recreational Programs• REC 7.5: Multi-Culturalism. Designrecreational services which respond to themany cultures, ethnic groups, and languagegroups represented in Oakland. Designrecreational programs to reflect the specificneeds of Oakland neighborhoods and thevalues and priorities of local residents.Objective REC-10: Funding• REC 10.2: Parkland Dedication and ImpactFee. To the extent permitted by law, requirerecreational needs created by future growthto be offset by resources contributed by thatgrowth.Historic Preservation ElementThe Historic Preservation Element notes that thepreservation and enhancement of historic resourcescan significantly contribute to an area’s economy,affordable housing stock, overall image, and qualityof life. The Plan aims to protect the value ofhistoric resources, by promoting preservation ofresources via existing programs and regulations,and by ensuring compatible development throughdesign guidelines and massing regulations. HistoricPreservation is addressed in greater detail inChapter 7. Key objectives and policies include:Objective 2: Preservation Incentives and Regulations• Policy 2.1: Preservation Incentives andRegulations for Designated Historic Properties.The City will use a combination of incentivesand regulations to encourage preservationof significant older properties and areaswhich have been designated as Landmarks,Preservation Districts, or Heritage Properties.• Policy 2.6: Preservation Incentives.––Landmarks and all properties contributingor potentially contributing to a PreservationDistrict will be eligible for the followingpreservation incentives:º º Mills Act contracts for reducing propertytax assessments;º º State Historical Building Code andother related alternative codes for olderbuildings;º º Conservation easements to reduceproperty tax assessments and, forNational Register properties, to obtainincome tax deductions;º º Broader range of permitted orconditionally permitted uses;º º Transferable development rights;º º Priority for economic developmentand community development projectassistance and eligibility for possiblehistoric preservation grants for lowincomehousing;º º Eligibility for acquisition, rehabilitation,and other development assistance froma possible historic preservation revolvingfund or possible Marks historicalrehabilitation bond program; andº º Fee waivers or reductions for City permitsfor demolition, new construction, oralterations.––Compatible new development on vacantnoncontributing Preservation Districtparcels will be eligible for Incentives (iv), (v),(vi) and (vii).Objective 3: Historic Preservation and Ongoing CityActivities• Policy 3.1: Avoid or Minimize Adverse HistoricPreservation Impacts Related to DiscretionaryCity Actions.• Policy 3.5: Historic Preservation andDiscretionary Permit Approvals. For additionsor alteration to Heritage Properties or PotentialDesignated Historic Properties requiringdiscretionary City permits, the City will makea finding that (1) the design matches or iscompatible with, but not necessarily identicalto, the property’s existing or historical design;1-12 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

1INTRODUCTIONor (2) the proposed design comprehensivelymodifies and is at least equal in quality tothe existing design and is compatible withthe character of the neighborhood; or (3)the existing design is undistinguished anddoes not warrant retention and the proposeddesign is compatible with the character of theneighborhood.• Policy 3.6: Historic Preservation and City-Sponsored or Assisted Projects. To the extentconsistent with other Oakland General Planprovisions, City-sponsored or assisted projectsinvolving an existing or Potential DesignatedHistoric Property, except small-scale projects,will:––be selected and designed to avoid orminimize adverse effects;––incorporate preservation efforts based in parton the importance of each property; and––be considered to have no adverse effects onthese properties if they conform with theSecretary of the Interior’s Standards for theTreatment of Historic Properties.• Policy 3.9: Consistency of Zoning withExisting or Eligible Preservation Districts.––Unless necessary to achieve some otherOakland General Plan goal or policy whichis of greater significance, the base zone ofexisting or eligible Preservation Districtsshall not encourage demolition or removalof a district’s contributing or potentiallycontributing properties nor encourage newconstruction that is incompatible with theseproperties.––The City will always consider including ahistoric preservation component in areawideor specfiic plans.Bicycle Master PlanThe Plan includes all the bikeways (bike lanes,shared lanes, pathways) that are identified in theBicycle Master Plan for the Planning Area, andwill provide necessary environmental clearance toimplement many of these bikeways. Bicycle accessis addressed in greater detail in Chapter 6.Estuary Policy PlanThe Estuary Policy Plan, which identifies land usedesignations for the Jack London District, locatedjust south of the Planning Area, also identifies parksalong the Channel edge in the Planning Area. ThePlan aligns with open space policies in the EstuaryPolicy Plan, including its direction to “Create a systemof public open spaces that connects Lake MerrittChannel to the Estuary” and to “Work withpublic agencies to extend the open space inland fromthe Channel. Key objectives and policies include:• Objective SA-2: Punctuate the Estuaryshoreline promenade with a series of parks andlarger open spaces.• Objective SA-5: Enhance natural areasalong the shoreline. There are significantopportunities along the Estuary shoreline andLake Merritt Channel to enhance remnanttidal marshes and other natural areas.Some of this is part of the current Measure DDprojects, such as a new tidal wetland beingcreated between 10th and 12th Street on the westside of the Channel.The Lake Merritt Station Area Plan builds on existing plans thataddress bicycle access, historic resources, and communitytransportation.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 1-13

1INTRODUCTION• OAK-2.1: Expand Estuary Park. Encourageaquatic sports within the mouth of LakeMerritt Channel.• OAK-2.2: Create a major new park on the eastside of the mouth of the Lake Merritt Channel,at the Estuary.• OAK-3: Link the Estuary to Lake Merritt byenhancing the Lake Merritt Channel.• OAK-3.1: Create a system of public open spacesthat connects Lake Merritt Channel to theEstuary.• OAK-3.2: Work with public agencies in thearea to extend the open space system inlandfrom the Channel.This applies to the new four-acre park being builtas part of the 12th Street reconstruction. This alsoencourages the creation of public open spaces alongthe edges of the Channel itself, and describes theneed to create a bicycle and pedestrian overpassbetween Estuary Park and the Channel shorelineto the north.BART Request for QualificationsIn September 2011, BART issued a Request forQualifications (RFQ) to select a developer whowill work jointly with the City of Oakland, thecommunity, and BART to determine the feasibilityof development on the two BART-owned blocks atthe Lake Merritt BART Station. One block currentlyincludes a station entrance, plaza, and officeuses below grade; the other block includes additionalstation entrances and a surface parking lotthat serves the station. Should development be feasible,the developer would then collaboratively formulatea plan to transform the Property into anexciting Transit-Oriented Development project.Other Relevant Plans and Planning ProcessesThe Plan also has the benefit of building on asignificant amount of planning completed inor around the Planning Area in the past severalyears. In particular, the plan supports and buildson the Lake Merritt Park Master Plan (2002),the Revive Chinatown Community TransportationPlan (2004), the Lake Merritt BART Station FinalSummary Report (2006), and the Measure DDimprovements around Lake Merritt (underway).1-14 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

1INTRODUCTION1.4 Community Based Planning ProcessCommunity Involvement in the PlanDevelopmentAs described earlier, many diverse residents, merchants,workers, and students make up the communityof the Planning Area. This community hastaken a very active role in developing and refiningthis Plan. Feedback from the community throughoutthe process has been an essential componentof the planning process and has taken a variety offorms. Key elements of the community participationstrategy are outlined in this section.Advisory GroupsA key element of community participation is theinvolvement of advisory groups that act to guidethe planning process. These groups serve variouspurposes and include:Community Stakeholder Group. The CommunityStakeholder Group (CSG) aims to representall interests from within the Planning Area, andis comprised of about 50 members. The forumis designed to focus on policy development anddirection in response to community input. CSGmembers have provided feedback on documentsthroughout the planning process. CSG membersadditionally serve as conduits to expand the role ofpublic participation by providing advice regardingpotential methods to effectively communicate andsolicit general public input. They also serve as conduitsto their respective constituencies, by informingthem about the planning process and how thepublic can participate, distributing informationabout the planning program and workshop flyers,and encouraging participation in the planningprocess.The CSG has been engaged throughout the planningprocess. Importantly, through participationin a series of working meetings over the summerof 2011, the CSG guided the development of thePreferred Plan, which is the framework documentthat this Plan is based on. These meetings startedwith community feedback from public workshopsand developed the framework for the PreferredPlan through an iterative process between CSGmembers, City staff, and consultant work. To date,13 meetings of the CSG have been held.Executive Committee of the Community StakeholderGroup. An Executive Committee of theCSG (ExCSG) acts as a sounding board regardingcomments received from the Technical AdvisoryCommittee (described below) and the CSG,addresses specific issues of concern, and developsrecommendations and/or compromise solutionsin the event that the CSG cannot reach consensuson important issues. Composition of the ExCSGincludes a Peralta Community College District/Laney College representative, a BART representative,representatives from Oakland City CouncilDistricts 2 and 3, and two representatives from theChinatown Coalition. Participants are expectedto provide input that balances the various interestgroups represented in the larger CSG, and have anMerchants’ Tea, Community Workshop #1, and the SubareasWorkshop (top to bottom).LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 1-15

1INTRODUCTIONinterest and understanding of development issuesin Oakland. Six meetings of the ExCSG have beenheld to date.Technical Advisory Committee. The TechnicalAdvisory Committee (TAC) is made up of Citystaff and representatives from other agencies withtechnical knowledge about the Planning Area.Five TAC meetings have been held to date, andTAC members are invited to CSG meetings asappropriate.Community OutreachIn addition to meetings of the groups noted above,a variety of strategies have been employed toengage and involve the community in the planningprocess. Language accessibility has been a centralcomponent of all community outreach, includingpresentation of meeting materials translated intoChinese and Vietnamese as well as English, and bilingualmeeting facilitators and interpreters (Mandarin,Cantonese, Vietnamese). To date, outreachstrategies have included:Initial Engagement. An initial CommunityEngagement Process was conducted in 2008-2009.For this process, the City of Oakland partneredwith Asian Health Services (AHS), the OaklandChinatown Chamber of Commerce, and theAsian Pacific Environmental Network (APEN)to begin community outreach for the Plan. Fourwell-attended community meetings were conductedfrom 2008 to 2009 and a 19-question surveywhich garnered 1,100 results was conducted inMarch and April 2009.Partnerships. Partnerships with local community-basedorganizations were established, including,but not limited to: Chinatown Chamber ofCommerce, Asian Health Services, East Bay AsianLocal Development Corporation, Transform, EastBay Housing Organizations, Walk Oakland BikeOakland, East Bay Bicycle Coalition, OaklandAsian Cultural Center, and Asian Pacific EnvironmentalNetwork.Stakeholder Interviews. A total of 50 stakeholders,including 18 City staff, were interviewed individuallyor in groups, in sessions generally lastingabout one hour.Community Workshops. Four community workshopshave been held to date, to solicit feedback ona variety of topics. The first workshop focused onidentifying issues and goals, the second and thirdworkshops (divided by subareas) focused on specificimprovements community members felt wereimportant, and the fourth workshop presentedthe Emerging Plan concepts for feedback. A fifthworkshop will be held to review the Draft Plan.Focus Groups/Neighborhood Teas. A series offocus groups/neighborhood teas were held to assessgoals and concerns of local residents who typicallydo not attend large public meetings in a more intimateand informal setting. These meetings specificallyengaged brokers and property owners, merchants,families, Laney College students and faculty,and youth.Surveys. Business surveys were administered toparticipants of Merchant’s Tea.1-16 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

1INTRODUCTIONOther meetings. Other meetings have been heldthroughout the process to engage other institutionsand community groups, such as the Peralta Boardmeeting, Lake Merritt Station Area Plan Institutionsmeeting, Jack London District Associationmeeting, Mayor’s Cantonese Town Hall meeting,BART Board workshop, and Oakland Bicycle andPedestrian Advisory Committee meeting.Summary of FeedbackFeedback from these meetings is summarized inthe following documents, all of which are availableon the project website the Workshops andMeetings, and Report sections.• Lake Merritt BART Station Area CommunityEngagement Final Report, completed byAsian Health Services, Oakland ChinatownChamber of Commerce, and the City ofOakland in June 2009.• Stakeholder Interviews Report, completed byDyett & Bhatia and the City of Oakland inMay, 2010.• Community Workshop #1 Report, completed byDyett & Bhatia and the City of Oakland inMay, 2010.• Summary of Community Feedback, completedby Dyett & Bhatia and the City of Oaklandin April, 2011. This document includesfeedback given at the Subarea Workshops, atthe CSG meeting on the central blocks, theneighborhood teas, and feedback from othercommunity-led focus groups.• Emerging Plan Open House Summary Report,completed by Dyett & Bhatia and the City ofOakland in October, 2011.Formal Public Review of the PlanThe Preferred Plan, which is the framework documentthat this Plan is based on, was reviewed byseveral advisory and decision-making bodies overthe winter of 2011-2012 at a series of public meetings.This Plan will also be reviewed by the sameset of boards and decision-making bodies, including:• City Council.• Community and Economic Development(CED) Committee.• Planning Commission.• Parks and Recreation Advisory Commission(PRAC).• Landmark Preservation Advisory Board(LPAB).• Bicycle and Pedestrian Advisory Committee(BPAC).Based on the guidance of these decision-makers,the Preferred Plan was further developed andrefined, with continued input from communitymembers, the CSG, and the TAC into this Plan.There will be several future opportunities for participation,as shown in the overall project timeline,shown in Figure 1-4. Interested community membersmay also make comments at any public meeting,by email (, or by phone (510.238.7904).A variety of community participation methods used during theplanning process include community mapping, small groupdiscussions, and open houses (top to bottom).LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 1-17

1INTRODUCTIONBackground Work CompletedIn addition to community outreach, several backgrounddocuments were completed as part of theprocess of drafting the Plan. These documentswere completed by the consulting team and theCity of Oakland. These include:VISION & GOALSFigure 1.4:PROJECT TIMELINEEMERGING PLAN & ALTERNATIVES• Affordable Housing Technical Memo (February2010), reviews strategies for meeting State andCity affordable housing requirements.• Existing Conditions Report (June 2010),summarizes the primary findings of all thebackground research on a wide range of topicsrelated to the Planning Area.• Market Opportunity Report (June 2010),evaluates the market factors supportingdevelopment within the Planning Area.• Emerging Plan Report (September 2011),establishes a planning framework and providesan analysis of initial plan concepts.• Preferred Plan (November 2011), develops andrefines the Plan framework and concepts.ScheduleThe overall project timeline is shown in Figure 1-4.Check the project website updates regardingthe dates and times of upcoming meetings.CommunityEngagement2008 – 2009CommunityWorkshopFocus Groups(students,merchants,families)SubareaWorkshopsCommunityStakeholdersGroup (ongoingmeetings)CommunityOpen HouseSpring 2010 Spring 2011 Ongoing Sept. 2011PREFERRED PLAN DRAFT PLAN & EIR FINAL PLAN & EIRReview by Boards,Commissions andCity CouncilDraftPlanCommunityWorkshopDraftEIRReview by Boards,Commissions andCity CouncilReview by Board andCommissions, Adoptionby City CouncilDec. 2011 – March 2012 Dec. 2012 Feb. 2013 Jan. - Apr. 2013 Apr. - Dec. 20131-18 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

1INTRODUCTION1.5 Document OverviewThe Lake Merritt Station Area Plan is organizedinto ten complementary chapters with one appendixand Design Guidelines under separate cover.• Chapter 1: Introduction. This chapterprovides an overview of the purpose andobjectives of the Plan, the planning context,the Plan’s relationship to other plans, and adetailed summary of the planning process andcommunity participation.• Chapter 2: Existing Conditions. This chapterprovides an overview of existing conditions inthe Planning Area.• Chapter 3: Vision. This chapter describes theoverall vision for the Planning Area, includingthe vision statements and goals of the project,as well as a detailed vision for each plandistrict.• Chapter 4: Land Use. This chapter outlinesland use strategies that would ensure that newdevelopment will enhance the neighborhoodcharacter and sense of place.• Chapter 5: Open Space. This chapter describesstrategies for improved access, maintenance,and usability of existing parks, as well asdevelopment of new parks, that are essential toensure a high quality of life in this increasinglydense urban setting.• Chapter 6: Streetscape and Circulation. Thischapter describes the circulation strategiesdesigned to minimize the need for auto traveland promote the use of walking, bicycling,and transit as modes of travel in the PlanningArea. This chapter also provides an overview ofthe streetscape vision and specific streetscapeimprovement recommendations for thePlanning Area’s key streets.• Chapter 7: Community Resources. Thischapter highlights strategies for enhancingcommunity resources, including cultural,historic, and educational resources as keycomponents to a vibrant and completeneighborhood.• Chapter 8: Economic Development. Thischapter provides a strategy for economicdevelopment that would work in tandemwith new building construction, as well asimprovements to streets, parks, and safety,to benefit existing and new businesses andresidents.• Chapter 9: Infrastructure and Utilities. Thischapter provides a detailed understandingof the infrastructure and utility needs in thePlanning Area.• Chapter 10: Implementation. This chapterprovides a detailed implementation plan,including financing and phasing strategies.• Appendix A: Detailed Development Potential.This appendix includes details related to thetotal development potential.• Design Guidelines. This document includesdetailed design guidelines to direct futuredevelopment and ensure high quality designand neighborhood consistency.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 1-19

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2 EXISTING CONDITIONSIN THIS CHAPTER2.1 Community.......................................... 2-22.2 Land Use Context.............................. 2-62.3 Plan Districts:Existing Context...............................2-132.4 Market Conditions........................... 2-212.5 Circulation and Parking................. 2-242.6 Infrastructure................................... 2-28

2EXISTING CONDITIONS2.1 CommunityExisting ConditionsThe existing Planning Area is a diverseurban neighborhood with a range of assetsand challenges. Understanding the existingcondition is essential to developing a visionand detailed plan for the future. This chapterprovides an overview of existing conditions.Additional detail is available in the ExistingConditions Report, available on the projectwebsite.DemographicsApproximately 12,000 people, or three percentof the city’s population, live within one-half mileof the Lake Merritt BART Station. Compared tothe rest of Oakland, the area’s population is moreAsian (especially Chinese), older, has smaller sizedhouseholds, is lower income, and is more likely torent its housing.• According to Claritas Inc. data from 2009,around two-thirds of the local population isAsian/Pacific Islander, with the balance splitalmost evenly between African-American, White,and other races (and seven percent Hispanic). Forcomparison, the citywide population is 17 percentAsian, and 27 percent Hispanic.• Of the 64 percent who are Asian/PacificIslanders, 84 percent are Chinese, who makeup 53 percent of the Asian population citywide.• The median age of the Planning Areapopulation (46) is higher than that ofOakland as a whole (37), largely because ofa larger senior population. Only 15 percentof households include someone under theage of 18, compared to 34 percent citywide.Approximately 30 percent of the Planning Areapopulation is age 60 or older, compared to 16percent citywide.• The area’s population has a relatively smallhousehold size: 1.94 people per householdcompared to a citywide average of 2.65,probably due to seniors.• Household income within the Planning Areais lower than that of Oakland, with a medianhousehold income of $27,800 comparedto $49,500 citywide. Around half of thisdifference can be accounted for by smallerhousehold size, but approximately 33 percentof the area’s households have an income of lessthan $15,000, compared to just 13 percentcitywide.• Almost 79 percent of the area’s population rentsits housing, compared to 59 percent citywide.Just over half of the housing units in the area arein structures with 50 or more units, a significantdifference from eight percent citywide. In fact,a quarter of the city’s apartment buildings with50+ units are located within one-half mile of theLake Merritt BART station.Community ResourcesThe Planning Area is rich with cultural resources,including a wealth of libraries, schools, communityfacilities and cultural gathering spaces, andserves as a base for many organizations and nonprofitservice providers such as churches and healthclinics. Existing community resources and strategiesto preserve and enhance them are described inChapter 8.2-2 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

2EXISTING CONDITIONSHistoric ResourcesDevelopment of OaklandThe Planning Area is one of the oldest areas ofOakland. The city, incorporated in 1852, grewaround its waterfront. The influx of people followingthe 1906 earthquake and fire in San Franciscoprompted the development of new residential areasin Oakland. Older neighborhoods became moredensely populated as new apartment buildings andrelated growth became part of Oakland’s residentialfabric.Throughout the 20th century, commercial enterprisesand industrial development, particularlythe Port of Oakland and the Oakland MunicipalAirport, played a vital role in Oakland’s growth.During World War II, Oakland was the largestshipping center on the West Coast and within twodecades was the largest container terminal on theWest Coast.As suburbs grew outward during the 1950s, theinner core of the City began to decline as residentsleft for the outlying areas. This trend began toreverse in the 1980s as reinvestment and redevelopmenthelped to invigorate the City’s image andprospects. 1Historic Setting of the Planning AreaThe Planning Area includes portions of all of sevendesignated historic districts. These areas are brieflycovered here and described in more detail in theExisting Conditions Report.1 LSA Associates, City of Oakland Measure DDImplementation Project EIR, July 2007.Chinatown Commercial DistrictThe Chinatown Commercial District is characterizedby small-scale, early 20th-century commercialbuildings. The area is characterized by high densityand lively sidewalk activity. It draws not onlyresidents, but also workers from nearby downtownoffice buildings, including the City Hall area, aswell as Chinese and other Asians from Oaklandand other East Bay communities. The exceptionalimportance of the Chinatown Commercial Districtis that Oakland has the only historic urbanChinatown surviving in California outside SanFrancisco.7th Street/Harrison Square Residential DistrictMost of the buildings in the 7th Street/HarrisonSquare Residential District are detached one- ortwo-story wood frame structures set back from thesidewalk line, including many Queen Anne andColonial Revival cottages and houses. The districtbegan as a residential area and continues largely soto this day.The district is part of a larger area once called MadisonSquare. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, theMadison Square area was a desirable housing areafor the white middle-class population of Oakland.As Oakland expanded to the north and east, otherareas further from the city’s original core becamemore desirable, resulting in the gradual departureof the white middle-class to newer, more desirableareas. Chinese began living in the district’s housesin the early 20th century, after the 1906 San Franciscoearthquake and fire and in the decades following.Community resources include Laney College, the Asian Branchof the Public Library and Lincoln Square Park (top to bottom).LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 2-3

2EXISTING CONDITIONSHighlight ofHistoric ResourcesHistoric Areas of Primary Importance• Chinatown Commercial District• 7th Street/Harrison Square ResidentialHistoric District• King Block• Coit• Real Estate Union Houses• Lake Merritt District (partial)• Downtown District (partial)Landmark Buildings• Kaiser Convention Center• Lincoln Square Park• Oakland Hotel• Main Post Office• Oakland Museum of California• 801-33 Harrison Street• The Chinese Presbyterian Church(265-73 8th Street)• Buddhist Church of OaklandCivic Resources Near Lake MerrittThere has also been significant development of civicbuildings in the Planning Area, including the KaiserAuditorium in the 1910s, the Alameda CountyCourthouse in the 1930s, the Oakland Museumof California in the 1960s, and Laney College andthe Metropolitan Transportation CommissionBuilding in the 1970s. These buildings and institutionscontribute to the Planning Area’s physicaland social character. Some are historic resources intheir own right and others may be considered historicin the future.History of DisplacementThe Planning Area is situated within a territoryoccupied by Costanoan (also commonly referred toas Ohlone) language groups. The Huchiun tribeletis believed to have occupied the Oakland area atthe time of Spanish contact. 2 The land—occupiedby Native Americans—was granted to Luis MariaPeralta in 1820 as part of the Rancho San Antonioland grant, and later became incorporated as partof the City of Oakland in 1852.Chinese people first came to Oakland in the 1850s,living in at least four different areas until they settledat the corner of 8th and Webster Streets by the1870s. This corner remains the center of the ChinatownCommercial District today, with residentsexpanding into the 7th Street/Harrison SquareResidential District. Immediately adjacent to theseareas are three blocks—bounded by Jackson Streeton the west, 9th Street on the north, Fallon Streeton the east, and 8th Street on the south—with sig-nificant history for the Chinatown community.These blocks were once called the Madison Squarearea and were largely occuped by Chinese familiiesfrom the 1920s to the 1960s, drawn by the convenientlocation and important cultural and socialservices.These residences were removed in the 1960s for theconstruction of the Lake Merritt BART station,BART headquarters building (since demolisheddue to seismic concerns), and a parking lot. Thisdisplacement had a disruptive effect on Oakland’sChinatown community.The construction of BART and the displacementit caused were part of a larger era of redevelopmentthat caused significant disruption in communities.Construction of the I-880 freeway in the1950s took with it scores of neighborhood buildings,including the previous home of the BuddhistChurch of Oakland.Meanwhile, the land where Laney College nowstands had been cleared for redevelopment, first aswartime housing, later as the community college.The Oakland Museum of California was completedin 1969.The Planning Area carries a history of displacementof its communities. The Station Area Plan’sstrategies and policies are meant to recognize thathistory, and help to rebuild the urban fabric.2-4 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 20122 Randall Milliken, as cited in LSA Associates, City ofOakland Measure DD Implementation Project EIR,July 2007.

2EXISTING CONDITIONSHistoric resources in the Planning Area include Lincoln SquarePark, Hotel Oakland, and the Main Post Office (top to bottom).Historic resources in the Planning Area include residencesthat make up the 7th Street API, 801-33 Harrison Street, and theBuddhist Church of Oakland (top to bottom).Historic resources include the Kaiser Convention Center, theAlameda County Courthouse, and the Oakland Museum ofCalifornia (top to bottom).LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 2-5

2EXISTING CONDITIONS2.2 Land Use ContextExisting Land UseThe existing land uses within one-half mile of theLake Merritt BART station are shown in Table 2.1and Figure 2.1. Major land uses within one-halfmile of the Lake Merritt BART Station include:• Public and institutional uses, which cover 92acres and make up 32 percent of the one-halfmile radius. These uses are largely consolidatedalong the Estuary Channel and along 13thStreet.• Residential uses cover 51 acres (18 percent)of the area within the half-mile radius, andare focused into several areas, including theEastlake neighborhood, Chinatown, theLakeside Apartment District to the north, andthe Jack London District to the south. Existingresidential density in Chinatown is generallylowest in the area bound by Harrison, 11th,Fallon and 6th Streets, with 20-60 units peracre. In some parts of Chinatown there arehigher densities, between 61 and 100 units peracre; and a few areas acheiving 100 and 200units per acre. Historic single family housing– most of which has been converted to multifamilyhousing – is located in the eight blocksbounded by 6th, 8th, Fallon, and Alice Streets.• Mixed-use developments cover 19 acres (aboutseven percent of the area within the halfmileradius). The mixed use developmentsare primarily of three characters: retail at theground floor with residential units above, retailat the ground floor with office space above,or office at the ground floor with residentialunits above. The majority of mixed-usedevelopments (nearly 90 percent) include retailat the ground floor. Most retail and office usesin the Planning Area are located in mixed-usebuildings.• Existing parkland makes up about 35 acreswithin the half-mile radius. New parkland atthe southern edge of Lake Merritt will addfour acres, resulting in a total of 39 acres in theone-half mile radius. Acreage specific to thePlanning Area and new parks underway arediscussed in Chapter 5.• Light industrial and warehouse uses cover 24acres, or about nine percent of the half-mileradius, and are primarily located south ofI-880, outside of the Planning Area.• Other notable land uses in the Planning Areainclude parking, schools, churches, and hotels.Affordable housing is an important issue in thecommunity. Given the household incomes in theproject area, there is a distinct need for housingfor low income households. However, there is alsodemand for market-rate housing. The area currentlyhas a substantial supply of affordable housing—withina half-mile mile radius of the LakeMerritt Station there are around 1,700 public orpublicly supported affordable housing, representingaround 30 percent of the housing units in thehalf-mile radius of the Lake Merritt BART Station.Redevelopment funds, which have recentlybeen discontinued, helped to build many of thoseunits. Affordable housing is addressed at greaterlength in Chapter 4.2-6 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

2EXISTING CONDITIONSTable 2.1: EXISTING LAND USE WITHIN ONE-HALF MILE OF THE LAKE MERRITT BART STATIONEXISTING LAND USE ACRES PERCENT OF TOTALPublic/Institutional 92 32%Residential 51 18%Residential Multi-Family 46 16%Residential Single Family 3 1%Multifamily Housing of Substandard Quality 2 1%Park 35 12%Light Industrial/Warehouse 24 9%Mixed Use 19 7%Mixed Use Office/Retail 7 2%Mixed Use Residential/Office 2 1%Mixed Use Residential/Retail 10 4%Parking 15 5%Office 13 5%Retail & Restaurants 7 2%Schools/Pre-K/Childcare 7 3%Vacant 7 2%Commercial 6 2%Churches/Temple 3 1%Hotel/Motel 3 1%Auto Services 3 1%Boarding or Rooming 1 0%Grand Total 1 286 100%1 Total acreage excludes right of way and bodies of water. Total acreage is 315 acres.Source: Dyett & Bhatia, 2009; City of Oakland, 2009; County of Alameda, 2009.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 2-7

19TH ST17TH STATHOLAVEFigure 2.1:EXISTING Existing Land LAND Use USE (2010)12th StBARTBROADWAYBROADWAYFRANKLIN STFRANKLIN STPacificRenaissancePlazaWEBSTER STWEBSTER STWEBSTER STWEBSTER PLHARRISON STHARRISON STHARRISON ST13THST12TH STLincolnSquarePark9TH ST8TH STChineseGardenParkALICE STALICE STALICE ST14TH STPostOffice7TH STJACKSON STJACKSON STJACKSON ST15TH STCountyParking11TH STLincolnElementary3010TH STMadisonSquarePark6TH ST5TH ST4TH ST3RD STMADISON STMADISON STMADISON STPublicLibraryCountyOfficesLakeMerrittBARTMTC/ABAGLAKESIDE DROAK STOAK STOAK ST11THCountyCourtST TUNNEL4TH STLAKE MERRITTOaklandMuseum ofCaliforniaBARTParkingFALLON STBLVDVICTORY CTLakeMerrittKaiserAuditoriumLaney CollegeLaneyParking880LAKESHORE AVEOaklandUnifiedSchoolDistrict1ST AVEE. 15TH ST2ND AVEE. 7TH STE. 18TH STFOOTHILL BLVDINTERNATIONAL BLVDE. 10TH STE. 12TH STOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampusLaney CollegeAthletic FieldsPeralta CommunityCollege DistrictAdministrationEMBARCADERO3RD AVE4TH AVEE. 11TH ST5TH AVESingle FamilyResidentialMulti-familyResidentialSubstandardMultifamilyBoarding or RoomingHotel/MotelCommercialRetail/RestaurantMixed UseResidential/RetailMixed UseResidential/OfficeMixed UseOffice/RetailAuto ServicesOfficeLight Industrial/WarehousePublic/InstitutionalChurches/TemplesSchools/Pre-KChildcareParkingVacantOpen SpacePlanning Area1/2 Mile Radius2ND STEMBARCADERO WESTAMTRAK1ST STWATER ST0 500 1000100FEET2-8 | ADMINISTRATIVE DRAFT JULY 2012

2EXISTING CONDITIONSAs of 2005, the area within one-half mile of theLake Merritt BART Station encompassed approximately30,000 jobs, or about 15 percent of all jobsin the city. The distribution of jobs by category islargely consistent with that for the city overall:• About 40 percent of these jobs are service jobs,including health, educational, recreational,financial, and professional jobs.• Jobs categorized as ‘other’ make up anadditional 40 percent of jobs.• Retail jobs provide 14 percent of jobs in thearea.• Manufacturing, wholesale/trade, andagriculture, fishery and mining make up therest of the jobs in the area.Open SpaceThere are several different types of outdoor recreationalareas in the Planning Area. This sectiondescribes those spaces. Chapter 6 also includes ananalysis of park needs and strategies for improvingaccess to outdoor recreational areas.City ParksA brief description of each of the City parks in thePlanning Area follows:• Lincoln Square Park is adjacent to LincolnElementary School and includes a recreationcenter, children’s play area, and severalbasketball courts. It is heavily used in bothdaytime and evening hours.• Madison Square Park includes grass areas,as well as a small children’s play area. It isheavily used for Tai Chi in the mornings, forbasketball at mid-day, and by OUSD classesat other times of the day. However, there aretimes when it is fairly empty, particularly in theafternoons and evenings.• Chinese Garden Park (formerly HarrisonSquare) features a Hall of Pioneers and SunYat Sen Memorial Hall, along with a pagoda.The hall serves as the Hong Lok Senior Center,a drop in-center for seniors ages 55 yearsand older, and as a general social hall andcommunity garden.• Lake Merritt is a fresh and salt-water lake,3.4 miles around, which includes a varietyof amenities, including various recreationalcenters and a walking path around the lake.Measure DD improvements will create a newfour-acre park at the southern edge of the lake,in the Planning Area.• Estuary Park is located along the Waterfront,south of Embarcadero, and includes JackLondon Aquatic Center, a community facilityproviding youth and adult programs in rowing,a grass field, a public boat launching ramp anda group picnic area.• Peralta Park is located next to the HenryJ. Kaiser Convention Center and south ofLake Merritt, between 10th and 12th Streetsto the west of the Lake Merritt Channel.Major improvements underway will improvepedestrian and bicycle connections, and openthe connection between the lake and thechannel.New play equipment at Lincoln Square Park (top), Lake MerrittChannel Park (middle), and publicly-accessible open space atOakland Museum of California (bottom).LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 2-9

Lake Merritt Channel Park begins south ofPeralta Park, from 10th Street to the I-880Freeway. The Park runs along the Lake MerrittChannel, through Laney College and PeraltaDistrict Administrative Complex. The ChannelPark is mostly for passive recreation andincludes numerous art sculptures.Other Public Open Space AreasOther publicly accessible open spaces include theBART plazas; courtyards and recreational factilitiesat Laney College; plazas around the Libraryand Alameda County offices; the courtyard atPacific Renaissance Plaza; and the gardens in theOakland Museum of California.Other Public Gathering SpacesInformal social gatherings often occur on sidewalks,fronts of stores, stairways, and other privateyet publicly accessible spaces that present opportunitiesfor social interaction, gathering, and meetingoutdoors. For example, Oakland WonderFood Bakery at 340 9th Street is a popular spotfor drinking coffee and talking in the morning.Other examples are the stairways and walkways atthe Pacific Renaissance Plaza, where youth congregateto eat or play board games after school at theAsian Branch Library or the Oakland Asian CulturalCenter. More detail on public open spaces isincluded in Chapter 5.ProjectionsThe Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG)makes regional projections for population, housing,and jobs in the Bay Area for the purposes ofregional planning. Projections include policybasedassumptions that focus growth in the establishedurban core of the Bay Area and near transit.Oakland, including the Planning Area, is a highgrowth area for both households and jobs.Additionally, because the Planning Area is currentlymore of an employment center, the ABAGprojections seek to increase the amount of housingin the area in order to balance jobs and housingand put more households close to the job centerof Downtown Oakland as well as transit resources.The most recent forecast is from 2009.ABAG growth projections have been allocated bythe Alameda County Transportation Commission(ACTC) to a more localized level (Traffic AnalysisZones or TAZs). The growth projections consideredhere are based on data at the TAZ level. It isimportant to note that projections tend to be moreaccurate over shorter periods of time; thereforeprojections for 2035 are by nature rough estimatesof future population and jobs.Table 2.2: ASSOCIATION OF BAY AREA GOVERNMENTS AND ALAMEDA COUNTY TRANSPORTATION COMMISSION PROJECTIONS 20092005 HOUSEHOLDS 2005 JOBS 2035 HOUSEHOLDS 2035 JOBS INCREASE IN HOUSEHOLDS INCREASE IN JOBSCity of Oakland 154,580 202,570 212,000 281,900 37% 39%Planning Area 1 2,643 17,823 7,575 21,992 187% 23%Planning Area as % of citywide growth 2% 9% 4% 8%1 Planning Area growth is distributed by the Alameda County Transporation Commission (ACTC) by Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ).2-10 | ADMINISTRATIVE DRAFT JULY 2012

2EXISTING CONDITIONSOpportunity SitesOpportunity sites are a way to understand what ismost likely to change over the next several years.They are the best guess at sites that are most likelyto redevelop. However, it is up to individual ownersto decide whether or not they want to developtheir property; as such, some opportunity sites maynot develop as expected, and others not identifiedmay redevelop.Figure 2.2 shows sites that are vacant or underutilized,and may have potential for land use orintensity change over the long-term (25 years).Identification of potential opportunity sites is away to advance and test the concepts put forth,understand the potential for future development,understand patterns of where new developmentmay occur, and how new development could relatewith areas less likely to change. An initial analysisof potential opportunity sites was conducted forthe Existing Conditions report in 2010, and identifiedsites that meet one or more of the followingcriteria:• Have otherwise been identified as sites fordevelopment (i.e. County offices per their RealEstate Master Plan); and/or• Are adjacent to opportunity sites.Sites with identified Historic Resources areexcluded.Opportunity sites were further refined throughcommunity workshops and feedback from theCommunity Stakeholders Group. Most of theopportunity sites are vacant sites or parking lots;a few have older one-story buildings. As explainedabove, some of the sites identified as opportunitysites may remain in their current state, while othersthat are not identified as opportunity sites willundergo change, depending on the decisions ofindividual property owners.• Have a low value of improvements relative toland value;• Have a very low existing building height (oneor two stories) relative to allowable heightunder current zoning;• Are currently vacant;• Are currently parking lots;• Have applications submitted with theCity either under review or approved fordevelopment;Opportunity Sites.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 2-11

19TH ST17TH STATHOLAVEE. 18TH STFigure 2.2:OPPORTUNITY Opportunity Sites SITES (SITESMOST (Sites LIKELY Most Likely TO REDEVELOP)to Redevelop)12th StBARTBROADWAYFRANKLIN STPacificRenaissancePlazaWEBSTER STHARRISON ST14TH ST13THST11TH STLincolnSquarePark10TH STPostOffice12TH STLincolnElementaryJACKSON ST15TH STMADISON STPublicLibraryLAKESIDE DROAK ST11THLAKECountyCourtST TUNNELMERRITT BLVDOaklandMuseum ofCaliforniaLakeMerrittKaiser AuditoriumLAKESHORE AVEOaklandUnified SchoolDistrict1ST AVEFOOTHILL BLVDE. 15TH ST2ND AVEOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampusINTERNATIONAL NAL BLVD3RD AVEE. 12TH ST4TH AVEE. 11TH STOpportunity Siteswith CommunityAgreement orVacant SitesApprovedDevelopment(not yet underconstruction)ParkBART StationEntrancePlanning Area9TH ST8TH STALICE STMadisonSquareParkLakeMerrittBARTMTC/ABAGBARTParkingLaney CollegeE. 10TH ST5TH AVEChineseGardenPark7TH ST6TH STLaneyParkingE. 7TH STBROADWAYFRANKLIN STWEBSTER STWEBSTER PLHARRISON STALICE STJACKSON ST5TH ST4TH ST3RD ST2ND STMADISON STOAK ST4TH STFALLON STVICTORY CT880Peralta Community CollegeDistrict AdministrationEMBARCADEROEMBARCADERO WESTAMTRAK1ST STWATER ST0 500 1000100FEET2-12 | ADMINISTRATIVE DRAFT JULY 2012

2EXISTING CONDITIONS2.3 Plan Districts: Existing ContextThe Planning Area is divided into seven plan districts,shown on Figure 2.3. Chapter 3 describesthe vision for each district – to define future developmentin the area and help support the overallvision statements and goals for the Planning Area.This section describes the existing context for eachdistrict.14th Street CorridorThe 14th Street Corridor is a major east-west connectorbetween Downtown and the neighborhoodseast of Lake Merritt. 14th Street is a twoway,four-lane street characterized by intermittentretail, new mixed-use housing development, historicbuildings, several large parking lots, and publicresources such as the Public Library. Roughlytwo-thirds of buildings along 14th Street are onetofour-stories in height, while the other third aremostly eight stories and a couple of taller highrises.The area has significant institutional uses, includingoffice space for Alameda County, the CountyCourthouse, and key public resources such as theOakland Museum of California and the KaiserAuditorium, both of which are historic landmarks.Several opportunity sites exist in this district,including three full blocks.The 14th Street Corridor is an important connection between Oakland’s City Center and Lake Merritt and its recreational assets.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 2-13

19TH ST17TH STATHOLAVEFigure 2.3:PLAN Plan Districts DISTRICTSE. 18TH STLAKESIDE DRLakeMerrittFOOTHILL BLVDPlanning Districts15TH ST12th StBARTBROADWAYFRANKLIN STPacificRenaissancePlazaWEBSTER ST12TH STHARRISON STUpperChinatown9TH STChinatownCommercial Center14TH ST14th St Corridor11TH STLincolnSquarePark10TH ST8TH ST7TH STALICE ST13THSTPostOfficeLincolnElementaryJACKSON STMADISON ST11THBARTStation AreaMadisonSquareParkPublicLibraryLakeMerrittBARTMTC/ABAGOAK STLAKECountyCourtST TUNNELBARTParkingMERRITTOaklandMuseum ofCaliforniaBLVDKaiserAuditoriumLaney CollegeLAKESHORE AVEPeralta/Laney1ST AVEEastlakeGatewayOaklandUnifiedSchoolDistrictE. 10TH STE. 15TH ST2ND AVEINTERNATIONAL BLVDOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampus3RD AVEE. 12TH ST4TH AVEE. 11TH ST5TH AVEBROADWAYFRANKLIN ST6TH STI-880 Freeway CorridorWEBSTER STWEBSTER PLHARRISON STChineseGardenParkALICE STJACKSON ST5TH ST4TH ST3RD ST2ND STMADISON STOAK ST4TH STFALLON STLaneyParkingVICTORY CT880E. 7TH STPeralta CommunityCollege DistrictAdministrationEMBARCADEROEMBARCADERO WESTAMTRAK1ST STWATER ST0 500 1000100FEET2-14 | ADMINISTRATIVE DRAFT JULY 2012

2EXISTING CONDITIONSUpper ChinatownThe Upper Chinatown district is an active urbanneighborhood with a wide range of uses includingresidential, office, schools, and recreational space,with retail and restaurants in some ground floorspaces. The area also includes several service commercialor light industrial uses, including a constructionsupply center, an electric supply shop andauto body shops. Two major assets and communitydestinations of the district are Lincoln SquarePark and the adjacent Lincoln Elementary School.Many of the buildings in this area are older onestorybuildings, with several four- and five-storybuildings, and a few high-rise buildings. This districtincludes several opportunity sites.The Upper Chinatown district includes a wide range of uses including residential, office, schools, light industrial, recreationalspace, retail, and restaurants.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 2-15

2EXISTING CONDITIONSChinatown Commercial CenterThe Chinatown Commercial Center district is avibrant and active center for shopping, eating, andcultural services. It is a cultural and historic centerdating back to the middle/late 1800s that stillacts as an important regional draw, particularly forthe Asian community, bringing people in for shopping,festivals, services, and visiting family.Existing land uses include retail shops and restaurants,produce, groceries, community services,housing in a range of formats, banks, offices,churches, and cultural institutions. Buildingsin the district are typically one- to four-stories inheight, with most of the historic buildings no morethan two stories. Newer development in the areaincludes several high-rise buildings between Broadwayand Webster Street.The area also includes popular streetscape featuresin the core of Chinatown, including pedestrianscrambles at four intersections, bulbouts, distinctivepavement markings, lighting, and street furniture.The Chinatown Commercial Center is a cultural, historic, and regional center for the East Bay Asian population.2-16 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

2EXISTING CONDITIONSLake Merritt BART Station AreaThe Lake Merritt BART Station Area districtis located at the center of the Planning Area andincludes the Lake Merritt BART station, theBART parking lot, plaza space with small ancillaryfacilities, and Madison Square Park which coversan entire block. The district also includes theMTC/ABAG four-story office building.Blocks to the west and east of the MTC/ABAGbuilding, also part of this district, include a mix ofresidential, retail, auto service, and office uses. Themajority of these adjacent blocks are part of the7th Street/Harrison Square Residential District,an Area of Primary Importance (API) as defined inthe Oakland Historic Preservation Element.Blocks to the north of the BART blocks and MadisonSquare Park also include some historic multifamilyapartment buildings, including the MadisonPark Apartments.The Lake Merritt BART Station Area is the center of the Planning Area and includes Madison Square Park, the BART Station itself,and the MTC/ABAG office building, as well as a mix of uses on blocks to the north and south that include historic resources such asthe Madison Park Apartments.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 2-17

2EXISTING CONDITIONSI-880 Freeway CorridorThe I-880 district includes sites along the I-880freeway edge, which experience noise and air qualityissues, as well as several freeway undercrossingsand areas beneath the freeway. The district is madeup of a variety of land uses, such as a new high-riseresidential project on 7th Street and Broadway, aportion of the historic 7th Street/Harrison Squareresidential district comprised primarily of one- ortwo-story Victorian and early 20th century cottages,and Chinese Garden Park. A critical componentof the district is the area beneath the I-880freeway, which includes six street under-crossingsand several parking lots (primarily managed byCaltrans). Opportunity sites include the SalvationArmy block and underutilized sites along 6thStreet between Madison and Fallon Streets. Thefreeway undercrossings themselves offer importantopportunities for improvement.The I-880 Freeway Corridor includes development along the northern edge of the freeway and the freeway undercrossings.2-18 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

2EXISTING CONDITIONSEastlake GatewayThe Eastlake Gateway district includes portionsof East 12th Street and International Boulevard,linking Central and East Oakland to Lake Merritt,Downtown, and beyond. The existing characterof the Eastlake Gateway district is primarilyresidential, with some retail and institutional uses.Active commercial ground floor uses are focusedon the East 12th Street and International Boulevardcorridors. Existing heights are predominantlymid-rise, with some low-rise and a few high-rises.This area encompasses several key assets, includingthe Lake Merritt Channel and the Oakland UnifiedSchool District (OUSD) Downtown EducationalComplex (DEC), which recently completedconstruction. The DEC is a state-of-the-art, multiusestructure that will host La Escuelita Elementary,MetWest High School, and Yuk Yau andCentro Infantil Childhood Development Centers(which provide preschool programming for childrenages three through five and an afterschoolprogram for children in kindergarten throughthird grade). East 12th Street and InternationalBoulevard are important bus routes that will carryfuture AC Transit Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) servicethrough the area, while 10th Street connectsneighborhoods to Laney College and the DEC.Eastlake Gateway is a largely residential neighborhood with retail uses at the ground floor. It links the Planning Area to Central andEast Oakland.Large opportunity sites include the EmploymentDevelopment Department block and land openedup by the redesign of 12th Street.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 2-19

2EXISTING CONDITIONSLaney/PeraltaThe Laney/Peralta district serves as a crossroads,with the Lake Merritt Channel creating a northsouthpedestrian and bicycle connection and eastwestconnections on 7th and 10th Streets. It alsoincludes the Laney College campus, athletic fields,and parking lot, and the Peralta College DistrictAdministration buildings.Laney College has a Facilities Master Plan thatwill direct new development on Laney property, tobest meet its educational priorities and the visionof students, faculty, staff, and the neighborhood atlarge. The Facilities Master Plan serves as a 5-10year roadmap for improving the learning environmentand physical resources in order to better servethe local and global community needs. Major Collegefacilities goals include:• Modernize the library, the infrastructure, andthe locker rooms.• Modernize the theatre and music departmentto create a performing arts complex.• Continue reforestation efforts to enhance thecollege’s natural surroundings.• Expand parking facilities.• Design and build a one-stop Student ServicesCenter, a teaching and learning center, and alarger Technology Center.• Design and program a new science andtechnology building.• Markedly improve facilities for all CareerTechnical Education programs.• Designate Incubation Facilities for temporaryhousing of grant funded programming.Laney College is a major asset to the Planning Area and this Plan District offers several possibilities for improved connections andexpanded community facilities.2-20 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

2EXISTING CONDITIONS2.4 Market ConditionsMarket Opportunity AnalysisThe Market Opportunity Analysis was undertakenin the winter of 2009-2010, when the U.S.and local economies remained in the grip of adeep and protracted global recession. Althoughthere are signs of emergent recovery and evengrowth in the tech-dominated Silicon Valley, forthe most part by fall 2011, the Bay Area remainedin the depths of a deep recession, with the housingsector being the most severely impacted sectorof both the national and Bay Area economies.The recession has impacted the availability ofcapital (both equity and debt) to fund development,and depressed property values have renderednew development of most land uses infeasible inthe near term. In the absence of some currentlyunforeseen factor that emerges and accelerates theprojected slow recovery, the after-effects of therecession will likely linger, depressing developmentactivity for several years.the many churchgoers and Asian residents fromthroughout the East Bay for cultural, social, healthand educational services, as well as banking institutionscatering to Asian customers.Businesses in Oakland Chinatown have suffered inrecent years. Restaurants, retail stores, and bankshave closed, and the area is experiencing a higherlevel of vacancy than in the past. These strugglesare caused by the recession as well as by the typicalmigration of second- and third-generation familiesto suburban areas, and a declining flow and differentsocioeconomic profile of new immigrants from Asia.The Planning Area is near the Uptown area, withits 1,850 new housing units, rehabbed Fox Theater,and successful new restaurants and bars; andthe Jack London District where 1,350 new housingunits and service retail have been developed.These nearby successes provide both inspirationand competition for the Planning Area.The amount of new development supported bymarket dynamics in the Planning Area over theplanning period is summarized in Table 2.3. Thesenumbers are taken into consideration in the Plan’sland use and development potential analysis inChapter 4. The following sections describe developmentopportunity for individual economic sectors.HousingBy the early part of this century, the Oaklandhousing market switched from one dominated bysales of existing single-family homes to one wherenew multifamily units were 80 percent of newhousing unit development. Given the excellenttransit access afforded by many Oakland locations,including the Planning Area, there is a strongopportunity to develop housing in a Transit-OrientedDevelopment (TOD) format.Chinatown’s commercial uses are concentrated inthe four city blocks bounded by 7th, 9th, Franklinand Harrison Streets. In a less concentrated manner,Chinatown’s commercial district influencesa wider area from I-880 to 11th Street and fromBroadway to Harrison Street. Chinatown remainsone of the city’s most vibrant neighborhood retaildistricts, and over the last three decades, Asianorientedretail has spread eastward in Oaklandalong 12th Street and International Boulevard.Chinatown’s rich historical and consistent culturalcontext attracts residents and visitors, includingTable 2.3: 2010 MARKET OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS (2010-2035)PRODUCT TYPE NEXT DECADE (2010-2020) REMAINING PERIOD (2020-2035) TOTAL NEW DEMANDResidential (Units)900 3,450 4,350Low-end OpportunityResidential (Units)2,500 8,000 10,500Maximum OpportunityRetail (Square Feet) 83,000-165,000 124,000-249,000 207,000-414,000Office (Square Feet) 1 n/a 850,000 850,000Local Serving Office125,000-165,000 186,000-249,000 310,000-414,000(Square Feet)Hotel (Rooms) n/a 200 2001 Assumes 44% of countywide projected employment is office-related. Alameda County proposed expansion represents nearly 50% of theestimated market demandSource: Conley Consulting Group; February 2010.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 2-21

2EXISTING CONDITIONSExisting housing and retail in the Planning Area.TOD housing appeals to members of the “BabyBoom” generation (born between 1945-1964, nowpredominantly empty nesters) who are attracted toamenity-rich urban locations as well as to membersof “Generation X” (born between 1965 and1978) and “Generation Y” (born 1979 to 1999).The household size will be smaller, approximatelytwo people per unit. They show a preference formore environmentally-sound residential choicesand urban amenities, as well as a marked aversionto long commutes. Thus demographic trends favorhousing in a TOD format.Potential sources of demand for housing in thePlanning Area include:• Asian seniors;• Immigrant families;• Singles and young households attracted torecreational amenities along Lake Merritt andthe Estuary;• Laney College students from outside of the BayArea or outside of the United States;• Aging Baby Boomers, once the neighborhoodcharacter has been established; and• The large and growing group of householdswho desire housing within an easy commuteto jobs in other Bay Area locations in the EastBay, San Francisco, and the Silicon Valley.RetailThe Planning Area includes Chinatown, one ofOakland’s strongest neighborhood retail districts.The 2008 taxable sales report showed retail salesin the Planning Area at $57 million, representingthe city’s fifth largest neighborhood retail districtin terms of sales. Chinatown is unique amongOakland’s retail districts in that it regularly drawsshoppers to Oakland from outside of the city.However, Chinatown faces increased competitionfrom suburban stores targeting this customer base,such as the Ranch 99 Markets, and from the growingsuburbanization of the East Bay Asian population.Therefore, maintaining the district’s vitalityis an important City goal.Historically, food sellers and other conveniencegoods merchants have been the most successfulretailers in Chinatown, including restaurants,shops selling prepared food, and grocers. Morerecently Chinatown’s merchandise mix has broadenedto include comparison stores (those sellingapparel, home furnishings, home improvement,and specialty goods) as well. Currently, the primarysource of retail demand in the Planning Areais the Asian population of the East Bay.OfficeProjected employment growth suggests substantialoffice development potential for downtown Oakland.However, the Planning Area is outside of theestablished locations for private sector office activityat Lake Merritt, City Center, and the emergingcenter at Jack London Square. Although officeworkers currently patronize Chinatown foodestablishments, the Planning Area currently lacksthe employee-oriented shopping, dining, lodging,and infrastructure amenities necessary to attractClass A office development.The primary opportunity for new office developmentin the Planning Area is for expansion of itscurrent role as a cluster of government and educationaloffices, and for professional services that supportthose uses. Alameda County has indicated that2-22 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

2EXISTING CONDITIONSit plans to consolidate some of its functions fromelsewhere in Oakland to other sites in the PlanningArea. Ideally, new civic uses will be designed tocontribute to a lively pedestrian environment in thePlanning Area.In addition to general office space, Chinatown supportscultural, heath and civic organizations whichoccupy upper-floor space in mixed-use buildingsin the Planning Area, typically over ground-floorretail space.HotelHotels bring outside visitors who need to buyfood and may make additional purchases at localbusinesses. Oakland has a small hotel sector withrelatively stable occupancy levels and room rates,and has typically been less vulnerable to economicshifts than other cities’ hotel markets. Given thehotel sector’s small size, however, each new propertyrepresents a major change in the city’s inventory,thus increasing the market risk. The mostprobable opportunity to expand the city’s hotelsector is from increased corporate demand from anexpanded employment base.In the mid- to long-term future, the PlanningArea could support either a small boutique hotel(30-100 rooms) or a 200+ room full-service facility.Sites in the Planning Area with water viewsoverlooking Lake Merritt or the Estuary would beexcellent opportunities for additional hotel developmentand would be competitive with otherOakland locations for new first-class hotel development.Given potential competition, it is likelythat only the strongest potential site(s) would bedeveloped for hotel use.Market Feasibility AssessmentAn examination of the conceptual financial feasibilityof selected development prototypes in thePlanning Area was completed in the fall of 2011.The basic test of financial feasibility was to evaluatethe ability to support the conceptual developmentcosts for a given prototype with projectgeneratedrevenues, given market standard returnrequirements for both equity and debt. Four developmentprototypes were evaluated, all includingmarket rate housing and ground floor retail.Any feasibility assessment is a function of theassumed economic conditions which drive producttype demand, potential revenue, constructioncosts, and cost of capital. For a plan that is meantto guide development over a long term 25-yearperiod, there are obvious limitations to relyingon current economic conditions to predict futuredevelopment trends. However, instead of attemptingto predict the economic future, the assessmentis based on conditions as of fall 2011, and discussesthe implications of possible future changes overthe planning period.Therefore, it is essential to reiterate that at the timethis assessment was performed, the U.S. economywas still struggling to show definitive signs ofrecovery from the protracted effects of the deeprecession discussed at the start of this section.Feasibility FindingsThe feasibility assessment found that currentrents support low rise construction with structuredabove-ground parking. However, in orderto acquire development sites, higher rents will beRetail and office uses support jobs in the Planning Area.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 2-23

2EXISTING CONDITIONSrequired to generate higher residual land values tosupport land payments.The higher density prototypes, including a 16-storyhigh-rise tower with underground parking and aneight-story mid-rise project with half of the parkingunderground, require substantial increasesin rents or sales prices above current levels to befinancially feasible.Before providing for a land purchase payment, theper unit feasibility gap is in the range of $240,000for the high-rise rental apartments, and just slightlyless (at approximately $233,500) for high-rise forsaleunits. It is important to recall that these feasibilitygap estimates do not include the cost to buysites, or to provide affordable housing or any otherdesired community amenities.The eight-story mid-rise project would result ina smaller feasibility gap on a per unit basis (atapproximately $46,500), but would still require anincrease in rents to close the gap.The assessment found that the addition of retailuses is generally a positive impact on project feasibility.However, we also note that retail rents currentlyvary throughout the Planning Area from ahigh of $5 per square foot per month in Chinatown’scommercial core to about $2 per square footon the edges of the core. Successful expansion ofthe commercial core in the future to enlarge thearea that supports prime rents, by a achieving acareful blend of new tenants, pedestrian draws,and creation of a streetscape and pedestrian waythat encourages shopper flow would improve thesefeasibility findings.Plan ImplicationsWhile it is not possible to accurately predict therate at which housing prices and rents will escalateonce the market begins to recover, most industryexperts do not predict that a return to values andrents captured during the housing boom will occurin the near term. Thus, it is an assumption of thisassessment that lower density housing solutions aremost likely to be developed in the near term, andthat the higher density developments will occur inthe latter part of the Station Area planning period.Currently, making housing units affordable inOakland requires a local subsidy of approximately$101,000 to $141,000 per unit, after applicationof all non-local courses of affordable housing subsides.As described above, current market conditionsin the Planning Area indicate that addingadditional housing units through a density bonuswould not incentivize private developers to provideadditional affordable housing units. After thehousing price and value increases described above,however, feasible market rate developments wouldprovide revenues to support land purchase priceplus other desired amenities, including affordablehousing. At a hypothetical land value of $25,000per unit, it would take an additional six marketrateunits to support a single affordable housingunit, assuming these units could be added withoutmoving the development as a whole to a higherdensity, higher cost development product type.The amount of retail space in the Plan, at 404,000square feet, is within the upper end of the rangeof demand for new space projected in the MarketOpportunity Analysis. Retail is not a public amenitythat needs to be subsidized, but rather a valuableelement of a project, particularly in the commercialcore area. Successful introduction of thisamount of retail is dependent on creating strongretail streets that act as an extension of Chinatown’sexisting commercial strengths, encouragepedestrian flow, and provide for strong visibilityand identity.2-24 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

2EXISTING CONDITIONS2.5 Circulation and ParkingPedestrian SettingField observations demonstrate strong pedestrianand bicycle activity within the Planning Area. Theprimary pedestrian area is the Chinatown CommercialDistrict, where local residents walk toshop, eat out at restaurants, take children to school,and attend many cultural facilities. As shown inFigure 2.4, the other key pedestrian activity areasinclude the Lake Merritt BART station, LincolnPark, Laney College, and the Lake Merritt shoreline,as well as major employers in the area, such asthe County offices and MTC/ABAG.Generally, the street grid creates pedestrian-scalecity blocks with continuous sidewalks on bothsides of the street. Sidewalk conditions are generallyin good condition and mostly twelve feet widethroughout the Chinatown Commercial Center.However, many sidewalks within the Chinatownneighborhood are difficult to negotiate as merchantdisplays encroach into the pedestrian right-of-way.The sidewalk con ditions in other areas in thePlanning Area are generally in fair to poor condition.The situation deteriorates closer to the I-880freeway, where sidewalks are generally narrower,uneven and aged, and shared with utilities.Numerous curb ramps outside of the ChinatownCommercial and Lake Merritt BART Station areasneed to be redesigned for proper crosswalk alignmentand updated to reflect current ADA standards.Pedestrian wayfinding signs are located at variouslocations between the Chinatown CommercialDistrict and the Lake Merritt BART Station.Pedestrian-scaled lighting is not gener ally found inthe Planning Area, except for a couple locations inthe Chinatown Commercial Center.Bicycle SettingThe flat terrain and grid street network in the PlanningArea provide ample opportunity for bicycling,although bikeways in the Planning Area are limited.The Lake Merritt BART Station is the onlydowntown Oakland station allowing bikes duringall hours (the 12th and 19th Street Stations restrictbicycles from the station during peak hours). Perthe City of Oakland’s Bicycle Master Plan, Class2 bicycle lanes are proposed along Madison, Oak,Webster, Franklin, 8th, and 9th Streets. Thesededicated facilities would improve bicycle accessand likely result in an increase in BART ridershipat the Lake Merritt BART Station when combinedwith additional bicycle parking.Transit NetworkThe transit services in the project vicinity includeBART, AC Transit buses, ferries, and long-haulrail service via Amtrak.BART provides regional transit connectionsthroughout the San Francisco Bay Area. The LakeMerritt BART and 12th Street BART stationsPedestrian and bicycle access in the Planning Area has beenimproved in some areas (top), but further improvements arewarranted (middle and bottom).LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 2-25

BROADWAY12th StBARTBROADWAYOaklandAsianCulturalCenterEMBARCADERO WESTWATER STFRANKLIN STFRANKLIN STWEBSTER TUBEWEBSTER STWEBSTER STHARRISON STPOSEY TUBE HARRISON ST19TH STLincolnParkChineseGardenParkALICE STALICE STAMTRAKPostOfficeJACKSON STLincolnElementary14TH STJACKSON ST17TH ST15TH STCountyOffices13TH STCountyParking12TH ST11TH ST10TH ST9TH STMadisonPark8TH ST7TH ST6TH ST5TH ST4TH ST3RD ST2ND ST1ST STMADISON ST OAK STMADISON STPublicLibraryLakeMerrittBARTMTC/ABAGLAKESIDE DROAK STFALLON STCamronStanfordHouseCountyCourt11THST TUNNELBARTParking4TH STLakeChaletLAKE MERRITT BLVDOaklandMuseumFALLON STAMTRAKKaiserCenterLaneyCollegeLakeMerrittLaneyParkingEstuaryParkPeraltaParkTennisCourts880LAKESHOREAVEDeweyAcademyOaklandUnifiedSchoolDistrictPedestrianBridgeLakeMerrittChannelWomensPark SoftballFieldExistingUnderpassesFootballStadiumBaseballFieldPeralta CommunityCollege DistrictAdministrationLakeMerrittChannelParkLakeMerrittChannelPark1ST AVEE. 12TH STE. 10TH ST2ND AVEE. 7TH STATHOL AVEE. 18TH STFOOTHILL BLVDE. 15TH STINTERNATIONAL BLVDParking3RD AVEE. 11TH STPracticeField4TH AVEGatewayPark5TH AVEEMBARCADEROFigure 2.4:PEDESTRIAN ACTIVITYFigure 2.4ExistingPedestrian ActivityKey DestinationsPrimary PedestrianActivity NodesPrimary PedestrianCirculation PatternsPrimary PedestrianRoute (Master Plan)Secondary PedestrianRoute (Master Plan)Pedestrian ScramblePedestrian CrossingProhibitedDifficult CrossingPrimary Bus Stop(ridership over 100on/off per weekday)Narrow/ObstructedSidewalkLake MerrittBART StationBART Station EntranceCity ParkCity Right-of-WayPedestrian/Bike PathFocus AreaPlanning Area -1/2 Mile RadiusAmtrak0 500 1000FEET100SouthPark2-26 | ADMINISTRATIVE DRAFT JULY 2012

2EXISTING CONDITIONSprovide direct service to Downtown and NorthOakland, San Francisco, Berkeley, Fremont, andDublin/Pleasanton from the Planning Area. Asof 2008, the Lake Merritt BART Station had apedestrian mode share of 45 percent of all homebasedtrips, the ninth highest pedestrian modeshare out of BART’s 43 stations. It also had a bicyclistmode share of 8.2 percent of all home-basedtrips, the sixth highest bicycle mode share out ofBART’s 43 stations. 3Local bus service in the project area and throughoutAlameda County is provided by AC Transit.The Planning Area is served by multiple AC Transitlocal bus routes plus service to the San FranciscoTransbay Terminal. AC Transit’s future BusRapid Transit (BRT) route would run throughthe Planning Area on 11th and 12th Streets, LakeMerritt Boulevard, and East 12th Street and InternationalBoulevard. BRT service promises to providehigh-capacity, frequent transit service alongkey corridors.The Oakland Amtrak station is at Jack LondonSquare, just south of the Planning Area. Amtraktrains provide passenger rail service throughoutthe western United States and weekday commuterservice to Sacramento and San José on the CapitolCorridor line.Ferry service is provided at the Oakland Ferry Terminalin Jack London Square, located south of thePlanning Area, connecting to Alameda, Angel IslandState Park, and San Francisco destinations at AT&TPark, San Francisco Ferry Building, and Pier 41.Roadway NetworkThe Planning Area includes a wide mix of roadwaytypes, including a regional freeway, connectionsto the Alameda tun nel, arterial streets, collectors,pedestrian commercial streets, and small residentialstreets. All of these different streets are withinthe one-half mile radius of the Lake Merritt BARTstation. Figure 2.5 shows local roadways based onexisting traffic volumes, as well as the number oftraffic lanes and the travel direction. Currently,most of the streets have ample capacity. Howeverthere are a few key regional junctions that haveheavy traffic during peak hours, specifically theI-880 freeway and the streets that connect to theAlameda Tunnel. With the exception of the I-880freeway, roadways are shared and should functionwell for all modes of travel.The ample capacity on most streets in the PlanningArea indicates that there are opportunities to betteraccommodate other users on the roadway.ParkingOn-street metered and non-metered parking isavailable along many streets throughout the PlanningArea. In general, on-street parking in theChinatown core area is fully occupied throughoutthe day, both on weekdays and weekends. Doubleparking by commercial and noncommercial vehiclesis a major problem in the Chinatown CommercialCenter, especially on Sundays when thelack of parking enforcement leads to vehicles parkingall day long in on-street spaces. 4Off-street parking is provided in numerous offstreetparking garages and lots, including at theLake Merritt BART Station, Laney College, and34 garages and lots in the Chinatown Commercialarea (of which 17 are publicly accessible).Streetscape CharacterThe term “streetscape” refers to the overall environmentwhere all of the elements described abovecome toegether: sidewalks and pedestrian amenities;bike lanes and facilities; transit infrastructure;travel lanes for vehicles; and parking. The LakeMerritt Station Area Plan aims to support safe andattractive complete streets that encourage pedestrianactivity, slower traffic, a contiguous bicyclingnetwork, and strong links to local destinations andadjacent districts. Participants in the planning processand recent transportation reports have beenclear in establishing these objectives as essential forenhancing livability and encouraging investmentin the Planning Area.3 “2008 BART Station Profile Study,” BART Marketingand Research Department, Corey, Canapary & GalanisResearch, 2008.4 “Revive Chinatown Community TransportationPlan,” City of Oakland Community and EconomicDevelopment Department, 2004.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 2-27

4 Lanes 4 Lanes BROADWAY4 Lanes12th StBARTBROADWAY4 LanesFRANKLIN ST3 Lanes 4 Lanes2 Lanes4 Lanes3 Lanes4 Lanes4 Lanes4 Lanes4 Lanes4 Lanes3 Lanes3 Lanes4 LanesPOSEY TUBE HARRISON ST4 Lanes3 Lanes4 Lanes HARRISON ST4 LanesALICE ST2 Lanes 2 Lanes2 Lanes2 Lanes2 Lanes2 Lanes2 Lanes4 Lanes4 Lanes4 Lanes 4 Lanes4 Lanes4 Lanes 12TH ST 4 Lanes3 Lanes 3 Lanes2 Lanes4 Lanes4 Lanes3 Lanes MADISON ST 3 Lanes2 Lanes 4 Lanes OAK ST 4 Lanes 4 Lanes3 Lanes 2 Lanes11THST TUNNEL3 Lanes 4 Lanes 4 Lanes 4 Lanes3 Lanes2 Lanes 2 Lanes2 Lanes2 Lanes 2 Lanes2 Lanes2 Lanes2 Lanes 2 Lanes2 Lanes2 LanesEMBARCADERO WESTWATER STFRANKLIN STPacificRenaissancePlazaWEBSTER TUBEWEBSTER STWEBSTER ST15TH STWEBSTER PL2 Lanes19TH ST14TH ST13THST11TH STLincolnSquarePark10TH ST9TH ST8TH STChineseGardenParkALICE STALICE ST2 LanesPostOfficeLincolnElementary7TH STAMTRAKJACKSON STJACKSON ST2 Lanes6TH ST5TH ST4TH ST3RD ST2ND ST17TH STMadisonSquarePark2 LanesMADISON ST1ST STPublicLibrary3 LanesLakeMerrittBARTMTC/ABAGLAKESIDE DROAK STLAKE MERRITT BLVDCountyCourtBARTParking4 LanesOaklandMuseum ofCalifornia4 Lanes4TH ST2 Lanes 3 Lanes3 Lanes2 Lanes2 LanesFALLON STVICTORY CT2 LanesLakeMerrittKaiserAuditoriumLaney CollegeLaneyParking4 Lanes4 Lanes880LAKESHORE AVE2 Lanes1ST AVEOaklandUnifiedSchoolDistrict4 LanesE. 7TH ST4 LanesE. 15TH ST2ND AVE4 Lanes2 LanesATHOLAVEE. 18TH STFOOTHILL BLVDINTERNATIONAL BLVDE. 10TH STE. 12TH STOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampusPeralta CommunityCollege DistrictAdministrationEMBARCADERO3RD AVE4TH AVEE. 11TH ST5TH AVE2 LanesFigure 2.5:EXISTING Street ClassificationsTRAFFIC VOLUMESby Existing TrafficVolumes3 Lanes0 500 10001002400+Peak-Hour VehiclesPer Hour1200-2400Peak-Hour VehiclesPer Hour

2.6 InfrastructureThe City of Oakland provides a variety of infrastructureservices including transportation, water,wastewater or sanitary sewer, recycled water, andstorm drainage to meet the demand of residentsand businesses. The Planning Area, while completelyserviced with existing utilities, will requireupgrades of aging infrastructure or new utilitiesto meet the needs of the increased population andproposed retail and commercial development.Chapter 10 includes maps of utility infrastructure,including necessary improvements.Water ServiceThe East Bay Municipal Utility District(EBMUD) provides water service to the PlanningArea. EBMUD is responsible for water treatment,supply and the network of distribution pipelines.The Planning Area is serviced by a network oftransmission and distribution lines ranging in sizefrom four inches in diameter to 24 inches in diameter.Distribution mains are located on every streetthroughout the Planning Area. EBMUD did notdisclose if there are any known existing deficienciesin the physical conditions of the pipe network orthe capacity of the system to provide potable waterservice or fire flow. Maintenance, capital repairsand upgrades are the responsibility of EBMUDand financed by new development connection feesand on-going customer service charges.Sanitary Sewer SystemOakland’s sanitary sewer system consists of theCity’s collection network of mains and lateralswhich connect to EBMUD’s interceptor systems(larger diameter pipes) which deliver the rawsewage to its main wastewater treatment plant.EBMUD has two interceptor systems within thevicinity of the Planning Area. The South Interceptorsystem traverses east-west on 2nd Streetand the Alameda Interceptor system begins at thepump station at the end of Alice Street. Most sewagein the Planning Area is collected at this pointand conveyed to the Main Wastewater TreatmentPlant through this system.Most of the City’s sewer system is over 60 years old– some as old as 100 years. A twenty-five year capitalimprovement program was initiated in 1987 torehabilitate up to 30 percent of the sewer system toeliminate wet weather overflows, which are causedby rainwater and groundwater infiltrating into old,leaky sewer pipes. This program is mandated underthe City’s sanitary sewer discharge permit with theRegional Water Quality Control Board and is dueto be completed in 2014. This program does notaddress the remaining 700 miles of sewer systemthat continue to deteriorate with age. Only a smallfraction of this remaining portion is rehabilitatedon an as-needed basis each year.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 2-29

2EXISTING CONDITIONSBase maps obtained from the City indicate thatthe sewer pipes in the Planning Area are in poorcondition. Many laterals are shown as “plugged”or “abandoned.” Many pipes do not have any dataassociated (diameter, flow direction, material, etc.).Where information is available, sewer main pipediameters are shown to range from eight inches to12 inches.Recycled Water ServiceIt is EBMUD’s current practice to promote recycledwater to its customers for appropriate nonpotableuses. Recycled water use that meets aportion of water supply demands increases theavailability and reliability of the potable watersupply and lessens the effect of extreme rationinginduced by a prolonged severe drought. Within aone-half mile of the Lake Merritt BART Station,12,500 linear feet of recycled water mains havebeen placed. The recycled system originates from asource further west on 7th Street, with the majorityof the pipe runs flowing east-west on 9th Streetand 11th Street. A “loop” was provided on MarketStreet to link the two lines. Further east, the11th Street pipe rerouted onto 10th Street at HarrisonStreet, and extends all around Laney CollegeSports Fields and ends midblock on East 7thStreet. A notable extension is the eight-inch recycledmain on Oak Street (Lakeside Drive) servicingthe irrigation requirements at the recently-renovatedLake Chalet and Lake Merritt Boathouse.Storm DrainageThe City of Oakland is responsible for the constructionand maintenance of the local stormdrainage system within Oakland’s public areasand roads. Like the sewer system, much of theCity’s storm drainage system is old and approachingthe end of its intended design life. The Citymakes structural improvements as necessary toensure that the system is able to reasonably handlestormwater flow. However, due to recent financialconstraints, it is generally assumed that the stormdrain system is aged and would not be able to handleincreased runoff flows. Furthermore, there arenew National Pollution Discharge EliminationSystem (NPDES) regulations effective since October2009, requiring more stringent standards to beapplied on new developments of one or more acres.Stormwater runoff is collected from within thePlanning Area through various storm drain systemsand culverts, as well as direct surface flow tothe San Francisco Bay, via the Oakland Estuaryor by way of Lake Merritt. Existing infrastructurearound and serving the Planning Area site includespipes ranging from 10 inches to over 30 inches indiameter. Several box culverts of various sizes serveas connectors in the east-west direction towards thesouthern half of the Planning Area. Following thenatural drainage patterns of the terrain, most stormdrain pipes run north to south, with the majority ofthe flow direction to the south. Fourteen culvertsand outfalls drain directly to Lake Merritt fromthe northern half of the Planning Area and seven(observable) to the estuary from the southern half.There are several (five observable) outfalls drainingdirectly into the San Francisco Bay.2-30 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

3 VISIONIN THIS CHAPTER3.1 Lake Merritt StationArea Plan Vision and Goals............. 3-23.2 Plan Concepts.................................... 3-63.3 Vision by Plan District...................... 3-8

3VISION3.1 Lake Merritt Station Area Plan Visionand GoalsVisionThe Lake Merritt Station Area Plan seeksto achieve the many diverse goals of thecommunity, including establishing the PlanningArea as a well-connected, economicallydiverse, and vibrant neighborhoodand regional destination. The Plan linksthe existing unique assets located withinthe Plan Area in a series of distinct hubs ofactivity: the Chinatown hub, the entertainment,educational and cultural hub (includingthe Lake Merritt BART Station, LaneyCollege, and the Oakland Museum of California),and the Eastlake Gateway hub.Future improvements will enhance thesehubs, establish new destinations withineach hub, as well as improve connectivitybetween hubs. The hubs will be linked toeach other as well as to adjacent neighborhoodsand the rest of the city and region byeast/west and north/south corridors and theLake Merritt BART Station.The shared vision and goals are described below forthe Lake Merritt Planning Area. They are a reflectionof the initial community engagement andvisioning process, which was initiated in November2008 through a partnership between the Cityof Oakland, Asian Health Services, the OaklandChinatown Chamber of Commerce, and the AsianPacific Environmental Network to begin communityoutreach for the Lake Merritt Station AreaPlan. The Engagement process included four wellattendedcommunity meetings from 2008 to 2009and a 19 question survey which garnered 1,100responses in March and April 2009, and resultedin the identification of nine Guiding Principles.The shared vision and goals of the Plan incorporaterefinements to the Guiding Principles, as recommendedby the Community Stakeholder Group,an appointed group of local stakeholders that provideongoing guidance for the planning process(described in greater detail in section 1.4).VisionThese vision statements provide an importantframework for guiding development of a plan forthe future of the Planning Area.• Create a financially feasible, implementableplan that is the result of an authenticcommunity engagement process and isinclusionary of all community voices.• Create a more active, vibrant, and safe districtto serve and attract residents, businesses,students, and visitors.• Provide for community development that isequitable, sustainable, and healthy.• Increase use of non-automobile modes oftransportation.• Increase the housing supply to accommodatea diverse community, especially affordablehousing and housing around the Lake MerrittBART Station.• Increase jobs and improve access to jobs alongthe transit corridor.• Provide services and retail options in theStation Area.• Identify additional recreation and open spaceopportunities.• Celebrate and enhance the heritage ofChinatown as a cultural asset and a regionalcommunity destination.• Maximize the land use and developmentopportunities created through preservation andrestoration of historic buildings.• Establish the Lake Merritt Station Area asa model with innovations in communitydevelopment, transportation, housing, jobs,businesses, and environmental, social, andeconomic sustainability, and greenhouse gasreductions.3-2 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

3VISIONGoalsThese goals provide focus and guidance for the morespecific policies in each chapter of the Plan.1. Community Engagement• Ensure opportunities for effective communityparticipation by all stakeholders, includingresidents, businesses, students, employees, andorganizations in the further development andimplementation of the Plan.2. Public Safety• Create safe public spaces by increasing foottraffic, improving lighting, and strengtheninglinkages.• Promote safer streets with traffic calming,improved lighting, improved signage,improvements that address the needs of non-English speaking residents and visitors, andimproved sidewalks and intersections.• Improve community police services.3. Business• Strengthen and expand businesses inChinatown, through City zoning, permits,marketing, redevelopment, infrastructureimprovements, and other City tools.• Attract and promote a variety of newbusinesses, including small businesses andstart-ups, larger businesses that provideprofessional-level jobs (e.g., engineers,attorneys, accountants, etc.), and businessesthat serve the local community (such asgrocery stores, farmers markets, restaurants,pharmacies, banks, and bookstores).• Promote more businesses near the Lake MerrittBART Station to activate the streets, serveChinatown, Laney College, and the OaklandMuseum of California, and increase thenumber of jobs.4. Jobs• Attract development of new office and businessspace that provide jobs and promote economicdevelopment for both large and small businesses.• Increase job and career opportunities,including permanent, well-paying, and greenjobs; ensure that these jobs provide work forlocal residents.• Support the provision of job trainingopportunities. Ensure that local trainingopportunities (including vocational English asa second language opportunities) exist for jobsbeing developed both in the Planning Area andthe region, particularly those accessible via thetransit network.• Employ local and/or targeted hiring forcontracting and construction jobs forimplementation of the plan (i.e., constructionof infrastructure).5. Housing• Accommodate and promote new rental andfor sale housing within the Plan Area forindividuals and families of all sizes and allincome levels (from affordable to market ratehousing).• Maintain, preserve, and improve existinghousing in the project area and prevent loss ofhousing that is affordable to residents (subsidizedand unsubsidized), and senior housing.Effective community engagement is an important goal of thePlan.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 3-3

3VISION6. Community Resources and Open Space• Improve existing parks and recreation centers,including improving access to existing parks;and add new parks and recreation centers toserve higher housing density and increasednumber of jobs.• Ensure all parks are safe, accessible to all agegroups, clean, well maintained, and providepublic restrooms and trash containers.• Create a multi-use, multi-generationalrecreational facility, either in addition to orincluding a youth center.• Provide space for community and culturalprograms and activities, such as multi-useneighborhood parks, athletic fields, areas forcultural activities such as tai chi, communitygardens, and expanded library programs foryouth, families, and seniors.• Promote the Planning Area as an innovativecenter for community education and highlightthe educational resources of the Planning Areaas a major community resource.• Work with the Oakland Unified SchoolDistrict to ensure adequate capacity of schooland children’s recreation facilities.7. Transportation• Expand, preserve, and strengthen theneighborhood’s access to public transit,walkability, and bicycle access.• Ensure safety and compatibility of pedestrians,cyclists, and autos through improvementsthat calm traffic, improve sidewalks, improveintersection crossings, and improve traffic flowand pattern, including reevaluating one-waystreets, considering narrowing streets, andreducing speeds. In particular, address the flowof traffic using the Posey and Webster tubes.• Improve connections between existingassets and destinations, including betweenChinatown; the Lake Merritt, 12th Street and19th Street BART Stations; Alameda Countyfacilities; and Laney College and between theBART Stations and the Jack London District,including improving the I-880 Freewayundercrossings.• Develop a parking strategy that includesshared parking and allows access to thearea, particularly to local retail, while alsopromoting non-auto modes of transportationand making best use of available land.• Increase walk, bike, and transit trips.• Preserve and reinvest in transit services andfacilities to make sure operators can continue toprovide reliable services.8. Community and Cultural Anchor andRegional Destination• Establish a sense of place and clear identityfor the area as a cultural and communityanchor and a regional destination, building onexisting assets such as Chinatown, the OaklandMuseum of California, Laney College, theKaiser Convention Center, Jack LondonSquare, and Lake Merritt and the Lake MerrittChannel.• Preserve, celebrate, and enhance the historiccultural resources and heritage of Chinatownas a regional anchor for businesses, housing,and community services, and highlight culturaland historic resources in the Planning Areathrough signage (both wayfinding signage andby developing sign regulations that allow thedisplay of items in store windows), historicwalks, and reuse of historic buildings. Ensurethat public services and spaces proposedpreserve and reflect the cultural history andaspects of Chinatown’s historic geography.• Promote a more diverse mix of uses nearthe Lake Merritt BART Station, such ascafes, restaurants, music venues, retail stores,nightlife, etc., that activate the area as a livelyand vibrant district.• Preserve existing historic resources, andencourage restoration and adaptive re-useof designated historic structures that wouldachieve priority Chinatown and/or City goals.• Consider a cultural heritage district orrelated tools for preserving, enhancing, andstrengthening Chinatown.• Make connections to the Historic Jack LondonWarehouse District as a key asset in thePlanning Area.9. Health• Establish the area as a healthier place tolive and work, through a range of strategiesincluding:––Promote health awareness and education;3-4 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

3VISION––Improve environmental quality, includingimproving air quality as a public healthmeasure;––Ensure access to healthy food and housing;––Increase health and medical servicesavailable to the community;––Clean up air, soil, and water contamination(including trash on the streets);––Reduce noise levels where permitted noiselevels are exceeded;––Provide clean and well-maintained publicoutdoor places that provide public restroomsand trash containers; and––Ensure healthful homes that areenvironmentally friendly and thatincorporate green building methods.10. Redevelopment of Key Publicly-OwnedBlocks Near BART• Establish a long-term plan for redevelopmentof key publicly-owned blocks near the LakeMerritt BART Station to meet identified plangoals, including accommodating improvedopen spaces, new housing development, morejobs, more retail, and improved BART access.• Recognize, incorporate, and reflectChinatown’s historic role in the redevelopmentof key publicly owned blocks near the LakeMerritt BART Station.11. Green and Sustainable Urban Design• Establish high-quality, distinctive, and greenurban design proposals, standards, and/orguidelines for new private development andpublic infrastructure, that are place-based andinclude building design, street design, and parkdesign.• Build on the existing urban fabric and furtherpromote high density and mixed-use buildingdesign that promotes active and safe spaces.• Promote green and sustainable design inconcert with the City’s Emerald City initiative. 1• Identify landmarks and views at key locations,such as the Lake Merritt BART Station plaza,promote improvements such as lights andpublic art, etc., and consider preservation ofkey views as new development is proposed (e.g.,along 14th Street to Lake Merritt).• Promote active and safe public spaces andstreets by ensuring that design activates thepublic realm and increases the safety of streetsand pedestrian crossings.• Identify and enhance gateways between thePlanning Area and other neighborhoods, suchas on 12th/14th Streets, which connects thePlanning Area to the Eastlake neighborhood.1 The Emerald Cities Collaborative is a consortiumof businesses, unions, government representatives,community organizations, research and technicalassistance providers, development intermediaries,and social justice advocates, united around the goal of“greening” our metropolitan areas in ways that advanceequal opportunity, shared wealth, and democracy. MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 3-5

3VISION3.2 Plan ConceptsLand use character, high quality design, circulationimprovement strategies, and economic developmentact as unifying Plan concepts. These conceptsreflect the vision and goals of the Plan andrelate directly to other key Plan components, suchas open space and cultural resources. These unifyingconcepts are briefly presented here and discussedin greater detail in later chapters.Land UseThe desired land use character includes a range offlexible mixed-use areas. These areas are intendedto encourage vibrant pedestrian corridors, whichare complemented by high-density housing andcommercial uses. This mix of uses seeks to furtheractivate the Planning Area, and new public spacesseek to ensure a high quality urban environment.The Plan also seeks to promote active groundfloor uses – those that attract walk-in traffic, suchas retail stores, restaurants, galleries, health clinics,and personal services. These types of uses addvibrancy to the street by increasing pedestrian traffic,which results in safer streets and more customersfor local businesses.High Quality Public RealmThe quality and character of the public realm isa critical component of how a place is used andexperienced. In the Planning Area, the publicrealm is shaped by buildings, streetscape, openspaces, and the spaces in between, all of whichcontribute to the Planning Area’s identity. ThePlan includes a range of streetscape improvementsthat will enhance the public realm, and PlanningCode amendments and Design Guidelines, whichwill be adopted concurrently, include standardsand guidelines for new building development.Together, building design and streetscape will furtherreinforce and shape the identity of the PlanningArea.Circulation Improvement StrategiesThe circulation improvement strategies focus onestablishing interconnected and safe travel for peoplewalking, riding bicycles, taking transit, or driving.Key streets are identified for improvementsto promote access between activity hubs withinthe Planning Area, as well as to improve access tothe larger regional circulation network. Key elementsof this strategy include pedestrian safetyand comfort, clearly marked bicycle access, and animproved transit access plan. In addition, ideas forimproved connectively under the I-880 Freewaycould remove an existing barrier to access in thePlanning Area.New high-intensity development, high-quality design, andenhanced multi-modal access are key concepts of the Plan.3-6 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

3VISIONEconomic DevelopmentThe Plan includes an economic development strategyto foster investment and growth in the PlanningArea and provide support for existing andfuture businesses in the Planning Area. The economicdevelopment strategy works in tandem withnew building construction and improvements tostreets, parks, and safety to improve quality of lifeto the benefit of existing and new businesses andresidents.The Plan’s emphasis is on helping grow local andemerging businesses in the Planning Area neighborhoods,such as Oakland Chinatown; promotingcommerce and jobs; and enhancing the district’sappeal to visitors, in the context of robustnew Transit-Oriented Development. Not only willeconomic development benefit the local communityby providing jobs and a vibrant street life, itwill also generate tax revenues that can help theCity implement improvements and provide services.The economic development strategy will emphasize expandingthe successful business environment of Oakland Chinatown.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 3-7

3VISION3.3 Vision by Plan DistrictThe vision for the 14th Street Corridor seeks to activate theexisting corridor as a major civic link, building on the existingassets such as the Oakland Museum of California and theKaiser Auditorium.To respond to the nuanced character differencesthroughout the Planning Area, seven Plan Districtsare identified (shown in Chapter 2). EachPlan District has a distinct vision that contributesto the overall vision and goals for the PlanningArea.14th Street Corridor14th Street is an essential connecting corridor linkingDowntown Oakland to International Boulevardand the Eastlake neighborhood via the newlydesigned Lake Merritt Boulevard. The importanceof 14th Street to citywide connectivity warrantscharacterization as a ceremonial street linking Oakland’sCity Center at Frank Ogawa Plaza to LakeMerritt.14th Street also forms the northern edge of thePlanning Area and includes new retail and housingdevelopment, thereby activating the northern edgeof the Planning Area. The 14th Street Corridor PlanDistrict and its context in the Planning Area areillustrated in Figure 3-1.While 14th Street will continue to be an importantstreet for vehicular travel, the Plan seeks to enhancethe pedestrian and bicycle environment to increasemulti-modal access. A diversity of new uses andmore active ground floor uses aim to make the areamore inviting, and the increased activity and additionallighting will add to the safety of the publicrealm. These improvements also seek to build onthe Measure DD improvements currently underwayat the south end of Lake Merritt. This Planproposes new design elements on 14th Street thatlink it visually to the recreational area, such as newpedestrian-oriented lighting that complements the“necklace of lights” around Lake Merritt, specialplantings, special sidewalk paving treatment, distinctivestreet furniture, and a festival street onAlice between 13th and 14th.Other key components of the vision includecomplementing existing cultural, institutional,and government uses – including the OaklandMuseum of California, Kaiser Auditorium,County Courthouse, and Main Public Library –with new residential uses. The 14th Street CorridorDistrict includes two key publicly owned historicsites that offer great potential for reuse and activationof the corridor as it connects to Lake MerrittBoulevard. In particular:• The Kaiser Auditorium could provide anopportunity to activate the southern edge of thenew Lake Merritt Boulevard and to contributeto an entertainment, educational and culturalnode. Preliminary ideas for reuse of the KaiserAuditorium include reuse as a communitycenter or a performance arts center as it hasbeen in the past.• The Fire Alarm Building site (located betweenOak Street, 13th Street, and Lakeside Drive),could be reused as a community amenity and/or commercial use open to the public, withsome public open space that preserves views toLake Merritt and creates a clear connection tothe Lake and its trails.3-8 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

15TH STLakesideParkFigure: 3.1:14TH 14th STREET Street Corridor CORRIDORPLAN Plan District DISTRICTPlan District12th StBARTBROADWAYFRANKLIN STPacificRenaissancePlazaWEBSTER ST12TH STHARRISON ST11TH STLincolnLincolnSquareElementaryPark10TH ST9TH ST8TH STALICE ST14TH ST13THSTPostOfficeJACKSON STMadisonSquareParkMADISON STPublicLibraryLakeMerrittBARTOAK STCountyCourtLAKE MERRITTOaklandMuseum ofCaliforniaBLVDKaiserAuditoriumLaney CollegeBARTParkingOpportunity SitesHistoric DistrictKey ConnectionsPotential FestivalStreetExisting Assets/DestinationsHistoric Assetsfor ReuseDesignatedLandmarkExisting BuildingFootprintsExisting ParksExisting ActiveGround Floor UsesPrimary GatewayMTC/ABAG7TH STChineseGardenPark0 500100FEETLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 3-9

3VISIONUpper ChinatownThe Upper Chinatown District is envisioned as aneighborhood center for community gathering forrecreation, education, and cultural enrichment.As part of this vision, the Plan seeks to intensifythis urban area with new high-density housing andaccompanying retail, restaurants, commercial uses,and public uses.The Upper Chinatown Plan District is illustratedin Figure 3.2.There would be a need for additional recreationaland educational facilities to serve the populationgrowth in the Plan vision. As part of the visionfor Upper Chinatown, the Plan includes improvementsto Lincoln Square Park, which is a multigenerational-usecenter that is often over capacity,with buildings in need of renovations and improvements.Additional expansions of community facilitiesare recommended for the area, but could alsooccur in adjacent Plan Districts. There would alsobe new publicly accessible open spaces to complementLincoln Square Park and Recreation Center.In addition, streetscape improvements, active usesat the ground floor, and more day-time uses andresidences will help to activate the area at all hours,making a safer and more vibrant neighborhood.Revitalization of the King Block alley as a uniquedestination would further activate the area.The vision for the Upper Chinatown District is to build on existingassets and emphasize the area as a center for communitygathering for recreation, education, and cultural enrichment.Finally, AC Transit’s future Bus Rapid Transit(BRT) route would run through the Upper ChinatownPlan District on 11th and 12th Streets,providing high-capacity, frequent transit servicebetween Downtown Oakland and San Leandro.This service will help improve accessibility to thisneighborhood center.3-10 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

14TH STFigure: 3.2:Upper UPPER CHINATOWN ChinatownPlan PLAN District DISTRICTMERRITT BLVDLAKEBROADWAYFRANKLIN STWEBSTER STHARRISON ST12TH ST11TH ST13THSTPostOfficeJACKSON STMADISON STPublicLibraryOAK STCountyCourtPlan DistrictOpportunity SitesHistoric DistrictMajor ConnectionsExisting Assets/DestinationsExisting BuildingFootprintsPacificRenaissancePlazaLincolnSquarePark10TH STLincolnElementaryExisting ParksExisting ActiveGround Floor Uses9TH ST8TH STALICE STMadisonSquareParkLakeMerrittBARTBARTParkingMTC/ABAGChineseGardenPark7TH ST6TH STWEBSTER PL5TH ST0 500100FEETLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 3-11

3VISIONChinatown Commercial CenterA central vision of the Plan is to celebrate,strengthen, and enhance the existing communityhub and regional destination that is the ChinatownCommercial Center. This includes a multifacetedeconomic development strategy that supportsthe Chinatown commercial base, and seeksto ensure sustainable community and economicdevelopment for the long-term. The ChinatownCommercial Center Plan District is illustrated inFigure 3.3.The Plan ensures that new development is sensitiveto the historic context of the neighborhood,and seeks to improve façades of existing buildingsand streetscapes. The Plan also improves accessby all modes to the commercial core, improvesthe pedestrian experience, and improves businessquality of life.also aim to improve the quality of the commercialdistrict. All these enhancements are designedto address locally identified needs and enhance thevibrancy of one of the most successful retail districtsin Oakland.Another key component of the vision for the ChinatownCommercial Center is to ensure improvementsreflect the cultural and historical character of thearea. In addition to streetscape improvements thatestablish linkages throughout the district, the Planincludes design guidelines for new development andrecommends a gateway or prominent marking forthe Chinatown district, such as a monument, gatewayarch or architectural feature, or both. Possiblelocations for this gateway include Madison and 9thStreets, Madison and 8th Streets, 10th and WebsterStreets and/or 9th Street and Broadway.The existing streetscape features in the core ofChinatown – pedestrian scrambles, bulbouts, distinctivepavement markings, lighting, and streetfurniture – are assets to the area for which communitymembers have expressed support. Thesefeatures should be used as a model for futureimprovements to build on as the commercial coreof Chinatown expands.The vision for the Chinatown Commercial Center is to celebrate,strengthen, and enhance this existing community huband regional destination.Targeted improvements include improving loadingregulations to reduce double parking and congestion,and promoting improved cleaning of thesidewalks and streets. Enhancing the overall senseof security in the area, improving access to parking,and enforcing compliance with regulations3-12 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

14TH STFigure 3.3:CHINATOWN Chinatown CommercialCOMMERCIALCENTER Center Plan PLAN District DISTRICTMERRITT BLVDLAKEBROADWAYFRANKLIN STPacificRenaissancePlazaWEBSTER STHARRISON ST12TH ST11TH STLincolnSquarePark10TH ST13THSTPostOfficeLincolnElementaryJACKSON STMADISON STPublicLibraryOAK STCountyCourtPlan DistrictOpportunity SitesHistoric DistrictMajor ConnectionsCritical ActivePedestrian LinksExisting Assets/DestinationsExisting BuildingFootprintsExisting ParksChinatown9TH ST8TH STALICE STMadisonSquareParkLakeMerrittBARTBARTParkingExisting ActiveGround Floor UsesMTC/ABAGChineseGardenParkPriorityAccessImprovements7TH ST6TH STWEBSTER PL5TH ST0 500100FEETLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 3-13

3VISIONThe vision for the BART Station Area District is to establish anew central hub of community activity that links the PlanningArea together.BART Station AreaThe BART Station Area District is the core of thePlanning Area and establishes a centerpoint withinthe Planning Area for regional access via the LakeMerritt BART Station. It acts as the connectingarea between all the Plan District Areas (withthe exception of the Eastlake Gateway), makingit a critical hub of activity, commerce, accessibility,and safety. The BART Station Area District isillustrated in Figure 3.4.The Plan envisions development of the Lake MerrittBART blocks, in coordination with the MTC/ABAG block if it becomes available, as a catalyst projectthat would create an active neighborhood hub. Itwould also serve as part of activated and pedestrianorientedspines along 8th and 9th Streets, connectingLaney College, the Lake Merritt BART Station, andthe heart of Chinatown. This catalyst developmentwould include ground floor commercial with activeretail and other commerce, enhanced transit plazasnear the station entrances, improved streets and sidewalks,community facilities, wayfinding signage, culturalmarkers, and gateway features.The catalyst project is also envisioned to include highdensityuses, such as office, residential, retail, andentertainment uses to promote activity near the LakeMerritt BART Station, as well as provide communityservices, public uses, and amenities. At-grade publicopen space and/or rooftop gardens would serve tofurther activate the area.The Plan provides specific guidance related toimproving access to the Lake Merritt BART Station,including the exiting and entering experience,and ensuring that the pedestrian experience includesstreetscape and wayfinding connections to Chinatown.Specific streetscape strategies include theestablishment of cultural markers that identify theLake Merritt BART Station as a key access point toChinatown. These connections also extend to LaneyCollege, thereby making a clearer link between theCollege and Chinatown as well as between the Collegeand the Lake Merritt BART Station. To solidifythis link, the Lake Merritt BART Station itselfshould be renamed to better reflect the identity ofthe surrounding neighborhood.In addition to connections within the PlanningArea, the Plan seeks to improve station access thatwould draw people from a larger capture area,including bicycle access routes, taxi, and kiss andride drop-off areas, improved signage, and dedicatedbus bays.In addition to connecting Chinatown and LaneyCollege to the Lake Merritt BART Station, thePlan focuses attention on improving access to theLake Merritt BART Station from the Jack LondonDistrict by addressing the I-880 Freeway undercrossings.The Plan also seeks to improve accessbetween the Lake Merritt BART Station and LakeMerritt and the Eastlake Gateway District.Within the BART Station Area District, MadisonSquare Park is a key community asset andopen space, and the Plan considers improvementsthat have been suggested by the community, suchas additional programming and amenities, whilemaintaining the full block of open space. South ofMadison Square Park and the Lake Merritt BARTParking lot are several historic buildings that makeup the northern edge of the 7th Street HistoricDistrict, which may be reused and enhanced.3-14 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

14TH STFigure 3.4:BART STATION Station Area AREA DISTRICTPlan Districtc nceWEBSTER STHARRISON ST12TH ST11TH STLincolnSquarePark10TH ST13THSTPostOfficeLincolnElementaryJACKSON STMADISON STPublicLibraryOAK STMERRITT BLVDLAKECountyCourtPlan DistrictOpportunity SitesHistoric DistrictDesignatedLandmarkPotential FestivalStreetMajor ConnectionsCritical ActivePedestrian LinksExisting Assets/Destinations9TH ST8TH STALICE STMadisonSquareParkLakeMerrittBARTMTC/ABAGBARTParkingLaneyCollegeExisting BuildingFootprintsExisting ParksExisting ActiveGround Floor UsesImproved HighwayUndercrossingsChineseGardenPark7TH ST6TH STWEBSTER PL5TH ST0 500100FEETLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 3-15

3VISIONI-880 Freeway CorridorThe Plan aims to transform the I-880 FreewayCorridor from an area that currently functionsas a neighborhood barrier to a porous connectionbetween the Jack London District and the PlanningArea (including Chinatown, BART, LaneyCollege, and other major destinations). To thisend, the Plan seeks to improve the I-880 Freewayunder-crossings for pedestrian safety and comfort.This includes improving connections between 7thand 5th Streets along Broadway, Webster, Jackson,Madison, and Oak Streets with pedestrianorientedimprovements. These include pedestrianorientedlighting, improving and/or activating thespaces under the freeway, and providing improveddirectional signage for pedestrians, bicyclists, anddrivers. In addition, the Plan supports implementationof the Webster Street Green.Importantly, the Plan seeks to improve the comfortand usability of Chinese Garden Park. Whiletraffic patterns related to the Alameda tubes areoutside the scope of this project and are beingaddressed in a separate study, this plan doesinclude pedestrian safety improvements at theintersections of 7th and Harrison Streets and 7thand Alice Streets.The Plan also seeks to ensure the health and safetyof both existing residents and residents in newdevelopment by adding landscaping and/or soundwall buffers to the I-800 freeway edge. The I-880Freeway Corridor is illustrated in Figure 3.5.The vision for the I-880 Freeway Corridor is to transform thearea into a porous connection between the Planning Area andthe Jack London District.3-16 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

BROADWAYFRANKLIN STPacificRenaissancePlazaWEBSTER STHARRISON ST11TH STLincolnSquarePark10TH ST9TH ST8TH ST7TH STChineseGardenParkALICE STLincolnElementaryJACKSON STMadisonSquarePark6TH STMADISON STLakeMerrittBARTMTC/ABAGOAK STBARTParkingFigure 3.5:I-880 FREEWAY Plan District CORRIDORPlan DistrictOpportunity SitesHistoric DistrictMajor ConnectionsWebster Street GreenExisting BuildingFootprintsExisting ParksExisting ActiveGround Floor UsesImproved HighwayUndercrossingsWEBSTER PL8805TH STPriority AccessImprovements4TH STBROADWAYFRANKLIN STWEBSTER STHARRISON STALICE ST4TH ST3RD ST2ND ST0 500100FEETLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 3-17

3VISIONEastlake GatewayThe Eastlake Gateway Plan District is an importantgateway district between Central and EastOakland (accessed via East 12th Street and InternationalBoulevard) to Oakland’s City Center viathe new Lake Merritt Boulevard. This gateway hubbuilds on the existing residential and burgeoningretail areas along East 12th Street and InternationalBoulevard. The Eastlake Gateway Plan Districtis illustrated in Figure 3.6.– as well as through building design and requiredactive ground floor uses along East 12th Street and1st Avenue. A key component of the public realmimprovements is the establishment of public accessalong the eastern edge of the Lake Merritt Channel.The vision for the Eastlake Gateway seeks to balanceincreased vitality and safety resulting fromnew residential and retail development with newpublic amenities. These include more open spaceand improved access and linkages to existing andplanned community resources and open spaces.The future is envisioned as a higher density residentialdistrict with additional active retail uses aswell as civic and commercial uses. Land use andstreetscape changes seek to leverage and expandthe Measure DD improvements to the Lake MerrittChannel and East 10th Street. Improvementswould make clear linkages to Lake Merritt, thenew OUSD Downtown Educational Complex,and the adjacent entertainment, educational, andcultural activity hub, including Laney College, theKaiser Auditorium, and the Oakland Museum ofCalifornia.The vision for the Eastlake Gateway District is to create a distinctive,welcoming, and active gateway between the PlanningArea and East and Central Oakland.The Plan seeks to ensure new development inthis district creates a distinctive, welcoming, andlandmark quality gateway, both through publicrealm improvements – including new open spacesalong the channel and streetscape improvements3-18 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

14TH STPublicLibrary13THSTOAK STCountyCourt12TH STLAKE MERRITTBLVDLakeMerrittAVELAKESHORE1ST AVEFOOTHILL BLVDE. 15TH ST2ND AVE3RD AVE4TH AVEINTERNATIONAL AL BBLVDFigure 3.6:EASTLAKE Eastlake Gateway GATEWAYPLAN Plan District DISTRICTPlanning DistrictOpportunity SitesHistoric DistrictMajor ConnectionsConnection toRegional Open SpaceExisting Assets/DestinationsBuilding FootprintsOaklandMuseum ofCalifornia10TH STKaiserAuditoriumOaklandUnifiedSchoolDistrictE. 12TH STOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampusE. 11TH STExisting ParksPotential NewOpen SpaceExisting ActiveGround Floor UsesPrimary GatewayLakeMerrittBARTMTC/ABAG9TH STBARTParking8TH STLaney CollegeE. 10TH ST5TH AVE0 100500FEETLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 3-19

3VISIONLaney/PeraltaThe Laney/Peralta Plan District encompasses majorcultural, entertainment, community, and recreationalassets. The Plan seeks to further establishLaney College as a cultural entertainment and communitycenter facility with more community usesand classrooms. The Plan also supports redevelopmentof the Laney parking lot with community uses,classrooms, and structured parking. The Laney/PeraltaPlan District is illustrated in Figure 3.7.Land use and streetscape changes seek to enhancethe role of the Laney College campus and PeraltaDistrict property as a community asset and livelyhub of activity. This Plan District will act synergisticallywith the BART Station Area District blocksto create an entertainment, educational, and culturalcore activity hub. This would be supportedwith a wide range of public realm and institutionalimprovements including:• The establishment of a “festival street” onFallon Street. This festival street would bedesigned to accommodate all modes of travelin order to better connect the Lake MerrittBART Station to the Laney College campus,provide pedestrian-scale lighting, and includea decorative surface to also function as a plazaduring periodic closures for community events.What is a “Festival Street?”Festival Streets use traffic calming andunique streetscape features to create astreet that can easily be converted to publicuse on weekends or for special events.• Promotion of movement through andthroughout the campus by connecting theneighborhood to the Lake Merritt Channel,OUSD’s Downtown Educational Complex,Oak to 9th development, BART, Eastlakecommercial, Lake Merritt open space, and theBay Trail.• Facilitation of access by adding signage andimproving streets and intersections to be morepedestrian friendly.• Improvements to east-west as well as northsouthconnections by promoting multi-modalaccess on 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th Streets, andimplementing traffic calming measures on East7th Street to improve pedestrian safety andbetter unite Laney College properties.• Extension of regional open space improvementsthat establish the Lake Merritt Channel as aregional open space asset linking the publicparks and trails around Lake Merritt to thepublic parks and trails along the EstuaryChannel waterfront.The vision for the Laney/Peralta District is to further establishLaney College as a cultural entertainment and community centerfacility and to improve regional connections.3-20 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

OaklandMuseum ofCalifornia10TH STKaiserAuditoriumOaklandUnifiedSchoolDistrict3RD AVEOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampusE. 12TH ST4TH AVEFigure 3.7:LANEY/PERALTALaney/PeraltaPLAN Planning DISTRICT DistrictPlanning DistrictOpportunity SitesHistoric DistrictOAK STLakeMerrittBART9TH STBARTParkingLaney CollegeE. 11TH ST5TH AVEE. 10TH STPotential FestivalStreetMajor ConnectionsConnection toRegional Open SpaceMTC/ABAG8TH STPotential AdditionalConnections toRegional Open SpaceExisting Assets/DestinationsLaneyParkingE. 7TH STPeralta CommunityCollege DistrictAdministrationExisting BuildingFootprintsNew RegionalOpen SpacePotential NewOpen SpaceExisting Parks4TH STExisting ActiveGround Floor UsesOAK STFALLON STVICTORY CT880EMBARCADERO0 100500FEETLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 3-21

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4 LAND USEIN THIS CHAPTER4.1 Land Use Character.......................... 4-24.2 Height and Massing Concepts........ 4-94.3 Developer Incentive Program....... 4-144.4 Summary of DevelopmentPotential............................................ 4-154.5 Affordable Housing Strategy........ 4-164.6 Public Health and theBuilt Environment............................ 4-28Policies.............................................. 4-31

4LAND USE4.1 Land Use CharacterLand UseLand use character interacts with thestreetscape and public realm to establish asense of place and neighborhood character.Further, land uses must accommodatefuture jobs and housing, and provide sufficientamenities and benefits for a sustainableand livable community. This sectionoutlines the land use strategy for the PlanningArea, provides the height and massingconcept, outlines strategies for developerincentives and affordable housing, andsummarizes the development potential ofthe Plan.The Plan promotes a diversity of uses within thePlanning Area that complement each other andensure an active urban neighborhood at all hours.The land use character map (Figure 4.1) showsnuanced character differences within the mixedusecontext of the Planning Area. A range of flexiblemixed use areas are described that seek topromote economic development and encouragevibrant pedestrian-oriented corridors. These districtsconsist of high-density housing, office andretail uses, institutional uses, and new publicspaces.Desired land use character will ultimately beachieved through a range of mechanisms, suchas land use regulations (e.g. permitted activities),development standards (e.g. building heightlimits), and design guidelines, as well as streetimprovements, which are funded through a varietyof sources, and which are described in detail inChapter 6.Land use character districts in the Planning Areainclude the following.• Pedestrian District. An area of mixed-use,pedestrian-oriented continuous storefront useswith a mix of retail, restaurants, businesses,cultural uses, and social services at the groundfloor. Upper story spaces are intended to beavailable for a wide range of residential andcommercial activities.• Pedestrian Transition District. An area thatis currently mostly housing or commercialuses, but allows for the gradual transitionto a Pedestrian Area by promoting groundfloor storefronts and other active uses in newbuildings.• Flex District. An area allowing the maximumflexibility in uses, and permitting a variety ofcommercial, residential and light industrialuses.• Commercial District. An area allowing awide range of ground floor office and othercommercial activities, with primarily office useson upper floors, though high density housing ispermitted.• Institutional District. An area appropriatefor educational facilities, cultural uses, healthservices, government agencies, and other usesof a similar character, such as Laney College,Peralta College District, Alameda County,Oakland Museum, and Kaiser Auditorium.• Open Space District. An area intendedto meet the active and passive recreationalneeds of Oakland residents. This Open Spacedesignation allows uses and facilities thatenhance these local and regional assets, such asLake Merritt and various local parks.• Urban Residential District. An areaappropriate for multi-unit, mid-rise or high-riseresidential structures in locations with goodaccess to transportation and other services. Thisresidentially focused area also allows a varietyof ground floor uses that are compatible with aresidential area.4-2 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

19TH ST17TH STATHOLAVEFigure 4.1: 4.1AREA Draft CHARACTER Area CharacterLAKESIDE DRLakeMerrittFOOTHILL BLVDE. 18TH STPedestrian DistrictPedestrianTransition District15TH STFlex District12th StBARTBROADWAYFRANKLIN STPacificRenaissancePlazaWEBSTER STHARRISON ST14TH ST13THST12TH ST11TH STLincolnSquarePark10TH STPostOfficeLincolnElementaryJACKSON STMADISON STPublicLibraryOAK ST11THLAKECountyCourtST TUNNELMERRITT BLVDOaklandMuseum ofCaliforniaKaiserAuditoriumLAKESHORE AVEOaklandUnifiedSchoolDistrict1ST AVEE. 15TH ST2ND AVEINTERNATIONAL BLVDE. 12TH STOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampus3RD AVE4TH AVEE. 11TH STCommercial DistrictInstitutional DistrictOpen Space DistrictUrban ResidentialDistrictOpen Space outsidethe Planning AreaPlanning Area9TH ST8TH STALICE STMadisonSquareParkLakeMerrittBARTMTC/ABAGBARTParkingLaney CollegeE. 10TH ST5TH AVEChineseGardenPark7TH ST6TH STLaneyParkingE. 7TH STBROADWAYFRANKLIN STWEBSTER STWEBSTER PLHARRISON STALICE STJACKSON ST5TH ST4TH ST3RD ST2ND STMADISON STOAK ST4TH STFALLON STVICTORY CT880Peralta CommunityCollege DistrictAdministrationEMBARCADEROEMBARCADERO WESTAMTRAK1ST STWATER ST0 500 1000100FEETLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 4-3

4LAND USEProposed General Plan AmendmentsThe proposed General Plan amendments willupdate the current General Plan classifications tobe consistent with the proposed Land Use Charactermap. Because the existing Central BusinessDistrict Classification is consistent with a range ofhigh-density mixed-use formats, this classificationremains the predominant classification in the westernportion of the Planning Area. The proposedchanges are shown in Figure 4.2 and described asfollows:• Lake Merritt Channel. The proposed GeneralPlan amendment changes the southern edgesof the Lake Merritt Channel from PlannedWaterfront Development and Mixed UseDistrict in the Estuary Policy Plan to Parks.• Lake Merritt Open Space. The proposedGeneral Plan amendment changes the areaalong Lake Merritt where Measure DDimprovements are underway from CentralBusiness District, Institutional, and UrbanResidential to Urban Park and Open Space.• Kaiser Auditorium. The proposed General Planamendment changes the Kaiser Auditoriumfrom Institutional to Central Business District.• Laney College. The proposed General Planamendment slightly expands the institutionalarea, replacing some Urban Park and OpenSpace area.• State-Owned Block. The proposed GeneralPlan amendment changes include changing thestate-owned block in the Eastlake area frominstitutional to Urban Residential.• Peralta Community College DistrictAdministration. The proposed GeneralPlan amendment changes include changingthe Peralta Community College DistrictAdministration parcels to Central BusinessDistrict.4-4 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

LAKESHORE19TH16TH18THCLAYI 980TELEGRAPH14TH12TH11THCLAY16THSAN PABLOFRANK H OGAWAI 880JEFFERSONI 9808TH10TH7TH6TH9TH5TH3RD2ND17THWASHINGTON5TH4THBROADWAYEMBARCADERO15THFRANKLIN FRANKLINGeneral Plan ClassificationUrban ResidentialCentral Business District11THNeighborhood Center Mixed UseHousing and Business MixBusiness MixInstitutionalUrban Park and Open SpaceEstuary Plan AreaWATERJACK LONDONExisting GP: Central Business DistrictProposed GP: Urban Park and Open SpacePacificRenaissancePlazaWEBSTERJACKSONALICE MADISONALICE ALICE13THHARRISON HARRISON6THLincolnSquareParkALICE15TH10THLAKESIDEOAK11THExisting GP: InstitutionalProposed GP: Urban Park and Open SpaceChineseGardenParkPostOfficeLincolnElementaryEstuary Policy PlanMixed Use District6THI 880Planned Waterfront Development 1Project BoundaryOpportunity Sites0 250 500 1,000FeetPublicLibraryN6TH5THOAKCountyCourtFALLONOaklandMuseum ofCaliforniaFALLONBARTParkingExisting GP: InstitutionalProposed GP: Central Business District6TH4THD/WFALLONPARKING LOT4TH12THKaiserAuditoriumLaney CollegeExisting GP: Urban Park and Open SpaceProposed GP: InstitutionalVICTORYLaneyParking12TH1ST 1ST1ST1ST AVENUE11TH2ND16TH2ND3RD17THExisting GP: Urban ResidentialProposed GP: Urban Park and Open SpaceOaklandUnifiedSchoolDistrictOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampusPeralta CommunityCollege DistrictAdministration4TH8TH6TH5TH17TH6THI 880FOOTHILL15THINTERNATIONAL7THPARK7TH6TH10TH7TH17TH 17THExisting GP: Urban ResidentialProposed GP: Urban Park and Open SpaceExisting GP: InstitutionalProposed GP: Urban Residential11TH8TH9TH9THExisting GP: Business MixProposed GP: Central Business DistrictExisting EPP: Planned Waterfront Devpt 1Proposed EPP: ParksExisting EPP: Mixed Use DistrictProposed EPP: Parks10TH9TH18THFigure 4.2:PROPOSED GENERAL PLANAMENDMENTLAKE MERRITT BART STATION AREA PLANProposed General Plan and Estuary Policy PlanCity City of Oakland, of Oakland, Department of of Planning, Building and and Neighborhood PreservationDecember 3, 2012LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 4-5

4LAND USEExisting retail in the Planning Area.Active Ground Floor UsesExisting Retail ContextA major hub in the Planning Area is the Chinatowncommercial core, which is a unique and richenvironment with a wealth of cultural, social, medical,residential, retail, and social resources. TheChinatown commercial core is also one of the city’smost vibrant neighborhood retail districts and themost concentrated retail area in the Planning Area,located between 7th, 11th, Franklin, and HarrisonStreets. Over the past decade, Asian-oriented retailhas also spread eastward in Oakland along East12th Street and International Boulevard.Chinatown serves as an East Bay landmark for Asianculture and attracts Asian residents from throughoutthe East Bay for shopping, cultural, health and educationalservices, as well as banking institutions cateringto Asian customers. While Downtown office workersand non-Asian Oakland residents also patronize Chinatown’sthriving shops, the primary source of retaildemand in the Planning Area is the Asian populationof the East Bay. However, Chinatown faces increasedcompetition from suburban stores targeting this customerbase and from the growing suburbanization ofthe East Bay Asian population. Maintaining the district’svitality is an important goal of the Plan.While there has historically been little long termvacancy for commercial space in the Chinatown core,vacancy rates have increased and businesses have sufferedin recent years. Restaurants, retail stores, andbanks have closed, and the area is experiencinga higher level of vacancy than in the past. Thesestruggles are caused by the recession as well as bythe typical migration of second- and third-generationfamilies to suburban areas, and a decliningflow and different socioeconomic profile of newimmigrants from Asia.Nonetheless, brokers and community members haveindicated that new retail east of the core area wouldbe readily absorbed by the Chinatown-oriented market.While the Chinatown core is the strongest existingretail market, the Plan seeks also to expand the Chinatowncore, both to accommodate demand and activatethe streets outside of Chinatown.Equally important, the Plan seeks to create a new retailhub at the Lake Merritt BART Station that complementsChinatown and further establishes the area as aregional destination. This hub would also link Chinatownto Laney College and the Oakland Museum ofCalifornia. Promoting new businesses and an expansionof Chinatown, in coordination with improvementsto the public realm that highlight the culturalassets of the area will not only attract businesses, butwill also contribute to a vibrant street, a sense of safety,a strong economic base, and attract more residents.Retail OpportunityFuture growth in the Planning Area, both in newresidents and employees together with Laney Collegestudents and faculty, could support new retail as wellas additional eating and drinking, service and specialtyretail. College-related demand is typically forcasual dining, cafés, bars, and food to go. With themultiple hubs of activity planned in the area – includingthe Chinatown core, an entertainment, educationaland cultural hub near Laney, and the Eastlake4-6 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

4LAND USEGateway, there would also be an enhanced nighttimedraw of city residents. This further enhances thePlanning Area opportunities for restaurants, performancevenues, cinema, and night clubs.Retail Enhancement and ExpansionThe following retail enhancement strategy is partof a larger economic development strategy discussedin greater detail in Chapter 8. The strategicexpansion of active commercial and culturaluses throughout the Planning Area supports anenhanced regional destination. It builds on andcomplements the existing success of the ChinatownCommercial Center, expanding Chinatownbusinesses, diversifying retail options as an expansionof Oakland’s Central Business District, andconnecting the Planning Area’s cultural and institutionalassets that differentiate this area.Active ground floor commercial uses – those thatattract walk-in visitors – are important becausethey add vibrancy to streets and increase pedestriantraffic, which results in safer streets and morecustomers for local businesses. Examples of activeground floor commercial uses include: retail stores,restaurants, cafés, markets, bars, theaters, healthclinics, tourism offices, banks, personal services,libraries, museums, and galleries. The definitionof active ground floor uses is intentionally flexible,acknowledging that a wide range uses serve to activatethe area.activity areas, the Plan identifies key frontages foractive ground floor uses that would serve to activatepedestrian corridors (see Figure 4.3). Land useregulations, adopted as part of the zoning, couldrequire or encourage ground floor uses identifiedin these corridors. Ideally, active uses would primarilybe at the street edge, but active uses couldalso be located at the edge of parks, plazas, or otherpublic spaces.Regardless of the use, the design of new developmentis essential for ensuring a vibrant district.For all areas, design guidelines will ensure thatnew buildings, with a variety of ground floor uses,will enhance the public realm and have interestingfacades that engage pedestrians. See the DesignGuidelines for the Lake Merritt Station Area Planfor more detail.In addition to the high density and mixed useland use strategy and the encouragement of activeground floor uses, other economic developmentstrategies for retail enhancement and expansionare described in Chapter 8.In order to expand the vibrancy and activity thatalready exists in some areas, like the core of theChinatown commercial district, and link keyRetail expansion should build on the existing asset of the ChinatownCommercial Center.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 4-7

19TH ST17TH STATHOLAVEFigure 4.3: 4.2:ACTIVE Active Ground-Floor GROUND FLOOR Uses USESE. 18TH ST12th StBARTBROADWAYFRANKLIN STPacificRenaissancePlazaWEBSTER STHARRISON ST14TH ST13THST11TH STLincolnSquarePark10TH STPostOffice12TH STLincolnElementaryJACKSON ST15TH STMADISON STPublicLibraryLAKESIDE DROAK ST11THLAKECountyCourtST TUNNELMERRITT BLVDOaklandMuseum ofCaliforniaL a k eMerr ittKaiserAuditoriumLAKESHORE AVEOaklandUnifiedSchoolDistrict1ST AVEE. 15TH ST2ND AVEOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampusFOOTHILL BLVDINTERNATIONAL NAL BLVD3RD AVEE. 12TH ST4TH AVEE. 11TH STProposed ActiveGround-Floor UsesExisting ActiveGround-Floor UsesOpportunity SitesPlanning Area9TH ST8TH STALICE STMadisonSquareParkLakeMerrittBARTMTC/ABAGBARTParkingLaney CollegeE. 10TH ST5TH AVEChineseGardenPark7TH ST6TH STLaneyParkingE. 7TH STBROADWAYFRANKLIN STWEBSTER STWEBSTER PLHARRISON STALICE STJACKSON ST5TH ST4TH ST3RD ST2ND STMADISON STOAK ST4TH STFALLON STVICTORY CT880Peralta CommunityCollege DistrictAdministrationEMBARCADEROEMBARCADERO WESTAMTRAK1ST STWATER ST0 500 1000100FEET4-8 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

4LAND USE4.2 Height and Massing ConceptsHeight and Massing ConceptThe height and massing concept seeks to balancethe varied goals and preferences of the community.Key themes related to height and massing includecommunity character, compatibility with historicand natural resources, and accommodation ofhigh-density Transit-Oriented Development. Massingregulations detailed in zoning, should seek toestablish coherence in building massing; respecthistoric buildings and patterns of lot size and scale;be sensitive to existing buildings, and existing andnew parks; and incorporate transitions betweendevelopments of differing scales. Height and massingshould be regulated at two levels:• Base height: Base heights should complementthe existing context, and ensure that aconsistent character is maintained from thepedestrian perspective. These heights shouldbe consistent with breaking points in cost ofconstruction for different construction types.• Total Tower height: Total tower height wouldbe an additional amount of height above thebase height and would be the maximum heightallowed. In order to ensure slender towers,tower portions of a building would be subjectto massing regulations, such as setbacks,percent lot coverage above the base and towerlength limits.A 45 foot height limit would be consistent withType V construction (wood frame, with the lowestconstruction costs). An 85-foot height limit wouldallow for Type III modified (typically six stories)and Type I (where the top habitable floor level isless than 75 feet above grade, meaning fire ladderscan reach them). Over 85 feet, Type I constructionrequires additional fire safety measures, includingan electronic fire alarm signalization system, makingit the most expensive construction type andrepresenting the greatest jump in construction cost.Height ConsiderationsProposed height limits for each level (base andtower), are identified based on several considerationsrelated to the existing context and the goalsand vision of the project. Various factors are balancedto establish a vibrant, high density, Transit-Oriented District. Key considerations include:• Existing height, density, bulk and towerregulations.• Base heights in particular consider:––Pedestrian experience.––Prevalent height of surrounding buildingswhich are not likely to change.––Community character.––Consistency with historic building heightsand historic districts.• Base and tower heights consider:––Block and lot sizes.––Location relative to Downtown (generallytaller buildings).Existing heights in the Planning Area vary considerably and areconsidered in determining height limits.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 4-9

4LAND USE––Existing height of buildings in HistoricAreas, if height is a character-definingfeature (such as in the 7th Street/ HarrisonSquare Residential District of PrimaryImportance).––Proximity to transit.––Location relative to Lake Merritt and theLake Merritt Channel.––Adjacency to public open spaces, particularlyin terms of ensuring access to sunlight andlimiting shading on public spaces at high-usetimes of day.––Adjacency to the I-880 Freeway, where tallerbuildings might act as a buffer between theneighborhood and the Freeway.Towers stepping back from the base.A four story building, an eight story building, and a seven storybase with tower (top to bottom).Tower Massing RegulationsTower massing is desirable in order to limit theimpact of towers on neighborhood livability andensure towers are well integrated into the existingneighborhood context. Key objectives of towermassing include:• Allow sunlight, air and views between towers.• Minimize the casting of large shadows,particularly on public open spaces.• Reduce apparent bulk at lower floors.• Establish visual consistency with adjacentbuildings (i.e. through set-backs or use ofhorizontal features).• Enhance the City skyline.Detailed tower massing regulations will beincluded in the zoning.4-10 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

4LAND USEDraft Height MapThe draft height map for the Plan is shown in Figure4.4. These draft base and total heights provideguidance for the creation of more detailed regulationsand will be refined in the zoning; thereforefinal zoning designations may vary from Figure4.4.Proposed base heights, which are important forestablishing the way people experience the urbanenvironment, vary (depending on the proximity todowntown and the existing context), from 45 feet,85 feet, to 120 feet. The higher 85 foot and 120foot proposed base heights are located closer todowntown, along Broadway, and along the southernedge of 14th Street (Height Areas 5, 7, 8, and9). The lower 45 foot base height would be locatedin the remaining area. Height Area 6, whichencompasses educational and institutional uses, isthe only area that would allow towers and does nothave a base height.All Height Areas would be subject to the designguidelines outlined in the accompanying document,Design Guidelines for the Lake Merritt StationArea Plan, which provide guidance on ensuringneighborhood compatibility. The proposed HeightAreas, which are described as follows, are conceptual;the zoning regulations will be based on theseconcepts, but will be further refined and providemore specifics, including density, bulk and towerregulations.Height Area 1This Height Area would be consistent with theheights of existing buildings, with a total heightlimit of 45 feet. It is proposed along 7th Street inorder to preserve the most intact portions of thehistoric 7th Street/Harrison Square ResidentialDistrict Area of Primary Importance. Pitchedroofs are typical of the historic district, and wouldbe encouraged but not required for new development.New buildings would also be subject todesign guidelines related to historic resources andthat ensure compatible design.This Height Area is also proposed for the FireAlarm Building site given its historic status, waterfrontsetting on Lake Merritt, and proximity to theCounty Courthouse.Height Area 2This Height Area would have a total height limitof 85 feet and would be located along the northernedge of 14th Street. It is consistent with the existingCentral Business District height map, whichreflects the 2009 proposal vetted by the Gold Coastneighborhood to the north. This Height Area isalso proposed for the Historic King block (boundby Harrison, Webster, 13th and 12th Streets) tomaintain heights consistent with the historic characterof this block.Height Area 3This Height Area would have a base height of 45feet to reflect the existing neighborhood scale, anda total height limit of 175 feet. The Area wouldstep down from Height Area 4 to transition to thesmaller scaled Eastlake neighborhood to the east.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 4-11

4LAND USEHeight Area 4This Height Area would have a base height of 45feet to reflect the existing neighborhood scale, anda total height limit of 275 feet to accommodatehigh density and TOD. Height Area 4 would belocated throughout much of the Planning Area,including the Chinatown core, the Lake MerrittBART Blocks, the area under the freeway, and thearea just east of the Lake Merritt Channel which isenvisioned as a gateway to the Eastlake neighborhood.The Lake Merritt BART blocks are identifiedas 4A, which indicates that additional heightup to 400 feet may be granted with the provisionof additional community benefits beyond thosealready required.Height Area 5This Height Area would have a base height of 85feet and a total height limit of 175 feet. These limitsreflect the existing neighborhood scale and thetransition to taller building base heights along14th Street and leading to Downtown. The totalheight would step down from Height Areas to thewest that link to Downtown Oakland.Height Area 7This Height Area would have a base height of85 feet and a total height limit of 275 feet. It isenvisioned as a transitional area between the ChinatownCore and Broadway and I-880 Freeway,and along 14th Street between Area 5 and Area 8,which transitions into the Downtown core.Height Area 8This Height Area would have a base height of 85feet and a total height limit of 400 feet. It is proposedfor the area bound by 11th, Webster, 13th,and Madison Streets (with the exclusion of thehistoric King block). This area transitions to theDowntown core and has substantial opportunityfor high density TOD.Height Area 9This Height Area would accommodate the tallestbuildings as the area nears on the core of DowntownOakland. The base height in this area is 120feet, with no total height limit.Height Area 6This Height Area would encompass the large educational/institutionalareas with a total heightlimit of 275 feet, with no base height limitation.Note that this height limit on institutional areaswould represent a change from unlimited heights,but height limitations were determined to be desirablenear the Lake Merritt channel.4-12 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

12th StBARTBROADWAY14TH ST13THST12TH ST11TH ST7FRANKLIN STWEBSTER STDowntownDistrict9PacificRenaissancePlaza52HARRISON STCoit19TH ST9TH ST8TH STALICE STKing BlockLincolnSquareParkChineseGardenParkALICE STPostOffice827LincolnElementary10TH ST47TH STJACKSON STJACKSON ST17TH ST15TH STMadisonSquareParkMADISON STPublicLibrary13THST512TH STLakeMerrittBARTLAKESIDE DROAK ST6TH ST11THLAKECountyCourtST TUNNELBARTParkingMTC/4 ABAG1 344AMERRITT BLVDOaklandMuseum ofCaliforniaLakeMerrittLake MerrittDistrictKaiserAuditoriumReal EstateUnion HousesLaney College6LaneyParkingLAKESHORE AVE4OaklandUnifiedSchoolDistrict1ST AVEFOOTHILL BLVDE. 15TH ST2ND AVEE. 7TH STATHOLAVEE. 18TH STINTERNATIONAL BLVD3E. 10TH STE. 12TH STOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampus63RD AVE4TH AVEE. 11TH ST5TH AVEFigure 4.4: 4.3DRAFT Draft Proposed HEIGHT MAP, TO BEFINALIZEDHeight AreasIN ZONING12344A*5678945 Ft Total85 Ft Total45 Ft Base175 Ft Total45 Ft Base275 Ft Total55 Ft Base275 Ft Total85 Ft Base175 Ft Total275 Ft Total85 Ft Base275 Ft Total85 Ft Base400 Ft Total125 Ft BaseNo Height LimitOpen SpaceHistoric Districtof PrimaryImportanceBROADWAYFRANKLIN STWEBSTER STWEBSTER PLChinatownCommercialDistrictHARRISON STALICE ST2ND STJACKSON ST5TH ST7th Street/Harrison Square4TH STResidential District3RD STMADISON STOAK ST4TH STFALLON STVICTORY CT880Peralta CommunityCollege DistrictAdministration4EMBARCADEROPlanning Area* Additional height (up to 400feet) may be granted withprovision of aadditionalcommunity benefits beyondthose already required.This map represents maximumtotal heights; the final heightareas adopted in zoning maybe different, and supercedeheight areas on this map.EMBARCADERO WESTAMTRAK1ST STWATER ST0 500 1000100FEETLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 4-13

4LAND USE4.3 Developer Incentive ProgramThe Plan recommends exploring the feasibility of aDeveloper Incentive Program, which would allowa developer to receive additional developmentrights (via height, FAR, density bonus, or relaxationof other requirements) in exchange for thevoluntary provision of certain amenities, such asaffordable housing, public open space, communitycenters, or childcare centers. A Developer IncentiveProgram would be one of a menu of differenttools for achieving community-identified benefitsor amenities. This entire menu of tools is describedin greater detail in Chapter 10.The overall massing, intensity and density of a building couldbe increased over the base allowance by providing community-identifiedbenefits.The City of Oakland’s zoning regulations alreadyinclude small relaxations in development requirementsin exchange for the provision of amenities.For instance, in exchange for providing additionalbicycle parking beyond the minimum requirement,auto parking requirements are reduced. Inthe Central Business District (CBD), provision of apublic plaza allows a development to have reducedprivate open space requirements.The Development Incentive Program, as conceptualizedduring the planning process, would bebroader than the scope of existing developmentincentives to include some more costly public benefits.In order to ensure that these community benefitsare attainable, the program must make economicsense. The economic feasibility of developmentmust be a determining factor in arriving atthe trade-off between development incentives andthe amount of community benefits to be providedby a project. Additionally, the benefits must clearlybe reflective of the community’s needs and desires.4-14 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

4LAND USE4.4 Summary of Development PotentialAs described in Chapter 2, opportunity sites fordevelopment were identified in order to make anassessment of the type and amount of developmentpotential in the Planning Area. The potentialdevelopment identified for each opportunitysite (in terms of residential units and square feetof non-residential space) was determined based ona variety of factors, including market dynamics,building feasibility, site size and location, and conceptualPlan policies (as discussed and refined bythe Community Stakeholder Group). Total developmentpotential also takes into account regionalgrowth projections and the market opportunityassessment.While the identified opportunity sites are the bestguess for sites that will redevelop over the planningperiod, it is likely that some of the sites identifiedas opportunity sites may remain in their currentstate, while others that are not identified as opportunitysites will undergo change.Development PotentialThe Plan establishes a long-range vision for a highintensityneighborhood, including the addition of4,900 new housing units expected to accommodate4,700 households, 4,100 new jobs, 403,800square feet of additional retail, and 1,229,000square feet of office uses in the next 25 years, asshown in Table 4.1. This represents more thandoubling the residential population and increasingjobs by nearly 25 percent. The Plan also assumesthat a small boutique hotel (30-100 rooms) maybe included as part of the non-residential developmentin the Planning Area. As a site for a hotelis not yet identified, the Plan assumes the hotelsquare footage as part of the total office squarefootage. Detailed development potential by site areincluded in Appendix A.Based on the identified development potential, thePlan would result primarily in the addition of newretail and office jobs, at the expense of some existingauto and industrial jobs. It is also noted thatjobs for local residents (where there are a high proportionof monolingual residents) tend to happenin smaller retail and office spaces, which are promotedin the Plan.Overall the development potential identified hereis consistent with the market opportunity analysisand with regional growth projections, described indetail in Chapter 2. The financial feasibility analysisindicates that in the short term more low- andmid-rise development will likely occur, with highrisedevelopment in the latter part of the planningperiod. A summary of the financial feasibilityanalysis is also included in Chapter 2.Figures 4.5 and 4.6 provide illustrative views ofpotential development in 2035. Note that thesedrawings are conceptual massing diagrams only,and do not represent actual design; they also illustrateonly one of many possible outcomes of newdevelopment. Existing buildings are shown in grey,with new buildings shown in orange. The massingdiagrams may not reflect proposed massing regulationsexactly, but do illustrate where redevelopmentis most likely to occur in the future.Table 4.1: PLANNING AREA DEVELOPMENT POTENTIALEXISTING PLAN NET NEWTOTAL (2035)% INCREASEDEVELOPMENT (2035) 6Residential Units 1 3,000 4,900 7,900 163%Households 2 2,900 4,700 7,600 162%Retail Square Feet 3 843,000 404,000 1,247,000 48%Office Square Feet 1,022,000 1,229,000 2,251,000 120%Institutional Square Feet 3,467,000 108,000 3,575,000 3%Jobs 4, 5 17,800 4,100 21,900 23%1. Existing residential units is based on ACTC/ABAG projections for 2005, plus projects completed between 2005 and 2012.2. Households assumes a 5% vacancy rate in the residential units.3. Existing non-residential square feet are estimated based on existing building footprint square footage, multiplied by the number of stories inexisting buildings.4. Existing jobs are based on ACTC/ABAG projections for 2005.5. Plan jobs are based on one job for every 350 SF of retail space, one job for every 400 square feet of office space, and one job for every 1,000square feet of institutional.6. Net new development assumes reductions for any existing land uses.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 4-15



4LAND USE4.5 Affordable Housing StrategyAffordable housing is a critical component of asustainable neighborhood and is needed in thePlanning Area. As of 2009, median householdincome for the average 1.94 person household inthe one-half mile radius of the Lake Merritt BARTStation was $27,786 compared with the citywidemedian income of $49,481. 1 The HUD definedarea median income for a four person household(for Alameda and Contra Costa Counties) was$89,300, well above the City of Oakland and arearesident incomes. In Planning Area census tracts,45 percent of residents are cost burdened and mayhave trouble affording basic necessities after payingrent. Therefore, it is imperative that a strategyis in place to ensure affordable housing is availableto all existing and future residents, especially sincehaving affordable rents targeted to 30 percent ofhousehold income both stabilizes low incomeresidents and provides these households withexpendable income for other living and recreatingexpenses.While 30 percent of the existing housing unitswithin one-half mile of the Lake Merritt BARTStation have affordability restrictions, due todeclining federal assistance to support new affordablehousing construction, the recent dissolutionof the City’s Redevelopment Agency (which producedtax increment, the most important localsource of affordable housing funding) and abysmalCity revenue projections, a creative menu ofstrategies is needed to provide additional affordablehousing to accommodate the area’s projected1 Source: Conley Consulting Group, Claritas, Inc.;December 2009.population growth and maintain a balanced mixof incomes in the area. The Lake Merritt BARTStation Area Plan Affordable Housing Strategy iscomposed of the following elements:• Assessment of Existing Conditions;• Recent Efforts and Affordable HousingProjections;• Affordable Housing Goals;• Funding Outlook; and• Affordable Housing Implementation Strategies.Assessment of Existing ConditionsDemographic and Housing MarketTrendsDetailed demographic trends are presented in theExisting Conditions Report prepared for this Planand are summarized in Chapter 2 of this document.This section provides a snapshot of the characteristicsof the typical resident living withinone-half mile radius of the Lake Merritt BARTStation, 2 and therefore the types of housing choicesthat would be appropriate to serve the existing population,given that one of the goals of this plan is toincrease housing choices and quality of life for bothexisting and future residents. A summary of housingmarket characteristics is also presented (refer to theMarket Opportunity Analysis prepared for this Planfor a detailed market assessment).The majority of residents in the one-half mile2 Source: Conley Consulting Group, Claritas, Inc.;December 2009.radius are Asian (64 percent); 54 percent of arearesidents are Chinese. Oakland’s Chinatown hashistorically functioned as a port of entry for newChinese immigrants. Historically, as these familiesbecame more established they moved out ofChinatown and often out of the city. However,the Oakland Chinatown Chamber of Commercereports that today’s immigrant is more likely to beeducated and with more financial means than inpast decades.The remaining reported racial composition ofresidents in the one-half mile radius is as follows:13 percent are African-American, 12 percent areWhite, and 11 percent belong to Other Races. Thepopulation in the one-half mile radius is generallyolder than the City of Oakland’s population. In theone-half mile radius, 24 percent of the populationis over age 65, and 14 percent are children under18. Residents in the one-half mile radius have ahigh degree of transit dependence, given that 49percent of area households do not own a car. Theone-half mile radius also has a smaller averagehousehold size (1.94 persons) compared to the Cityof Oakland, however 21.8 percent of householdsare three-person or more households. Finally, mosthousing units in the one-half mile radius are renteroccupied(84 percent), with only 16 percent ofunits occupied by owners. In contrast, for the Cityof Oakland 59 percent are renter occupied housingunits and 41 percent are owner occupied.The median household income in the one-halfmile radius is $27,786, which is far lower thancitywide ($49,481). The Health Impact Assessmentprepared for this Plan notes that for Plan-4-18 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

4LAND USEning Area census tracts, 45 percent of residents arecost burdened (paying more than 30 percent oftheir household income on rent) and may have difficultyaffording necessities such as food, clothing,transportation and medical care. A slightly higherpercentage of Oakland renters (52 percent) haveunaffordable rent costs. In the Planning Area 29percent of homeowners spend 50 percent or moreof their income on housing costs and are consideredseverely cost burdened. Of owner householdsin Oakland, this value is slightly lower at 23 percent.In addition to understanding the characteristics ofthe Planning Area resident, it is also important tounderstand the housing market characteristics.The average home sales price in Oakland in 2009was $250,000, representing a nearly 52 percentdecrease in average sales price from levels reachedin 2007 (2007 average sales price was $511,146).In 2006, selected new multifamily developmentsin Oakland’s Central District which includes thePlanning Area, one bedroom units between 650and 750 square feet were priced between $324,000and $499,000, from $499 to $830 per square foot.Larger two bedroom units between 1,100 and 1,350square feet were priced between $619,000 and$899,000, from $476 to $692 per square foot. Condominiumunits in Central Oakland that resold inlate 2009 typically sold for 50 percent to 60 percentbelow their peak levels in 2006.Recently, the vast majority of condominium salesin Oakland’s Central Business District have beenshort sales, auction sales, and foreclosures. Theflood of foreclosures is keeping supply high andprices low. It is reported that a large number ofbuyers are purchasing distressed properties withcash as opposed to mortgage financing.The average market rate monthly rent in Oaklandin 2009 according to Realfacts was $1,550. Rentsfluctuated widely throughout the decade followingthe expansion and contraction of the economy.Trends over the decade show that rents began torise in 2005 to their current level.Evidence Supporting the Need for AffordableHousingAffordable housing is needed in the Planning Areato ensure that the area’s unique character, whichincludes a range of income levels accommodatingrecent immigrants, young professionals, familiesand socially connected seniors, is preserved andenhanced. The median household income in theone-half mile radius is $27,786. Approximately32.5 percent of the one-half mile radius populationhas a median household income of less than$15,000. Even with depressed housing prices,without policy to the contrary, the market willproduce housing that is well beyond the financialcapacity of current area residents, demonstratinga strong need for affordable housing in the PlanningArea. In addition, although the majority ofhouseholds in the one-half mile radius are singlepersonhouseholds, 21.8 percent of the householdsare three-person or more households. This indicatesthat housing units in the Planning Area willhave to accommodate a variety of household typesincluding single-person, families with children andmulti-generational households.Existing Affordable Housing PoliciesDensity Bonus OrdinanceOakland’s existing Density Bonus Ordinanceallows developers of five units or more to exceedthe maximum allowable density set by zoningif they include units set aside for occupancy byvery low-, low-, and moderate-income householdsand/or seniors. The City defers to state law for theallowed concessions a developer may request suchas increases to project density, and relaxation ofdevelopment standards (e.g., reduced setbacks andparking requirements).Jobs/Housing Impact Fee and AffordableHousing Trust FundThe Jobs/Housing Impact Fee was established toassure that certain commercial development projectscompensate and mitigate for the increaseddemand for affordable housing generated by suchdevelopment projects within the City of Oakland.A fee of $4.60 per square foot is assessed on newoffice and warehouse/distribution developments tooffset the cost of providing additional affordablehousing for new lower-income resident employeeswho choose to reside in Oakland. Fees go into aHousing Trust Fund which is then made availableto nonprofits to build affordable housing.Condominium Conversion OrdinanceOne way in which the market responds to theincreased demand for ownership units is throughcondominium conversion. Condominium conversion,or the conversion of rental apartments toownership condominiums, present complex chal-LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 4-19

4LAND USElenges to local government. On the one hand theycan improve the housing stock, provide ownershipopportunities for moderate income households,and contribute to more stable neighborhoods.However, they also reduce the apartment rentalinventory thereby increasing rents and decreasingvacancy rates.Figure 4.7:CONDO CONVERSION IMPACT AREAOakland’s Condominium Conversion regulationsinclude tenant protections in the form of early tenantnotification requirements, right of first refusal,and tenant relocation and moving assistance.In the “primary” and “secondary” impact area, 3replacement rental units are required to be providedequal to the number of units being converted.The primary and secondary areas areboundaries that have been drawn on a map ofOakland based on their housing characteristics andsensitivity to condo conversion impacts. Outsidethese areas, replacement rental units are requiredwhen five or more rental units are proposed forconversion to ownership units. The Planning Areais partially inside the “primary” impact area, howeverthe majority of the Planning Area is outside ofboth the “primary” and “secondary” impact area(shown in Figure 4.7). Replacement rental unitsensure the balance of rental and ownership unitsis maintained, which is critical in Oakland, wheremost households are renters (59 percent) and evenmore important in the Lake Merritt Station AreaPlanning Area where the overwhelming majorityof residents are renters.3 Primary Impact Area: replacement units can only begenerated in this area.Secondary Impact Area: replacement units can begenerated within the Primary or Secondary ImpactArea.4-20 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

4LAND USEResidential Rental Adjustment ProgramThe city’s residential rental adjustment programlimits rent increases to once per year atan amount equal to the average annual percentageincrease in the Consumer Price Index (CPI).This ensures stability in rental rates for existingtenants. Also, the City’s Just Cause for EvictionOrdinance helps to ensure tenants are not subjectto eviction motivated by a rental propertyowner’s desire to increase rents.Analysis of Constraints to HousingThe City of Oakland has undertaken a number ofinitiatives to expand the production of affordablehousing such as designating large areas for highdensityhousing, maintaining low open space andparking requirements and providing for streamlinedpermitting processes, among other practices.Oakland charges building fees to cover the cost ofprocessing development requests which can havean impact on the cost of housing. Total buildingfees typically range from $25,000 and $40,000per dwelling unit. When compared to the marketcost of producing housing in Oakland (land andsite preparation, construction, financing, etc.), permitand impact fees, 4 while a cost factor, are notas significant as other cost factors in the productionof affordable housing (such as the market costof land and State requirements to pay prevailingwages on construction labor for housing developmentassisted with public funds).Additional constraints include land costs, environmentalhazards, land availability, constructioncosts, financing, and neighborhood sentiment.4 Note that Oakland has no development impact fees onresidential development.Market prices for land are high in the desirable,high-cost San Francisco Bay area. Recent samplingof land acquisition costs for City of Oaklandfundedaffordable housing ranged from almost$19,000 to almost $55,000 per unit (the variationwas largely a function of project density).Speculation also plays a role in the high price forland. Many sites have been held for a long timeby owners not highly motivated to sell and/orwaiting for further increases in value. The cost ofland and land preparation is further increased inOakland by the fact that most sites with housingdevelopment potential are relatively small parcelsthat can be difficult to develop (including thosethat might be irregularly shaped). Many sites haveexisting structures and infrastructure that must beremoved, replaced, and/or reconfigured.The redevelopment of underutilized sites also addsto the cost of development when contaminatedsoils or hazardous materials in existing buildings/structures must be mitigated. Construction costs,which typically represents 50 to 60 percent of thetotal development costs are another significant factorcontributing to high housing costs.Recent Efforts and Affordable HousingProjectionsAffordable housing is generally defined by the USDepartment of Housing and Community Developmentas a household who pays no more than 30percent of its annual income on housing. Familieswho pay more than 30 percent of their incomeson housing are considered ‘cost burdened’ andmay have difficulties affording necessities such asfood, clothing, transportation and medical care.The Health Impact Assessment prepared for thisPlan reports that 45 percent of Planning Area rentersare cost burdened, compared with 52 percentcitywide, and 29 percent of Planning Area ownerhouseholds are ‘severely cost burdened’ (spendingmore than 50 percent on housing costs), comparedwith 23 percent citywide.Affordable rental units typically serve householdsearning between 30 percent and 60 percent of AreaMedian Income (AMI), which includes the areasof Alameda and Contra Costa Counties combined,with housing costs limited to 30 percent of the targetincome level. In addition households with evenlower incomes may be served if Section 8 assistance(either project- or tenant- based, in which tenantspay 30 percent of their income, and the OaklandHousing Authority subsidizes the remainder ofthe unit’s rent) is available. Affordable ownershipdevelopments typically serve households earningbetween 80-120 percent of AMI.Currently, the Planning Area has 1,694 affordablehousing units which represents nearly 30 percentof the existing 6,200 units in the half mile radius.As of June 2012, an additional 573 units were inthe development pipeline all of which were fullyentitled (138 affordable units entitled or underconstruction 5 ). The existing affordable housingunits are at low risk of converting to market rate asmany of the affordability restrictions on units havebeen extended for an additional 55 years.As part of the General Plan’s Housing Elementprocess, the California Department of Housing5 Affordable housing projects include: 609 Oak Street(70 units); 1110 Jackson Street (68 units)LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 4-21

4LAND USEAffordable HousingThe income limits for affordable housingfor a four person household in 2012 are asfollows:• Extremely Low Income (30% AMI)$28,050• Very Low Income (50% AMI)$46,750• Lower Income (80% AMI)$65,350• Median Income (100% AMI)$93,500• Moderate Income (120% AMI)$112,200and Community Development determines theamount of housing needed for income groups ineach region based on existing housing need andexpected population growth. Each city’s share ofthe regional housing demand is prepared by theAssociation of Bay Area Governments (ABAG)through the Regional Housing Needs Allocation(RHNA) process. During the planning period2007-2014, the City of Oakland must plan for14,629 new housing units (27 percent of theseunits are designated to be affordable to very lowandlow-income households, 21 percent affordableto moderate income and 51 percent above moderateincome).The Planning Area is projected to add 4,900 housingunits over the next 25 years (through 2035)according to ABAG’s growth projections (see discussionin Chapter 2, Section 2.2). Applying theincome distribution from the 2007-2014 RHNAto the Planning Area’s build-out horizon (2035)would result in a need for 27 percent of new housingunits to be affordable to very-low and lowincomehouseholds, a total of 1,323 affordableunits over the next 25 years. The City’s responsibilityunder state law in accommodating its regionalhousing need is to identify sites adequately zoned(at least 30 units per acre) with appropriate infrastructureto support the development of housing.The next paragraph demonstrates that sufficientsites have been identified in the Planning Area thatcan support housing at a variety of income levels.The affordability levels of the projected housingneed is shown in Table 4.2.The Plan identifies housing potential on land suitablefor residential development that can accommodatethe 4,900 new units projected to be added.The potential development program for the Planincludes an inventory of housing projects approvedand under construction (573 housing units), as wellas assigns housing units (based on an assumed densityof 145 units per acre for mid-rise development(six to eight stories) and 392 units per acre for highrisedevelopment (nine stories and above) to opportunitysites including the central BART blocks(projected 746 housing units) and to the remainingdevelopment opportunity sites (projected 3,662housing units). All of the opportunity sites haveaccess to necessary infrastructure to support devel-Table 4.2: REGIONAL HOUSING NEED ALLOCATION (RHNA) FOR THE PLANNING AREAOAKLAND RHNAINFERRED PLANNING AREAHOUSING NEED ALLOCATIONAFFORDABILITY LEVEL HOUSING NEED (UNITS) HOUSING NEED (UNITS)Very Low Income 1,900 (13%) 637 (13%)Low Income 2,098 (14%) 686 (14%)Moderate Income 3,142 (21%) 1,029 (21%)Above Moderate Income 7,489 (51%) 2,499 (51%)Total Need 14,629 4,9004-22 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

4LAND USEopment. Therefore, the opportunity sites couldaccommodate a range of income levels dependingon availability of adequate financial subsidies tomake possible the development of units for verylow- and low-income households. This suggests thatthe Planning Area contains sufficient housing sites,but that a reliable funding source will be needed tofinance the construction of affordable units.Target Number of Affordable Units in thePlanning AreaIn addition to state law mandating that the Cityidentify sites to accommodate its RHNA, stateRedevelopment Law requires that 15 percent ofnew units built in a project area be made affordableto low and moderate income households. Atthe time the Oakland Redevelopment Agencywas terminated in 2012, both of the project areasencompassing the Planning Area (Central Districtand Central City East Project Areas), were in compliancewith state Redevelopment Law. It is uncertainwhether the 15 percent Redevelopment Lawrequirement will remain in effect following thedissolution of redevelopment agencies and the taxincrement financing mechanisms previously dedicatedto implementing those requirements.Despite the uncertainty surrounding RedevelopmentLaw affordable housing mandates, thePlanning Area will target 15 percent of new unitsbuilt in the Planning Area for low and moderateincome households. The Plan projects to add 4,900new housing units in the Planning Area by 2035.Applying the 15 percent target would yield 735new affordable units. If a more ambitious targetwas applied, such as 27 percent (the RHNA distributionof new affordable housing units neededfor very low- and low-income households), 1,323affordable units would be produced. However,with the dissolution of the Oakland RedevelopmentAgency, there is currently no local fundingmechanism in place dedicated to the productionof affordable housing. Without a reliable fundingsource, the production of new affordable housingwill remain tenuous.Affordable Housing GoalsThe City of Oakland’s commitment to providingaffordable housing is set out in the HousingElement of the General Plan. The goals from theHousing Element are summarized below.Housing Element GoalsGoal 1: Provide Adequate Sites Suitable forHousing for All Income GroupsGoal 2: Promote the Development of AdequateHousing for Low- and Moderate-IncomeHouseholdsGoal 3: Remove Constraints to the Availabilityand Affordability of Housing for AllIncome GroupsGoal 4: Conserve and Improve Older Housingand NeighborhoodsGoal 5: Preserve Affordable Rental HousingGoal 6: Promote Equal Housing OpportunityGoal 7: Promote Sustainable Development andSustainable CommunitiesLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 4-23

4LAND USEThese goals are reinforced in the vision and goalsdeveloped for Plan. The community’s vision for thePlan is to increase the housing supply to accommodatea diverse community, especially affordablehousing and housing around the Lake MerrittBART Station.Lake Merritt BART Station Area PlanAffordable Housing Goals• Encourage between 15 percent to 27 percentof all new housing units in the Planning Areato be affordable including both units in mixedincome developments and units in 100 percentaffordable housing developments.• Accommodate and promote new rental andfor sale housing within the Planning Area forindividuals and families of all sizes and allincome levels (from affordable to market ratehousing).• Prevent involuntary displacement of residentsand strengthen tenant rights.• Maintain, preserve, and improve existinghousing in the project area and prevent lossof housing that is affordable to residents(subsidized and unsubsidized), and seniorhousing.• Promote healthful homes that areenvironmentally friendly and that incorporategreen building methods.• Encourage development of family housing (i.e.,larger than 2 bedroom units).Funding OutlookMost affordable housing in the Planning Area willbe funded with a mix of local and non local sourcesincluding Low Income Housing Tax Credits(LIHTC), Federal HOME funds, mortgage revenuebonds, and HUD funds. With few exceptions,non local subsidy sources are not adequate, even incombination, to fully subsidize the cost differentialto make new housing development affordable tolow and moderate income households.Up until the dissolution of the City’s RedevelopmentAgency on February 1, 2012, redevelopmentgeneratedtax increment was the most importantlocal source of funding for affordable housing.Oakland dedicated 25 percent of the tax incrementfunds to affordable housing (5 percent more thanrequired by the state law). The city has recently had10 to 15 million dollars annually for its housingNotice of Funding Availability (NOFA). With theloss of redevelopment and cuts to Federal funds,there is now only $2 million available per year. Theestimated local financing gap for affordable units is$101,000 to $141,000 per unit.Although redevelopment gap financing fell shortof meeting the full demand for affordable housingproduction, deep uncertainty about the futureof affordable housing production abounds in theabsence of the Redevelopment Agency and givendeclining federal assistance. The City is looking atseveral options to fill the financing gap. The Cityof Oakland will continue to support and advocatefor legislation to support affordable housing development.Absent legislation creating a new source offunding, the City currently has almost no moneyavailable to finance new projects.4-24 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

4LAND USEDue to declining federal financial assistance foraffordable housing, the dissolution of the City’sRedevelopment Agency, and a lack of a citywideinclusionary housing requirement, a menu of creativeoptions is required to meet the affordablehousing needs for the Planning Area.Affordable Housing ImplementationStrategiesNew affordable housing will be built in a variety ofhousing types including affordable units mixed inwith market rate developments and as stand aloneaffordable housing developments, consistent withthe types of affordable housing developments builtin Oakland over the past 30 years. The implementationstrategies presented in this section addressboth mixed income developments and stand aloneaffordable housing developments. The strategiesare grouped as follows: Incentivize AffordableHousing, Funding Sources, Anti-DisplacementStrategies and Citywide Housing Policy.Incentivize Affordable HousingIncentive ProgramsIncentive programs may help to expand affordablehousing opportunities. In addition, there are waysto create market-rate housing that is affordableby design (i.e., smaller units, resource efficiencies,reduced parking requirements, etc.), allowing formore “affordable” market-rate units.Although the market feasibility study conductedfor this Plan concludes a relatively grim forecast forthe likelihood of new housing being constructed inthe next five to 10 years, this planning documenthas a planning horizon of 25 years, with ultimatebuild-out forecast for 2035. Thus, incorporating aphased system of incentives once the market picksup should be a component of the Plan.One way to incentivize the provision of affordablehousing is to relax development standards fordevelopers who include affordable units in housingconstruction projects. The Developer IncentiveProgram (discussed in Chapter 4, Section 4.3)allows a developer to receive additional developmentrights (via height or density bonus or relaxationof requirements, such as parking or openspace) in exchange for provision of certain amenities,such as affordable housing, public open spaceor childcare centers.Reduced Parking Requirements to ReduceDevelopment CostsThe Planning Area has a high degree of transitdependence, given that 49 percent of area householdsdo not own a car. Immigrants and otherprime target populations for affordable housingin the Planning Area are particularly receptive toTOD housing solutions, and would be well servedby affordable housing with lower parking ratios.Eliminating the construction cost for a parkingspace represents a significant reduction in the localcost burden for an affordable housing unit. Thus,reducing parking ratios for housing developmentin the Planning Area would extend the numberof units that could be funded with available localhousing funds.The affordable housing strategy seeks to augment existingaffordable housing resources (top and middle) and preventdisplacement from existing homes (bottom).LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 4-25

4LAND USELowered parking requirements (for the rehabilitationand new construction of multi-family housing,as well as new secondary units in the PlanningArea’s historic single-family neighborhoods),consistent with TOD standards and the needs ofthe local population, should be encouraged for thePlanning Area.units, where developers have sometimes found thatfamilies will squeeze into a three bedroom unitrather than pay the incremental rental differencefor a four bedroom unit. Most market-rate unitsbeing built are small units. Larger units are likelyto be built in stand alone affordable housing projects.Additionally, new parking could be unbundledfrom future units, allowing future residents theoption to pay for a parking space. Rather thanforcing all residents to pay for a parking space theymay not need, future residents should be encouragedto use the rich transit network in the projectarea. Also, unbundled parking on a future developmentsite would allow for a car-share program orextra space for bicycle parking.Affordable Housing Unit TypesArea residents, including members of the ChinatownCoalition, stress the need for additionalaffordable family housing in the Planning Area.The Planning Area has traditionally served as a portof entry for new Asian immigrants. While an accurateestimate of future immigration is not available,these families would be attracted to and simultaneouslysupport the area’s vibrant retail uses.Affordable units should be sized to support thearea’s small households including studios and onebedrooms for single individuals, seniors and personswith special needs, as well as families requiringtwo and three bedroom units. Although somelarger units are desirable, city sources report thatthe only persistent vacancies for Planning Areaaffordable housing projects are in four bedroomThe opportunity sites identified in the Plan couldall theoretically be developed as housing, as thesites were adapted from the City’s Housing ElementOpportunity Site database. Developing thesesites as commercial, office or mixed use would notjeopardize the City’s potential for fulfilling itshousing sites requirements, as the Housing Elementidentifies ample housing opportunity sitescitywide. Family-sized units will be incentivizedthrough the area’s incentive program describedabove.Funding SourcesGrant FundingTremendous uncertainty exists around the futureof affordable housing finance given the state’srecent decision to eliminate Redevelopment Agencies.To close the $101,000 to $141,000 gap forwhich local funds have generally been needed tofinance each affordable unit, additional fundingsources must be identified. The Station AreaPlan will prime future use of the Bay Area Transit-OrientedAffordable Housing Fund. Bay AreaTransit-Oriented Affordable Housing Fund is a$50 million collaborative public-private initiativethat encourages inclusive Transit-OrientedDevelopment. These funds can be used to finance4-26 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

4LAND USEthe development of affordable housing, as well ascritical services, such as childcare near public transithubs. Borrowers can access predevelopment,acquisition, construction, mini-permanent andleveraged loans for New Markets Tax Credit transactions.The city will continue to monitor and supportState affordable housing legislation and identifyalternative grant sources.Land BankingAccording to the Affordable Housing TechnicalMemo prepared for this Station Area Plan, manyland owners in the Planning Area are patient investors,willing to hold sites (sometimes across generations)to achieve their long term objectives. Historically,site turnover has been infrequent in thePlanning Area. Further, land values in Chinatownhave historically been the highest in downtownOakland. Because of the Planning Area’s strongeconomic vitality and constrained geography, highrents support strong property values.Thus, acquiring and designating sufficient sites foraffordable housing development in the PlanningArea should be a public goal. In most parts of thePlanning Area, affordable housing would be developedin higher density projects over ground floorretail uses. The current economic crises and relativeabsence of development pressure may representan opportunity to acquire sites for affordablehousing development in the Planning Area.The City could purchase sites for use as affordablehousing developments. However, the most importantpublic funding sources have limits on landacquisition. Federal HOME funds cannot be usedfor land banking. The dissolution of the City’sRedevelopment Agency marked the end of a possibleadditional funding source, even though therewere limitations on the amount of time Redevelopmentfunds could have been used for land banking(up to five years). Non-profits and the HousingAuthority could partner to assemble sites.Anti-displacement StrategiesPreservation of the existing housing stock in thePlanning Area is achieved through various regulatorytools, including Condominium Conversionregulations and development standards. The city’sCondominium Conversion Ordinance addressesthe conversion of rental units to ownership condominiums.The Condominium Conversion “Area ofPrimary Impact” could be extended to include thePlanning Area which would require rental housingthat is converted to condos to be replaced (in thearea). This would help to ensure a balance betweenrental and ownership housing in the one-half mileradius where renters comprise the majority of residents(84 percent). Limitations on condominiumconversions will help preserve existing rental housingand prevent displacement. Possible impacts ofextending the Area of Primary Impact would bestudied prior to adopting an extension.The City’s Condominium Conversion Ordinanceoutlines tenant protections which are paraphrasedas follows (see Oakland Municipal Code Section16.36 for full ordinance): the right to terminatelease upon notification of intent to convert, rightto continue occupancy for a period after conversionapproved, limits on rent increases, limits onwork to occupied units, exclusive right to purchasea unit in the building, and relocation assistance.Additionally, tenants 62 and older are offeredlifetime leases and limitations on base rent andmonthly rent increases.Lower height limits along the 7th Street API hasbeen designed to discourage demolition of theexisting housing stock. The existing lower densityhousing stock in this area is located in close proximityto the Lake Merritt BART Station, so loweringthe height limit in this area is likely to have thesecondary benefit of reducing development pressureson these existing residences. The City’s stringentdemolition findings for historic resources,including homes, serves as an additional deterrentto redevelopment of those sites, thereby preservingexisting housing. Additionally, applicants for theconversion of a multi-family residential buildingto a non-residential use are required to apply for aConditional Use Permit, to identify any potentialimpacts warranting additional review.Citywide Housing PolicyA citywide affordable housing policy (inclusionaryzoning) could be an important component to providingaffordable housing in the Planning Area. Acomprehensive citywide policy will alleviate theconcern that requiring affordable housing only inthe Planning Area would over-burden developersand put this area at a disadvantage compared tothe rest of the City.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 4-27

4LAND USE4.6 Public Health and the Built EnvironmentCommunity health is affected by a number of factorsin an urban environment—those which arerelated to the actions of individuals, such as healthbehaviors and lifestyle choices, but also factorssuch as income, education, employment and workingconditions, access to health services, nutrition,and the quality of physical environments. The followingsummary of health impacts related to landuse changes was informed by the review and analysisby Health Impact Partners of Plan concepts.The Plan proposes an overall increase in thedensity of urban development in the PlanningArea, including a greater mix of uses more residences,and a larger population. New developmentwill bring new amenities, in the form ofimproved transportation and streetscapes, a varietyof neighborhood-serving uses, and public services.Increased walkability, more residents livingnear public transit, and access to daily shoppingneeds and public facilities encourages more physicalactivity (i.e., walking and biking) and reducesobesity rates. In addition, new retail and office useswould create new jobs and economic developmentopportunities in the community, increasing or supplementingincomes and keeping dollars withinthe community. On the other hand, new developmentmay also lead to higher traffic volumes, collisionrates, reduced air quality, and noise impactsfrom vehicles and businesses. Plan policies seek toreduce these potential negative impacts.Proposed new multi-family housing should bedesigned to accommodate a range of income levels.Ensuring that residents can find quality housingwithin their means is essential to avoiding overcrowding,poverty, and homelessness. An affordablehousing strategy (detailed in Section 4.5) isa key tenet of the Plan, and includes strategies toreduce the effects of displacement and gentrificationsince property values may increase with implementationof the Plan.Affordability can affect health outcomes in a variety ofways. For instance, higher housing costs may impactpeople’s ability to buy food or get medical care. Higherlevels of food insecurity are associated with an increasingpercentage of income spent on housing, leavingless money available for other household needs. Lackof affordable housing could also result in displacementof existing residents or overcrowding. Housingdisplacement is stressful, and potentially results in lossof employment, difficult school transitions, and loss ofcohesive social networks.In terms of environmental hazards, the PlanningArea’s proximity to the I-880 Freeway and other highvolume roadways may create noise and air qualityimpacts on sensitive receptors (e.g., residents, schools,daycare centers, parks, nursing homes, medical facilities).Policies to mitigate these potential impacts (e.g.,standards for windows, construction, screening, andventilation) will be implemented, particularly for residenceslocated in areas with increased health risks asa result of proximity to sources of toxic air contaminants.Figure 4.8 illustrates potential sources of toxicair contaminants in the Planning Area. Impactsfrom these sources are addressed through existingCity Standard Conditions of approval, which requirea health impact assessment for new sensitive useswithin 1,000 feet of sources of particulate matter,including freeways and high-volume roadways.See Chapter 6 for improvements to the pedestrianenvironment and policies related to ensuring streetsafety to make walking a safe and desirable activitythroughout the Planning Area.4-28 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

BROADWAYBROADWAYFRANKLIN STFRANKLIN STFRANKLIN STWEBSTER STWEBSTER STWEBSTER STHARRISON STHARRISON ST!(!(TELEGRAPH A V!(!(!(!(12th St.BARTn¤!(!(10TH ST6TH ST!(!(17TH ST!(!(!(!(!(!(!(!(PacificRenaissancePlaza!(!(!(!(LincolnSquarePark!(ChineseGarden ParkALICE STALICE ST!(!(!(8TH STALICE STPostOffice11TH STLincolnElementary7TH STJACKSON STJACKSON ST17TH ST15TH ST14TH ST!(!(13TH STCountyParking12TH ST10TH ST9TH STMadisonSq. Park5TH ST4TH ST3RD STMADISON ST!( !(MADISON ST!(PublicLibraryCountyOfficesLakeMerrittBARTMTC/ABAG6TH ST!(!( !(" ""LAKESIDE DR!(!(11 T HOAK STn¤!(OAK ST"!(LakesideParkCountyCourtST(Tunnel)BARTParking4TH STLAKE MERRITT B LVDOaklandMuseumFALLON STFALLON ST!(VICTORY CTKaiserAuditoriumLaney CollegeLaneyParkingL a k eM e r r i t tPeraltaParkPeraltaPark!(§¨¦ 880LAKESHORE AV!(!(1ST AVOaklandUnifiedSchoolDistrictLakeMerrittChannelParkLakeMerrittChannelParkE 7TH ST1ST AVENUE PL2ND AVE 16TH ST!(3RD AVE 10TH STE 15TH STE 12TH ST5TH AVATHOL AV!(E 18TH STFOOTHILL BLVDINTERNATIONAL BLVDLaney CollegeAthletic FieldsPeralta CommunityCollege DistrictAdministrationOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampus4TH AV!(!(E 11TH ST5TH AV!(EMBARCADEROFig 3.3-1Toxic Air ContaminantsFigure 4.8:TOXIC AIR CONTAMINANTS IN THEPLANNING AREA" BART Station Entrancen¤ BART StationToxic Air Contaminant!( Stationary Source thatexceeds Risk Threshold*!(!(!(!(Toxic Air ContaminantStationary SourceTAC Roadway Overlay ZonePM 2.5 Risk(within Planning Area)WaterExisting and PlannedCity ParksPlanning Area1/2 Mile Radius* Exceeds increased cancer riskof 10 in a million OR - exceedsambient PM 2.5 increase of 0.3 ug/mannual average.Note: TAC Locations areapproximate.!(2ND ST!(EMBARCADERO WEST!(AMTRAK1ST STEstuaryPark0 100 300 500 750 1,000FEET!(WATER STSource: City of Oakland, 2009; BAAQMD, 2010;Dyett and Bhatia, 2012.POSEY TUBELAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 4-29

4LAND USE• Create a more active, vibrant, and safedistrict to serve and attract residents,businesses, students, and visitors.• Provide for community development thatis equitable, sustainable, and healthy.• Increase the housing supply to accommodatea diverse community, especiallyBusiness• Strengthen and expand businesses inChinatown, through City zoning, permits,marketing, redevelopment, infrastructureimprovements, and other City tools.• Attract and promote a variety of new businesses,including small businesses andstart-ups, larger businesses that provideprofessional-level jobs (e.g., engineers,attorneys, accountants, etc.), and businessesthat serve the local community(such as grocery stores, farmers markets,restaurants, pharmacies, banks, and bookstores).• Promote more businesses near the LakeMerritt BART Station to activate thestreets, serve Chinatown, Laney College,and the Oakland Museum of California, andincrease the number of jobs.Jobs• Attract development of new office andbusiness space that provide jobs andpromote economic development for bothlarge and small businesses.Visionaffordable housing and housing aroundthe Lake Merritt BART Station.• Increase jobs and improve access to jobsalong the transit corridor.• Provide services and retail options in thestation area.Goals• Increase job and career opportunities,including permanent, well-paying, andgreen jobs; ensure that these jobs providework for local residents.• Support the provision of job trainingopportunities. Ensure that local trainingopportunities (including vocational Englishas a second language opportunities) existfor jobs being developed both in the planningarea and the region, particularly thoseaccessible via the transit network.• Employ local and/or targeted hiring forcontracting and construction jobs forimplementation of the plan (i.e., constructionof infrastructure).Housing• Encourage between 15 percent to 27 percentof all new housing units in the PlanArea to be affordable including both unitsin mixed income developments and unitsin 100 percent affordable housing developments.• Accommodate and promote new rentaland for sale housing within the Plan Areafor individuals and families of all sizes and• Establish the Lake Merritt Station Area asa model with innovations in communitydevelopment, transportation, housing,jobs, and businesses and environmental,social, and economic sustainability, andgreenhouse gas reductions.all income levels (from affordable to marketrate housing).• Prevent involuntary displacement of residentsand strengthen tenant rights.• Maintain, preserve, and improve existinghousing in the project area and preventloss of housing that is affordable to residents(subsidized and unsubsidized), andsenior housing.• Promote healthful homes that are environmentallyfriendly and that incorporategreen building methods.• Encourage development of family housing(i.e., larger than two bedroom units).Community and Cultural Anchor andRegional Destination• Establish a sense of place and clear identityfor the area as a cultural and communityanchor and a regional destination,building on existing assets such as Chinatown,the Oakland Museum of California,Laney College, the Kaiser Convention Center,Jack London Square, and Lake Merrittand the Lake Merritt Channel.4-30 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

4LAND USEPoliciesThe land use policies outlined in this section identify a range actions to establish a nuanced landuse character, activate key streets, and achieve the vision for each of the Plan Districts. Policies alsodirect adoption of massing and height regulations, direct the creation of a developer incentive program,and identify policies to implement the affordable housing strategy.Area-Wide Land Use PoliciesLU-1LU-2LU-3LU-4Land use character districts. Implementthe land use character districts describedin this chapter and illustrated in Figure4.1 by updating zoning regulations.High intensity development potential.Support transit-oriented developmentand accommodate regional growth projectionsby promoting high intensity andhigh density development in the PlanningArea.Ground floor commercial uses. Expandactive commercial uses, including retailand restaurants, throughout the PlanningArea. This expansion supports anenhanced regional destination, buildingon and complementing the existing successof the Chinatown Commercial Centerand diversifying retail options as anexpansion of Oakland’s Central BusinessDistrict.Active ground floor uses. Encourageactive uses in new buildings on keystreets in neighborhood hubs in orderto transform key streets into activatedpedestrian connections over time andexpand the vibrancy and activity thatalready exists in some areas, as shownin Figure 4.2. These active ground flooruses should be located at the streetedge, or at the edge of parks, plazas, orother public spaces. Activated neighborhoodhubs include:LU-5LU-6LU-7• Chinatown Commercial Core: keystreets through this hub include 8thStreet, 9th Street, Webster Street,Harrison Street, and portions ofFranklin Street, 7th Street, and 10thStreet.• Lake Merritt BART Station Area: keystreets through this hub include OakStreet, Madison Street (excludingMadison Square Park), 8th Street, and9th Street• 14th Street Corridor: 14th Street• Eastlake Gateway: key streets throughthis hub include 1st Avenue, East 12thStreet, and International Boulevard.Flexibility in active ground floor uses.Maintain flexibility in active ground flooruse requirements to ensure not onlycommercial but also cultural uses continueto activate the area.New office and business development.Attract development of new office andbusiness space by allowing a flexibleland use strategy in tandem with newstreetscape and public realm improvements.Diverse housing types. Ensure a diversecommunity by incentivizing a range ofhousing types, including housing forindividuals and families of all sizes andall income levels.Development on the BART blocks should reflect the uniquecommunity heritage of Chinatown.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 4-31

4LAND USELU-8LU-9New uses and facilities within regionalopen spaces. Allow uses and facilitieswithin the open space district thatenhance regional assets. This appliesspecifically to open space along LakeMerritt and the Lake Merritt Channel.Festival streets. Consider use of festivalstreets in key locations to activate streetlife and promote community events.Potential locations are described ingreater detail in Chapter 6.LU-10 Neighborhood services. Ensure improvedhealth outcomes by promoting developmentof key services in the Planning Areaincluding grocery stores, medical services,and social support services.Land Use Policies for the 14th StreetCorridor DistrictLU-11 Ceremonial street. Establish 14th Streetas a ceremonial street linking FrankOgawa Plaza at the City Center to LakeMerritt, by promoting active uses alongthe corridor and implementing specialpedestrian-oriented streetscape improvements(described in Chapter 6).LU-12 Educational, public service, and culturalcenter. Promote the 14th Street Corridoras a center for educational, public service,and cultural uses.LU-13 Complementary uses. Complement existinggovernment and institutional uses –including the Oakland Museum of California,Kaiser Auditorium, County Courthouse,Main Public Library – with newresidential uses and by promoting activeground floor commercial uses in newdevelopment.LU-14 Publicly owned sites. Contribute to theentertainment, educational and culturalactivity hub and activate the southernedge of Lake Merritt Boulevard by reusingpublicly owned sites.LU-15 Kaiser Auditorium reuse. Promote reuseof the Kaiser Auditorium to activate thesouthern edge of the new Lake MerrittBoulevard and complete the entertainment,educational and cultural hub. Preliminaryideas for reuse of the KaiserAuditorium include reuse as a communitycenter and/or a performance artscenter as it has been in the past.LU-16 Fire Alarm Building reuse. Promote thereuse of the Fire Alarm Building site(located between Oak Street, 13th Street,and Lakeside Drive) as a public amenity.Land Use Policies for the UpperChinatown DistrictLU-17 Neighborhood recreational, educational,and cultural center. Expand recreationaland educational facilities to servethe population growth in the Plan visionand complement Lincoln RecreationCenter.LU-18 Intensified urban area. Establish theUpper Chinatown Plan District as anintensified urban area for living with newhigh-density housing and accompanyingretail, restaurants, commercial uses, andpublicly accessible open spaces.LU-19 King Block alley. Work with the ownersand adjoining properties of the KingBlock alley to develop an active use forthe space that creates a unique destination.See additional details in Chapter 7.4-32 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

4LAND USELand Use Policies for the ChinatownCommercial Center DIstrictLU-20 Chinatown commercial center hub. Celebrate,strengthen, and enhance theChinatown commercial center as a keycommunity hub with strong communityheritage, a vibrant retail district, and aregional destination with high-densitycommercial and residential uses.LU-21 Economic development. Ensure theongoing strength of the Chinatown CommercialCenter and improve businessquality of life through a multi-facetedeconomic development strategy. Considerthe creation of a Business ImprovementDistrict to implement key strategies.LU-22 Façade improvement program. Promotethe renovation of existing buildingsthrough a façade improvement program.This program is described in greaterdetail in Chapters 7 and 10.LU-23 High quality and attractive public realm.Ensure a high quality and attractive publicrealm by ensuring that new developmentis sensitive to the historic contextof the neighborhood, seeking to improvefaçades of existing buildings, and makingimprovements to streetscapes.LU-24 Chinatown enhancement and expansion.Enhance and expand the vitality ofthe Chinatown core as an economic centerfor Oakland and an East Bay landmarkfor Asian culture, social services, cuisine,and shopping. Promote expansionof Chinatown by requiring active groundfloor uses in corridors that extend fromthe Chinatown core.LU-25 Business incubators. Make use of vacantspaces as incubators for business startups.Land Use Policies for the Lake MerrittBART Station Area DistrictLU-26 High intensity development. Promotehigh intensity development on theBART-owned blocks to support transitorienteddevelopment. Ensure neighborhoodcompatibility through applicationof design guidelines (outlined in theDesign Guidelines for the Lake MerrittStation Area Plan, under separate cover).LU-27 Community benefit. New developmenton the Lake Merritt BART blocks shouldreflect the unique community heritage ofChinatown, serve the existing and futurecommunity, and incorporate public amenities.LU-28 Community involvement. Work closelywith the community and BART todevelop the desired program of uses forthe Lake Merritt BART blocks and ensurethe provision of an appropriate range ofcommunity services, public uses, andamenities throughout the area.LU-29 Catalyst development. Promote developmenton the Lake Merritt BART blocksthat acts as a catalyst project that createsan active neighborhood hub and servesas part of activated spines along 8th, 9th,and Oak Streets, connecting the heart ofChinatown, the Lake Merritt BART Station,and Laney College.LU-30 Madison Square Park. Maintain andimprove Madison Square Park as a keyopen space community asset. Enhancethe park by providing additional programmingand amenities.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 4-33

4LAND USELU-31 New Lake Merritt BART Station name.Work with BART to consider options forrenaming the Lake Merritt BART Stationto better reflect the identity of thesurrounding neighborhoods. A newname could include references to OaklandChinatown, Laney College, OaklandMuseum of California, and/or AlamedaCounty Services.Land Use Policies for the I-880 FreewayCorridor DistrictLU-32 Active uses under the I-880 Freeway.Work with Caltrans to establish moreactive use of the I-880 Freeway undercrossings;if parking remains make itpublicly accessible so that it can servethe Planning Area.LU-33 Events under the I-880 Freeway. Promoteactivation of spaces under theI-880 Freeway by programming communityevents in the spaces.LU-34 Health and safety near I-880 Freeway.Ensure the health and safety of bothexisting residents and residents in newdevelopment by adding landscapingand/or sound wall buffers to the Freewayedge.Land Use Policies for the EastlakeGateway DistrictLU-35 Urban residential and neighborhoodcommercial. Promote development inthe Eastlake Gateway Plan District thatis mixed use, with retail and other activeuses at the ground floor and primarilyhigh density residential uses above.LU-36 Building height transitions. Allow buildingheights that step down from thetallest buildings along the Lake MerrittChannel, creating a transition to thelower-rise development in the Eastlakeneighborhood.LU-37 New residential, retail, and communityresources. Balance increased vitality andsafety resulting from new residentialand retail development with new publicbenefits that serve the existing and newpopulation, such as more open space,community resources, and improvedaccess and linkages.LU-38 Gateway. Create a distinctive, welcoming,active and landmark quality gateway,through the following:• Public realm improvements includingnew open spaces along the channeland streetscape improvements.• Ensuring high quality building design.• Active ground floor uses along East12th Street at 1st Avenue.LU-39 New Lake Merritt Channel improvements.Establish an improved greenwayalong the Lake Merritt Channel, inpart by obtaining public easements andrequiring new buildings to be set backfrom the Channel edge in order to establishpublic access along the eastern edgeof the Lake Merritt Channel.LU-40 City-owned remainder site. Redevelopthe City-owned remainder site on LakeMerritt Boulevard with landmark qualitydesign, high density residential, andactive ground floor uses that complementthe waterfront.4-34 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

4LAND USELand Use Policies for the Laney/PeraltaDistrictLU-41 Community asset and hub of activity.Enhance and emphasize the role of theLaney College campus as a communityasset and lively hub of activity. Expandthe role of Laney College as a culturalentertainment and community centerfacility with more community usesand classrooms, with redevelopment ofLaney parking lot including communityuses, classrooms, and parking.LU-42 Core activity node. Establish a coreactivity node that establishes a synergisticrelationship between the communityand the cultural assets of the LaneyCollege campus, Oakland Museum ofCalifornia, and the catalyst developmenton the Lake Merritt BART Station Areablocks.LU-43 Fallon and 9th Streets festival streetevents. Work with Laney College and theOakland Museum of California to programcommunity events in the Festival Street onFallon to promote neighborhood familiarityand use of these important communityresources.Height and MassingLU-44 Height areas. Consider the varied goalsand preferences of the community inestablishing height areas by consideringcommunity character, compatibilitywith historic and natural resources, andaccommodating high-density transit-orienteddevelopment.LU-45 Massing regulations. Establish massingregulations that: establish coherence inbuilding massing; respect historic buildingsand patterns of lot size and scale;are sensitive to existing buildings, andexisting and new parks; and incorporatetransitions between developments ofdiffering scales.LU-46 Base and tower height requirements.Establish nuanced height requirementswith base heights that are complementaryto the existing neighborhood contextand towers that are set back andallow high intensity, transit-orienteddevelopment, as shown in Figure 4.4.Developer Incentive ProgramLU-47 Community benefits list. Work closelywith the community to refine the list ofdesired benefits and build into the finalprogram a mechanism for updating thelist of benefits over time to meet theneeds of the community on an ongoingbasis.LU-48 Community benefits program examples.Look to other successful examplesof community benefits programs whendeveloping the final program.LU-49 Community benefits bonus and incentiveprogram. Develop a bonus andincentive program to attract new businessesand desirable development to thePlanning Area, incorporating clear measureablecriteria that ensure communitybenefits are delivered to the City. Theprogram should consider the followingelements:• Quantification of the costs of providingthe desired benefits as well as thevalue of corresponding incentives.• Creating a system of “tiers” of incentivesgiven and benefits provided,that could effectively phase requirementsand prioritize benefits.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 4-35

4LAND USE• Increasing benefits for developers asmore benefits are added.• Numerically linking the financial valueof the bonus given (defined by valueof gross floor area added) to the costof benefit provided.• Establishing a “points” system to linkincentives and benefits. For example,the City may devise a menu ofcivic or environmental benefits andassign points to each item. The pointsearned then determine the amount ofheight, density, or FAR bonus a developmentmay claim.• Identifying the economic feasibility ofdevelopment as a determining factorin arriving at the amount of communitybenefits to be provided by a particularproject.LU-50 Community benefits monitoring program.Create a monitoring program totrack the progress of the incentives program,to adjust and fine-tune it as necessaryto ensure that incentives offeredmake sense in the market place anddeliver the desired benefits to the city.Affordable HousingLU-51 Affordable housing funding. Advocatefor increases to federal/state/local fundingfor affordable housing to supportaffordable housing development and fornew sources of funding at the federal/state/local level.LU-52 Incentive program. Study the feasibilityof an incentive program that would allowproject proponents to relax developmentstandards or to increase project heightand/or density in exchange for affordablehousing, including family and senioraffordable housing.LU-53 Land banking. Create a land banking program,should funding become available,that would set aside money to acquiresites for affordable housing.LU-54 Existing affordable housing stock. Continueto fund preservation and improvementsto the existing subsidized housingstock in the Plan Area. The existingaffordable housing stock in the PlanArea represents a tremendous asset thatneeds to be preserved.LU-55 Condominium Conversion Ordinance.Consider modifications to the City’s CondominiumConversion Ordinance to preserveexisting rental housing in the PlanningArea.LU-56 Citywide inclusionary housing policy.Continue to explore citywide inclusionarypolicy that addresses concerns from allconstituents.4-36 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

5 OPEN SPACEIN THIS CHAPTER5.1 Existing Open Space......................... 5-25.2 Community Needs Assessment...... 5-65.3 Proposed Park Improvementsand New Open Spaces..................... 5-75.4 Existing Policies and BestPractices........................................... 5-17Policies.............................................. 5-18

5OPEN SPACEOpen SpaceParks, publicly accessible open spaces,and natural areas are important communityassets for both social interaction andphysical health. Open spaces are even moreessential in high intensity areas, such as thePlanning Area, in order to provide a respitefrom the activity and noise associated withurban living.5.1 Existing Open SpaceExisting Public ParksThe Planning Area has 35 acres of public spacesthat are designated as parks, including LincolnSquare Park, Madison Square Park, Chinese GardenPark (Harrison Square), Peralta Park, LakeMerritt Channel Park and a portion of LakesidePark/Lake Merritt. These parks, along with adescription of their open space zoning designationand their size, are listed in Table 5.1 and shown onFigure 5.1.Lincoln Square Park, Chinese Garden Park (HarrisonSquare), and Madison Square Park date to theoriginal 1853 plan for the City of Oakland. Theoriginal plan included seven public squares, eachthe size of a City block, symmetrically arrangedaround Broadway, dedicated for use as publicparks. The system was disrupted by the constructionof Interstate 880, which covered two formerpark sites; by the construction of Alameda Countyfacilities at 4th Street and Broadway; and by thedevelopment of the BART system, which resultedin the relocation of Madison Square Park oneblock west to its current location. The parks haveevolved over the years with the changing population,and are storied and treasured neighborhoodassets.Lake Merritt, the Estuary Waterfront, Peralta Parkand Lake Merritt Channel Park provide additionalopen space and recreation opportunities in thePlanning Area. They are part of a citywide openspace system and an emphasis of the City’s effortsto reconnect the City with its waterfront.The open space and recreational facilities in theseparks are important contributors to quality of lifein this dense urban neighborhood. In addition toserving residents and workers, these spaces drawusers from throughout the city and the region.Lincoln Square Park in particular, because of highquality programming, supports Chinatown’s roleas a center for Asian culture. Parks in the PlanningArea also link to regional open space systems.Other Publicly Accessible Open SpacesTable 5.2 identifies other publicly accessible openspaces, including the BART plazas; courtyardsand recreational factilities at Laney College; plazasaround the Library and Alameda County offices;the courtyard at Pacific Renaissance Plaza; and thegardens in the Oakland Museum of California.These are valuable public space resources withinthe Planning Area. The bustling sidewalks inthe Planning Area also serve as important publicspaces for informal social gatherings and interaction.Nearby designated open space areas, just beyond ahalf-mile radius from the Lake Merritt BART Station,include the Estuary Waterfront Park and theBay Trail, Clinton Park in Eastlake, Athol Plaza onEast 18th Street and the pathways and parks associatedwith Lake Merritt.5-2 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

Table 5.1: EXISTING LAND ZONED AS OPEN SPACE WITHIN ONE-HALF MILE OF THE LAKE MERRITTBART STATION 1NAME ZONING DEFINITION 1 ACREAGE 2Chinese Garden Park(Harrison Square)Special Use ParkAreas for single purpose activities, orhistoric or aesthetic sitesMadison Square Park Special Use Park Areas for single purpose activities, orhistoric or aesthetic sitesLincoln Square Park Neighborhood Park Located in a residential area; locatedadjacent to elementary schoolsLake Merritt ParkEstuary ParkRegion-ServingParkRegion-ServingParkLarge recreation areas with diverse naturaland man-made featuresLarge recreation areas with diverse naturaland man-made featuresPeralta Park Linear Park Provides linear access to a natural feature 3.9such as a creek or shorelineLake Merritt Channel Park 3 Linear Park Provides linear access to a natural feature 14.9such as a creek or shorelinePublic Parks Acreage 34.61. Open Space Conservation and Recreation Element (OSCAR) of Oakland General Plan, pg. 4-5.2. Acreage only includes land within the one-half mile radius and excludes water.3. Lake Merritt Channel Park is from East 10th Street south to I-880.Source: City of Oakland Parks Shapefile, clipped to 1/2 mile radius around Lake Merritt BART, and excluding water. and Public HealthParks and community facilities are essentialin any community, but particularly in highdensityurban communities where space islimited and the benefits are essential. Parks,open spaces, and recreation facilities providespace for physical activities that havepositive health benefits (Tai-Chi, dancing,badminton, basketball) and social interaction,which can lead to general well-beingand a strong sense of community.The Station Area Plan proposes an extensionof the greenway along the Lake MerrittChannel to connect to the Estuary Waterfrontand Bay Trail. The Plan also encouragesjoint use of Oakland Unified SchoolDistrict (OUSD) and Laney College recreationfacilities to provide additional openspace opportunities for healthy living.Table 5.2: OTHER PUBLICLY ACCESSIBLE OPEN SPACES IN THE PLANNING AREANAMEDESCRIPTIONRECREATION FACILITIESLaney College Playing FieldsBaseball and soccer fields and football stadium, publicly ownedOTHER PUBLICLY ACCESSIBLE OPEN SPACEAlameda County PlazaPlaza with hardscaping and amenities, publicly ownedBART Station PlazasPlazas with hardscaping and amenities, publicly ownedLaney College CourtyardsCourtyards with hardscaping and amenities, publicly ownedOakland Museum of California Gardens Elevated gardens, publicly owned and fully open to the publicwhile museum is openOakland Public Library PlazasLawns and plaza spaces along streets, publicly ownedPacific Renaissance PlazaHardscaped courtyard, privately-ownedLake Merritt, the Estuary Waterfront, Peralta Park and LakeMerritt Channel Park are part of a citywide open space systemand an emphasis of the City’s efforts to reconnect the City withits waterfront. Improvements to Lake Merritt Park will make thelake more accessible and add new park land.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 5-3

12th StBARTBROADWAYFRANKLIN STPacificRenaissancePlazaWEBSTER STHARRISON ST19TH ST14TH ST13THST12TH ST11TH STLincolnSquarePark10TH STPostOfficeLincolnElementaryJACKSON ST17TH ST15TH STMADISON STPublicLibraryLAKESIDE DROAK ST11THLakesideParkLAKECountyCourtST TUNNELMERRITT BLVDOaklandMuseum ofCaliforniaLakeMerrittKaiser AuditoriumPeraltaParkLAKESHORE AVELakesidePark1ST AVEOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictATHOLFOOTHILL BLVDE. 15TH ST2ND AVEAVEE. 18TH STINTERNATIONAL BLVDE. 12TH STOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampus3RD AVE4TH AVEE. 11TH STFigure 5.1: 5.1PUBLIC Public Parks PARKS and AND Other OTHERPUBLICLY Publicly Accessible ACCESSIBLE OPENSPACES Open SpacesExisting ParksPlanned/Approved/Under ConstructionLaney RecreationalAreaPublic Open SpaceOwned by PeraltaOther PubliclyAccessible OpenSpacePlanning Area9TH ST8TH STALICE STMadisonSquareParkLakeMerrittBARTMTC/ABAGBARTParkingLaneyCollegePeraltaParkLakeMerrittChannelParkE. 10TH ST5TH AVEChineseGardenPark7TH ST6TH STLaneyParkingE. 7TH STBROADWAYFRANKLIN STWEBSTER STWEBSTER PLHARRISON STALICE STJACKSON ST5TH ST4TH ST3RD ST2ND STMADISON STOAK ST4TH STFALLON STVICTORY CT880LakeMerrittChannelParkPeralta Community CollegeDistrict AdministrationEMBARCADEROEMBARCADERO WESTWATER STAMTRAK1ST STEstuaryPark0 500 1000100FEET5-4 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

5OPEN SPACEOpen Space ZoningParks, open space, and land used for recreation areregulated by the Oakland Planning Code, specifically,the Open Space Zoning Regulations. TheOpen Space zone is intended to “create, preserve,and enhance land for permanent open space tomeet the active and passive recreational needs ofresidents and promote park uses which are compatiblewith surrounding land uses and the city’snatural environment.”The Planning Code regulates activities which takeplace in parks, and some activities require a permitreview by the Parks and Recreation AdvisoryCommission (PRAC). For example, to put a newcommunity garden, a new tot lot, or a full servicerestaurant in a park requires a Conditional UsePermit (CUP). This is important because it ensuresthat incompatible uses will not be allowed to bedeveloped in public open spaces. It also means thatsome activities that would improve and activateparks may require a CUP application, includingpayment of fees, presentations at public hearings,and the time needed for staff review of the proposal.Lincoln Square Park and Madison Square Park (top); park land along Lake Merritt Channel (middle); publicly-accessible open spaceat Pacific Renaissance Plaza and Oakland Museum of California (bottom).LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 5-5

5OPEN SPACE5.2 Community Needs AssessmentThere have been a number of opportunities for thepublic to convey suggestions for open space and recreationimprovements as part of the Station Areaplanning process. A summary of this feedback,below, serves as a tool to understand the parks, recreation,and community amenities needs of thosewho live, work, own businesses, or visit the PlanningArea.Community Engagement Process SurveyIn 2009, as part of the Lake Merritt Station AreaPlan’s Community Engagement Process, a surveywas conducted of approximately 1,500 residents, visitors,business owners and Laney College students.The answers to the survey questions about parksand open space show the public’s strong desire forimproved facilities and opportunities for new activitiesand recreation in the area.A summary of the results shows that:• Those who live in the study area, children, 1 andseniors 2 ranked “parks and recreation centers” thenumber one aspect (out of eighteen other criteria)making the area a healthy place to live, work anddo business.• Children and seniors ranked “insufficient parksand recreation centers” number four (out ofsixteen other criteria) for the aspect that makesthe area an unhealthy place to live, work and dobusiness.1 Children were defined as those under 17 years old.2 Seniors were defined as those between 65-74 years old.• “Access to parks and open space” was rankednumber three (of ten criteria) by visitors andchildren; and all respondents (residents, businessowners, employees, Laney Students and BARTpatrons) ranked it in the top five of the area’s“urgent needs.”• When asked what the most urgent needs were forparks and open space, residents, business ownersand visitors ranked “athletic fields/tai chi areas”as the number one need, while employees in thearea, and BART patrons said “neighborhoodparks (trees, meadows, surfaced creeks)” was thenumber one urgent need.Ongoing Lake Merritt Station Area PlanProcessAdditional public input was received during the LakeMerritt Station Area planning process (including atworkshops, focus groups, and Community StakeholderGroup meetings) that indicated that communitymembers would like to have improved opportunitiesfor open space and recreation. Key points include:• Madison Square Park should remain primarily asopen space, for recreational use. (Other specificimprovements are described below in Section5.3.)• The Plan should include creative strategies forimproving current recreation opportunities andcreating new parks and open spaces.• In Chinatown, service providers and schools areconstrained for recreational facilities.• There is an unmet need for youth recreation.Level of Service Goals for Parks andOpen SpaceThe City of Oakland has a citywide Level of Servicegoal of four acres of local-serving parks per 1,000 residents,which is more than is currently provided inthe Planning Area, though there is relatively greateraccess to regional park spaces. 3 The Plan considersthis target, and will attempt to address the openspace and recreation needs of current residents, andthe expected new residents in the years to come.However, the Planning Area must share limitedresources with other neighborhoods in City of Oakland,with their own parks deficiencies. For example,the General Plan Open Space Conservation and Recreation(OSCAR) Element notes that “the greatest(parks and open space) deficiencies are in Fruitvale andCentral East Oakland.” 4 These existing deficiencies inother neighborhoods in the City affect the PlanningArea: many users of the Recreation Center in LincolnSquare Park are from Central and East Oakland/Fruitvale, as the City learned during the focus groupand stakeholder interviews. Residents of those neighborhoods,if they were better-served in local facilities,might not need to travel to the Planning Area for recreationalpurposes alone.3 OSCAR, pages 4-9 and following, and Table 15, page4-40.4 OSCAR, page 4-10.5-6 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

5OPEN SPACE5.3 Proposed Park Improvements and NewOpen SpacesAs new development takes place and the residentialpopulation increases, improved access, maintenance,and usability of existing parks, as well asdevelopment of new open spaces, will be essentialto ensure a high quality of life in this increasinglydense urban setting.A main objective of the General Plan OSCAR isreducing deficiencies in parks acreage and recreationalfacilities in the most equitable, cost effectiveway possible. 5 One of the strategies of the Planis to continue to implement this objective, first bymaking the most out of existing spaces; secondly,by partnering with the Oakland Unified SchoolDistrict and other schools; and third, by expandingthe amount of new park and open space acreageand recreation facilities. Funding mechanismsare covered briefly at the end of this section, andmore fully in Chapter 10.Maintain and Enhance Existing SpacesThis section describes recommendations for makingthe most out of existing open space and recreationalfacilities in the Planning Area, includingideas for improved access, expanded programming,and physical improvements.Lincoln Square Park and RecreationCenter ImprovementsLincoln Square Park is heavily used by hundredsof people during the day and evening, andis described in the General Plan OSCAR as “themost popular park in Chinatown.” Communitymembers want to maintain the uses and activitiesat this location and ensure continued maintenanceas the neighborhood continues to grow. A recentfocus group by the City’s Office of Parks andRecreation revealed users wanted more trees andgreenery, shading, a computer lab with updatedequipment in the Recreation Center, and a “multilevelbuilding with full sports/fitness facilities.” SeeChapter 7 for additional discussion of the RecreationCenter.Recent improvements have been made to expandthe amount of land dedicated to recreational use.In the summer of 2011, construction was completedon the transformation of a surface parkinglot between Lincoln Elementary and the RecreationCenter into additional recreational area withfour-square courts, artificial turf areas for playing,and perimeter landscaping to enhance the lookand feel of the park. Improvements also includea stretching and fitness station, café seating, anelevated stage, an improved walking corridor, andinterpretative panels on local natural resources.5 OSCAR, Objective REC-3: Parkland and Park FacilityDeficiencies, pg. 4-39.Lincoln Square Park is described in the OSCAR as “the mostpopular park in Chinatown.” Recent improvements haveincluded additional recreational area and amenities and awalking corridor (middle and bottom.)LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 5-7

5OPEN SPACEChinese Garden Park features a Chinese community centerwith senior center programming (top and middle) and recentlandscape improvements (bottom).In addition to the recent improvements, there isalso the idea to expand the Recreation Center byadding to the second floor. Funding is not currentlyallocated; the City applied for grant fundingthrough the Statewide Park Program but this projectwas not selected. Potential funding sources mayinclude General Fund revenues (in competitionwith other City needs); revenues from a CommunityFacilities or other special assessment districtcreated through voter approval; or other means asdescribed in Chapter 10: Implementation.Chinese Garden (Harrison Square) ParkImprovementsChinese Garden Park provides important culturalamenities, a Chinese community center, seniorcenter programming, and a community gardenthat is well used by residents in the Planning Area.It has the potential to accommodate still more variedprogramming. Improvements including newADA parking facilities and pathways, new irrigationand lawn and new plants and trees, estimatedat about $1.1 million have been recently completed.Access is constrained and safety is a concern giventhe high volumes of traffic and vehicle speeds onsurrounding streets, especially 7th Street. The currentroute from Alameda to I-880 uses the portionof 7th Street bordering this park, along with othercity streets, as a part of the highway approach. TheOSCAR states that, “access improvements across7th Street are now needed to ensure pedestriansafety and the usefulness of the Park.”Community members have identified 7th andHarrison Streets, and 7th and Alice Streets asamong the priority locations for pedestrian crossingimprovements. The intersection of 7th andAlice may warrant a new traffic signal, whichcould help to provide a safe crossing to the Park.Improvements could also be made without a newsignal, with bulb-outs and other traffic calmingdevices, as described in Chapter 6. MeanwhileHarrison Street has been identified as a key corridorfor lighting and streetscape improvements, andthis would also help to integrate the park with theneighborhood. Any future roadway improvementsin this area, including those that may result fromthe Broadway-Jackson Interchange Project coordinatedby the Alameda County TransportationCommission, should enhance pedestrian safety,especially at intersections.Madison Square Park ImprovementsMadison Square Park is a key asset that is vital tothe physical and mental health of the community,particularly for the Tai Chi community that regularlyuses the park. Issues currently limiting use ofthe park include inadequate lighting and perceivedlack of safety. Improvements to Madison SquarePark could include new recreational facilities andvegetation, and removal of contaminated soils.These improvements are a Group B priority projecton the FY11-13 Park CIP Priority List (cost isestimated at approximately $3 million.) MeasureWW, the East Bay Regional Parks District bondmeasure, set aside $300,000 for improvements tothe park. Other potential funding sources mayinclude General Fund revenues (again, competing5-8 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

5OPEN SPACEwith other City needs); revenues from a CommunityFacilities District or other special assessmentdistrict created through voter approval; or othermeans as described in Chapter 10: Implementation.Community members have suggested additionalimprovements that would increase use of MadisonSquare Park and bring more people to use the parkat all times of the day. These include:• A 12,000- to 15,000-square foot hardscapedplaza for use as Tai Chi space, sports space, andfestival plaza space. The plaza should generallynot include steps or grade changes;• Improved play structure for young children;• New exercise equipment for adults, acommunity garden, and gaming tables;• Area(s) for ad hoc seating/viewing around theplaza;• Area lighting;• Shade structures and other amenities, includingtrash cans and electrical connections inmultiple locations;• Memorial or cultural structures;• New programming that is multigenerationaland multicultural, such as festivals and exerciseclasses;• Regulating use and open hours, includingencouraging people to clean up after pets byposting ordinance and fine information, anddeterring homeless by instituting and postinghours of operation;• “Activating” the park, by creating a process toallow and encourage vendors, food services,music and performance; and promoting dayand evening activities;• Redesigning the Jackson Street frontage to beat-grade with Jackson Street, with no physicalbarriers between the park/plaza and JacksonStreet;• Raising the surface level of the park to becloser to that of the surrounding sidewalks, toimprove usability and safety;• Improving linkages with Lincoln Square Parkand other parks through physical routes andshared programming to create a network ofopen spaces; 6• Public restroom facilities located either inthe park or in a future Youth/CommunityCenter on the adjacent BART blocks and madeavailable to users of Madison Square Parkduring hours of Youth/Community Centeroperations;• Better maintenance of the park.Each of these ideas has the potential to enhancethe usability and safety of the park. New facilitiesand amenities (gaming tables; seating andshelter) and new activities (food services, performances)would help give the park a use to manycommunity members who may not currently beattracted to the park. When considering newuses and users of the space, existing uses (such asmorning Tai Chi or mid-day basketball) must beaccommodated. New park users would contributeto a greater sense of safety in the park, providing6 The “10,000 Steps”project has created a loop walk withstepping stones that reveal Oakland history as it relatesto the four historic squares.Madison Square Park is vital to the health of the community.Community members have suggested a range of improvementsto increase park safety and use, including redesigning the parkto remove physical barriers from the street, providing shadestructures, and new play equipment.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 5-9

5OPEN SPACE“eyes” and lessening the potential for subgroups todominate. Physical improvements relating to visibilityand access would address specific problemsthat influence community members’ current experienceof the park. Limiting undesirable park use(for example, at night) and establishing the expectationof order and cleanliness would help establisha new image and signal that the park is a valuableasset that the community feels ownership of. Parkimprovements may be funded through the CapitalImprovements Program (CIP) or other sources (seeChapter 10: Implementation). 7Lake Merritt and Lake Merritt ChannelImprovementsLake Merritt, the Estuary Waterfront, Peralta Parkand Lake Merritt Channel Park provide additionalopen space and recreation opportunities in the PlanningArea. The OSCAR classifies Lake MerrittPark as a “region-serving park,” while Channel andPeralta Parks are “linear parks.” OSCAR policiesemphasize the need to improve visibility and connectionsto the Estuary Park and along the Channel.Completing improvements along the Channelto the Estuary is also a priority of the Lake MerrittMaster Plan and the Estuary Policy Plan.Access to these parks is currently constrained dueto visual and physical obstacles, as well as per-ceived distance from the current center of commercialand residential activity in the Planning Area.Measure DD improvements currently underwaywill improve access to these assets. 8 Measure DDimprovements include:• Lake Merritt Boulevard (formerly 12th Street)redesign, and creation of a new, four-acre parkon the southern edge of Lake Merritt, in thePlanning Area.• 10th Street Bridge (Clear Span Bridge,removing culverts to allow improved waterflow).• 7th Street Flood Control Pump Station,and Channel bypass to allow small boats tonavigate around the Pump Station.• Lake Merritt water quality improvements andamenities renovations.• Enhanced bicycle and pedestrian access alongthe Channel.The Station Area Plan will further improve theaccessibility of open spaces along Lake Merritt andthe Channel through targeted streetscape improvementsas outlined in Chapter 6, thereby improvingwalkability and visibility. This will implementobjectives of the Estuary Policy Plan, which callsfor linking the Estuary to Lake Merritt by enhancingthe Lake Merritt Channel. 9 The Station AreaMeasure DD-funded improvements currently underwayinclude redesign of the roadway along the Lake’s southernedge (top); building a clear span bridge at 10th Street (middle),and enhancing bicycle and pedestrian access (bottom). Theseimages show conditions before improvements.5-10 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 20127 While some stakeholders also expressed the desire fora community center or senior center here, communityfeedback has been overwhelmingly in favor of preservingas much open space as possible in the park, free ofpermanent structures. This approach supports GeneralPlan OSCAR Policy OS-2.1, to manage Oakland’surban parks to protect and enhance their open spacecharacter while accommodating a wide range of outdoorrecreational activities.8 Measure DD was passed by Oakland voters in 2002,allowing the City to generate $198 million in bondfinancing to develop parks, trails, bridges, recreationfacilities, historic building renovations, land acquisitionand creek restoration.9 See, specifically, Estuary Policy Plan actions “OAK-3.1:Create a system of public open spaces that connectsLake Merritt Channel to the Estuary” and “OAK-3.2:Work with public agencies in the area to extend theopen space system inland from the Channel.”

5OPEN SPACEPlan’s land use strategy (outlined in Chapter 4)will help to extend the commercial and residentialactivity closer to the parks and complementstreetscape improvements with active uses.Improvements to Other PubliclyAccessible Open SpacesEnhanced open spaces associated with public andprivate development have the potential to enrichquality of life in the neighborhood and help definethe larger open space system. Paved and landscapedareas exist around the Oakland PublicLibrary and on the Oak Street side of the AlamedaCounty building. These spaces may be especiallywell-suited to programming, food vending, andsimilar activities that generate daytime activity andimprove quality of life for both residents and workers.OSCAR Policy 11.1 calls for providing betteraccess to attractive, sunlit open spaces for personsworking or living in downtown Oakland.Publicly accessible courtyards in block interiors existat Pacific Renaissance Plaza and at Laney College.These provide valuable central gathering spaces forthe Chinatown commercial core and for the communitycollege, respectively.Joint Use AgreementsSchoolyards are an underutilized open spaceresource. The OSCAR (Policy OS-2.2) directsthe City to work collaboratively with OaklandUnified School District (OUSD) to make schoolyardsmore accessible and attractive. The currentjoint use agreement between the City of Oakland’sLincoln Recreation Center and OUSD’s LincolnElementary is a very successful model for easingaccess between schools and community facilities.The Station Area Plan identifies two additionalopportunities for joint use agreements in the PlanningArea:• The Oakland Unified School District’sDowntown Educational Complex at 2ndAvenue and East 10th Street, will add newschools, a public playing field and basketballcourts.• Laney College’s sports fields include baseball,football and track and field facilities east ofthe Channel and a swimming pool west ofthe Channel. While class registration feesare very affordable and Laney has specialprograms to increase access to its swimmingpool in particular, general public access to thesefacilities is limited to Laney students. Ensuringopen space preservation and better communityaccess to these recreational open spaces andfacilities would achieve several policies from theOSCAR.There is potential for the broader community tobenefit from these amenities, and a joint use agreementis one method for ensuring wider communityaccess.The Plan recommends using the current joint use agreementfor Lincoln Recreation Center (top) as a model for future agreementsfor the Downtown Educational Complex (middle) andLaney College (bottom).LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 5-11

5OPEN SPACEThe Plan recommends that new development over half a blockin size is required to provide on-site, publicly accessible openspace (10% of the total site area). This would help create newopen spaces where high intensity redevelopment is proposed.New Open Spaces and RecreationalFacilitiesThe Station Area Plan also includes recommendationsfor new open spaces. These would be createdas part of new development, along Lake Merrittand the Lake Merritt Channel, and as temporaryuses of existing streets or rights-of-way, asdescribed below.New open spaces should respond to the types offacilities the community has indicated it wants,based on the Community Engagement Process surveydescribed on page 5-6: access to neighborhoodparks, recreation centers, athletic fields, and TaiChi areas. The Plan seeks to achieve these in partby improving existing parks and joint use agreements,and in part by providing well-designed,small new publicly accessible open spaces in thePlanning Area.Open Space Requirements for NewDevelopment Under Current ZoningUnder existing zoning regulations in the PlanningArea, new residential development is required toprovide private open space, intended for use onlyby residents of the site. Private open space must beprovided in an amount that equals to 75 squarefeet per regular unit or 38 square feet per roomingunit. This private open space can be either accessibleto all residents or individually portioned offfor each unit. Rooftop open space may be countedtoward the requirement of private usable openspace. However, only 25 to 50 percent of the totalamount of required private usable open space canbe located on the uppermost rooftop of a building.New zoning should consider eliminating the limitationson counting portions of rooftops as privateopen space, in order to allow greater flexibility insatisfying this requirement, while still providing auseful and pleasant open space for residents.Current zoning does not have requirements forpublic open space, intended to be used and accessibleto the general public. However, current regulationsdo allow a residential development to providea publicly accessible ground-floor plaza to satisfythe private usable open space requirement. Thispossibility should remain in new zoning and mayresult in the creation of some new, publicly accessibleopen space in the Planning Area.Recommended New Public Open SpaceRequirementsThe Station Area Plan recommends that all newdevelopment over half a block in size be requiredto provide on-site, publicly accessible open spaceamounting to 10 percent of the total site area.These sites are shown in Figure 5.2. This requirementwould apply to all types of development, notonly residential. It would not apply to individual,smaller parcels. These new publicly accessibleopen spaces should follow the design principlesdescribed on page 5-17. This requirement wouldhelp achieve OSCAR Policy OS-11.2 to “createnew civic open spaces at BART stations … and inother areas where high intensity redevelopment isproposed.”In addition, the City should study the feasibilityof providing the option for developers to pay inlieufees equivalent to having provided that space.Establishment of both the open space requirementand the in-lieu fees would need to be based ona nexus study, which is beyond the scope of thisPlan.5-12 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

12th StBARTBROADWAYBROADWAYFRANKLIN STFRANKLIN STPacificRenaissancePlazaWEBSTER STW E B S T E R S T R E E T G R E E NWEBSTER PLto JackLondonSquareHARRISON STHARRISON ST19TH ST14TH ST13THST12TH ST11TH STLincolnSquarePark10TH ST9TH ST8TH STChineseGardenParkALICE STALICE STPostOfficeLincolnElementary7TH STJACKSON STJACKSON ST6TH ST5TH ST4TH ST3RD ST2ND ST17TH ST15TH STMadisonSquareParkMADISON STMADISON STPublicLibraryLakeMerrittBARTMTC/ABAGLAKESIDE DROAK STOAK STLakesidePark11THLAKECountyCourtST TUNNELBARTParking4TH STMERRITT BLVDOaklandMuseum ofCaliforniaFALLON STLaneyCollegeLaneyParkingVICTORY CTLakeMerrittKaiser AuditoriumPeraltaParkPeraltaParkLAKESHORE AVE1ST AVEOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictLake MerrittChannelParkLakeMerrittChannelParkLakesidePark880PotentialPedestrianBridgeATHOLAVEE. 18TH STFOOTHILL BLVDE. 15TH ST2ND AVEE. 7TH STINTERNATIONAL BLVDE. 10TH STE. 12TH STOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampusPeralta Community CollegeDistrict AdministrationEMBARCADERO3RD AVE4TH AVEE. 11TH ST5TH AVEFigure 5.2: 5.2PUBLIC Existing OPEN Parks SPACE andOPPORTUNITIESFuture Open SpaceOpportunitiesExisting ParksNew Open SpacePlanned/Approved/Under ConstructionLaney RecreationalAreaPublic Open SpaceOwned by PeraltaOther PubliclyAccessible Open SpaceNew Open SpaceProposedNew Open SpacePotential Site forOpen SpaceContribution (siteover 1/2 blockor 0.7 acres)Connections toOpen SpaceFestival StreetWebster Street GreenExisting ParkEnhancementFuture PotentialJoint UsePlanning AreaEMBARCADERO WESTWATER STAMTRAK1ST STEstuaryPark0 500 1000100FEETLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 5-13

5OPEN SPACETemporary “parklets” (top), streets designed for festivals (middle)and alleys redesigned for restaurants and public space(bottom) are innovative ways to provide open space.New Park Land at Lake Merritt and theChannelAs described in the first section of this Chapter,four acres of new park land are being developedat the northern edge of the Planning Area, alongthe south shore of Lake Merritt, funded in partby Measure DD. These improvements will alsoinclude a pedestrian and bicycle pathway along theLake Merritt Channel between Lake Merritt andI-880. Following the Lake Merritt Master Plan,this Plan recommends extending this pathway tothe Estuary waterfront and the Bay Trail along thewest side of the Lake Merritt Channel.The Lake Merritt Master Plan identifies the Channelas a future open space link between the Lakeand the Estuary. The Station Area Plan in turncalls for a new greenway or linear park along theeast side of the Lake Merritt Channel, if the publicproperties along this edge redevelop, and calls foran extension of the linear park to make the linkunder I-880 and south to the Estuary waterfrontvia a pedestrian bridge.Finally, the Fire Alarm Building site at the cornerof 14th and Oak Streets at Lakeside Park has specialpotential to contribute some publicly-accessibleopen space. The City should facilitate reuse ofthe historic building on this site as a communityfacility or commercial use open to the public, suchas a restaurant. If the site is redeveloped, a potentialopen space contribution should preserve viewsto the Lake and establish a clear connection to theLake and its trails.Streetscapes and Temporary OpenSpacesReconfiguring public right-of-way offers an opportunityto expand the usable open space of thePlanning Area in an innovative and lower-costway. These open spaces may be temporary, as inthe case of parklets and festival streets describedbelow. They may also be in the form of streetscapeimprovements that include public seating, or otherspaces that invite people to gather and linger.A parklet is the temporary use of space in the publicright-of-way (such as curbside parking spaces),for public uses such as seating, passive recreation,or landscaping. Parklets are meant to contributeto a more pedestrian-friendly urban environment,while supporting nearby businesses. Theyare open for public use, but privately constructedand maintained. Parklets may be created by adjacentbusinesses, through application to the City.In the fall of 2011, the City of Oakland starteda pilot program to encourage the development ofup to eight “parklets” on commercial streets, withone-year permits. As envisioned, permits would berenewable for up to three years, after which pointthe permit may be rescinded in order to shift theparklet to another suitable location, to spread theeffect of temporary parklets throughout the City.Festivals or regular events like farmers markets ornight markets can convert street space into a recreationalspace. Fallon Street, with the festival streetimprovements described in Chapter 6, would providea flexible public space adjacent to the LakeMerritt BART Station and at the doorstep ofLaney College for community events. Low-traf-5-14 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

5OPEN SPACEfic side- street blocks in the Chinatown area suchas on Alice Street adjacent to the Hotel Oaklandwould also be good locations for festival streetsand temporary street closures.The King Block alley off of Harrison Streetbetween 12th and 13th Streets provides a specialopportunity to transform unused alley space intousable public space. The space could include cafés,bocce ball courts or other games, or a sculpturegarden.The Webster Green project envisions a ribbon ofpublic spaces adjacent to Webster Street betweenthe I-880 freeway and Jack London Square, connectingChinatown to the waterfront. Whileprimarily outside the Planning Area, this projectcould be extended into the Planning Area byencompassing the I-880 undercrossing on WebsterStreet. This project has the potential to provide agreat benefit to the neighborhood, by convertinga string of publicly-owned parking lots above theAlameda Tube into a series of public spaces.The Station Area Plan identifies four other primarycorridors that can act as links between the regionalopen spaces, the Planning Area, and the heart ofdowntown Oakland.• Oak Street provides a connection betweenEstuary Park at the waterfront and LakeMerritt Park, passing by several publiclyaccessible open spaces in the Planning Area.• 14th Street/Lakeside Drive links Lake Merrittand its network of parks and pathways to thecenter of downtown Oakland at Frank OgawaPlaza.• 10th Street connects the Chinatowncommercial district, with a terminus at PacificRenaissance Plaza, to Lincoln Square Park andthe Lake Merritt Channel and its surroundingopen spaces. This link supports the Plan goal ofstrengthening the relationships between thesedistricts.• 7th Street connects the Laney College athleticfacilities and Lake Merritt Channel with the7th Street/Harrison Square residential district,Chinese Garden Park (Harrison Square), andthe Webster Street Green.One way to emphasize these “green street” corridorsis to enhance existing plazas, such as at theLibrary and the Alameda County building on OakStreet, in such a way that links them more effectivelywith the street. A second strategy is to ensurethat new publicly accessible open spaces createdas part of new development along these corridorsreinforce their “green street” identity. Third, thecorridors should be sites for small streetscapinginterventions that highlight the link to regionalopen spaces.Funding MechanismsFunding mechanisms and estimated costs forimprovements are covered in more detail in Chapter10. It is noted here that some in-progressimprovements to regional parks in the PlanningArea—around Lake Merritt and the Channel—are already funded by Measure DD funds andother matching grants. Funding for new parks andimprovements to neighborhood parks may comefrom a variety of sources including grant fundingLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 5-15

5OPEN SPACEor implementation of developer fees or a CommunityFacilities District. New plazas may be createdas part of new development through zoningrequirements for publicly accessible open space.Developer fees could be instituted either througha citywide Quimby Act program or in the PlanningArea. Improvements funded by developer feeswould need to serve local residents, and a nexusstudy would need to be completed to establish fees.Only projects that are identified in the OSCARmay be funded through Quimby Act fees withouta nexus study.MaintenanceMaintenance of open spaces is essential to ensuretheir comfort, safety, and overall usability. Maintenanceof public parks is typically funded throughthe General Fund. Other potential sources includea Lighting and Landscape District, or BusinessImprovement District – a full range of options areincluded in Chapter 10. Owners of publicly accessibleplazas are responsible for maintaining thesespaces.Different types of open spaces, both new andimproved, may be achieved through different fundingsources and implementation measures. A smallpublicly accessible open space for office workersmay be created as part of new development, whilean expanded or new recreation center would likelyrequire grant money, impact fees, and/or a CommunityFacilities District.Prioritization of ImprovementsNew open spaces should reflect neighborhood culture, provideshade and spaces for programming, and include opportunitiesfor community gardens.In establishing funding priorities there will be aneed to balance citywide and Planning Area goals.From the standpoint of the Planning Area, priorityshould be given to improvements to existing spacesthat are very well-used, such as Lincoln RecreationCenter. While the Planning Area’s parks and recreationcenters have been identified by the communityas improvement priorities, they also attract peoplefrom the entire city and across the region. New andexpanded parks and recreation centers should maintainand improve access to these groups.5-16 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

5OPEN SPACE5.4 Existing Policies and Best PracticesEarlier planning efforts have established a numberof policies to govern the siting and design ofnew parks and open spaces (see “Existing Policies”below). In addition, the Plan promotes a numberof best practices for the design of new parks.These are summarized below and detailed in Planpolicies. As part of implementation of the Plan,the Oakland Planning Code will be amended toinclude updated standards to apply to open spacein the Planning Area.Existing PoliciesThe Oakland General Plan guides the creationof new parkland and recreation areas in the City.The Station Area Plan will, to the extent feasible,implement the objectives and policies from theGeneral Plan’s Open Space Conservation and RecreationElement (OSCAR, 1996) and the OaklandEstuary Policy Plan (1999). Specific objectives andpolicies from OSCAR and the Estuary Policy Planare included in Chapter 1, Section 1.3.The Station Area Plan also incorporates relevantpolicies from the Lake Merritt Master Plan (2002)and the Oakland Waterfront Trail – Bay Trail Feasibilityand Design Guidelines, described below.Lake Merritt Master Plan• The Lake is currently cut off from theEstuary, both physically and in spirit. No safepedestrian access is possible to Estuary Parkfrom the Lake. As the Estuary area becomesan attractive public destination, access must beimproved in kind.• Continuous green space and circulationaround the Lake should be a basic provisionof improvements to this area. A continuous,multi-use path should provide access along theshore and across the Channel. The path shouldconnect to the Estuary Park area.Oakland Waterfront Trail – Bay TrailFeasibility & Design Guidelines• At the intersection of Estuary Park and theLake Merritt Channel, an overhead pedestrianbridge crossing is proposed … to link into theproposed Lake Merritt Channel trail system,effectively linking Downtown and the Lakedirectly to the Estuary waterfront.• The waterfront parks are designed to provideusers with a variety of active and passiverecreational opportunities along the OaklandWaterfront Trail. They are intended to celebratethe waterfront and provide areas where peoplecan interact with the natural environment.Open Space DesignKey guidelines to create and maintain high-qualitypublic spaces, include:• Site parks to maximize sun access andminimize wind and shadows;• Design buildings adjacent to parks to minimizeshadows;• Locate parks at activity centers;• Maximize visibility and accessibility from thestreet;• Maximize comfort;• Design with usable surface materials;• Facilitate maintenance and maximizesustainability;• Design for active and passive use;• Design and program for all ages;• Provide culturally appropriate amenities andprograms;• Incorporate stormwater design;• Incorporate lighting and security designelements; and• Make rooftop public spaces clearly accessible.These design concepts are more fully describedas policies in the Design Guidelines for the LakeMerritt Station Area Plan.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 5-17

5OPEN SPACEVision• Create a more active, vibrant, andsafe district to serve and attractresidents, businesses, students, andvisitors.• Identify additional recreation andopen space opportunities.Goals• Improve existing parks and recreationcenters, including improving accessto existing parks; and add new parksand recreation centers to serve higherhousing density and increased numberof jobs.• Ensure all parks are safe, accessibleto all age groups, clean, well maintained,and provide public restroomsand trash containers.• Provide space for community andcultural programs and activities, suchas multi-use neighborhood parks, athleticfields, areas for cultural activitiessuch as tai chi, community gardens,and expanded library programs foryouth, families, and seniors.• Work with the Oakland Unified SchoolDistrict to ensure adequate capacityof school and children’s recreationfacilities.PoliciesThe open space policies in this chapter identify priorities and actions for improving existingparks and regional open spaces, and creating new publicly accessible open space as part of newdevelopment in the Planning Area. Other policies call for enhancing community access to openspace and recreational facilities through joint use agreements with schools, and for innovativeapproaches to use of street right-of-way as public open space.Overarching PoliciesOS-1 Existing park enhancement. Maintainand enhance existing public parks tobest meet community needs and contributeto a high quality of life.OS-2OS-3OS-4OS-5OS-6OS-7New parks. Establish new public and privateopen spaces throughout the PlanningArea wherever physically possible.Regional parkland improvements. Completeimprovements to regional parklandalong Lake Merritt and the Lake MerrittChannel and improve connections to theneighborhood.Publicly-accessible plazas. Work withinstitutions and private owners toenhance existing publicly-accessible plazas.Joint use agreements. Pursue new jointuse agreements with school and collegedistricts for community use of recreationalfacilities and open spaces.New publicly accessible open space.Create new publicly accessible openspace as part of larger new developments.Use of existing street space. Make moreuse of existing street space through parklets,streetscape improvements andtemporary closures for festivals.Maintain and Enhance ExistingNeighborhood ParksOS-8 Lincoln Square Park. Continue to maintainthe popular Lincoln Square Park,and make improvements on an ongoingbasis, responsive to the needs ofthe community. Potential improvementsinclude:• A fitness area addition;• A new “multi-level building with fullsports/fitness facilities;• Additional trees and greenery;• A computer lab with updated equipment;and• Other improvements as prioritized bythe community.OS-9 Pedestrian connections to ChineseGarden Park. Improve pedestrian connectionsto Chinese Garden Park on7th Street at Harrison and Alice Streetsas part of streetscape and circulationimprovements in the Planning Area.Improved connections may involveremoving the “soft right” turn from Harrisonto 7th Street, installing a traffic signalat Alice and 7th Street, adding curbextensions for pedestrians, and addingclear and highly visible pedestrian signagefor drivers.5-18 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

5OPEN SPACEOS-10 Madison Square Park. Enhance the openspace character of Madison Square Parkthrough physical design improvementsthat attract a diversity of park users andincrease safety. Changes must preservethe park’s usability for the Tai Chi community.Improvements may include butare not limited to:• A hardscaped plaza for use as Tai Chispace, sports space, and festival plazaspace. The plaza should generally notinclude steps or grade changes;• New exercise equipment for adults,play structures for kids, a communitygarden, gaming tables; memorial orcultural structures;• Area(s) for ad hoc seating/viewingaround the plaza;• Additional amenities such as shadestructures, trash cans, and electricalconnections;• Redesigning the Jackson Streetfrontage to be at-grade with JacksonStreet, with no physical barriersbetween the park/plaza and JacksonStreet;• Raising the surface level of the parkto be closer to that of the surroundingsidewalks, to improve usability andsafety;• Removal of contaminated soils, asplanned; and• Restrooms may be provided at thepark or in a future community facilityon an adjacent block.OS-11 Madison Square Park operations. Adjustpark operations at Madison Square Parkin a way that contributes to park safetyand vitality. Changes may include:• Adding programming that is multigenerationaland multicultural;• Regulating use and open hours;• Adding food vendors;• Scheduling day and evening activities,such as performances; and• Coordinating programming with otherlocal parks.Open Space Required as Part of NewDevelopmentOS-12 Consider requiring on-site open space.Consider requiring all new developmenton sites over half a block in size to provideon-site publicly-accessible openspace amounting to 10 percent of totalsite area. This open space would be inaddition to the existing requirement fornew residential development to provideusable open space for residents. Therequirement would not apply to individual,smaller parcels. Establishment ofan open space requirement requires anexus study.OS-13 Nexus study for in-lieu open space fees.Conduct a nexus study on a potentialoption for developers to pay in-lieu feesequivalent to having provided the 10percent open space set-aside identifiedin Policy OS-12 above, and a potentialadditional five percent contribution. Anin-lieu fee option would support OSCARAction OS-11.1.2, Downtown Open SpaceRequirements and Bonuses.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 5-19

5OPEN SPACEThe nexus study should consider requiringthat new development on sitesidentified on Figure 5.2 provide eitherten (10) percent of lot area to publiclyaccessibleopen space or contribute inlieu fees for equivalent off-site improvements,on an identified site. An additionalcontribution of either five (5) percentof the lot area for publicly-accessibleopen space or a contribution toan in-lieu fee could also be required tomeet community benefit obligations.OS-14 Open space location. Promote the locationof new open spaces so they complementexisting community resources anddestinations, and serve the core of theneighborhood. For instance, new spaceslocated within three blocks of LincolnRecreation Center could reduce pressureon those overburdened facilities.OS-15 Lake Merritt Channel edge setback.Require a 100-foot setback along theeastern edge of the Lake Merritt Channelto promote new publicly accessible openspace. This requirement would impactin particular the new remainder site atthe corner of Lake Merritt Boulevardand 12th Street (site 44) and the OUSDadministrative buildings (site 43) if theyare redeveloped.OS-16 Rooftop open space. Provide flexibilityin zoning to allow rooftop open space tocount for a greater amount of requiredusable open space in new residentialdevelopment.Lake Merritt and Lake Merritt ChannelImprovementsOS-17 Lake Merritt and Channel improvements.Enhance and build on plannedimprovements along Lake Merritt andthe Channel that improve the visibilityand accessibility of these regional openspace assets. Additional improvementsinclude:• Complete the expansion of Lake Merrittand Peralta Parks in the PlanningArea;• Extend the linear park along the LakeMerritt Channel to make the linkacross the I-880 freeway and to theBay Trail and Estuary Park; and• Provide a pedestrian bridge overthe railroad adjacent to Lake MerrittChannel, linking the Estuary waterfrontwith the proposed Lake MerrittChannel trail system, Lake Merritt,and Downtown.OS-18 Minimize disturbance to wildlife. Smallboat use of Lake Merritt Channel isrestricted to the non-wintering periodof April–September, when water birdabundance is low. During the closureperiod, booms shall be placed acrossthe outlet to the Channel from Lake Merrittand at the 7th Street dam to preventboat access and signs shall be postedindicating that the Channel is closed torecreational boaters. Channel closureon the south end should be extendedsouthward from the 7th Street Bridge tothe Embarcadero Bridge in tandem withfuture park land improvements.New open spaces should complement existing communityresources and destinations (top and middle). Improvement andexpansion of the Lake Merritt Channel Park is an importantregional open space improvement (bottom).5-20 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

5OPEN SPACEOther Publicly Accessible Open SpacesOS-19 Publicly accessible plazas. Work with theOakland Public Library, Alameda County,and the Oakland Museum of Californiato enhance their publicly accessibleplazas, in coordination with streetscapeimprovements.Joint Use AgreementsOS-20 OUSD joint use agreement. Establish ajoint use agreement with the OaklandUnified School District for communityuse of facilities planned for the DowntownEducational Complex, which willadd new classroom space, a public playingfield and basketball courts.OS-21 Laney College joint use agreement.Seek to develop a joint use agreementwith Laney College to ensure open spacepreservation and balanced communityaccess to recreational open space andfacilities.Temporary Open Spaces andStreetscapesOS-22 Parklets. Promote the creation of temporarypublic spaces through Oakland’s“Parklets” program, which allows existingparking spaces to be converted totemporary public open space. Thesespaces could contribute to the vitality,pedestrian-friendliness, and broadappeal of commercial blocks in the PlanningArea.OS-23 Festival street events. Work with LaneyCollege, the Chinatown Chamber ofCommerce, the Oakland Asian CulturalCenter, the Oakland Museum of California,and/or other partners to plan andcarry out events on festival streets, makinguse of streetscape improvementsand City support in administering temporarystreet closure. These spacesinclude Fallon Street across from theCollege’s main entrance and Alice Streetadjacent to Hotel Oakland.OS-24 Temporary street closures. Ease the procedurefor temporary street closures onblocks in the Planning Area that havelimited traffic and are directly related tothe Chinatown Commercial Core to facilitatefestivals or regular events.OS-25 King Block alley. Work with the ownersand adjoining properties of the KingBlock alley to develop a unique, activeuse for the space that highlights the historicnature of the space. The City canprovide technical assistance and waivecertain standards and permits in orderto promote revitalization of this alley.Potential ideas include a café row, bocceball courts or other games, and a sculpturegarden.Connections to Regional Open SpaceOS-26 Webster Green. Support completion ofthe Webster Green project, reconfiguringWebster Street from I-880 south, to createan attractive greenway that can functionboth as an important pedestrian route tothe waterfront and as an attractive openspace amenity. To ensure completion thatfully benefits the Planning Area, expandthe Webster Green project by designatingWebster Street from 5th to 7th Streets aspart of the Webster Green.OS-27 Regional open spaces linkage. PrioritizeOak, 14th, 10th, and 7th Streets forstreetscaping improvements that highlightthe link to regional open spaces.OS-28 “Green street” corridors. Ensure thatnew publicly accessible open spacescreated as part of new developmentalong Oak, 14th, 10th and 7th Streets inthe Planning Area reinforce the “greenstreet” identity of these corridors.OS-29 Fallon Street corridor. Undertakestreetscape improvements to FallonStreet between 7th and 10th streetsand along the right-of-way between theOakland Museum of California (OMCA)and the Kaiser Center, to create a clearand direct linkage between the publiclyaccessibleopen spaces at the Lake MerrittBART Station, Laney College, theOMCA, and Lake Merritt.OS-30 Fire Alarm Building. Facilitate redevelopmentor reuse of the Fire Alarm Buildingsite that involves a potential openspace contribution that preserves viewsto Lake Merritt and a clear connection tothe Lake and its trails.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 5-21

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6 STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONIN THIS CHAPTER6.1 Vision and Phasing........................... 6-26.2 Circulation Improvements..............6-116.3 Parking and Loading....................... 6-236.4 Recommendations forKey Streets....................................... 6-28Policies..............................................6-59

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONStreetscape and CirculationThe Planning Area has a broad range oftransportation options, including BART, ACTransit, local shuttles, regional freeways,and local streets. Many streets in the PlanningArea are strategic cross-town links andmajor transit corridors. The Plan will elevatethe effectiveness and comfort of travel byfoot, bike, and transit to, within, and throughthe Planning Area in order to minimize theneed for auto travel; thereby promoting theuse of walking, bicycling, and transit as theprimary modes of travel.The existing grid of small blocks is ideal toreconfigure the existing roadway networkinto a system of pedestrian- and bicyclescalestreets, connecting the Lake MerrittBART Station to the area’s many destinations,including Lake Merritt BART Station,Chinatown, Laney College, and Lake Merritt.Improved connectivity both within the PlanningArea and to the surrounding neighborhoodsand downtown will enhance thearea’s accessibility and role as a citywidedestination.The circulation strategies are closely tied tothe land use plan, concentrating higher densityuses near the BART station and activatingkey pedestrian and bicycle connections.6.1 Vision and PhasingBackgroundSafe and attractive streets that encourage pedestrianactivity and strong links to local destinationsand adjacent districts are the basic objectivesof the Streetscape and Circulation recommendations.Participants in the planning workshops andthe Community Stakeholders Group were clearin establishing these objectives as essential forenhancing livability and encouraging investmentin the Planning Area.The existing grid of small blocks provides an idealnetwork of pedestrian- and bicycle-scale streets,connecting the Lake Merritt BART station to thearea’s amenities, including Oakland Chinatown,Laney College, and government office buildings.The circulation system within the Planning Areashould promote walking and bicycling, particularlyconnecting non-vehicular modes of travel tothe BART station. Improved connectivity bothwithin the Planning Area and to the surroundingneighborhoods and downtown will enhance thearea’s accessibility and role as a citywide destination.Building on Recent PlansRecent studies, including the Revive ChinatownCommunity Transportation Plan (2002) and theLake Merritt BART Station Final Summary Report(2006) focused on the same issues, and this chapterincorporates many recommendations fromthese previous efforts.The City of Oakland Pedestrian Master Plan (2004)and Bicycle Master Plan (2007) designate specificstreets and portions of streets within the PlanningArea for improvements, as part of the city’s overallmultimodal travel network. Franklin, Webster,Madison, Oak, 14th, 10th east of Madison, 9th,and 8th Streets are designated for Class 2 (stripedlane) and/or Class 3A (shared lane) bicycle routes.Webster, Jackson, Oak, 14th, 9th, and 8th Streetsare also designated “Primary Pedestrian Routes,” ahigh priority for streetscape improvements.Complete Streets RequirementsState and federal agencies require that streetimprovement projects receiving grant fundingaddress multimodal access, particularly pedestrianand bicycle accommodation. Applicable policiesinclude Caltrans Deputy Directive 64 and the FederalManual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices(MUTCD) California supplements. Grant applicationssubmitted to the Metropolitan TransportationCommission (MTC) for capital improvementsfunding must complete a “Complete StreetsChecklist” that encourages provision of bicycleways with signs, signals and pavement markings;reduced pedestrian street crossing distances;high-visibility crosswalks; pedestrian signals andpedestrian-level lighting; shade trees; planters/bufferstrips; and many other features consistent withlocal community preferences and the recommendationsof the Plan.6-2 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONStreetscape VisionThe Lake Merritt Station Area Plan will guidedevelopment and capital improvements for thenext 25 years, and streetscape improvements arefundamental to the Plan’s strategy to supportcommercial revitalization and transit-orientedinfill development in the area. Though individualimprovements are important in and of themselves,they will be most effective if they support a largervision for the growth and evolution of the district.In a district that is easily walkable end-to-end in10 minutes, using streetscape improvements toenhance links to destinations within and adjacentto the Planning Area is a fundamental ingredient.The following concepts describe the major ideasthat underlie the proposed streetscape and circulationimprovements. The major concepts aredescribed below, and Figure 6.1 illustrates howthese concepts are translated onto specific streetsthroughout the Planning Area.• Improve and Expand the Core of Chinatown.Support the pedestrian-oriented commercialfocus of Webster, 8th, and 9th Streets withstreetscape amenities, lighting, street crossingimprovements, and other traffic calmingmeasures. Extend Chinatown’s character eastalong 8th and 9th Streets to Lake MerrittBART and Laney College. Establish anactive, pedestrian-oriented, well-lit connectionbetween Chinatown and the Lake MerrittBART Station/Laney College.The Plan seeks to expand the bustling Chinatown core (top),make connections by coupling active uses and streetscapeimprovements (middle), and improve connections under thehighway with active uses (bottom).Multimodal access will be improved by providing pedestrianorientedand distinctive street lighting (top), bike lanes(middle), and improved pedestrian crossings (bottom).LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-3

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATION• Connect Chinatown to the Jack LondonDistrict. Brighten the character of streetsand sidewalks that extend beneath the I-880Freeway with distinctive new lighting,enhanced pedestrian crossings, active uses, andattractive parking area screen walls if parkingremains in place.• Concentrate multimodal access at the LakeMerrit BART Station. Surround the LakeMerritt BART Station blocks with pedestrianorientedstreet and sidewalk improvements,bicycle routes, enhanced bus transfer, taxi, andkiss-and-ride areas.• Improve lighting, pedestrian crossings, andstreet trees on all streets. Sidewalk lightingand street crossing safety are the highestcommunity priorities. Shade trees should beadded to fill any existing gaps, to improve thepedestrian environment, increase propertyvalues, and reduce urban heat island effects,especially on streets with primarily residentialand institutional uses. In commercial areas,displays, awnings, lighting, and loading zonesmay take priority over street trees.• Connect Lake Merritt to the rest of thePlanning Area. Improve walking andbicycling connections between the Lake andcultural, civic, commercial, and recreationaldestinations, as well as the Lake MerrittBART Station. Invest in infrastructure andwayfinding to make these routes safer, morecomfortable, appealing, and more legible.• Add unique wayfinding signage. Connectregional and cultural destinations with a systemof wayfinding signage (the Oakland Museumof California, the Chinatown commercialcore, the Main Public Library, among others)and support pedestrian movement to andfrom the Lake Merritt BART Station andthroughout the neighborhood. Design signageto build upon and be consistent with existingwayfinding signage in the Chinatown core.• Reflect local character and the neighborhood.Incorporate streetscaping elements (plantings,pavement designs, public art, historicalmarkers, wayfinding signage, etc.) that reflectthe character of the street and celebrate theneighborhood’s past, present and future. Thisincludes opportunities for public art andhistorical markers. Key streets will have aconsistent appearance in wayfinding and othersignage, benches, and public art that celebratethe culture and history of the neighborhood.• Make the area a destination. Highlightlocal destinations through targeted streetinterventions (such as festival streets, culturalmarkers, and gateway elements) and a widerange of streetscape improvements to make thePlanning Area a place to visit and linger.Connect to Lake Merritt (top), add unique wayfinding thatbuilds on the existing system (middle), and make the area adestination by ensuring streets accommodate local festivalsand events.6-4 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

17TH STATHOLAVEE. 18TH STStreetscapeVisionFigure 6.1:STREETSCAPE ANDCIRCULATION VISION12th StBARTBROADWAYFRANKLIN STPacificRenaissancePlazaWEBSTER STHARRISON STLincolnSquareParkALICE ST14TH13THPostOfficeSTST12TH ST11TH STLincolnElementary10TH ST9TH ST8TH STJACKSON ST15TH STMadisonSquareParkMADISON STPublicLibraryLakeMerrittBARTLAKESIDE DROAK ST11T HCountyCourtST TUNN ELBARTParkingLAKESIDE DROaklandMuseum ofCaliforniaLakeMerrittKaiserAuditoriumLaney CollegeLAKESHO RE AVEOaklandUnifiedSchoolDistrict1ST AVEE. 10TH STFOOTHILL BLVDE. 15TH ST2ND AVE3RD AVEINTERNATIONAL BLVDOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampusE. 12TH ST4TH AVEE. 11TH ST5TH AVECivic Link to Lake MerrittTransit Preferential StreetsGreen Connection toLake Merritt ChannelKey Pedestrian ConnectionsKey Pedestrian andBicycle ConnectionsChinatown Core - ImprovePedestrian-Oriented StreetsBART Station Area -Improve Multimodal AccessFestival StreetPedestrian Link to Jack LondonDistrictBike / Pedestrian Connection toLaney CollegeMTC/ABAG7TH STChineseGardenPark6TH STLaneyParkingE. 7T H STWEBSTER PL5TH STPeralta CommunityCollege DistrictAdministration4TH ST4TH ST880BROADWAYFRANKLIN STWEBSTER STHARRISON STALICE STJACKSON ST3RD STMADISON STOAK STFALLON STVIC TO RY C TEMBARC ADERO2ND STEMBARCADERO WESTAMTRAK1ST ST0 500 1000100FEETLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-5

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONPedestrian-oriented lighting improvements can be completedin advance of sidewalk widening (top); subsequent wideningcould leave the lights in place (bottom).Phasing ConceptGiven the studies and construction costs associatedwith streetscape and circulation improvementprojects, it is desirable for improvements to proceedin a phased manner that allows traffic calmingand pedestrian safety improvements to proceedin the near term, with projects that requireadditional study and that are more costly (sidewalkwidening and two-way conversion) proceedinglater. The overall circulation improvement strategyis split into two phases. Phase I, shown in Figure6.2 includes short-term actions that are studied inthis Plan and EIR. Phase II, shown in Figure 6.3includes long-term actions that will be subject tofuture studies and may require additional environmentalclearance that are out of the scope of thisPlan.In order to identify the appropriate Phase IIimprovements, there is an interim step betweenPhase I and Phase II of completing transportationstudies that will evaluate the conversion of onewaystreets to two-way traffic. Any improvementsthat could preclude, complicate, or increase thecost of conversion would occur in the second phaseof work.Phasing Process• Initial Step: Apply for all types of streetscapegrants and two-way conversion study funding.• Phase I improvements: Implement short-termcirculation and streetscape improvements thatwould not preclude two-way conversion in thefuture. These may include:––Streetscape improvements such aspedestrian-oriented lighting and bulbouts.––Re-stripe to reduce travel lanes from fourlanes to three lanes where no additionalstudy is needed, with the extra spaceallocated to bike lanes or a wider curbsideparking zone.––Install improved pedestrian features(upgraded traffic signals and pedestrianorientedlighting) that would work withfuture two-way conversion and/or sidewalkwidening, as funding becomes available.• Interim Step: Complete transportation studies(and CEQA review) to determine the feasibilityof two-way street conversion and/or lanereductions on key streets.• Phase II improvements: Based on the outcomeof interim two-way conversion studies, pursueeither:––Option 1: two-way conversion with newtraffic signals or additional lane reductions.––Option 2: lane reduction and sidewalkwidening.The “Street Improvements Phasing” sketches (Figure6.4) depict the phasing in which lane reductionson some streets and interim streetscapeimprovements can occur, while accommodatingan ultimate configuration that has either two-waytraffic or one-way traffic with lane reductions andwidened sidewalks.6-6 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

19TH ST17TH STATHOLAVEFigure Phase 6.2: IPHASE I CIRCULATIONCirculation ImprovementIMPROVEMENT STRATEGYE. 18TH STLAKESIDE DRLak eMerrittFOOTHILL BLVDPlanning AreaPlanned Lane Reduction/Bike Lanes12th StBARTBROADWAYFRANKLIN STPacificRenaissancePlazaWEBSTER STHARRISON ST14TH ST13THST12TH ST11TH STLincolnSquarePark10TH STPostOfficeLincolnElementaryJACKSON ST15TH STMADISON STPublicLibraryCountyOfficesOAK STLAKECountyCourt11TH ST TUNNELMERRITT BLVDOaklandMuseum ofCaliforniaKaiser AuditoriumLAKESHORE AVE1ST AVEOaklandUnified SchoolDistrictE. 15TH ST2ND AVEINTERNATIONAL BLVDE. 12TH STOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampus3RD AVE4TH AVEE.11TH STExisting or PlannedOn-Street Bicycle ConnectionPriority Pedestrian Crossing ImprovementsBulboutsBulbouts, Flashing Pedestrian SignsBulbouts, Lane Changes, orSidewalk WideningPhase 1 Bulbouts, Phase IIPedestrian ScramblesImproved FreewayUndercrossingFRANKLINOakland ChinatownWEBSTERChineseGardenParkALICE ST9TH ST8TH ST7TH STMadisonSquarePark6TH STLakeMerrittBARTMTC/ABAGBARTParkingLaney CollegeLaneyParkingC ha n ne lE 7TH STE. 10TH ST5TH AVEExisting and UnderConstruction PathsPotential Additional PathsChinatown CommercialCore AreaBART Station EntrancePlanning AreaBROADWAYFRANKLIN STWEBSTER STWEBSTER PLHARRISON STALICE STJACKSON ST5TH ST4TH ST3RD ST2ND STMADISON STOAK ST4TH STFALLON STVICTORY CTPeralta CommunityCollege DistrictAdministrationEMBARCADEROEMBARCADERO WESTWATER STAMTRAK1ST STE s t u a r y0 500 10001000 500 1000FEETFEETLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-7

12th StBARTBROADWAYPacificRenaissancePlazaHARRISON ST19TH ST14TH ST13THST12TH ST11TH STLincolnSquarePark10TH STPostOfficeLincolnElementary10TH STJACKSON ST17TH ST15TH STMADISON STMADISON STPublicLibraryCountyOfficesLAKESIDE DROAK STLAKECountyCourt11TH ST TUNNELMERRITT BLVDOaklandMuseum ofCaliforniaLak eMerrittKaiser AuditoriumLAKESHORE AVE1ST AVEOaklandUnified SchoolDistrictFOOTHILL BLVDE. 15TH STATHOLE. 18TH STINTERNATIONAL BLVD BLVD2ND AVEE. 12TH E. ST 12TH STOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampusAVE3RD AVE4TH AVEE. 11TH STPhase IIFigure Circulation 6.3: ImprovementPHASE II CIRCULATIONIMPROVEMENT STRATEGYPhase II Long Term ImprovementsTwo-Way Street ConversionCommunity High Priority,Low DifficultyCommunity High Priority,High DifficultyCommunity Low PriorityOther Phase II ImprovmentsLane Reduction &Sidewalk Widening(if no two-way conversion)Other Long Term ImprovementsTransit Priority Streets (BRT)(unlikely conversion or lanereduction)Existing or PlannedOn-Street Bicycle ConnectionPriority Pedestrian Crossing ImprovementsFRANKLIN STOakland ChinatownWEBSTER STChineseGardenParkALICE ST9TH ST8TH ST7TH STMadisonSquarePark6TH STLakeMerrittBARTMTC/ABAGBARTParkingLaney CollegeLaneyParkingC ha n ne lE 7TH STE. 10TH ST5TH AVEBulboutsBulbouts, Flashing Pedestrian SignsBulbouts, Lane Changes, orSidewalk WideningPhase 1 Bulbouts, Phase IIPedestrian ScramblesBROADWAYFRANKLIN STWEBSTER STWEBSTER PLHARRISON STALICE STJACKSON ST5TH ST4TH ST3RD ST2ND STMADISON STOAK ST4TH STFALLON STVICTORY CTPeralta CommunityCollege DistrictAdministrationEMBARCADEROImproved FreewayUndercrossingExisting and UnderConstruction PathsPotential Additional PathsChinatown CommercialCore AreaBART Station EntrancePlanning AreaEMBARCADERO WESTWATER STAMTRAK1ST STE s t u a r y0 500 10001000 500 1000FEETFEET6-8 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONFigure 6.4:STREET IMPROVEMENT PHASING: EXISTINGExisting ConditionFigure 6.4 Continued:STREET IMPROVEMENT PHASING: PHASE IPhase I: Striping lane reductions on 8th, 9th, Oak, and Madison Streets.Phase I: Bulbouts, lighting, and other pedestrian improvements.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-9

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONFigure 6.4 Continued:STREET IMPROVEMENT PHASING: PHASE IIPhase II Option A: Two-way conversionPhase II Option B: Sidewalk widening with lane reduction (if it is determined that conversion is notfeasible).* Note that Streets with bicycle lane additions during Phase I (i.e. 8th, 9th, Oak, and Madison Streets) would be expected to retain these lanes during Phase II improvements, pending final engineeringanalysis and studies conducted during the interim phase. Bicycle lanes may not be feasible with Phase II two-way conversion in some cases.6-10 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATION6.2 Circulation ImprovementsCirculation improvements are intended to improvepedestrian and bicycle circulation and transitaccess through reconfigurations and structuralmodifications to the public realm of sidewalks androadways. All improvements are focused on pedestrian,bicycle, and transit improvements in orderto support the overall vision of increasing the useof non-automobile modes of transportation in thePlanning Area. These actions are the outcome of along, engaged process between City staff and thecommunity, building on previous studies and preliminaryanalyses. It is important to note that theimpacts of any roadway changes will be specificallystudied prior to implementation to ensure thattransit is not negatively impacted and that trafficoperations meet City standards.Pedestrian Circulation ImprovementsA major improvement to bicycle and pedestrianaccess is already underway with the Measure DDimprovements around Lake Merritt and the LakeMerritt Channel. The Measure DD improvementsrepresent a major asset in terms of access as wellas public open space, and are shown in Figure 6.5.The Plan calls for pedestrian improvements andtraffic calming projects throughout the PlanningArea. The improvements involve the repaintingof streets to narrow or reduce auto travel lanes,add bicycle lanes on key streets, and provide morepedestrian protections at intersections, throughbulbouts and set back “stop” lines. The Plan alsocalls for adjustments to traffic and crosswalk signalsand turn controls. Importantly, the Plan callsfor the installation of pedestrian-scaled lightingthroughout the Planning Area to enhance safetyat critical locations such as near the Lake MerrittBART Station, under the I-880 Freeway, andalong key pedestrian routes. Pedestrian and bicycleimprovements are shown on Figure 6.6. Streetview images of these improvements are shown inFigure 6.7.Twenty intersections and pedestrian crossings havebeen identified by the community and through theplanning process as priority locations for pedestriancrossing improvements. These locations areshown on Figures 6.2, 6.3, and 6.6 and are identifiedas follows. Note that these are initial recommendationsfor traffic calming and improvedpedestrian access, but improvements for each intersectionwill be further reviewed and refined aheadof any construction. Any needed sidewalk repairs,including repair of broken utility vaults, and additionof or improvement of ADA-compliant curbramps should be completed as each intersection isimproved.BulboutsThe following intersections are priority locationsfor bulbout improvements:• Madison Street and 8th Street. Also installpedestrian signal heads.• Oak and 8th Streets. Also consider a busbulbout on the northeast corner.• Jackson and 9th Streets.• Improve the existing mid-block pedestriancrossing on 7th Street at Laney College byadding bulbouts.• 10th Street at Fallon Street.• 10th Street at 2nd and 4th Avenues (near thenew OUSD downtown campus).Bulbouts and Flashing Pedestrian Signs• Alice and 7th Streets—bulbouts and additionof flashing pedestrian signs, or traffic signal ifwarranted.• Two locations along 7th Street between FallonStreet and 5th Avenue—mid-block crosswalkstriping that would improve pedestrian accessto Laney College and could be accompanied byflashing pedestrian signs.• Two locations along 10th Street east of FallonStreet between Laney College and KaiserAuditorium—mid-block crosswalk striping,could be accompanied by flashing pedestriansigns.Lane Reconfiguration or SidewalkWidening• Harrison and 7th Streets—bulbouts in theshort-term and removing the free right-turnaround Chinese Garden Park in the long-term.• Fallon and 7th Streets—reduced turn laneand lane width, and widened median. Alsoconsider a pedestrian phase for crossing FallonStreet on the north side of the intersection,restripe crosswalks so they are more clearlydefined, and add curb ramps. ConsiderLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-11

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONFigure 6.5:MEASURE DD IMPROVEMENTSdynamic turn restriction signs for thewestbound right turn traffic and the eastboundleft turn traffic on 7th Street.• Fallon Street at 8th and 9th Streets—a festivalstreet treatment is proposed on this stretch ofFallon Street, with widened sidewalks on bothsides of the street, special paving, high visibilitypedestrian crosswalks, and ADA compliantcurb-ramps. Consider extending the currentisland at Fallon and 8th Streets to providepedestrian refuges and adding curb bulbouts.• Alice and 11th Streets – sidewalk widening toaccommodate ADA access, bus shelter, and treewells.NEW CITY BLOCKProposed Pedestrian ScramblesNew scramble intersections are proposed at thefollowing locations to complement the existingscramble network. Note that Phase I improvementswill be limited to bulbouts, and the full scrambletreatment will be part of Phase II improvementsfollowing any required traffic studies.• Webster and 10th Streets.• Harrison at 8th and 9th Streets.Other Intersection ImprovementsIn addition to the intersections listed above, aPedestrian Safety Assessment was conductedin September 2012 1 that identified additionalimprovements to the following intersections:6-12 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 20121 City of Oakland, University of California, Berkelely,Institute of Transportation Studies, TechnologyTransfer Program. Pedestrian Safety Assessment:Issues, Opportunities, and Enhancement Strategies.September 2012.

19TH ST17TH STATHOLAVEFigure Bike and 6.6: Ped ImprovementsPRIORITY PEDESTRIAN ANDBICYCLE IMPROVEMENTSE. 18TH ST12th StBARTBROADWAYBROADWAYFRANKLIN STFRANKLIN STPacificRenaissancePlazaWEBSTER STOakland ChinatownWEBSTER STWEBSTER PLHARRISON STHARRISON ST14TH ST ST13THST12TH ST11TH STLincolnSquarePark10TH ST9TH ST8TH STChineseGardenParkALICE STALICE STPostOfficeLincolnElementary7TH STJACKSON STJACKSON ST6TH ST5TH ST4TH ST3RD ST2ND ST15TH STMadisonSquareParkMADISON STMADISON STPublicLibraryCountyOfficesLakeMerrittBARTMTC/ABAGLAKESIDE DR11TH ST TUNNELOAK STOAK STLAKECountyCourtBARTParking4TH STMERRITT BLVDOaklandMuseum ofCaliforniaFALLON STAdd bike racks/lockersLaney CollegeLaneyParkingVICTORY CTLak eMerrittKaiser AuditoriumC hLAKESHORE AVEa n ne l1ST AVEOaklandUnified SchoolDistrictE 7THE. 15TH ST2ND AVEINTERNATIONAL BLVDE. 10TH STPeralta CommunityCollege DistrictAdministrationE. 12TH STOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampusSTFOOTHILL BLVDEMBARCADERO3RD AVE4TH AVEE. 11TH ST5TH AVEBike Path (Class 1)ExistingProposedBike Lane (Class 2)ExistingProposedArterial Bike Route (Class 3A)ExistingProposedBike Boulevard (Class 3B)ExistingProposedBike racks/lockersModify Street(festival street)Existing BroadwayShuttle BusPriority Pedestrian Crossing ImprovementsBulboutsBulbouts, Flashing Pedestrian SignsBulbouts, Lane Changes, orSidewalk WideningPhase 1 Bulbouts, Phase IIPedestrian ScramblesImproved FreewayUndercrossingExisting and UnderConstruction PathsPotential Additional PathsChinatown CommercialCore AreaBART Station EntrancePlanning AreaEMBARCADERO WESTAMTRAK1ST STE s t u a r y0 500 1000100WATER STFEETLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-13

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONFigure 6.7:STREET VIEW PEDESTRIAN IMPROVEMENTSTypical Streetscape Improvements including bulbouts, pedestrian-oriented lighting, wayfinding,and trees.Chinatown Street Improvements will apply a design that celebrates the culture and history ofChinatown, building on existing streetscape amenities and wayfinding and typical streetscapeimprovements.Fallon Street “Festival Street” Improvements will include unique features that allow the street tobe easily be converted to public use on weekends or special events with extra-wide sidewalks.10th Street “Green Street” Improvements, including rain gardens and other sustainable developmentfeatures that extend a green corridor from the Channel into the neighborhood.6-14 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATION• Oak Street at 7th Street (upgrading curbramps, bulbouts, countdown timers).• Oak Street at 6th Street (consider closingaccess to 6th Street with addition of bikeway,landscaping, realignment of the freeway offramp,bulbouts, curb ramps, and countdowntimers; or upgrading curb ramps, bulbout inthe northwest corner, implementing no rightturn on red, restriping lanes, and countdowntimers).• Oak Street at 5th Street/freeway undercrossing(improved lighting, artwork, fencing).• Jackson Street at 5th Street (bulbouts on thenorthwest and southwest corners, improvedcurb ramps).• Jackson Street at 6th Street (install pedestriansignals where missing, countdown timers,improved curb ramps, pedestrian cut throughsto raised curbs, consider pedestrian phase).• Jackson Street at 7th Street (consider installinga rectangular rapid flashing beacon forpedestrians crossing the right turn island).• Madison Street at 7th Street (improved curbramps, bulbouts, sidewalk widening).• Madison Street at 9th Street (upgrade or addnew bulbouts and improved curb ramps, addpedestrian signal heads).Sidewalk Vendor DisplaysThe Chinatown commercial center is a vibrantneighborhood, with active streets characterized inmany locations with merchant displays on sidewalks.Vendor displays occur generally in frontof grocery and produce markets. These stores aremostly concentrated along 8th Street from Franklinto Harrison Streets and Webster Street from7th to 9th Streets.This Plan builds on the recommendations for streetvending made in the Revive Chinatown CommunityTransportation Plan. The Plan encourages sidewalkvending as an important element for ensuringvibrancy and cultural uses of sidewalk space, butalso encourages regulation of the displays in orderto ensure a consistent and comfortable pedestrianenvironment. While sidewalk vending addsvitality to the street and promotes local economicdevelopment, it can also conflict with pedestrianaccess in some locations. Some vendor displaysoccupy approximately 25 percent of the sidewalkwidth, while others occupy up to 75 percent of thesidewalk width, leaving an effective width of only afew feet for pedestrian movement. Some storeownersalso use on-street parking spaces for temporarystorage of boxes and pallets, causing pedestrian,parking, and traffic circulation impacts. 2Merchants are currently required to pay a yearlypermit fee for using the public right of way fortheir business. This permit fee is meant to payfor enforcement of the clearance requirements;however, the fee has been described as a financialand logistical burden for business owners. Allowingthe sidewalk displays but with clearer setbackstandards would benefit both pedestrians and merchants.2 City of Oakland, Revive Chinatown CommunityTransportation Plan, September 2004.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-15

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATION• Bicycle Paths (Class 1) are paved rightsof-waycompletely separated fromstreets. Bicycle paths are often locatedalong waterfronts, creeks, railroad rightsof-wayor freeways with a limited numberof cross streets and driveways. Thesepaths are typically shared with pedestriansand often called mixed-use paths.• Bicycle Lanes (Class 2) give bicyclistsstriped lanes on streets, designated withspecific signage and stencils. Bicyclelanes are the preferred treatment for allarterial and collector streets on the bikewaynetwork. Bicycle lanes should notbe installed on low-volume, low-speedresidential streets. Because of drivewayson those streets, bicyclists are safer ridingin the middle of the travel lane.• Bicycle Routes (Class 3) designate preferredstreets for bicycle travel usinglanes shared with motor vehicles; theonly required treatment is signage. Thereare two types of Class 3 bicycle routes:Bikeway Classification––Arterial Bicycle Routes (Class 3A): Onsome arterial streets, bicycle lanesare not feasible, and parallel streetsdo not provide adequate connectivity.These streets may be designed topromote shared use with lower postedspeed limits, shared lane bicycle stencils(also known as “sharrows”), widecurb lanes, and signage.– – Bicycle Boulevards (Class 3B): Bicycleboulevards are bicycle routes on lowtraffic volume residential streets thatprioritize through trips for bicyclistsand reduce delay. Traffic calmingshould be introduced as needed todiscourage drivers from using the boulevardas a through route. Oakland’sBicycle Boulevards will be markedwith shared lane bicycle stencils (alsoknown as “sharrows”) and signage.Bicycle Circulation and ImprovementsThe City of Oakland’s Bicycle Master Plan (2007),the governing planning document for new bicyclefacilities in the city, identifies the following bikewayimprovements in the Planning Area:• Class 1 bike paths extending around LakeMerritt and through the Lake Merritt ChannelPark.• Class 2 bike lanes on the couplets of 8thand 9th Streets (between Harrison and OakStreets); Franklin and Webster Streets (north of8th Street); and Madison and Oak Streets, aswell as along Lakeside Drive, 10th Street eastof Madison Street, and 7th Street east of FallonStreet.• Class 3A routes marked on 14th Street, as wellas 8th and 9th Streets to the west of HarrisonStreet.This Station Area Plan supports the implementationof the Bicycle Master Plan with one adjustment:extension of bike lanes on 8th and 9thStreets east to Fallon Street (rather than OakStreet).At the time of the writing of this Plan, the Cityis not pursuing implementation of bikeways in thecore of Chinatown, because of community concerns,including the safety of bikeways in areaswith high traffic volumes and double parking. TheCity will need to examine these issues carefullyand, in consultation with Chinatown stakeholdersand bicycle advocates, review options for how tomove forward. In the meantime, implementationof bikeways outside of the core of Chinatown willbe prioritized.6-16 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONThe City of Oakland’s Five-Year Paving Planincludes many of the streets in the Planning Area.Chapter 10 of this Plan incorporates the PavingPlan into the implementation strategy for streetimprovements. The Plan calls for restriping of thefollowing streets to add bike lanes (some but notall of these streets are identified for repaving):• Madison Street (between 2nd and 17th Streets);• Oak Street (between 2nd and 14th Streets);• 8th and 9th Streets (between Fallon andHarrison Streets);• 10th Street (between Oak and MadisonStreets).Transit Access ImprovementsThe Planning Area, between BART, AC Transit,various private shuttles, and Amtrak and Ferry servicejust south in the Jack London District, is oneof the most transit rich locations in Oakland.• BART service connects the Planning Area tothe larger Bay Area region. The Lake MerrittBART Station in particular is an importantstation for bicyclists as it is the only station inDowntown Oakland that allows bicycles onduring commute hours.• AC Transit connects the area by trunk buslines to Fruitvale, Dimond, San Antonio,Hayward, Pill Hill, Kaiser Center, Rockridge,Temescal, Emeryville, Berkeley, and Alameda,among other destinations. Direct service is alsoavailable to Grand Avenue, West Oakland, andthe MacArthur Corridor.• There are several shuttle services operating inthe Planning Area, including non-profit servicesshuttles, Alameda County shuttle, ExecutiveInn & Suites Shuttle, Alameda County MedicalCenter Shuttle, Highland Hospital Shuttle, anda new shuttle to College of Alameda.The existing Lake Merritt BART Station forms thenatural focus of transit improvements and intermodaltransfers in the area. New development inthe area is expected to increase its use by new residentsand workers.Increasing transit use and improving transit access areessential elements of the Station Area Plan. The Plansupports transit services and facilities so that transitcan be a central element of mobility for area residents.For AC Transit bus routes, key streets would be managedto prioritize transit service. For the Lake MerrittBART Station, the Plan recommends several strategiesto accomplish improved curb management andenhanced pedestrian/bicycle access. The Plan alsoincludes the creation of a transit hub to better integrateBART and AC Transit service.Transit StreetsThe Land Use and Transportation Element(LUTE) of the General Plan identifies 7th, 8th,11th and 12th Streets and International Boulevardas “Transit Streets,” described as “those parts ofthe transportation system where a continuing highlevel of transit services is to be provided.” TransitStreets have priority for service and transit preferentialtreatments (capital and operating projectsthat enhance transit service) based on their highlevels of service, ridership and the presence or planfor a supportive plan of land uses.Sidewalk vendor displays are an important component of thestreetscape (top). Bicycle improvements include new bicycleparking at the BART Station, which is currently under served(middle). New bike racks should be added throughout the area(bottom).LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-17

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONImproved transit access includes improved bus station at theBART transit hub with signage and/or real-time transit updatesregarding service (top and middle). Additional bicycle parkingis an important element for access to the BART Station (bottom).Several streets in the Planning Area are served byAC Transit bus routes: 14th, 12th, 11th, 8th, and7th streets going east/west, and segments of almostevery north/south street (except Alice Street). Inaddition, 11th and 12th Streets are designated tobe part of a planned Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)route. This plan distinguishes two types of transitstreets: Transit Preferential streets and TransitPriority streets. Both types of streets would bepriority streets for transit supportive treatments,and Transit Priority streets would also includerestricted roadways. The LUTE identifies a goal ofhaving a bus every seven minutes and continuednighttime service on regional Transit Streets.In this context, the Plan considers the followingroadways to be Transit Streets:Transit Priority Streets• 11th and 12th Streets connecting toInternational Boulevard as the principal eastwesttransit corridor connecting DowntownOakland, the Planning Area, East Oakland,and San Leandro with BRT service (includingplans for dedicated bus lanes).Transit Preferential Streets• Broadway as the primary north-south transitspine (just outside the Planning Area).• 7th and 8th Streets, as well as the segmentsof Webster and Harrison Streets between8th Street and the tube access points—asan important transit corridor for service toAlameda.Roadway improvements to be considered for bothTransit Priority and Transit Preferential streetinclude:• Transit priority signals and signal timingimprovements;• Bus bulbs to aid boarding and exit;• Designing pedestrian corner bulbouts to notinterfere with bus operations; and• Maintaining parallel on-street parking (ratherthan angled parking).In addition to these improvements, Transit Prioritystreets would also include restricted bus lanes.Curb ManagementOne of the guiding strategies for station accessimprovements is to allocate curb space to reflectthe greatest benefit to the greatest number of users,irrespective of mode. This strategy emphasizes theprinciples of “curb management,” which is definedas proactively managing curb space to maximizethe benefits of scarce curb space, typically byrestrictions on uses/users, time of day or durationof on-street parking, and/or pricing.Curb management at the Lake Merritt BART Stationmust allocate space for bus stops, bus layovers,taxi pick-up and drop-off, kiss-and-ride dropoffarea, on-street priced parking as needed, andshuttle loading and layover spaces. Kiss-and-rideand taxi pick-up and drop-off areas are importantaccess components for many people with mobilityconstraints or that live outside of walking distanceto the station. Taxi areas in particular are6-18 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONimportant for ensuring that the station becomesa dependable location for finding a taxi in theDowntown area on the Dublin and Fremont lines.In terms of shuttle access, currently shuttles areloading in shared AC Transit stops or in the LakeMerritt BART parking lot, and separate zoneswould be preferred.To compensate for removing any parking metersin the vicinity of the Lake Merritt BART Station(to accommodate other uses on the curb), additionalmetered parking could be achieved elsewherewhere on-street parking demand is high, butmeters have not been installed.Pedestrian AccessAn improved pedestrian environment throughoutthe Planning Area will also improve access to boththe Lake Merritt and 12th Street BART Stations.Pedestrian improvements include a network ofsafe walking routes between the stations and surroundingneighborhoods, with enhanced pedestrianscaled lighting and traffic calming as well asground floor activation, which will improve thesafety and vibrancy of streets.Bicycle AccessAn expanded bicycle network throughout PlanningArea will improve access to the Lake Merrittand 12th Street Stations. Bike lanes will be providedon 8th, 9th, Webster, Franklin, Oak, andMadison Streets. The Lake Merritt BART Stationis the only downtown Oakland station allowingbikes during all hours (12th Street and 19th Streetstations restrict bicycles from the station during thepeak hours), further emphasizing the importanceof bike access to this station. Additional bicycleparking is also needed at the station, including 140new spaces to meet current and future demand.Transit HubA Transit Hub is one possible option for improvingaccess at the Lake Merritt BART Station. Thetransit hub concept would consist of two relatedbut somewhat separate improvements—characterand operations. The transit hub approach wouldcreate a new design for the area, transforming itfrom a somewhat utilitarian feel to a location thathas a sense of place and is seen as a communityasset. The Plan recommends that key features ofthe transit hub design include:• A plaza area;• Plantings;• Ground level retail or active uses, such as acafé;• Seamless connection to any new adjacentdevelopment;• Provision of newly redesigned attractive andfunctional station entrances;• Clear connections to surrounding areas(Chinatown, Laney, OMCA) through designor lines of sight;• Kiss-and-Ride and taxi pick-up and drop-offareas; and• Wayfinding signage.Figure 6.8 depicts one illustration of Transit Hubcharacter, with improvements to plaza areas onadjacent redevelopment sites. On the west side ofOak Street, planting areas could be reconfigured toprovide more visibility and pedestrian circulationadjacent to BART station escalator entries. On theeast side, the large existing concrete shelter structurecould be replaced with smaller, more contemporaryarchitectural glass structures to allow morespace for pedestrian circulation and provide a landmarkfor the Transit Hub area as a whole. A keycard-accessed bicycle corral is depicted adjacent tothe east BART station entrances. More open, cornercafé-oriented spaces are depicted adjacent to theproposed retail corners at 8th and 9th Streets. Itis noted that the primary function of the existingplanters on the BART plaza is to serve as a securitybarrier, and any proposed designs and locations ofthese planters must preserve this critical function.In terms of operations and access, there are severalpossible approaches. Figure 6.8 shows one possibledesign configuration along Oak Street between8th and 9th Streets. In this approach, Oak Streetwould be given improved bus bays, and enhancedpedestrian and bicycle access and support facilities,with a kiss-and-ride drop-off area and taxihub on 9th Street. This design would require theremoval of existing on-street parking along theeasterly frontage to create a bus-only transfer areawhile on-street parking along the southern frontageof 9th Street between Oak and Fallon wouldbe re-assigned to a drop-off and pick-up area duringpeak commute hours. Madison Street could beidentified as a major access point for northboundbuses and could be considered an alternative locationfor kiss-and-ride and taxi spaces.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-19

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONFigure 6.8:TRANSIT HUBExisting Lake Merritt BART StationImproved Transit Hub. This figure depicts on illustration ofTransit Hub character. Other configurations for the Transit Hubshould also be explored by the City, BART, and AC Transit as theywork together to study designs that mesh well with the proposedsite development.6-20 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONAnother consideration may be connections to ajoint parking structure that could serve LaneyCollege as well as BART patrons.Other configurations for the Transit Hub shouldalso be explored by the City, BART, and AC Transitas they work together to study designs that meshwell with the proposed site development. Activatedstreets, wayfinding, and landmark design elementswill provide a way of identifying the BART Stationas a gateway to Chinatown. All long-term improvementswill be coordinated with future roadwayreconfigurations, as discussed in the next section.One-Way to Two-Way ConversionPairs of one-way streets (couplets) were popularin the 1950s and 60s to improve automobile trafficflow and reduce conflicts at intersections. InOakland, the 7th/8th Streets and the 5th/6thStreets couplets were converted to one-way travel in1949, to facilitate traffic flow in conjunction withthe completion of a new section of the Eastshore(I-880) Freeway. In the 1950s, additional streetswere converted to one-way travel, including Webster,Franklin, Oak, 9th, 10th and 11th and MadisonStreets. Today, many urban areas across thenation are converting some of their one-way streetsback to two-way streets. It is a high priority forthe community to complete future studies on thefeasibility of converting a number of streets in thePlanning Area to two-way traffic. These are shownon Figure 6.3: Phase II Circulation ImprovementStrategies. Both one-way and two-way street systemshave a number of technical advantages anddisadvantages, as described in Table 6.1.Table 6.1: OVERVIEW OF ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF TWO-WAY VERSUS ONE-WAYSTREETSTWO-WAY STREETSADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGESTwo-way streets create less confusing circulationpattern which is more intuitive to all users.Eliminates indirect routes, which reduces traveltime, fuel consumption and emission.Provides more direct routes to destinations.Creates direct emergency vehicle access to andfrom area.Creates slower traffic speeds due to fewer lanes ineach direction, parking maneuvers, and an increasein congestion.Improves pedestrian perception of the street as lessof a barrier.Increases access to adjacent properties served bydriveways.Two-way streets with bike lanes or routes arepreferable to bicyclists for wayfinding.Two-way streets improve bus access.(Table continues next page)Generally increases traffic congestion atintersections.May require left turn lanes at intersections whichmay eliminate on-street parking adjacent tointersection.Two-way streets increase the number of potentialconflict points at intersections, and may increasecertain types of crashes (i.e., broadside).Reduces opportunity to increase traffic capacity ifever needed.Narrower two-way streets may be difficult for largevehicles and fire apparatus to negotiate and mayrequire longer red zones and loss of parking atsome intersections.With only one lane each direction, traffic controlmay be required during emergencies.Two-way streets that eliminate turning movementsat some intersections may divert turning vehicles toother intersections.Narrower two-way streets may be difficult forbicyclists (e.g. Harrison Street north of 10th Street)LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-21

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONTABLE 6-1 (CONTINUED):ONE-WAY STREETSADVANTAGESFewer automobile and pedestrian conflict points atintersections and pedestrians need only watch fortraffic in one direction.Some right turn on red movements eliminated, thuseliminating a potential auto/ pedestrian conflict.Left turns into the street from driveways have fewerconflicts.One-way streets generally provide more vehicularcapacity and long lines of turning vehicles don’tblock through lanes.One-way streets have more simplified traffic signaloperations reducing delay for individual drivers.One-way streets can accommodate more on-streetparking since parking does not need to be removedto accommodate left turn lanes. Drivers have optionto park on both sides of the street.One-way streets can provide better traffic signalsynchronization set to the slower speeds expectedin urban areas.One-way streets may allow more room for bicyclelanes (and wider bicycle lanes).One-way streets improve bus operations.OVERVIEW OF ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF TWO-WAY VERSUSONE-WAY STREETSDISADVANTAGESOne-way street systems without uniform patternsare confusing, especially to visitors.One-way streets can increase certain types ofpedestrian accidents.Higher speeds on one-way streets can increasecrash severity, and one-way streets have thepotential for wrong way, head-on collisions.One-way streets can create circuitous emergencyresponse routes, and circuitous truck routes.One-way streets that eliminate turning movementsat some intersections may increase them at others.Increased out-of-direction travel can add to airpollution.Can be confusing and unfriendly to bus passengers.Encourages unsafe bicycle travel against traffic oron sidewalks.Not all conversions are likely to prove technicallypossible, some may negatively impact traffic performancebeyond the City’s level of service standards,and some conversions may conflict withcompeting desires for enhanced pedestrian, bicycle,and transit service. A separate traffic impactstudy (outside the scope of this Plan) will need tobe undertaken before any two-way conversions canoccur.A phasing plan for improvements to the thesestreets is described on Page 6-6 to ensure that anynear-term improvements will not preclude the possibilityof conversion in the future, before feasibilitystudies are completed.6-22 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATION6.3 Parking and LoadingThe goals of improved pedestrian, bicycle, transit,and auto flow must contend with certain logisticalrealities of the Planning Area, including parkingand commercial loading. Parking is a critical componentof mixed-use and transit-oriented developmentand is already a key concern in certain areasof the Planning Area, particularly in Chinatown.Parking demand will undoubtedly increase withnew development in the area. Despite the wealthof transit and walking options, the reality is thatmany residents, shoppers, and tourists will prefer(or must) continue to use private automobiles totravel to and from the area.Street loading and double parking is an issue notonly in Oakland Chinatown, but in high-densityretail areas around the Bay Area. The reliable, frequentdelivery of supplies is crucial for retail andrestaurant operations and is especially challengingin a dense, busy environment.ParkingExisting Parking in the Planning AreaCurrently, most streets provide metered on-streetparking within the Planning Area; some streetshave non-metered parking. A majority of the availableon-street parking is parallel parking, with theexception of 10th Street between Alice and HarrisonStreets adjacent to Lincoln Square Park andeast 10th Street between 2nd and 4th Avenues,which provide angled parking along the north sideof the street.The Lake Merritt BART Station is the only stationin proximity to Downtown Oakland thatprovides off-street parking. Two BART parkingareas serve the Lake Merritt BART Station – a surfacelot between the BART headquarters and theLaney College entrance and a surface lot behindthe MTC/ABAG site (the Metro Center) – thattogether provide 206 off-street parking spaces. Thefee to park is $1 per day, with other options includingsingle day reserved permits and extendedweekend parking. These parking areas are typicallyfilled to capacity each morning by 7:00 AM.Other BART stations within central business districts,including the 12th Street/Oakland CityCenter and 19th Street Stations in Oakland andthe Embarcadero and Montgomery Street Stationsin San Francisco, do not provide parking. TheLake Merritt Station is in a similar urban contextto these locations. Both parking lots are targetedfor potential redevelopment, and this Plan recommendsthat the lost spaces not be replaced giventhe area’s dense urban context, improved transitaccess, and the availability of spaces at nearbyBART Stations (Fruitvale and Coliseum) that providealternatives for drivers.Laney College provides a 900 space surface parkinglot off of 7th Street, east of Fallon Street, exclusivelyfor students. Parking permits can be purchasedfor $40 for spring or fall sessions, and for$20 for the summer session. Students paying forparking on a daily basis must have a student decaland pay $1 per day. The lot is usually full duringManagement of street loading in Chinatown is a key issue(top). On-street parking (middle) should be maintained in mostareas, while surface parking lots are considered temporaryuses as access improves for other modes and public parking isstructured over time (bottom).LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-23

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONpeak student hours. A strategy for accommodatingthe access needs of Laney Students and mitigatingthe parking demand in the area from students is toincrease the use of transit by students accessing theCollege; full-time Laney students already have ACTransit EasyPasses.Privately-run surface parking is currently availableunder the I-880 Freeway with multiple parkinglots available to the public. The parking area underthe freeway near the Lake Merritt BART Stationis currently reserved for government staff and notgenerally available for the public.There are other public parking areas scatteredthroughout the Planning Area. Public parking isavailable at the Oakland Museum of California atOak Street and 10th Street. There are also surfaceand structured parking available near the AlamedaCounty government buildings along JacksonStreet at 14th and 13th Streets. Public parkingis also available at a two-story parking garage atWebster Street and 14th Street and several smallersurface lots in the Planning Area. Several of theselarge parking areas are potential opportunity sites.Parking RequirementThe City of Oakland’s current parking requirementsoutlined in Chapter 17.116 of the City PlanningCode are required for any new development.The City’s parking requirements are a factor ofland uses and the zone of the development. Currentparking requirements for development are:• Multifamily residential uses: one space perunit, in all zones in the Planning Area whereresidential uses are allowed.• Office uses: no parking requirement in CBDzones that apply west of Lake Merritt Channelin the Planning Area. East of the Channel,one space is required for each 600 square feetof floor area for typical office uses. Uses withless than 3,000 square feet of floor area are notrequired to provide parking.• Retail uses: no parking requirement in theCBD zones. In the Eastlake portion ofPlanning Area, one space is required for each400 square feet of floor area for typical retailuses. Uses with less than 3,000 square feet offloor area are not required to provide parking.Parking DemandThe Metropolitan Transportation Commission(MTC) has published a report that evaluates planningand parking policies and programs that are supportiveof smart growth and transit-oriented development,Toolbox/Handbook: Parking Best Practicesand Strategies for Supporting Transit Oriented Developmentin the San Francisco Bay Area. The reportincludes a parking demand model based on numerouscase studies throughout the Bay Area that takesinto account characteristics such as transit availability,walkability, auto ownership, and the types anddensities of land uses. The model organizes communitiesinto one of five major area types and provides arange of parking rates for each area type.The Planning Area falls into MTC’s “City Center/Urban Neighborhood” category, based on its locationadjacent to Downtown Oakland, the availabilityof high-quality transit, and the densityand types of existing and proposed land uses. TheMTC parking demand model for this category isdesigned to support the proposed mixed-use andtransit-oriented concept of this Plan and avoid thedevelopment of significant excess parking. Thisdemand model encourages a “park once” strategywhere visitors would park in one location and visitseveral destinations within a walkable distance.The model provides two sets of suggested parkingrates, a low rate and a high rate, which rangefrom 0.50 to 1.25 per residential unit, 0.25 to 1.25per 1,000 square feet of office space, and 1.00 to2.00 per 1,000 square feet of retail space. Currentzoning in the CBD is within the recommendedrange for residential and lower for non-residential,but given the urban context, there are additionalopportunities for reducing parking requirementsin the Planning Area, described below.Parking StrategiesImplementing parking management strategiesreduces the overall need for additional parkingsupply and increases the effectiveness of parkingthroughout the Planning Area. Strategies aredescribed below.Reduce Parking RequirementsParking minimums can increase the cost of developmentand can cause an oversupply of off-streetparking spaces. The Plan includes recommendationsfor the following reductions for parkingrequirements:6-24 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATION• 0.5 spaces per unit required for affordablehousing.• Extend the existing CBD parking requirementsfor commercial uses to the portion of thePlanning Area east of Lake Merritt Channel(no required spaces for office or retail).Additional considerations may include provisionsfor further reducing parking ratios for senioraffordable housing to 0.25. It is also noted thatfamily affordable housing may require more than0.5 parking spaces per unit.Provide Unbundled Residential ParkingTypically, the cost of parking is included in thepurchase price or rent of a residential unit. An“unbundling” strategy would encourage reservedparking spaces for sale or lease separate from thecost of housing. Reserved parking would still beavailable for residents who wish to pay an additionalparking fee. Those who do not need a parkingspace can then enjoy a lower monthly cost.Overall parking supply for residential uses wouldbe reduced as residents may opt to not own a car orpark in other locations.Transportation Demand Management ProgramsTransportation Demand Management (TDM)strategies aim to reduce automobile use by shiftingvehicle trips to non-auto travel modes. Manystrategies focus on reducing vehicle trips to andfrom a destination, which in turn reduces trafficcongestion and parking demand for area residents,employees, and visitors. Many TDM strategiescomplement each other and are most effectivewhen implemented in tandem. Common TDMstrategies include:• Car sharing, a short-term vehicle rental serviceavailable to members that may eliminate theneed to own a vehicle;• Carpool and vanpool ride-matching services;• Guaranteed Ride Home Program, which allowstransit users and car/vanpoolers access to freeor reduced taxi service to get home in case ofan emergency;• Employer subsidized transit passes for areaemployees and residents; and• Bicycle parking, both short and long term,located in appropriate places.Parking Enforcement ProgramAccording to the City of Oakland Parking Division,there is a dedicated parking enforcementofficer for the core of Chinatown (bounded by8th, 9th, Webster, and Franklin Streets) from7:30 am to 3:30 pm, with roving parking enforcementofficers at other times. Most of the doubleor triple parking problems are during the weekends,indicating that enforcement is required duringweekends as well. Increased parking enforcement,including the issuance of multiple tickets forvehicles parking in the same spot for long periods,could free up some parking spaces for shoppersand short-term visitors.On-street bicycle corral on Oak Street at the Oakland Museumof California (top), work with local institutions to make useof parking lots during evenings and weekends (middle), andconsider back-in angled parking where appropriate to reducepossibility of collisions with other road users (bottom).LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-25

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONProvide Additional Bicycle Parking FacilitiesIn addition to on-street bicycle facilities, bicycleparking will be provided as part of future developmentsand additional secured bicycle parkingprovided at the BART station. The Oakland PlanningCode already requires bicycle parking forany new development. At the Lake Merritt BARTStation, bicycle racks and parking meters aroundthe station have been observed as fully occupied,in addition to bicycles locked to street trees; additionalbike parking at the station is recommendedin this Plan. Sufficient bicycle parking availabilityto match demand would encourage more people totravel by bicycle.Shared ParkingShared parking is an effective way to use existingparking and land and reduce the costs of constructingexcess parking facilities in the future.Shared parking is the use of a parking space toserve two or more land uses without conflict. Conventionalregulations require individual land usesto provide enough parking to serve their own peakdemand, leaving unused parking spaces duringoff-peak periods. Shared parking allows complementaryland uses, whose peak parking demandsdo not coincide, to share the same pool of parkingspaces, resulting in a more efficient use of thosespaces. Typically mixed-use developments lendthemselves to shared parking as the peak parkingdemand for various uses occurs at different timesof the day.A key opportunity for shared parking is to openinstitutional parking lots that are underused onweekends and evenings for use by the generalpublic. These spaces could be considered regionaldestination parking and serve a range of uses. Forinstance, new parking structures (such as structuresserving Alameda County offices) would bemanaged for the greater benefit of the neighborhood.Parking PricingThis strategy can address both off- and on-streetparking spaces. Setting reasonable parking rates forshort-term parkers and higher rates for long-termparkers can discourage employees from driving towork and encourage the use of alternative modesof travel, such as transit or biking, for commuting.This would free up spaces for the short-termneeds of visitors and customers. Higher rates andshorter pricing periods work best at locations withthe highest elastic demand, such as near shops andbuilding entrances, by increasing turnover (andtherefore availability) and favoring higher-priorityuses. Charging more for desirable on-street parkingthan off-street parking or on-street parkingthat is farther from congested areas will similarlyencourage more turnover of these highly visiblespaces and create additional revenue for the City,while directing other drivers to off-street spaces,thereby reducing congestion caused by circling forparking. These outcomes are encouraged by prominentsignage that indicates off-street parking locations,and public education efforts.It is important when setting pricing to balance thecost of parking with the cost of goods in the area,noting that affordable parking is key to ensuringpeople can continue to access the neighborhood.Parking Benefit District“Parking benefit districts” enable net revenuescollected from on-street parking pricing and permitrevenues to be dedicated to funding publicimprovements within designated parking benefitdistricts, ensuring that revenue is used to benefitthe blocks where the money is collected. Parkingbenefit districts can be designed to support economicdevelopment goals and viability of businessdistricts as the primary goal. In this way, the communitymanages parking as well as the revenue,which can be used to the benefit of local merchantsand the vibrancy of the neighborhood.For example, any additional increment above the$2 per hour flat city parking rate could be used tosupport locally identified improvements, such asimproving pedestrian access, streetscape improvements,and promoting cultural activities. In thissense, the parking strategy is not only be useful formanaging traffic and parking access, but also as atool for economic development.Having a clear understanding of parking demandis essential for implementing the right managementsystem, and a future study should include ademand study by peak hour and recommendationsfor where additional street meters could be addedand where parking should remain free.Provide Additional On-Street ParkingOne option is to modify on-street parking fromparallel parking to angled parking, which createsadditional parking spaces, up to double theamount of on-street parking within a block. The6-26 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONCity recently made this modification along thenorth side of 10th Street between Alice Streetand Harrison Street adjacent to Lincoln Park. ThePlan seeks to expand this improvement and considerconversion of parallel parking to angled parkingalong 10th Street between Alice and MadisonStreets. Consider back-in design for new angledparking spaces to reduce possibility of collisionswith other road users. Back-in angled parking iscurrently (temporarily) located on 10th Street infront of the Downtown Educational Complex.Street LoadingAs discussed in the Revive Chinatown CommunityTransportation Plan, double parking is a majorproblem in the Chinatown core area. Commercialand non-commercial vehicles, both of which havebeen observed to double park, impede traffic flowalong the roadway and can pose a safety hazard todrivers, pedestrians, and delivery people. The CaliforniaVehicle Code allows commercial vehicles todouble park for active delivery if no yellow zones(delivery) are available; there are several blockswithin the core that do not have yellow zones identified.high occurrence of double parking, likely due toeither a lack of delivery parking areas or a concentrationof retail land uses:• The east side of Webster Street between 9thand 10th Streets;• The south side of 9th Street between Websterand Harrison Streets;• The north side of 7th Street between Websterand Harrison Streets;• The south side of 10th Street between Websterand Harrison Streets;• The north side of 8th Street between Franklinand Webster Streets; and• The west side of Webster Street between 7thand 8th Streets.Detailed loading policies are included at the end ofthis chapter.Double parking by commercial vehicles occursthroughout the day but is generally highest duringweekday morning hours, typically between8:00 AM and 9:30 AM. During weekends, fewcommercial vehicles are observed double parkingalthough, due to vehicles frequently parkingfor long periods of time in the on-street parkingspaces, double parking by non-commercial vehiclesis common. The following locations have aLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-27

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATION6.4 Recommendations for Key StreetsThis Section describes the vision and proposedstreetscape and traffic improvements for eachmajor street in the Planning Area. Streetscapeimprovement recommendations for key streetsreflect the basic vision framework for the district,as well as current City of Oakland policies, studyrecommendations, and input from communityand CSG members.Two phases of improvements are identified in thisPlan, as described on page 6-6 and below. Improvedpedestrian lighting is the community’s top priority,and is included as a Phase I improvement along withother pedestrian safety measures and streetscapeamenities. Some illustrations in this section showproposed Phase I improvements while others showPhase I and II improvements, as identified.Phase IPhase I includes improvements that can move forwardwithout additional study. Corner bulbouts, enhancedcrosswalks, pedestrian-oriented lighting, and streettrees where they do not already exist are proposed forall streets. Street trees are prioritized on streets whereuses are primarily residential and institutional. Oncommercial streets, space for displays, awnings, lighting,and loading zones may take priority over streettrees. Improvements are prioritized in Chapter 10:Implementation. Phase I pedestrian improvementsalso include restriping on specific streets.The Plan identifies several distinctive streetimprovement treatments that aim to support thestreetscape vision (outlined in section 6.1). Thesetreatments are detailed on Figure 6.9:• Special lighting would be applied along 14thStreet to highlight its connecting role betweenthe Civic Center and Lake Merritt.• Transit improvements would be developedalong certain streets. These improvementsinclude bus bulbouts and pedestrianimprovements, dedicated Bus Rapid Transitlanes along 11th and 12th Streets, andre-allocation of curb space to allow forexpanded and more efficient locations for busand shuttle loading and layovers.• Planters, rain gardens, and other “green”treatments would be applied along 10th Streetto highlight its role linking Chinatown to theLake Merritt Channel.• Improved pedestrian crossings and lighting areto be installed along 7th Street east of FallonStreet to make it safer and easier to cross.• Special paving and pedestrian amenitiesare planned for two blocks of Fallon Streetand one block of Alice Street to allow foreasy, temporary closure for special events.Treatments may include extra-wide sidewalks,and distinctive pavement.• Enhanced undercrossings are proposed forfive Planning Area streets where they passbeneath the I-880 Freeway. Concepts includepedestrian-oriented lighting, enhancedcrosswalks, and the potential addition of activeuses such as mobile food or retail.Specific intersection improvements are also proposedin Phase I at key locations. These improvements aimto improve the safety and ease of pedestrian crossings.Phase IIPhase II includes improvements that are dependenton the findings of future studies, such as a two-wayconversion study or lane reduction study. Previousplanning studies have recommended that some orall one-way streets within the Planning Area beconsidered for conversion to two-way streets. Twowaystreet conversions were also recommended bya number of Community Workshop participantsand by some of the members of the CSG. Becausea study of two-way conversion is out of the scope ofthis Plan, this improvement is considered a PhaseII improvement. Sidewalk widening as part of lanereductions may preempt two-way conversion, so isalso part of Phase II, to be implemented as feasible,based on two-way conversion study findings.Potential two-way conversion is further prioritizedbased on an initial feasibility analysis and the community’sexpressed priorities, shown on Figure 6.3.• High community priority and relatively highfeasibility: Harrison Street between 8th and10th Streets, 9th Street, and 10th Street west ofMadison Street.• High community priority but relatively moredifficult to convert include the followingcouplets: Franklin and Webster Streets, and 7thand 8th Streets.• Relatively low priority streets: the Oak andMadison Streets couplet, and 13th Street.• 11th and 12th Streets are not considered likelyfor conversion due to the planned BRT routeon these streets.6-28 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

FRANKLIN STWEBSTER STHARRISON STALICE STJACKSON ST17TH STMADISON STLAKESIDE DRLak eMerrittFOOTHILL BLVDATHOLAVEE. 18TH STStreetscapeImprovementsFigure 6.9:STREETSCAPE IMPROVEMENTS(PHASE I)Bulbouts, Lighting, Wayfinding,Trees - All StreetsSpecial Lighting12th StBARTBROADWAYPacificRenaissancePlazaLincolnSquareParkChineseGardenPark14TH ST13THPostOfficeST12TH ST11TH STLincolnElementary10TH ST9TH ST8TH ST7TH ST15TH STMadisonSquarePark6TH STPublicLibraryLakeMerrittBARTMTC/ABAGOAK ST11THCountyCourtST TUNNELBARTParkingLAKESIDE DROaklandMuseum ofCaliforniaLaneyParkingKaiserAuditoriumLaney CollegeC hLAKESHORE AVEa n ne lOaklandUnifiedSchoolDistrict1ST AVEE. 10TH STE. 7THE. 15TH ST2ND AVEINTERNATIONAL BLVDOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampusST3RD AVEE. 12TH ST4TH AVEE. 11TH ST5TH AVEPriority Lighting CorridorsTransit Improvements(bus bulbouts, shelters,pedestrian improvements)Planters, Rain GardensImproved PedestrianCrossings, LightingSpecial Paving,Pedestrian AmenitiesUndercrossings: Lighting, SafetyImprovements, Active UsesPriority Pedestrian Crossing ImprovementsBulboutsBulbouts, Flashing Pedestrian SignsBulbouts, Lane Changes, orSidewalk WideningPhase 1 Bulbouts, Phase IIPedestrian ScramblesWEBSTER PL5TH STPeralta CommunityCollege DistrictAdministration4TH ST4TH STBROADWAYFRANKLIN STWEBSTER STHARRISON STALICE STJACKSON ST3RD STMADISON STOAK STFALLON STVICTORY CTEMBARCADERO2ND STEMBARCADERO WESTAMTRAK1ST STE s t u a r y0 500 1000100FEETLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-29

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATION14th Street14th Street is an east-west connector with twotravel lanes in each direction, and is not identifiedfor lane reductions. The Plan highlights 14thStreet as a key linkage, connecting the Civic Centerin Downtown Oakland to Lake Merritt. Figure6.10 shows 14th Street in its current configurationand as proposed after Phase I improvements.Existing Looking West –4 Lanes Two-WayFigure 6.10:14TH STREETPhase IPhase I improvements include corner bulbouts, asharrow bikeway, sidewalk amenities includingpedestrian-oriented lighting, and street trees wheresubterranean basements and utility vaults allow.Where subterranean conditions constrain ingroundplanting, consider above-grade planter(s)with small trees or underground tree vaults. Speciallighting will be installed to highlight the linkbetween the Downtown civic center and LakeMerritt, complementing Lake Merritt’s “necklaceof lights.” The Plan also calls for landscape features,such as plantings, sidewalk paving treatment,and/or distinctive street furniture, whichwill help define the street’s special Civic Link role.Phase I: Sidewalk Improvements,Distinctive Lighting6-30 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATION12th Street12th Street is an east-west collector that is onewaywestbound with four lanes. 12th Street and11th Street make up the Transit Priority coupletthat will include dedicated bus lanes as part of theplanned Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) network. Figure6.11 shows 12th Street in its current configurationand as proposed after improvements.Existing Looking West –4 Lanes One-WayFigure 6.11:12TH STREETPlanned BRT: 4/3 Lane Reduction,BRT LaneLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-31

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONWhat are Rain Gardens?Rain gardens are planted, depressed bedsdesigned to absorb stormwater runoff,thereby reducing the load on the stormsewer system, preventing erosion alongsurface waters, and filtering pollutants.10th Street (West of Madison Street)10th Street west of Madison Street is a one-waywestbound collector with three to four travel lanesbetween Webster and Madison Streets. 10th Streethas been identified as an important street for arange of pedestrian improvements, and also identifiedas a street with capacity for a two-way conversionor lane reduction in Phase II. Any excess roadwaywidth from removing two travel lanes couldbe used to modify the parallel on street parkingto angled parking to provide additional parkingspaces in the area. Figure 6.12 on the oppositepage shows 10th Street west of Madison in its currentconfiguration and as proposed after Phase Iimprovements. The continuation of Figure 6.12 onthe following page shows 10th Street after Phase IIimprovements.The Plan calls for the establishment of 10th Streetas a “Green” connection to the Lake Merritt ChannelPark and Trail. 10th Street links the center ofthe Planning Area, including Pacific RenaissancePlaza, Lincoln Recreation Center, and LincolnElementary School, to the Oakland Museum ofCalifornia and Kaiser Auditorium, and to the LakeMerritt Channel Park and the trail improvementscurrently underway as part of Measure DD. Raingardens and other sustainable development featuresalong the entire length of 10th Street wouldextend a green corridor from the Channel into theheart of the Chinatown and Eastlake neighborhoods.Phase IPhase I improvements include pedestrian-scaledlighting, bulbouts, green street amenities such asrain gardens, restriping from four to three lanesfrom Madison to Alice Streets, and providingangled parking.Phase IIPhase II improvements include possible two-wayconversion or lane reduction and sidewalk widening.Preliminary traffic analysis indicates that 10thStreet could operate at acceptable levels with twotravel lanes, though additional intersection analysiscould be needed. After required traffic studies,one of the following adjustments to traffic lanescould be made in the longer term, building on thepedestrian improvements already made in Phase I:• Phase II Option A: Lane reduction from fourlanes one-way to two lanes two-way; angleparking, sidewalk widening, and “green street”rain gardens and other features along northside; widened sidewalks, corner bulbouts,sidewalk amenities including pedestrianorientedlighting and street trees. 10th Street isa community priority for two-way conversion.• Phase II Option B: Lane reduction from fourlanes one-way to two lanes one-way; angleparking, sidewalk widening, and “green street”rain gardens and other features along northside; corner bulbouts, sidewalk amenitiesincluding pedestrian-oriented lighting andstreet trees.6-32 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONExisting Looking West –4 Lanes One-WayFigure 6.12:10TH STREET (WEST OFMADISON STREET)Phase I: 4/3 Lane Reduction,Angle Parking, BulboutsLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-33

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONPhase II Option A:Convert to Two-Way, 4/2 LaneReduction, Widened Sidewalks,Angle Parking, “Green Street”Phase II Option B:4/2 Lane Reduction, WidenedSidewalks, Angle Parking, “GreenStreet”6-34 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATION10th Street (East of Madison Street)10th Street is two-way with two travel lanes in eachdirection between Madison Street and Oak Street,and one wide travel lane in each direction betweenOak Street and 5th Avenue, with one temporarysection of diagonal parking. As with the segmentwest of Madison, this stretch of 10th Street is alsoproposed as a “Green” connection with rain gardensand other sustainable development featuresthat extend a green corridor from the Channel intothe neighborhood.Existing Looking West –2 Lanes Two-WayFigure 6.13:10TH STREET (EAST OFMADISON STREET)Phase IPhase I for 10th Street east of Madison Streetincludes a Class 2 bike lane; sidewalk widening,and “green street” rain gardens and other features;corner bulbouts, and sidewalk amenities includingpedestrian-oriented lighting and street trees. Thesegment between Madison and Oak streets will berepainted to have one lane in each direction (downfrom two lanes in each direction) with one bikelane in each direction. Two mid-block pedestriancrossings will also be added, between Fallon Streetand 2nd Avenue, to connect Kaiser Auditoriumwith Laney College. Figure 6.13 shows 10th Streeteast of Madison Street in its current configurationand after proposed improvements.Phase I: Narrowed Lanes,Widened Sidewalk, Bike Lanes,“Green Street” ImprovementsLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-35

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATION9th Street Chinatown Core(West of Harrison Street)9th Street is currently a one-way eastbound collectorstreet with three travel lanes. 9th Street is animportant connecting street between the Chinatowncommercial center, the Lake Merritt BARTStation, and Laney College and was identified as apriority pedestrian connection by the community.9th Street has also been identified for bike routes(using a sharrow west of Harrison). 3 In addition,this street has been identified as a priority lightingcorridor. Improvements described here seek tomeet the goals of a shared street where all modesof travel are accommodated, including improvedpedestrian safety and comfort, room for bicyclists,and slower moving traffic.Phase IPhase I improvements for 9th Street west of Harrisoninclude corner bulbouts, enhanced pedestriancrosswalks, a bicycle sharrow, and sidewalkamenities including pedestrian-oriented lightingand street additional trees where they do not conflictwith awnings, displays, lighting, and loadingzones. These streetscape improvements will applya design that celebrates the culture and history ofChinatown, building on existing streetscape amenitiesand wayfinding; this motif will also appearon 8th, Franklin, Webster, and Harrison Streets.Phase IIPhase II improvements include possible two-wayconversion or lane reduction and sidewalk widening.Preliminary future traffic volumes demonstratethat this segment has the potential for alane reduction or a conversion to two-way withone travel lane in each direction and a two-wayleft turn lane. After required traffic studies, one ofthe following adjustments to traffic lanes could bemade in the longer term, building on the pedestrianimprovements already made in Phase I:• Option A: Street conversion from three lanesone-way to three lanes two-way (includingleft turn lane where needed). 9th Street is acommunity priority for two-way conversion.• Option B: Lane reduction from three lanesone-way to two lanes one-way with sidewalkwidening to add to the pedestrian realm.The existing configuration of 9th Street is shownon Figure 6.14 below. The two Phase II options areshown on the continuation of Figure 6.14 on thefollowing page.Existing Looking West –3 Lanes One-WayFigure 6.14:9TH STREET CHINATOWN CORE3 At the time of the writing of this Plan, the City is notpursuing implementation of bikeways in the core ofChinatown, because of community concerns, includingthe safety of bikeways in areas with high trafficvolumes and double parking. The City will need toexamine these issues carefully and, in consultation withChinatown stakeholders and bicycle advocates, reviewoptions for how to move forward. In the meantime,implementation of bikeways outside of the core ofChinatown will be prioritized.6-36 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONPhase II Option A:Convert to Two-WayPhase II Option B: 3/2 Lane Reduction,Widened SidewalksLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-37

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATION9th Street East of Chinatown CoreThis segment of 9th Street plays a key role in thePlanning Area by linking Chinatown, the LakeMerritt BART Station, and Laney College. As inthe western segment, streetscape improvementswill apply a design that celebrates the culture andhistory of Chinatown. Unlike the western segmentof 9th Street, which uses sharrows to indicatebikeways, this segment will stripe bike laneson the street right-of-way. In addition, this streethas been identified as a priority lighting corridor,connecting the BART Station to Chinatown andLaney College.Existing Looking West –3 Lanes One-WayFigure 6.15:9TH STREET EAST OFCHINATOWN COREPhase IPhase I for 9th Street east of Harrison includesrestriping for Class 2 bike lanes; corner bulbouts,enhanced pedestrian crosswalks, and sidewalkamenities including pedestrian-oriented lightingand street trees. These streetscape improvementswill apply a design that celebrates the culture andhistory of Chinatown; this motif will also appearon 8th, Franklin, Webster, and Harrison Streets.Existing conditions and Phase I improvements areshown on Figure 6.15 on this page.Phase I: Bike Lane, Lights,BulboutsPhase IIPhase II improvements include possible two-wayconversion or lane reduction and sidewalk widening.Preliminary future traffic volumes demonstratethat this segment has the potential for alane reduction or a conversion to two-way withone travel lane in each direction and a two-wayleft turn lane. After required traffic studies, one of6-38 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONthe following adjustments to traffic lanes could bemade in the longer term, building on the pedestrianimprovements already made in Phase I:Phase II Option A:Convert to Two-Way,Bike Lane• Option A: Street conversion from three lanesone-way to three lanes two-way (includingleft turn lane where needed). 9th Street is acommunity priority for two-way conversion.• Option B: Lane reductions from three lanesone-way to two lanes one-way with sidewalkwidening to add to the pedestrian realm.These two Phase II options are illustrated on thecontinuation of Figure 6.15 on this page.Phase II Option B:3/2 Lane Reduction,Widened Sidewalks,Bike LaneLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-39

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATION8th Street Chinatown Core(West of Harrison Street)8th Street is a one-way westbound arterial withfour travel lanes, coupled with 7th Street. It is animportant connecting street between the Chinatowncommercial center, Lake Merritt BARTStation and Laney College, and was identified aspriority pedestrian connection by the community.8th Street has also been identified for bike routes(using a sharrow west of Harrison). 4 In addition,this street has been identified as a priority lightingcorridor. This Plan also designates 8th Streetas a transit preferential street, which could resultin improvements to bus service such as transit prioritysignals, signal timing improvements, andbus bulbs to aid boarding and exit. Improvementsdescribed here seek to meet the goals of a sharedstreet where all modes of travel are accommodated,including improved pedestrian safety and comfort,room for bicyclists, and slower moving traffic.Phase IPhase I improvements include corner bulbouts,enhanced pedestrian crosswalks, a bicycle sharrow,and sidewalk amenities including pedestrian-orientedlighting and street trees where they do notconflict with awnings, displays, lighting, and loadingzones. These streetscape improvements willapply a design that celebrates the culture and historyof Chinatown; this motif will also appear on9th, Franklin, Webster, and Harrison Streets.Phase IIPhase II improvements include possible two-wayconversion or lane reduction and sidewalk widening.Preliminary future traffic volumes demonstratethat this segment has the potential for a lanereduction, removing a travel lane to accommodateadditional non-vehicular amenities. After requiredtraffic studies, one of the following adjustmentsto traffic lanes could be made in the longer term,building on the pedestrian improvements alreadymade in Phase I:• Option A: Street conversion from one-way totwo-way. 8th Street is a community priority fortwo-way conversion.• Option B: Lane reduction from four lanesone-way to three lanes one-way and sidewalkwidening to add to the pedestrian realm.The existing configuration and potential Phase II,Option B improvements are shown on Figure 6.16.6-40 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 20124 At the time of the writing of this Plan, the City is notpursuing implementation of bikeways in the core ofChinatown, because of community concerns, includingthe safety of bikeways in areas with high trafficvolumes and double parking. The City will need toexamine these issues carefully and, in consultation withChinatown stakeholders and bicycle advocates, reviewoptions for how to move forward. In the meantime,implementation of bikeways outside of the core ofChinatown will be prioritized.

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONExisting Looking West –4 Lanes One-WayFigure 6.16:8TH STREET CHINATOWN COREPhase II Option B:4/3 Lane Reduction,Widened SidewalksLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-41

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATION8th Street East of Chinatown CoreThis segment of 8th Street plays a key role in thePlanning Area by linking Chinatown, the BARTStation, and Laney College. As in the western segment,streetscape improvements will apply a designthat celebrates the culture and history of Chinatown.Unlike the western segment of 9th Street,which uses sharrows to indicate bikeways, this segmentwill stripe bike lanes on the street right-ofway.In addition, this street has been identified as apriority lighting corridor. This Plan also designates8th Street as a transit preferential street, whichmay result in improvements to bus service such astransit priority signals and signal timing improvements,and bus bulbs to aid boarding and exit.Phase IPhase I improvements for 8th Street east of HarrisonStreet includes a lane reduction from four lanesone-way to three lanes one-way, Class 2 bike lanes,corner bulbouts, enhanced pedestrian crosswalks,and sidewalk amenities including pedestrian-orientedlighting and street trees. The existing configurationand Phase I improvements are shown onFigure 6.17.Phase IIPhase II improvements include possible two-wayconversion or lane reduction and sidewalk widening.Preliminary future traffic volumes demonstratethat this segment has the potential for a lanereduction, removing a travel lane to accommodateadditional non-vehicular amenities. After requiredtraffic studies, one of the following adjustmentsto traffic lanes could be made in the longer term,building on the pedestrian improvements alreadymade in Phase I:• Option A: Street conversion from one-way totwo-way. 8th Street is a community priority fortwo-way conversion.• Option B: Lane Reduction and sidewalkwidening to add to the pedestrian realm.6-42 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012


6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATION7th Street West of Fallon Street7th Street is an important citywide east-west connector,coupled with 8th Street. The segment westof Fallon Street is one-way eastbound with fourtravel lanes. Preliminary future traffic volumeswarrant the need for four eastbound travel lanesbetween Broadway and Fallon Street. This segmentof 7th Street has been designated as a streetscapecorridor and as a transit preferential street, whichcould result in improvements to bus service such astransit priority signals and signal timing improvements,and bus bulbs to aid boarding and exit.As a designated truck route, roadway design andturning movements (bulbouts) will need to accommodatethese vehicles.Phase IPhase I improvements for this segment of 7thStreet include corner bulbouts, enhanced pedestriancrosswalks, and sidewalk amenities includingpedestrian-oriented lighting and street trees.Phase IIThe community would also like this segment of7th Street to be studied for possible future conversionto two-way traffic. However, this is highlyunlikely due to traffic volumes.7th Street East of Fallon Street7th Street east of Fallon Street is a six-lane twowaystreet that separates the Laney College campusfrom its main parking lot. This Plan also designates7th Street as a transit preferential street,which could result in improvements to bus servicesuch as transit priority signals and signal timingimprovements, and bus bulbs to aid boarding andexit.As a designated truck route, roadway design andturning movements (bulbouts) will need to accommodatethese vehicles.Phase IThe initial concept for 7th Street East of Fallonincludes a reduction of three right-turn lanes totwo right-turn lanes at the Fallon Street intersection;an expanded median island to create pedestriancrossing refuge; signalized mid-block crosswalkconnecting the central portion of Laney Collegecampus and the parking area; corner bulbouts;and enhanced pedestrian crosswalks. A stripedbike lane (Class II) will be added by narrowingthe travel lanes. The Measure DD project will alsobe modifying the 7th Street Bridge over the LakeMerritt Channel (to allow small watercraft to navigatearound the existing flood control locks underthe bridge) and other infrastructure improvementsnear the Channel. The existing configuration andpotential improvements are shown on Figure 6.18.6-44 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONExisting Looking East –6 Lanes Two-WayFigure 6.18:7TH STREET EAST OF FALLONPhase I: Westbound 4/3 LaneReduction, Eastbound NarrowedLane, Widened Median, Bike Lanes,Additional Pedestrian CrossingLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-45

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONFranklin StreetFranklin Street is a major north-south corridorand pedestrian street, running through the core ofChinatown. It is proposed to provide bicycle lanesnorth of 8th Street in the Master Bicycle Plan –this Plan recommends sharrows from 8th to 11thStreets, with painted Class 2 bike lanes north of11th Street outside of the congested Chinatowncore. Streetscape improvements will apply a designthat celebrates the culture and history of Chinatown;this motif will also appear on 8th, 9th, Webster,and Harrison Streets. Improvements describedhere seek to meet the goals of a shared street whereall modes of travel are accommodated, includingimproved pedestrian safety and comfort, room forbicyclists, and slower moving traffic.Phase IPhase I improvements include corner bulbouts,enhanced pedestrian crosswalks, and sidewalk amenitiesincluding pedestrian-oriented lighting, and streettrees where they do not conflict with awnings, displays,lighting, and loading zones.Phase IIPhase II improvements include an interim restripingoption, and subsequently possible two-wayconversion or lane reduction and sidewalk widening.A single study may be able to cover both lanereductions and two-way conversion. After requiredtraffic studies, one of the following adjustmentsto traffic lanes could be made in the longer term,building on the pedestrian improvements alreadymade in Phase I:• Interim Option: Striping lane reductions fromfour lanes one-way to three lanes one-waywithout widening sidewalks, which wouldavoid precluding future two-way conversionwhile effectively removing one traffic lane andadding a bike lane north of 8th Street.• Option A: Street conversion from one-wayto two-way. If feasible, this would result inone northbound, one southbound, and onetwo-way left turn lane. Franklin Street is acommunity priority for two-way conversion.• Option B: Sidewalk widening to add to thepedestrian realm (building on the interimoption).Webster StreetWebster Street is a major north-south collectorroadway that provides access to Alameda throughthe Webster Street Tube, runs through the core ofChinatown, and connects the Planning Area to theJack London District and the waterfront. WebsterStreet is one-way southbound with four travellanes and has been identified as a key streetscapecorridor and a priority lighting corridor. The City’sMaster Bike Plan proposes bicycle lanes north of8th Street. Improvements described here seek tomeet the goals of a shared street where all modesof travel are accommodated, including improvedpedestrian safety and comfort, room for bicyclists,and slower moving traffic. Streetscape improvementswill apply a design that celebrates the cultureand history of Chinatown; this motif willalso appear on 8th, 9th, Franklin, and HarrisonStreets.Phase IPhase I improvements include corner bulbouts,enhanced pedestrian crosswalks, and sidewalkamenities including pedestrian-oriented lightingand street trees where they do not conflict withawnings, displays, lighting, and loading zones.Phase IIPhase II improvements include an interim restripingoption with the addition of a bike lane northof 8th Street, and subsequently possible two-wayconversion or lane reduction and sidewalk widening.A single study may be able to cover both lanereductions and two-way conversion. After requiredtraffic studies, one of the following adjustmentsto traffic lanes could be made in the longer term,building on the pedestrian improvements alreadymade in Phase I:• Interim Option: Striping lane reductions fromfour lanes one-way to three lanes one-waywithout widening sidewalks, which wouldavoid precluding future two-way conversionwhile effectively removing one traffic lane andadding a bike lane north of 8th Street.• Option A: Street conversion from one-wayto two-way. If feasible, this would result inone northbound, one southbound, and onetwo-way left turn lane. Webster Street is acommunity priority for two-way conversion.• Option B: Sidewalk widening to add to thepedestrian realm (building on the interim option).Phase II, Option B improvements to WebsterStreet between 8th and 11th Streets are shown onFigure 6.19.6-46 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONExisting Looking North –4 Lanes One-WayFigure 6.19:WEBSTER STREETPhase II Option B: 4/3 Lane Reduction,Bike Lane, Widened SidewalksLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-47

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONHarrison StreetHarrison Street is a north-south collector roadwaythat provides access to Oakland from the City ofAlameda through the Posey Tube. Between 7thand 10th Streets, Harrison Street is one-way northboundwith three to four travel lanes. North of 10thStreet, Harrison is two-way with two travel lanes ineach direction. This Plan designates the segment ofHarrison Street between the Alameda Tube and 8thStreet as a transit preferential street, which couldresult in improvements to bus service such as transitpriority signals and signal timing improvements,and bus bulbs to aid boarding and exit.Harrison Street is also identified as a keystreetscape corridor and a priority lighting corridor.These streetscape improvements will apply adesign that celebrates the culture and history ofChinatown; this motif will also appear on 8th,9th, Franklin, and Webster Streets.Phase IIPhase II improvements include possible two-wayconversion; if it is not converted, it is possible thata lane could be reduced and the sidewalk widened.Previous studies have identified the segmentbetween 8th and 10th Streets as a viable candidatefor a two-way street conversion. After requiredtraffic studies, one of the following adjustmentsto traffic lanes could be made in the longer term,building on the pedestrian improvements alreadymade in Phase I:• Option A: Street conversion from three lanesone-way to four lanes two-way between10th and 8th Streets. Harrison Street is acommunity priority for two-way conversion,and highly feasible. This option is shown onFigure 6.20.• Option B: Lane reduction and sidewalkwidening to add to the pedestrian realm.Phase IPhase I improvements for Harrison Street includecorner bulbouts, enhanced pedestrian crosswalks,and sidewalk amenities including pedestrian-orientedlighting, and street trees.6-48 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONExisting Looking North –3 Lanes One-WayFigure 6.20:HARRISON STREETPhase II Option A: Convert toTwo-Way, 3/4 Lane AdditionLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-49

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONAlice StreetAlice Street is a local street that has been identifiedas a priority street for lighting improvements.Phase I improvements for Alice Street include cornerbulbouts, enhanced pedestrian crosswalks, andsidewalk amenities including pedestrian-orientedlighting and street trees. These improvements areshown on Figure 6.21. “Festival Street” treatmentscould also be applied on Alice Street along the14th Street civic link and adjacent to Hotel Oakland(between 13th and 14th Streets) – a currentlyunderused segment of Alice Street that is adjacentto a key community resource.Existing Looking North –2 Lanes Two-WayFigure 6.21:ALICE STREETFestival streets have special paving and a reducedroadway width with extra-wide sidewalks, allowingfor easy, temporary closure of those blocks forspecial events.Jackson StreetJackson Street has been identified as a prioritylighting corridor within the Planning Area. TheJackson Street undercrossing at the I-880 Freewayhas also been identified as needing an improvedfreeway undercrossing to provide better connectivityto the Jack London District.Phase I: Sidewalk Improvementsand Lighting6-50 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONMadison StreetMadison Street is a one-way, north-south arterialroadway with three southbound travel lanes to thenorth of the I-880 Freeway. Madison Street providesthe south-bound couplet to Oak Street, thussupporting its connecting role between Lake Merritt,the Lake Merritt BART Station, and the JackLondon District. Madison Street has been identifiedas a priority lighting corridor, and Class 2bike lanes are proposed in the City’s Master BicyclePlan. Additional pedestrian amenities are proposedbetween 8th and 9th Streets to improve theconnections between the Lake Merritt BART Stationand Madison Square Park.Existing Looking North –3 Lanes One-WayFigure 6.22:MADISON STREETPhase IPhase I improvements include a restriping lanereduction from three lanes to two travel lanes withperiodic turn lanes and the addition of a Class 2bike lane. The entire street will receive corner bulbouts,enhanced pedestrian crosswalks, and sidewalkamenities including pedestrian-orientedlighting, street trees, and wayfinding – particularlyat the BART station. Phase I improvementsto Madison Street are shown in Figure 6.22.Phase I: 3/2 Lane Reduction,Bike LanePhase IIPhase II improvements include possible two-wayconversion or sidewalk widening. After requiredtraffic studies, one of the following adjustments totraffic lanes could be made:• Option A: Street conversion from one-way totwo-way traffic. This street is a low priority forconversion.• Option B: Sidewalk widening to add to thepedestrian realm (building on Phase I).LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-51

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONOak StreetOak Street is a one-way regional north/south connector,providing access to the Lake Merritt BARTStation. It has four northbound travel lanes northof the I-880 Freeway, as shown on Figure 6.23 onthis page. Oak Street has been identified as a prioritylighting corridor, and bike lanes are proposedin the City’s Master Bicycle Plan. Oak Street’s roleas a connector between Lake Merritt, BART, theJack London District and the Waterfront will beenhanced through the consistent improvement ofwalking and bicycling connections between LakeMerritt, Waterfront recreation, and commercialdestinations with lighting, widened sidewalks,street trees, a striped bikeway, and improved streetcrossings.Phase IPhase I improvements include a restriping lanereduction from four lanes to three lanes one-waywith the addition of a Class 2 bike lane. The streetwill receive corner bulbouts, enhanced pedestriancrosswalks, and sidewalk amenities includingpedestrian-oriented lighting, street trees, and wayfinding– particularly at the Lake Merritt BARTStation. Additional Transit Hub improvementswould be made between 8th and 9th Streets.Phase IIPhase II improvements include possible two-wayconversion or sidewalk widening. After requiredtraffic studies, one of the following adjustmentsto traffic lanes could be made in the longer term,building on the pedestrian improvements alreadymade in Phase I:• Option A: Street conversion from one-way totwo-way traffic. This street is a low priority forconversion.• Option B: Sidewalk widening to add to thepedestrian realm (building on Phase I).Phase I and Phase II, Option B improvements toOak Street are shown on the continuation of Figure6.23 opposite.Existing Looking North –4 Lanes One-WayFigure 6.23:OAK STREET6-52 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONPhase I: 4/3 Lane Reduction,Bike Lane, BulboutsPhase II Option B: 4/3 Lane Reduction,Bike Lane, Widened Sidewalk (eastside only)LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-53

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONFallon Street (8th to 10th Streets)Fallon Street is a north-south local two-way streetthat connects the Lake Merritt BART Station andthe entrance to Laney College. The street has onetravel lane in each direction, except between 7thand 8th Streets where it is one-way with threenorthbound travel lanes.Figure 6.24:FALLON STREETPhase IPhase I improvements for Fallon Street include astreet width reduction; a “festival street” treatmentbetween 8th and 10th Streets that would link theLaney College main entrance and BART with trafficcalming and unique streetscape features to createa street that can easily be converted to publicuse on weekends or for special events with extrawidesidewalks. The street will also receive cornerbulbouts, enhanced pedestrian crosswalks, specialpaving, and sidewalk amenities including pedestrian-orientedlighting and street trees. Existingconditions and proposed improvements to FallonStreet are shown in Figure 6.24.Existing Looking South –2 Lanes Two-WayPhase I: Decorate Pavingwith Narrow Lanes,Widened Sidewalks, StreetAmenities at Frontage6-54 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONWebster GreenThe Webster Green could significantly improvethe link between Chinatown and the Jack LondonDistrict. Webster Street from 7th to 5thStreets (including the freeway undercrossing) willhave pedestrian-oriented improvements, includingadditional pedestrian lighting, sidewalk widening,and public art, to improve the comfort, safety, andclarity of access between Chinatown and the JackLondon District. Special wayfinding highlightingthe Webster Green and uniting the districts is recommendedin this area.This Plan supports the Webster Street Green proposal,which would convert the unbuildable easementabove the Alameda Tube and extra roadwaycapacity to create a linear park running fromthe waterfront to 7th Street, connecting the JackLondon District to the Planning Area. The Greenwould be a series of spaces programmed with communitygardens, paths, picnic areas, and other featuresthat reinforce adjacent land uses. WebsterStreet south of the Tube would likely be narrowedto one southbound lane with one lane of parallelparking, with 40 to 50 feet of roadway convertedto the Green.This Plan also designates the segment of WebsterStreet between the Alameda Tube and 8th Streetas a transit preferential street, which could resultin improvements to bus service such as transit prioritysignals and signal timing improvements, andbus bulbs to aid boarding and exit.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-55

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONI-880 Freeway UndercrossingsImproving the I-880 Freeway under-crossingsis essential for connecting the Planning Area –including Chinatown, Laney, and the BART Station– to the Jack London District and waterfrontareas. All undercrossings – including at Broadway,Webster, Jackson, Madison and Oak Streetsare identified as priorities for improved undercrossings.The undercrossings are priorities forimproved lighting.Freeway undercrossing improvements, and otherpedestrian amenities (e.g., lighting, bulbouts,seating) can encourage people to walk and makewalking safer, particularly at key intersections thathave a history of being dangerous for pedestrians.Walking is a form of physical activity which canprevent chronic disease, reduce stress, and improvemental health. Mid-block pedestrian crossingsmay increase pedestrian convenience, but mayactually reduce safety if not combined with othersafety measures.Phase IConcepts for improving the undercrossings includedistinctive design elements that incorporate pedestrian-orientedlighting, corner bulbouts, enhancedpedestrian crosswalks, pedestrian-oriented lightingat adjacent street corners, and ornamental screenwalls with integral lighting. Additional designimprovements could include murals and ornamentalpaving. The under-crossings would be furtherimproved with the addition of active uses, includingmobile food or retail. Maintenance will also bea key issue for undercrossing improvements.The Plan improves bicycle circulation throughboth bicycle lanes and shared vehicle/bicycleslanes. Bicycle lanes reduce conflicts between bicyclesand vehicles and reduce the proximity to tailpipeemissions. As with walking, lane reductionsand roadway narrowing can lead to slower vehiclespeeds and therefore fewer and less dangerous car/bike collisions.Green streets proposed by the Plan for 10th Streetmay further improve air quality and reduce toxinsand potential sewer overflow during stormwaterevents by filtering pollutants and slowing runoff.Existing highway undercrossings are not pedestrian oriented(top). New active uses, such as recreational uses (middle) orevents such as markets (bottom) would improve these spaces.Public Health and the BuiltEnvironmentThe transportation improvements in the Plan promotepedestrian and bicycle mobility by improvingthe safety and convenience of travel on footor by bike through improvements to streets andstreetscapes. Reducing street widths (such as byreducing vehicle lanes) can lead to reduced vehiclespeeds and collision rates, while allowing forincreased sidewalk widths. Adding pedestrianscaledlighting, landscaping improvements, I-880The Plan’s programming and infrastructureimprovements also enhance crime prevention.Street lights that illuminate the sidewalk at night,more “eyes on the street” resulting from new residentialand street-level commercial developments,and neighborhood safety patrols (e.g., through acommunity benefits district) may improve bothactual and perceived security in the Planning Area.This in turn promotes pedestrian activities in thePlanning Area, including walking, exercising atlocal parks, and community gathering, all activitiesimportant to improved health outcomes.6-56 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONTable 6.2: SUMMARY CIRCULATION AND STREETSCAPE IMPROVEMENT PHASING & RECOMMENDATIONSSTREETSTRIPING FOR BIKELANES AND/OR STRIP-ING FOR LANE REDUC-TIONSPHASE I: NO ADDITIONAL STUDY NEEDEDLANE REDUCTION ANDSIDEWALK WIDENINGBULBOUTS, LIGHTING,SPECIAL PAVING, WAY-FINDING, TREESPHASE II: DEPENDENT ON TWO-WAY CONVERSION STUDY FINDINGSINTERIM PHASE: STRIP-ING FOR BIKE LANESAND/OR STRIPING FORLANE REDUCTIONSOPTION 1: TWO-WAYCONVERSION5th Avex7th west of Fallon Existing x x7th east of Fallonx8th Broadway to Harrison Sharrow 2 x x x8th Harrison to Fallon Lane x x x9th Broadway to Harrison Sharrow x x x9th Harrison to Fallon Lane x x x10th west of Madison 1 Lane x x x10th Madison to Oak x x10th Oak to Fallon x x10th east of Fallon x x11thx12thx13th x x14th Sharrow xFranklin x Lane xWebster x Lane x xHarrison I-880 to 8th x xHarrison 8th to 10th x x xHarrison 10th to 14thxAlicexJacksonxMadison x x x xOak x x x xFallon x xI-880 Undercrossings x1. Potential addition of diagonal parking (no additional study needed)2. A sharrow is a traffic lane marked for shared bicycle access.Bold x and Yellow = Priority Lighting CorridorsBold x and Green = Chinatown Coalition priority streets for two-way conversionOPTION 2: SIDEWALKWIDENING/LANE RE-DUCTIONLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-57

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONVision• Increase use of non-automobile modes of transportation.GoalsPublic Safety• Create safe public spaces by increasingfoot traffic, improving lighting, andstrengthening linkages.• Promote safer streets with traffic calming,improved lighting, improved signage,improvements that address the needs ofnon-English speaking residents and visitors,and improved sidewalks and intersections.Transportation• Expand, preserve, and strengthen theneighborhood’s access to public transit,walkability, and bicycle access.• Ensure safety and compatibility ofpedestrians, cyclists, and autos throughimprovements that calm traffic, improvesidewalks, improve intersection crossings,and improve traffic flow and pattern,including reevaluating one-way streets,considering narrowing streets, and reducingspeeds. In particular, address the flowof traffic using the Posey and WebsterTubes.• Improve connections between existingassets and destinations, includingbetween Chinatown; the Lake Merritt,12th Street and 19th Street BART stations;Alameda County facilities; and LaneyCollege and between the BART Stationsand the Jack London District, includingimproving the I-880 Freeway undercrossings.• Develop a parking strategy that includesshared parking and allows access to thearea, particularly to local retail, while alsopromoting non-auto modes of transportationand making best use of available land.• Increase walk, bike, and transit trips.• Preserve and reinvest in transit servicesand facilities to make sure operators cancontinue to provide reliable services.6-58 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONPoliciesThe streetscape and circulation policies in this chapter identify priorities and actions for improving the access, safety, and street vibrancy throughoutthe Planning Area.Overarching PoliciesC-1 Multi-modal access on 14th Street.Improve multi-modal access along 14thStreet by enhancing the pedestrian andbicycle environment while continuingto accommodate vehicular travel alongthe corridor. These improvements willenhance citywide connectivity and activatethe northern edge of the PlanningArea.C-2 Pedestrian access in the Chinatowncore. Improve access to the Chinatowncore by all modes, and in particularimprove the pedestrian experience andsafety by implementing pedestrian-orientedlighting and improving pedestriancrossings at key intersections.C-3 Targeted operational improvements inthe Chinatown core. Implement targetedimprovements in the Chinatown core,such as:• Improve loading regulations to reducedouble parking and congestion.• Promote improved cleaning of thesidewalks and streets.• Enhance the overall sense of securityin the area.• Improve access to parking, andenforce compliance with parking regulationsthat aim to improve the qualityof the commercial district.C-4 Chinatown gateway feature. Identifywith the community appropriatelocation(s) and style for a gateway feature,announcing the Chinatown District.C-5 Clear connections to BART. Establishclear connections to and from the LakeMerritt BART Station with Chinatown,Laney, Jack London District, the OaklandMuseum of California, Alameda Countyoffices, Lake Merritt, and other regionaldestinations. Ensure connections aremulti-modal, with a focus on pedestrianorientedamenities, such as lighting.C-6 Freeway under-crossings. Improve thefreeway under-crossings for pedestriansafety and comfort by implementing thefollowing improvements between 7thand 5th Streets along Broadway, Webster,Jackson, Madison, and Oak Streets:• Pedestrian-oriented improvementssuch as special pedestrian-orientedlighting, murals, or ornamentalscreening.• Improving and/or activating thespaces under the freeway.• Providing improved directional signagefor pedestrians, bicyclists, anddrivers.C-7 Connections to the Eastlake GatewayDistrict. Improve connections betweenthe Eastlake Gateway District and therest of the Planning Area by improvingconnections along 10th Street.C-8 “Festival street” on Fallon Street. Establisha “festival street” on Fallon Streetthat accommodates all modes of travelin order to better connect the Lake MerrittBART Station to the Laney Collegecampus, and include pedestrian-orientedlighting and a decorative surfaceto also function as a plaza during periodicclosures for community events.Consider an additional festival street onAlice Street as a second priority.C-9 Laney College connections and access.Promote movement through andthroughout the Laney College campus,connecting the neighborhood to the LakeMerritt Channel, OUSD’s DowntownEducational Complex, the planned Oakto 9th development, BART, the East LakeGateway, Lake Merritt open space, andthe Bay Trail.• Work with Laney College and the OaklandMuseum of California to developa wayfinding system that links the collegeto the community and to BART.• Place signs and other devices to showa walking route from Fallon, throughthe college campus, and down to thewater’s edge.• Improve streetscape quality and intersectionsafety to make connectionsmore pedestrian friendly. Focus onenhancing the east-west connectionsprovided by 7th and 10th Streets eastof Fallon Street, and calm traffic on7th Street east of Fallon Street to linkLaney College’s properties. Improvementsinclude:LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-59

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONPhase I improvements may include key transit access improvements,special paving on Fallon Street as a festival street, andenchancments to the I-880 Freeway undercrossings.6-60 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012––Reduced turn lane and widenedmedian on 7th Street approachingFallon Street.––Bike lanes on 7th Street east of FallonStreet.––Priority intersection improvementson 7th at four locations: at FallonStreet, at the Laney College 7thStreet entrance, at the Lake MerrittChannel, and to connect the athleticfields and Peralta Administrationsite.––Priority intersection improvementson 10th Street at two locations oneither side of the Kaiser Auditorium.––Priority intersection improvementat 10th and Fallon Streets.––Mid-block crossings may other trafficcalming devises, such as flashingpedestrian signs.Phasing Key Circulation ImprovementsC-10 Phase I improvements. Implement PhaseI improvements as shown on Figure 6.2,outlined in Table 6.2, and outlined in section6.4.C-11 Studies for Phase II Conversion. Conductnecessary studies to determine feasibilityof two-way conversion. A two-wayconversion study should address allstreets noted in Table 6.2 for potentialconversion, or several smaller studiesmay be conducted, prioritized as follows:• Streets that are high community priorityand highly feasible:––9th Street.––10th Street west of Madison.––Harrison Street between 8th and10th Streets.• Streets that are high community priority,more difficult to implement:––7th and 8th Streets couplet.––Franklin and Webster Streets couplet.5• Lowest community priority:––Madison and Oak Streets couplet.––13th Street.C-12 Phase II improvements. ImplementPhase II improvements as shown on Figure6.3, outlined in Table 6.2, and outlinedin section 6.4, based on the findingsof the two-way conversion studies.C-13 Phase II sidewalk widening. Where twowayconversion is determined to beundesirable, conduct necessary studiesand implement lane reductions and sidewalkwidening.C-14 Phase II Interim improvements on Franklinand Webster Streets. Implementinterim Phase II striping improvementson Franklin and Webster Streets subsequentto intersection analysis.C-15 AC Transit Operations. Study theimpacts of any traffic lane changes—lanereductions, lane removals, or two-wayconversions—on bus operations, andwork to reduce any identified impacts.5 Note that traffic volumes and capacity on FranklinStreet do not make conversion difficult. However,because Franklin is coupled with Webster Street,which does have traffic volume and capacity concerns,Franklin is also considered more difficult for conversionto two-way traffic.

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONPedestrian ImprovementsPedestrian Safety, Crossings and TrafficCalmingC-16 Pedestrian safety. Prioritize pedestrianimprovements and traffic calming nearlocations where the safety of youth andelders would be most enhanced. Theselocations would include Lincoln RecreationCenter, Chinese Garden Park, theOUSD Downtown Educational Center,and Madison Square Park.C-17 Streetscape improvements for safetyand character. Implement streetscapeimprovements throughout the PlanningArea as outlined in Figure 6.9 in order toimprove safety and establish a uniquecharacter for the area.––Implement new pedestrian-orientedlighting on identified prioritylighting corridors.––Implement intersection improvementsat key intersections identifiedin Figure 6.9.––Implement “festival streets” on alow-traffic street near the BART stationand key community destinations.––Incorporate way-finding signage,and cultural markers throughoutthe Planning Area on key streets.C-18 “Scramble system.” Install a four-waycrosswalk or “scramble system” at thefollowing intersections to expand on thesuccessful system that exists in the ChinatownCore:• 10th and Webster Streets.• 8th and Harrison Streets.• 9th and Harrison Streets.C-19 Corner “bulbouts.” Provide corner “bulbouts”and curb extensions. Prioritizebulbouts at key intersections identifiedin Figure 6.9. Ensure incorporation ofADA-accessible curb ramps at each corner.C-20 Pedestrian crosswalk lines. Paint/re-paint crosswalk lines as needed toensure visibility. Consider incorporationof textured pavers for areas with highvolumes of pedestrian traffic.C-21 Sidewalk repairs. Institute sidewalkrepairs in order to ensure safe pedestrianaccess.C-22 Vehicle “stop lines.” Paint/re-paintvehicle “stop lines” at least five feetback from crosswalks as intersectionimprovements are completed, to reducevehicle intrusions into pedestrian crossingareas.C-23 Traffic signals and timing coordination.Coordinate traffic signals and timing tocalm traffic and improve the pedestrianexperience throughout the Planning Area:• Provide pedestrian “count down” timers,where not already installed (theCity already has a policy to installthem gradually).• Increase the pedestrian crossing timesat intersections, to provide additionalcrossing times as required in 2010California Manual of Uniform Traffic ControlDevices. Within one block of senior centers,daycare and recreation centers,provide “press and hold” pushbuttonsat signals that allow pedestriansto request a longer crossing time (thiswould require new traffic signal controlequipment and programming).• Coordinate traffic signals so vehiclespeeds are 25 mph or less.Improved pedestrian comforts includes calmed traffic,improved street crossings, and street trees for shade (top).Street lighting should build on the existing scheme used in Chinatown(middle) with new compatible features incorporated asdesired (bottom).LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-61

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONWide sidewalks should allow space for sidewalk vending andoutdoor seating, street amenities, and a six-foot clear pedestrianwalkway.• Keep signal cycle lengths—the timeneeded to repeat a series of green/yellow/red signals—as short as possible,in order to minimize waitingtimes for signals and minimize crossingagainst the red.• Provide a leading “WALK” intervalprior to the display of a green light tovehicles, so that pedestrians may safelybegin crossing a street before vehiclesstart making turning movements.• Consider right-on-red restrictionswhere needed.C-24 Part-time turn prohibitions. Use parttimeturn prohibitions where there aresignificant pedestrian/vehicle conflictsdue to turning movements. For example,right turns on red could be prohibitednear Lincoln Elementary school duringschool hours.C-25 Traffic signal at 7th and Alice Streets.Study the implementation of a traffic signalat 7th and Alice Streets to slow trafficand provide safe crossings of streets. If atraffic signal is not warranted, considerinstallation of additional traffic calmingdevices to encourage safe pedestriancrossing.C-26 Mid-block pedestrian crossings. Addmid-block pedestrian crossings at threelocations along 7th Street, between FallonStreet and 5th Avenue, and two locationsalong 10th Street, east of FallonStreet, to improve pedestrian access toLaney College and parks. These crossingswill have striping and signage, and arerecommended to be accompanied by:• Flashing pedestrian signs, that can beactivated by pedestrians waiting tocross; or• Full traffic lights requiring traffic tostop.Sidewalks and Street VendingC-27 Pedestrian-scaled lighting. Add orenhance pedestrian-scaled lighting, asshown on Figure 6.9 at the followinglocations:• On priority lighting corridors, asshown in Figure 6.9, covering segmentsof 14th, 9th, 8th, Webster, Harrison,Alice, Jackson, Madison, andOak Streets.• Around the BART Station.• Under the I-880 Freeway along pedestrianunder-crossings.C-28 Clear pedestrian access. Ensure sidewalksinclude clear pedestrian access,as shown in Figure 6.25. The minimumwidth required is 5.5 feet, though thedesired width is eight feet. Generallythe total sidewalk width should betwelve feet. The clear path should bemaintained along sidewalks, clear ofany obstacles including sidewalk vendorstands, to allow smooth pedestrianmovement, especially on heavily traveledsidewalks in the Chinatown core.Note that a building setback can berequired as a condition of approval fornew development in order to widen thesidewalk.C-29 Sidewalk vending. Consider amendingOakland Municipal Code Section12.04.090 to allow the use of the sidewalkright-of-way in front of businesseswithin the Chinatown Core Area forvending without the need for a yearlypermit fee, provided that at least six feetof clear space for the use of pedestriansis maintained at all times.6-62 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONFigure 6.25: CLEAR PEDESTRIAN ACCESS8’ Desired5.5’ MinimumClear WalkwayCurbCurbC-30 Parking pay station and newsstandconsolidation. Consider replacement ofparking meters with central pay boothsand consolidation of newsstands inorder to increase the effective sidewalkwidth within the Chinatown core.C-31 Community sidewalk access education.Educate Chinatown merchants aboutsidewalk standards and policies andenforce sidewalk access policies andstandards with warnings, written citations,and fines.Bicycle ImprovementsC-32 Bike lanes and routes. Implement thepolicies and improvements of the City’sBicycle Master Plan in the Planning Area.Consider the adjustment of replacingClass 2 bike lanes with Class 3A markedroutes, using sharrows, within the Chinatowncommercial core. New bike laneand route improvements in the Plan, asshown on Figure 6.6, include the following:• Class 2 bike lanes on:––Oak and Madison Streets.––8th and 9th Streets outside of theChinatown core (east of HarrisonStreet).––Webster and Franklin Streets northof 8th Street.––10th Street east of Madison Street.• Class 3A bike routes (sharrows) on:––8th and 9th Streets in the Chinatowncore (west of Harrison Street).––14th Street.At the time of the writing of this Plan,the City is not pursuing implementationof bikeways in the core of Chinatownbecause of community concerns. TheCity will need to examine these issuescarefully and, in consultation with Chinatownstakeholders and bicycle advocates,review options for how to moveforward. In the meantime, implementationof bikeways outside of the core ofChinatown will be prioritized.C-33 Bikeway configurations. Evaluate theappropriate bikeway configurations for8th and 9th Streets in the Chinatowncore after street loading and doubleparking conflicts have been resolved.See the “Loading and Deliveries” sectionfor policies that address loading anddouble parking.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-63

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONTransit Access ImprovementsShort-term improvements can be implementedin a six to 24 month time frame, are exempt fromCEQA or require minimal review, and requireminimal inter-agency coordination. Long-termimprovements are likely to take more than 24months to complete, may require CEQA review,and/or require significant inter-agency coordination.Transit StreetsC-34 Transit streets. Designate 7th, 8th, 11th,and 12th Streets, Broadway, and theAlameda tube entrance and exit as transitpreferential streets.C-35 Transit service improvements. Workwith AC Transit to improve transit serviceon transit streets through restrictedbus lanes on 11th and 12th Streets, andtransit priority signals and signal timingimprovements on all transit streets. Alsoensure design of bulbouts do not interferewith bus service; where bulboutsare installed on transit streets designthem so that they serve the buses by aidingboarding and exiting.C-36 Parallel on-street parking. Maintainparallel on-street parking along transitstreets and do not convert it to diagonalparking.C-38 Curb management. Repaint curbsand relocate metered parking adjacentto the Lake Merritt Station to adequatelyaccommodate curbside buses,taxis, and kiss-and-ride locations.Passenger loading zones would reducethe congestion caused by vehicles double-parkingand blocking moving trafficlanes, and enhance the safety of passengers.This zone could be located on thesouth side of 9th Street between Oak andFallon Street.C-39 Parking spaces for BART police andmaintenance staff. Identify designatedparking spaces for BART police andmaintenance staff near the stairwells/elevator headhouse. Move BART policevehicle parking from the west side ofOak Street to the north side of 8th Street.C-40 Enforcement. Enforce no parking andrestricted parking zones.Medium and Longer Term ActionsC-41 Electric vehicle facilities. Create electricvehicle parking/recharging stations adjacentto the Lake Merritt BART Station.C-42 Motorcycle/moped parking area. Designatea motorcycle/moped parking area.Pedestrian AccessCurb ManagementShort Term ActionsC-37 Directional signage at the BART Station.Work with BART to install bus, taxiand passenger pick up directional signsinside and outside of the Lake MerrittStation.Short Term ActionsC-43 Multi-lingual wayfinding signage. Providemulti-lingual wayfinding signage toguide travelers to the Lake Merritt BARTStation.6-64 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONC-44 Pedestrian-oriented lighting at theBART Station. Improve lighting forpedestrians at the Lake Merritt BARTStation, in particular at bus waiting areason Oak Street, 8th Street, and 9th Street.Medium and Longer Term ActionsC-45 I-880 Freeway undercrossings. Provideenhanced pedestrian signage and lightingunder the I-880 Freeway to betterconnect the Lake Merritt BART Stationand the AMTRAK Jack London station at2nd and Alice Streets.Bicycle AccessShort Term ActionsC-46 Bicycle lockers or secure bike parkingat the BART Station. Work with BART toadd bicycle lockers or secure bike parkingat the Lake Merritt BART Station.Provide a bike corral in the station plaza,as near as possible to station entrances,providing around 115 additional bikespaces to meet existing demand, and 25additional spaces by 2035.TransitShort Term ActionsC-47 Bus access. Work with BART and ACTransit to make the following enhancementsto bus access:• Move bus stops to improve visibilityand operations.• Improve the bus waiting area comfortand safety.• Design pedestrian improvements,such as corner bulbouts, to not conflictwith bus operations.• Maintain 11-foot travel lanes whereAC Transit bus routes exist.• Where bus layovers exist, parkinglanes must be at least 10 feet wide toallow the buses to layover outside ofthe bike lane.C-48 Schedule and operations information.Work with BART to provide the followinginformation in or at the Lake MerrittBART Station:Parking• Provide a NextBus arrival screenat transit passenger waiting area.Include time information on the Alamedashuttle if possible.• Provide a transit kiosk with detailedinformation on transit options at thehub, with all information in Englishand Chinese.• Provide bilingual instructional signsfor BART ticket and change machines.C-49 Angled parking on 10th Street. Modify10th Street to the west of MadisonStreet by removing a lane of traffic andtransforming the on-street parking froma parallel to angled configuration toaccommodate additional on-street publicparking spaces.C-50 No BART parking replacement. Workwith BART to eliminate their parkingreplacement policy for the Lake MerrittStation. New development of theexisting BART parking lots would thereforenot be required to provide newparking spaces to replace any lost.Improvements to pedestrian, bicycle,bus access to the BART stationwill ensure that no ridership is lost.However, a joint parking lot that couldserve Laney and BART patrons may beconsidered.C-51 Off-street parking visibility and use.Improve the visibility and use of existingprivate and public off-street parking lotswith pedestrian-oriented lighting anddirectional signage for drivers.C-52 New public parking. Encourage newdevelopment on existing public parkinggarages (such as sites eight and 11) toinclude structured public parking.C-53 Improve safety of transit access atLaney College. Reduce the parkingdemand generated by Laney College studentsby improving the safety of transitaccess, particularly at night, and workingwith BART and AC Transit to ensure thatroutes and schedules serving Laney Collegemeet student needs.C-54 Unbundled parking cost. Encourage newresidential development to unbundle thecost of parking from housing cost.C-55 Enforcement. Increase enforcement oftime limits for on-street parking in theChinatown core.C-56 Parking pricing. Study the efficacy ofincreasing on-street parking rates in highdemand locations and reducing costsin less used areas (such as in off-streetparking garages) to make the best use ofavailable spaces. Implement a marketingprogram to educate the public aboutavailable parking areas and varied costs.C-57 Parking requirements. Reduce parkingminimum requirements in the entirePlanning Area.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 6-65

6STREETSCAPE AND CIRCULATIONC-58 On-street bicycle parking. Install on-streetbicycle parking, at major destinations suchas the Chinatown core, the Main Library,Laney College, Lincoln Elementary, andthe OUSD Downtown Campus.Bicycle parking at the BART Station isaddressed above in transit access.C-59 Shared Parking. Work with local institutionssuch as Alameda County to manageexisting and new institutional parking lotsand garages as regional destination parking.This shared parking would serve avariety of uses and make use of currentlyunderused weekend and evening hours.C-60 Transportation demand management.Require new large employers to implementTransportation Demand Management(TDM) measures, and encourageexisting employers such as Laney Collegeand Alameda County, propertyowners, property managers, and developersto implement similar measures,such as:• Designate a TDM coordinator whowould distribute information toemployees to promote TDM programs.• Carpool and vanpool ride-matchingservices and provision of car sharingparking spaces.• Guaranteed Ride Home Program,which allows transit users and car/vanpoolers access to free or reducedtaxi service to get home in case of anemergency.• Subsidized transit passes for areaemployees and/or a parking cash-outprogram.• Bicycle parking, both short and longterm, located near entrances.• Showers and lockers.Loading and DeliveriesC-61 Truck loading. Provide each block withinthe Chinatown core with metered truckloading zones with 30-minute time limitsbetween 7:30 AM and 10:00 AM.After 10:00 AM, on-street parking willbe metered and limited to 30 to 60 minutes.A few high-loading blocks shouldmaintain loading spaces from 7:30 AMto 6:00 PM, where loading spaces wouldbe consistent with other improvements.Recommended locations for longer-termloading spaces include the following, asthey have been identified as having highoccurrence of double parking, and theydo not conflict with proposed bicyclelanes:• The north side of 7th Street betweenWebster and Harrison Streets;• The south side of 8th Street betweenFranklin and Webster Streets;• The south side of 10th Street betweenWebster and Harrison Streets;• The east side of Webster Streetbetween 9th and 10th Streets.C-62 Enforcement. Increase the effectivenessof parking enforcement by using walkingenforcement to give violations and givemultiple tickets for vehicles parked in thesame space for long periods.6-66 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

7 COMMUNITY RESOURCESIN THIS CHAPTER7.1 Historic Resources........................... 7-27.2 Cultural Resources..........................7-107.3 Community Facilities.......................7-157.4 Educational Facilities .....................7-16Policies.............................................. 7-21

7COMMUNITY RESOURCESCommunity ResourcesCommunity resources, including culturaland historic resources, schools, and othercommunity facilities, are key components toa vibrant and complete neighborhood. ThePlanning Area includes a diverse range ofcommunity resources, including the Chinatownneighborhood, Oakland Asian CulturalCenter, Oakland Museum of California,Lincoln Elementary School and Laney College.The Lake Merritt Station Area Plan willenhance and build upon the existing communityresources within the Planning Areawhile highlighting its historical, cultural andeducational assets.This chapter establishes policies thataddress historical and cultural resourcesand community and educational facilities.Protecting historic resources, enhancingaccess to cultural resources, activating andprogramming public spaces, and capitalizingon educational facilities all support thePlan’s vision.7.1 Historic ResourcesThe Planning Area has a rich history that isreflected in many of its older buildings and parks.As noted in the Historic Preservation Element(HPE) of the City of Oakland’s General Plan, thepreservation and enhancement of these historicresources could significantly contribute to thearea’s economy, affordable housing stock, overallimage and quality of life. This Plan seeks to capitalizeon these opportunities through preservationand restoration of historic buildings within thePlanning Area. Key strategies in the Plan related tohistoric resources are to preserve existing resourcesas described below.Existing Historic ResourcesThe Planning Area has many historic resources,including individual structures and historic districtsthat incorporate a cluster of structures withsimilar character and may encompass multiple cityblocks. Historic resources recognized on the City’sLocal Register or rated by the Oakland CulturalHeritage Survey (OCHS) are shown in Figure 7.1.The City’s historic resource rating system is summarizedin Table 7.1The Planning Area’s historic buildings range fromthose of highest (“A” rating) and major (“B” rating)importance to those of secondary and minorimportance (“C” and “D” ratings). Eight buildingsor places in the Planning Area have Landmarkstatus, Oakland’s highest level of recognition ofhistoric significance: Kaiser Convention Center,Lincoln Square, Hotel Oakland, the Main PostOffice, the Oakland Museum of California, 801-833 Harrison Street (the former Hebern ElectricalCode Co. Building), the Chinese PresbyterianChurch, and the recently landmarked BuddhistChurch of Oakland.The Planning Area includes or partially includesseven Areas of Primary Importance (API), historicdistricts that appear eligible for the National Registerof Historic Places. They range in size fromtwo parcels to over 100 parcels. The APIs are theChinatown Commercial District, 7th Street/HarrisonSquare Residential District, King Block,and the Real Estate Union Houses, and parts ofthe Coit, Downtown District, and Lake MerrittDistrict. There are also several Areas of SecondaryImportance (ASI), which are locally significanthistoric districts that do not appear eligible for theNational Register of Historic Places.Properties that may be considered significantunder CEQA, as defined by Oakland’s CEQAThresholds of Significance, are shown in Figure7.2, along with all identified opportunity sites.Historic status on this map includes the followingcategories:• Sites listed on the California Register ofHistorical Resources;• Sites included in the City of Oakland’s LocalRegister, including landmarks, sites rated Aor B in the Cultural Heritage Survey, and7-2 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

7COMMUNITY RESOURCESTable 7.1: CITY OF OAKLAND HISTORIC RESOURCE RATING SYSTEMRATING LEVELDESCRIPTIONA: Properties of Highest Importance This designation applies to the most outstanding properties, considered clearly eligible for individual NationalRegister and City Landmark designation. Such properties consist of outstanding examples of an important style, type,or convention, or intimately associated with a person, organization, event, or historical pattern of extreme importanceat the local level or of major importance at the state or national level.B: Properties of Major Importance These are properties of major historical or architectural value but not sufficiently important to be rated “A.” Most areconsidered individually eligible for the National Register, but some may be marginal candidates. All are consideredeligible for City Landmark designation and consist of especially fine examples of an important type, style, orconvention, or intimately associates with a person, organization, event, or historical pattern of major importance atthe local level or of moderate importance at the state or national level.C: Properties of Secondary Importance These are properties that have sufficient visual/architectural or historical value to warrant recognition but do notappear individually eligible for the National Register. Some may be eligible as City Landmarks and are superior orvisually important examples of a particular type, style, or convention, and include most pre-1906 propertiesD: Properties of Minor Importance These are properties which are not individually distinctive but are typical or representative examples of an importanttype, style, convention, or historical pattern. The great majority of pre-1946 properties are in this category.E, F, or *: Properties of No Particular Interest. Properties that are less than 45 years old or modernized.DISTRICT STATUSDESCRIPTIONArea of Primary Importance (API)A property in an Area of Primary Importance (API) or National Register quality district. An API is a historically orvisually cohesive area or property group identified by the Oakland Cultural Heritage Survey which usually contains ahigh proportion of individual properties with ratings of “C” or higher. Potential Designated Historic Properties withinAPIs are considered to be high enough priority to be included on the Local Register.Area of Secondary Importance (ASI) A property in an Area of Secondary Importance (ASI) or a district of local significance. An ASI is similar to an API exceptthat an ASI does not appear eligible for the National Register.Not in a DistrictA property not within a historic district.Note: Properties with ratings of “C” or higher or are contributors to or potential contributors to an API or ASI are considered Potential Designated Historic Properties (PDHP) that may warrant consideration forpreservation by the City.Source: City of Oakland, Measure DD Implementation Project EIR, G: Cultural Resources, July, 2007.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 7-3

12th StBARTBROADWAYDowntownDistrictFRANKLIN STPacificRenaissancePlazaWEBSTER STWEBSTER STChinatownCommercialDistrictWEBSTER PLHARRISON STCoitHARRISON ST19TH STKing Block12TH STLincolnSquareParkChineseGardenParkALICE STALICE ST14TH ST13TH STPostOffice11TH STLincolnElementary8TH ST9TH ST7TH STJACKSON STJACKSON ST17TH ST15TH STCountyParking10TH STMadisonSquarePark5TH STMADISON STMADISON STPublicLibraryCountyOfficesLakeMerrittBART6TH STMTC/ABAGLAKESIDE DROAK STOAK ST11THLAKECountyCourtST TUNNELMERRITT BLVDOaklandMuseum ofCaliforniaBARTParkingLakeMerrittLake MerrittDistrictKaiserAuditoriumReal EstateUnion HousesLaney College7th Street/Harrison SquareResidential DistrictLaneyParkingLAKESHORE AVEOaklandUnifiedSchoolDistrict1ST AVEE. 15TH STATHOLAVEE. 18TH STFOOTHILL BLVDINTERNATIONAL BLVD2ND AVEE. 7TH STE. 10TH STE. 12TH STOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampusLaney CollegeAthletic FieldsPeralta CommunityCollege DistrictAdministration3RD AVE4TH AVEE. 11TH ST5TH AVEFigure 7.1: 7.1:HISTORIC Lake Merritt RESOURCES Station AreaHistoric ResourcesAreas of PrimaryImportanceAreas ofSecondaryImportanceDesignatedLandmarkRatingA - HighestB - MajorC - SecondaryD - MinorPlanning AreaThis map shows propertyand districts recognized by theCity of Oakland Local Register ofHistoric Resources or rated bythe Oakland Heritage Society.BROADWAYFRANKLIN STWEBSTER STHARRISON STALICE STJACKSON ST4TH ST3RD ST2ND STMADISON STOAK ST4TH STFALLON STVICTORY CT880EMBARCADEROEMBARCADERO WESTAMTRAK1ST STWATER ST0 500 1000100FEET7-4 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

12th StBARTBROADWAYDowntownDistrictFRANKLIN STPacificRenaissancePlazaWEBSTER STWEBSTER STChinatownCommercialDistrictWEBSTER PLHARRISON STCoitHARRISON ST19TH STKing Block12TH STLincolnSquareParkChineseGardenParkALICE STALICE ST14TH ST13TH STPostOffice11TH STLincolnElementary8TH ST9TH ST7TH STJACKSON STJACKSON ST17TH ST15TH STCountyParking10TH STMadisonSquarePark5TH STMADISON STMADISON STPublicLibraryCountyOfficesLakeMerrittBARTMTC/ABAG6TH STLAKESIDE DROAK STOAK ST11THLAKE MERRITT BLVDCountyCourtOaklandMuseum ofCaliforniaST TUNNELBARTParkingLakeMerrittLake MerrittDistrictKaiserAuditoriumReal EstateUnion HousesLaney College7th Street/Harrison SquareResidential DistrictLaneyParkingLAKESHORE AVEOaklandUnifiedSchoolDistrict1ST AVEE. 15TH STATHOLAVEE. 18TH STFOOTHILL BLVDINTERNATIONAL BLVD2ND AVEE. 7TH STE. 10TH STE. 12TH STOakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampusLaney CollegeAthletic FieldsPeralta CommunityCollege DistrictAdministration3RD AVE4TH AVEE. 11TH ST5TH AVEFigure 7.2: 7.2:HISTORIC Lake Merritt RESOURCES Station Area ANDOPPORTUNITY Historic Resources/ SITESOpportunity SitesBROADWAYFRANKLIN STWEBSTER STHARRISON STALICE STJACKSON ST4TH ST3RD ST2ND STMADISON STOAK ST4TH STFALLON STVICTORY CT880EMBARCADEROEMBARCADERO WESTAMTRAK1ST STWATER ST0 500 1000100FEETLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 7-5

7COMMUNITY RESOURCESAreas of Primary Importance include the Real Estate UnionHouses (top), the 7th Sreet/Harrison Square Residential District(middle), and the Chinatown Commercial District (bottom).Potentially Designated Historic Propertieswithin Areas of Primary Importance;• Resources identified as significant (rated 1through 5) on the State’s historic resourcesinventory; and• Resources that listed on the National Registerof Historic Places and thus meet the criteria forlisting on the State Register.There are no opportunity sites on the State orNational Registers. One opportunity site—theKaiser Convention Center—is an Oakland landmarkand a site rated A in the Cultural HeritageSurvey and is proposed for reuse in the Plan.Opportunity sites overlap with four other propertiesthat are identified as significant in the State’shistoric resource inventory. These include:• 301 12th Street;• 178 10th Street;• 77 8th Street; and• 726 Harrison Street.Historic Preservation StrategiesThe Plan aims to protect the value of historicresources in order to preserve the Planning Area’sdiverse heritage. The preservation of places withhistorical significance will be enhanced with publicrealm improvements such as lighting, widersidewalks, and street trees (as described in moredetail in Chapter 6) which will help enhance theoverall character of historic districts.Existing Strategies for ProtectingHistoric ResourcesThe City and State have existing strategies for protectingindividual historic resources:• Historic Preservation Element. The Cityof Oakland’s Historic Preservation Elementcontains numerous additional policies andactions to support preservation. Policiesespecially relevant to the Lake Merritt StationArea Plan are summarized in Chapter 1.• Standard Conditions of Approval. The Cityrequires that any project that proposes todemolish a historic resource as defined byCEQA, or a potentially designated historicproperty (PDHP) by City of Oaklandcriteria, seek property relocation ratherthan demolition. Any project adjacent to anhistoric resource or PDHP must determinethe threshold of vibration that would be likelyto damage the resource, and use constructionmethods that would not exceed that threshold.• Mills Act. This is a City program that offerspotential property tax reductions in exchangefor doing work that will extend the lifespan ofhistoric buildings and/or improve their exteriorphysical appearance.• Demolition Findings. In 2011, the Cityadopted an ordinance that requires analysis anda threshold of findings be met before a historicresource can be demolished. The findings andsubmittal requirements vary depending onthe significance of the historic resource, butprovide protection for: Landmarks; officiallydesignated Preservation Districts (S-7 and S-207-6 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

7COMMUNITY RESOURCESZones); contributors to historic districts; orPotentially Designated Historic Properties thatare rated A, B or C.• State Historical Building Code. Providesalternative building regulations for permittingrepairs, alterations and additions necessaryfor the preservation, rehabilitation, relocation,related construction, change of use, orcontinued use of a “qualified historical buildingor structure.” These standards are intendedto save California’s architectural heritage byrecognizing the unique construction issuesinherent in maintaining and adaptively reusinghistoric buildings. The SHBC is managed bythe State’s Office of Historic Preservation.• Green Building Points. Historic buildingssave energy compared to new buildings by notrequiring new building materials to be createdand transported to the site. This “embodiedenergy” may be considered a form of energyefficiency. The US Green Building Council’sLEED rating system, and Build it Green’sGreenPoints Rated system both award pointsfor building and materials reuse.• Design Review Fees. The City of Oaklandprovides streamlined permit procedures andfee waivers for preservation of propertieswith official City designations – landmarks,preservation districts, and Heritage Properties.• Historic Tax Credits. Since 1976, the federalgovernment, through the National ParkService, has provided 20 percent tax creditsfor private investment in rehabilitating historicproperties. To qualify, a structure must belisted in the National Register of HistoricPlaces, either individually or as a contributingbuilding in a National Register historic district,or as a contributing building within a localhistoric district that has been certified by theDepartment of the Interior.Additional StrategiesFaçade ProgramEven relatively small investments, such as painting,can dramatically improve the lifespan and physicalappearance of a building. The Plan recommendsthat the City consider establishing a commercialand residential façade improvement program, tocontinue a successful program previously fundedby tax increment financing prior to elimination ofRedevelopment Agencies in the State of Californiain 2012. The program offered assistance to ownersto make improvements to their properties. Itshould be noted that new funding source for thisprogram would need to be identified.Incentives for Re-Use of Existing HistoricResourcesThe Plan recommends using incentives to facilitatethe re-use of historic buildings or the incorporationof historic buildings into new development.Examples of re-use include converting older industrialbuildings into residential or office uses or lightindustry as seen in the Jack London District. Itcould also mean converting larger single familyresidences into multi-family residential uses whilemaintaining the appearance of a “house” whichis characteristic of many older historic multifamilyresidential buildings throughout Oakland.Hotel Oakland, a designated City of Oakland Landmark (top).Historic façades in the Chinatown Commercial District (middleand bottom).LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 7-7

7COMMUNITY RESOURCESThe Plan recommends using incentives to facilitate the re-useof historic buildings or the incorporation of historic buildingsinto new development, such as this proposed project in downtownOakland. Photo source: http://www.1100broadway.comIncorporating historic elements into new developmentcan help provide an architectural transitionbetween the historic and modern buildings inthe Planning Area. Successful reuse of the KaiserAuditorium is also a goal for the Planning Area.Previous ideas have included the building becomingthe Main Library; a world trade center; anentertainment center; a facility for Laney College;or a hotel.Conversion of historic structures and incorporationof historic structures into new developmentcan be facilitated by providing flexibility in certainbuilding or planning code requirements that donot impact safety. This could include applicationof the State Historical Building Code or reducedparking or open space requirements. The City isalso exploring changes to the Fire Code, such asrelaxation on regulations for features such as fireseparation and insulation, in order to make reusemore viable.Relocation AssistancePreservation could also be facilitated by relocatingstand-alone historic buildings that are scatteredthroughout the Planning Area into a moreintact district. This is most appropriate where thebuilding is not part of a historic district, and isalso a good fit for vacant lots within a historic district.Appropriate relocation is already facilitatedvia CEQA exemption (HPE, Action TheCity could further establish a relocation assistancefund from financial mitigations for significant andunavoidable CEQA impacts on historic resources.Design GuidelinesSome opportunity sites for new development in thePlanning Area may occur within or adjacent to historicresources. These sites warrant a sensitive designapproach where design should complement andenhance the district or provide transitions betweenhistoric districts and other parts of the Planning Area.Design Guidelines for historic districts or newdevelopment adjacent to historic resources will helpto ensure compatible development. The DesignGuidelines for the Lake Merritt Station Area Planincludes guidance related to transitions betweenexisting historic resources and new development,including height, building form, roof pitch, scale ofparcelization, character reinterpretation and façadearticulation with respect to scale and proportions.Streetscape Design StandardsStreetscape design standards, also found in theDesign Guidelines for the Lake Merritt StationArea Plan, ensure that street improvements willcomplement historic buildings as part of a pedestrian-orientedenvironment.Protecting and Improving Historic ParksThe Plan also recognizes the value of historicallyand culturally significant parks, including LincolnSquare and Chinese Garden (originally HarrisonSquare), both of which were part of Oakland’soriginal city plan in the early 1850s when the citywas incorporated. Madison Square Park, althoughrelocated from its original site a block away, wasalso one of the original set of full-block parks thatwere part of the city’s early layout. Improvementsto these parks are described in Chapter 5.7-8 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

7COMMUNITY RESOURCESCultural Heritage SurveyThe historic ratings shown on Figure 7.1 are basedon a reconnaissance survey done in the late 1980sand early 1990s. The ratings for some individualbuildings have been updated since then, but therehas not been a comprehensive review of individualbuildings or historic districts in the Planning Area.The Oakland Cultural Heritage Survey officeshould consider reviewing and updating the historicstatus of all districts and buildings in thePlanning Area. This could lead to the extension ofthe Chinatown Commercial District, as describedin the Existing Conditions Report for the LakeMerritt Station Area Plan.In the other Historic Districts in the PlanningArea, where height is not a character- defining feature,and historic buildings vary in height, newdevelopment should not be restricted to existingheight limits. Other criteria, as described in theHeight and Massing Concepts section of Chapter4, should be used to determine height limits. Inaddition, Design Guidelines for the Lake MerrittStation Area Plan provide a tool for ensuring thatthe character-defining features in these other HistoricDistricts, such as the building massing, proportion,scale, style of ornamentation, materials,fenestration patterns and space organization, areexamined in order to ensure design compatibility.Height LimitsThe 7th Street/Harrison Square Residential DistrictAPI is characterized by a collection of two- to threestoryVictorian and early 20th Century residentialbuildings. Building height has been established as acharacter-defining feature. 1 That is, the buildings inthis District share a similar height and that height is adistinguishing physical aspect that contributes to theDistrict’s overall character. The typical height in the7th Street/Harrison Square District includes a wallheight of 30 feet and a roof peak of 45 feet. In thisAPI, where height has been established as a characterdefiningfeature, new development should respect thiscontext. To ensure compatibility of new development,height limits should be established that correspond tothis existing height, as outlined in Chapter 4.1 During the rezoning of the Central Business District in2009, all Areas of Primary Importance were evaluatedto determine if height was a character-defining feature.The 7th Street/Harrison Square District was the onlyAPI in the Planning Area where building height wasdetermined to be a character-defining feature.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 7-9

7COMMUNITY RESOURCES7.2 Cultural ResourcesThe Planning Area is currently rich in cultural andcommunity facilities, as shown in Figure 7.3 anddetailed in Table 7.2. The Plan will seek to preserveand enhance the Planning Area’s numerous culturalresources. New ideas for ways to support thearea’s wealth of cultural resources are discussed inthis and subsequent sections.on Fallon, 8th, and 9th Streets, which wouldimprove connections between Chinatown, LaneyCollege, Lake Merritt BART Station, the OaklandMuseum of California, and the Kaiser Auditorium.Improvements to the I-880 freeway undercrossingsare also included, to reduce the separationimposed by the I-880 freeway.Improved pedestrian experience is essential to connecting thevarious cultural resources of the Planning Area.Improvements to the Built Environmentthat Encourage Street LifePedestrian ConnectionsThe Plan recognizes the importance of enhancingand improving connections among the PlanningArea’s numerous resources. Currently, connectionsbetween cultural assets within the Planning Areacould be more extensive. Improvements shouldhelp certain parts of the Planning Area to be perceivedas more active or safe. For example, the areabetween Chinatown and the Oakland Museum ofCalifornia and Laney College could benefit fromgreater perceived safety at night. Improvements tothe I-880 Freeway under-crossings could enhancesafety and better connect the Planning Area withthe Jack London District.Area-wide streetscape improvements such as strategicsidewalk widening, cultural markers, andincreased pedestrian-scaled lighting are includedin the Plan to improve connections and enhancepedestrian access, safety, and experience. Potentialcatalyst projects include the installation of wayfindingsignage, lighting, and streetscape elementsImproving the pedestrian experience within theChinatown commercial core is also important tothe Plan’s goal of preserving and enhancing theneighborhood’s vibrant culture. Transportationimprovements, such as corner bulb-outs and trafficcalming measures along 7th Street, will promotepedestrian access and safety to Chinese GardenPark (Harrison Square). Additionally, access willbe improved through traffic calming efforts. A keyfactor in improving access to Chinese Garden Parkwill be calming traffic accessing the I-880 Freewayfrom the Alameda Tubes; a separate studyaddressing this topic is underway by the AlamedaCounty Transportation Commission. Streetscapeimprovements also address pedestrian connectionsand improved access to the Chinatown Core asaddressed above, to Jack London Square, and toparking areas under and beyond the I-880 Freeway,which will be activated with uses, includingcultural activities such as a night market.More details regarding streetscape improvementsand the design of the public realm are found inChapter 6 of this Plan.7-10 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

Wayfinding and SignageAdditional multilingual signage will also helpenhance the pedestrian experience in the PlanningArea. Signs and markers strategically placedwill lead residents and visitors to the various destinations,attractions and resources throughoutthe area. Language access in public signage is animportant cultural service for existing and emergingimmigrant populations in the Planning Area,and expanding on the multilingual wayfinding signagewill ensure that the Planning Area is navigableto people with different cultural backgrounds.Details in regards to wayfinding are located inChapter 6 and in the Design Guidelines.Active StreetsFuture ground-floor development and land usesalong 8th and 9th Streets should be consistentwith the existing character to promote culturalvibrancy. Particularly along 8th Street in theChinatown commercial core, street and sidewalkimprovements and regulations seek to strike a balancebetween pedestrian circulation, sidewalkvending, and loading/unloading of goods. A goodbalance is critical as these elements together contributeto preserving and promoting the area’sunique cultural identity.Community Gathering SpacesSocial gatherings within the Planning Area occurin both formal and informal public spaces. Groupexercise activities occur in Madison Square Parkand Pacific Renaissance Plaza and board gameactivities and socializing can often be found occurringin informal spaces such as outdoor cafes,along planter edges at the Lake Merritt BARTStation, and along steps or stairs. The Plan recommendsstreetscape and open space improvementsto accommodate and enhance these spaces in orderto support community gathering and socializing.These improvements, coupled with increased activitiesand gathering opportunities would contributeto the area’s vibrancy and safety with increased“eyes on the street.” Additional amenities such asshaded areas and sidewalk seating areas are recommended.Festival streets, which are discussed furtherbelow, will also help activate the public realmand create additional spaces for the community togather and socialize.Festivals, Events, and Night MarketsThe Planning Area currently hosts two annualstreet festivals that are regional draws. Streetfestoccurs in the Chinatown commercial core,between 9th Street, Broadway, Harrison Street,and 8th Street and usually includes three performancestages. The event runs Saturday and Sundayon the last weekend of August, with estimates ofup to 90,000 visitors attending. 2 The Lunar NewYear Bazaar takes place over a few blocks, including8th and 9th Streets between Webster andFranklin Streets, in January/February each year.Other ongoing activities include the Obon Festivalsponsored by the Buddhist Church of Oaklandand the summer Night Market in the Chinatowncommercial core, and additional events held byother cultural institutions. Of note are the publicevents held at Oakland Museum of California,2 Ong, Jennie, Chinatown Chamber of Commerce,September, 2011.Activated streets, gathering spaces, and promotion of localevents are all key aspects supporting cultural resources.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 7-11

7COMMUNITY RESOURCESTable 7.2: COMMUNITY SERVICES, CULTURAL RESOURCES, AND PUBLIC FACILITIESLIBRARIES1 Main Library2 Asian Branch Library3 Laney College4 Law LibraryCOMMUNITY FACILITIES AND CULTURAL GATHERINGSPACES5 Lincoln Square Recreation Center6 Hall of Pioneers and Sun Yat Sen MemorialHall7 Oakland Asian Cultural Center8 Chinese Community Center9 Malonga Casquelourd Center for the Arts3 Laney College10 Madison Square Park62 Chinatown Youth Center Initiative/The SpotSCHOOLS3 Laney College8 Yu Ming Charter School11 Lincoln Elementary School12 Milton Shoong Chinese Cultural Center13 Chinese Community United Methodist ChurchNursery School14 Little Star Preschool59 Downtown Educational Complex (underconstruction)59 Yuk Yau Annex Preschool59 La Escuelita Elementary School59 MetWest High School60 American Indian Public Charter School II61 Oakland Charter High School63 Dewey Academy High School* Westlake Middle School* Oakland High School* Oakland Technical High School* Envision High SchoolPUBLIC SAFETY FACILITIES16 Oakland Police Chinatown Substation17 Oakland Fire Station18 Social Security Administration19 Lincoln Youth CenterSERVICE PROVIDERS20 Family Bridges21 Asian Health Services22 Open Door Mission23 Salvation Army24 Asian Community Mental Health Services25 Asian Pacific Environmental Network26 Filipino Advocates for Justice27 Asian Youth Promoting Advocacy andLeadership28 East Bay Asian Local DevelopmentCorporation29 Chinatown Chamber of Commerce30 Oakland Asian Students Educational Services31 Chinese American Citizens Alliance32 Hong Fook Adult Day Care Health Center33 Hong Lok Senior Center* National Council on Crime and Delinquency(NCCD)* Vietnamese Community Center of the East Bay* Community Health for Asian AmericansCULTURAL RESOURCESORGANIZATIONS2 Asian Branch Library16 Lincoln Square Recreation Center4 Hall of Pioneers and Sun Yat Sen MemorialHall5 Oakland Asian Cultural Center9 Milton Shoong Chinese Cultural Center7 Malonga Casquelourd Center for the Arts34 Buddhist Church of Oakland35 The Light of the Buddha Temple36 Oakland Museum of California13 Chinese Community United Methodist Church37 Chinese Presbyterian Church38 Chinese Independent Baptist Church39 The Episcopal Church of Our Savior23 Salvation Army* Wa Sung Community Service ClubFAMILY AND REGIONAL ASSOCIATIONS40 Bing Kong Tong41 Chung Shan Family Association42 Gee How Oak Tin Association43 Kuo Min Tang44 Lee Family Benevolent Association45 Loong Kong Tien Yee Association46 Oakland Consolidated Chinese Association47 Soo Yuen Benevolent Association48 Suey Sing Chamber of Labor and Commerce49 Tai Land Lim's Family Association50 Wong Family Association51 Zhong Shan Doo Tao Association52 Toishan Association53 Wu Yi Friendship Association54 Ying Din Commercial Club55 Happy Home Senior Hall56 Kee Ying Chinese Senior Center57 Red Bean Chinese Classical Opera58 Ying Ho Music Department AssociationNote: Locations marked with a * are either outside of the PlanningArea or have no physical location.7-12 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012


7COMMUNITY RESOURCESincluding the Lunar New Year celebration, BlackHistory events, and Day of the Dead CommunityCelebration.Transportation and open space improvements,such as lighting, signage, sidewalk widening, transitand bike access, should enhance these popularannual events.As discussed in Chapter 6 of the Plan, key blocksin the Planning Area are envisioned to be designedas “festival streets,” a street that can be easily convertedinto a public pedestrian mall on weekendsand for special events. Potential “festival streets”include Alice Street between 14th and 13th Streetsand Fallon Street between 10th and 8th Streetsat the Lake Merritt BART Station. Other opportunitiesfor additional outdoor market locationsinclude Madison Square Park or areas under theI-880 freeway. These locations can host new eventsor provide expanded space for existing events. Festivalsand events are also discussed in Chapter 8.Asian Branch Librarymultilingual. 3Adequate funding will be needed to provide forincreased demand for services, materials, and spacefor reading, storage, and circulation. Expandedprogramming has been recommended by the community,and could be accommodated in a newcommunity center, described in Section 7.3. Fundingcould be provided through a mitigation feeprogram, as described in Chapter 10.Madison Square ParkMadison Square Park is a historically and culturallyimportant asset for the community, and is currentlyutilized by hundreds of people ranging fromchildren to adults to senior citizens for exercising,Tai Chi, and martial arts, and as a gathering placefor socializing.This Plan recommends improvements to MadisonSquare Park, outlined in greater detail in Chapter5, to enhance its role in the community andaccommodate future activities in the space.The existing Asian Branch Library in the ChinatownCore is a particularly important culturalresource in the Planning Area, heavily serving anexisting and emerging immigrant population inthe area and region. The Asian Branch Library isthe second busiest branch in the Oakland PublicLibrary system after the Main Library and its collectionrepresents eight different Asian languagesincluding Chinese, Japanese, Tagalog, Thai, Cambodian,Vietnamese, Korean, and Laotian, in additionto English language books. Library staff areEvery effort should be made for nearby developmentto enhance and further activate the currentcultural activities at Madison Square Park withcompatible land-uses at the ground level, such ascafes, restaurants, a community center, and publicrestrooms.3 Cheung, Janet, Asian Branch Library manager,September, 2011.7-14 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

7COMMUNITY RESOURCES7.3 Community FacilitiesCommunity facilities support the neighborhoodby providing activity centers and gathering places,and building a sense of community. New housingdeveloped as a result of this Plan is expectedto accommodate 4,700 additional households (in4,900 new units) in the Planning Area, leadingto increased demand for services and communityresources, as well as potentially more need for non-English language access and unique services.Given this increased service population and thefocus on family housing, a key aspect of the Planis to identify additional community facility needs.Community facilities should include a multicultural,multilingual, and multigenerational communityand wellness center that serves the youthin the community, either in a new building oran expanded Lincoln Recreation Center. Specificamenities desired by the community includeclinic/exam and counseling rooms to support additionalhealth services, administrative office space,medium to large meeting spaces, commercialkitchen, computer lab, recording studio, and a permanentsite for The Spot Youth Center.Expanded access to community facilities may beachieved by establishing joint-use arrangementswith Laney College and OUSD. Lincoln Elementaryand the adjacent Lincoln Square RecreationCenter already have a joint use agreement andcan serve as a model for coordination and lessonslearned.A second strategy involves partnering with newdevelopment. This may mean creating a communitybenefits program that would incentivize privatedevelopment to incorporate facilities thatmeet community needs. While these facilities maybe provided by private development, the design,access, and maintenance of such spaces wouldneed to be developed in partnership with communityleaders. Community facilities could also bedeveloped through a Community Facilities District,or by pursuing State grants and other potentialfunding sources.While no specific site has been identified, theBART blocks have been indicated by the communityas a good potential location, and the finallocation of a community facility should be nearproposed or existing community destinations tocreate a hub of activity.Chapter 10 discusses implementation of possiblefunding mechanisms. Additional communityresources, such as publicly accessible open spacesand recreational facilities are described in Chapter5.New community facilities should build on existing assets suchas the Milton Shoong Chinese Cultural Center (top)and LincolnSquare Park (middle). A youth center (bottom) is proposed.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 7-15

7COMMUNITY RESOURCESLincoln Elementary (top) and the new Downtown EducationComplex including La Escuelita Elementary (middle and bottom).7.4 Educational FacilitiesPrimary and secondary schools play an importantrole in the character of the community, ensuringthe presence of children and students of all agesduring the school day. For both students andadults, schools contribute to education and culture,and provide physical gathering spaces in thePlanning Area. This section describes both thepotential impact of the Plan on existing schoolfacilities as well as opportunities for the City, OaklandUnified School District (OUSD), service providers,students, families, and other stakeholders tofoster relationships with one another and improveoverall quality of life.Primary and Secondary SchoolsBoth OUSD and State-regulated charter schoolshave a physical presence in the Planning Area.OUSD operates two elementary schools and twosmall high schools, and there are also four charterschools in the Planning Area, serving elementary,middle and high school students. Due to openenrollment practices, described in more detailbelow, students from all over the City of Oakland(not just those students living within the schools’neighborhood boundaries) attend these schools.Students living in the Planning Area may alsoattend schools throughout the City of Oakland,including those outside the Planning Area. In particular,one OUSD middle school and two additionalOUSD high schools are located outside thePlanning Area, but are within the neighborhoodschool boundaries for students living in the PlanningArea. These schools, along with their capactiyand enrollment, are shown in Table 7.3 and arefurther described below.Oakland Unified School District SchoolsLincoln Elementary School has over a century ofhistory serving youth in the neighborhood and isone of the highest-performing elementary schoolsin OUSD. Currently, the K-5 public elementaryschool serves over 600 students and is slightly overcapacity. A large percentage of the student populationcomes from a home where a language otherthan English is spoken, including Cantonese,Mandarin, and Mongolian.La Escuelita Elementary and MetWest High aremuch smaller, serving approximately 250 and 150students, respectively. MetWest’s internship-basededucation program creates a school that is stronglylinked to the community. Students partner withlocal businesses and organizations as part of thecurriculum, building relationships with adults professionals.These schools are in the process of beingconsolidated into the Downtown Education Complex(described below) which will increase the LaEscuelita and MetWest capacities by 110 and 44students, respectively.The other OUSD schools that serve the PlanningArea’s population are also near or above capacityand the area’s overall student enrollment currentlyexceeds capacity. The Downtown EducationComplex will increase student capacity, although7-16 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

7COMMUNITY RESOURCESdemand will continue to exceed capacity. Localcharter schools may be able to accommodate additionalstudents.Open Enrollment SystemThe open enrollment system allows for studentsall over the City to attend schools in the PlanningArea. For example, Lincoln Elementary serves asa magnet school, attracting studeents from manyparts of Oakland.For elementary and middle schools, if schools havespace, everyone who applied attends that school. Ifthere are more applicants than spaces, first prioritygoes to students who have an older sibling livingat the same address who is already attending theapplicant’s first choice school; second priority goesto students who live in the neighborhood boundaryof a school; third priority goes to students whoare re-directed from their neighborhood school toanother school within their middle school boundary;fourth priority goes to students who live ina neighborhood where the local school(s) is (are)Program Improvement school(s); and fifth priorityis an open lottery.Downtown Educational ComplexThe OUSD Downtown Educational Complexis located between 2nd and 4th Avenues on East10th Street. It will host La Escuelita Elementary,MetWest High School, and Yuk Yau and CentroInfantil Childhood Development Centers (whichprovide preschool programming for children agesthree through five and an afterschool program forchildren in kindergarten through third grade) ina state-of-the-art, multi-use structure. The Complex’slocation—adjacent to Laney College—andorientation—toward the street and the neighborhood—presentthe opportunity to leverage thiseducational resource to enhance relationships withOUSD and revitalize the Eastlake Gateway Area.Other ResourcesSeveral charter schools have operated in the PlanningArea with varying lengths of time and success.Currently, several charter schools exist in thePlanning Area, including the following, which arealso summarized in Table 7.3.• Oakland Charter High School (OCHS) servesapproximately 150 high school students and40 middle school students, and is expected toexpand at both levels. The exact expansion is notcurrently known, but the school could double insize based on the space they have leased.• The American Indian Public Charter School II(AIPCS II) serves nearly 170 middle students(fifth through eighth grades) and is growing;the current plan is to add Kindergartenthrough fourth grade programming. The totalprojected student population at their currentcampus by 2016-17 is 775.• Envision High School, which is under theauthority of the Alameda County Office ofEducation (not authorized by OUSD), isseeking to grow their school to closer to 400high school students, and has expressed interestin OUSD’s Lakeview facility.• Yu Ming Charter School, which is under theauthority of the Alameda County Office ofEducation as a “county-wide” charter schooloffers a growing Mandarin-immersion programfor kindergarten through eighth grade, and isseeking a larger facility to serve their projectedstudent population of 450 students, grades Kthrough 8 by 2018-2019. The school attractsstudents from throughout the area, and itwould make sense for the school to stay inor near Chinatown if possible, and neargood access to public transit and regionaltransportation networks.In addition, Urban Montessori Charter School willbe opening next year, serving kindergarten througheighth grade and projecting a student population of750 students by 2017-2018. The School is openingand spending their first few years at the District’sSherman campus near Mills College, but it couldeventually relocate and have expressed an interest inlocating downtown or near Lake Merritt.Finally, the Chinese Community Center & MiltonShoong Chinese Cultural Center offers afterschoolChinese language classes to youth, Englishas a Second Language (ESL) classes, and a gym forcultural and recreational activities such as basketball,badminton, volleyball, and dance classes.School DemandStudent enrollment will likely increase in the PlanningArea in the future, as a result of the developmentof additional residential units over futureyears. The demographic makeup of new residents(i.e. whether residents are seniors or families withLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 7-17

7COMMUNITY RESOURCESTable 7.3: SCHOOLS THAT SERVICE THE PLANNING AREASCHOOL NAME EXISTING OR PLANNED CAPACITY ENROLLMENT (2010-2011) PERCENT CAPACITYOUSD PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLSLincoln Elementary School 576 635 110%La Escuelita Elementary360 250 69%School 1Westlake Middle School 2 606 644 106%MetWest High School 1 180 151 84%Dewey Academy HighNA NA NASchool 3Oakland High School 1 1,404 1,777 127%Oakland Technical High2,000 2,050 103%School 2Subtotal 5,126 5,507 107%CHARTER SCHOOLSYu Ming Charter School 450 104 23%The American Indian775 170 22%Public Charter School IIEnvision High School 400 320 80%Oakland Charter High380 190 50%SchoolSubtotal 2,005 784 39%Total (OUSD and Charter) 7,131 6,291 88%1 Planned capacity is for Downtown Education Complex.2 Outside Planning Area boundary.3 As a special high school program serving the entire district, enrollment and capacity for this school are not counted for this analysis. Theschool had 273 students in 2010-11.Source: City of Oakland, Measure DD Implementation Project EIR, G: Cultural Resources, July, 2007; Gail Greely, 2012.children) will affect the demand on existing schoolfacilities. Demographic projections for AlamedaCounty illustrate an overall aging of the population.Specifically, the number of seniors, age 60years and over is expected to increase by 59 percentbetween 2010 and 2035. Assuming the samelevel of increase in the Planning Area by 2035, theproportion of seniors would increase in the future,rising from 30 percent to 36 percent of the populationby 2035. 4 However, these projections do nottake into account this Plan’s vision of creating amore family-oriented community in the PlanningArea.Actual demand will depend on the rate and levelof buildout of the Plan, as well as the demographicmakeup of units. It is possible that new studentsgenerated by the Plan may exceed the capacity ofexisting OUSD and charter schools that serve thePlanning Area. On the other hand, if schools outsidethe Planning Area improve, fewer studentsfrom outside the Planning Area will compete forspace in Planning Area schools. Given that OUSDis currently experiencing declining enrollment district-wide,it is unlikely that new school facilitieswould be developed in the short-term. However,it will be essential that the City work closely withOUSD to plan to accommodate future students,and to support the existing educational resourcesin the Planning Area.7-18 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 20124 Association of Bay Area Governments, Projections2009. Population by Age for Alameda County. TheLake Merritt Station Area Plan Existing Conditionsand Key Issues Report cited a population of 12,052according to Claritas Inc., 2009. Of this total, 3,619or 30 percent are 60 years and older. Using projectionsfor Alameda County as a proxy to extrapolate, this agecohort may increase to 5,219 residents by 2035 or 36percent of the total population in 2035 (16,018). Thisprojection does not take into account the Plan and shiftsin demographics that may result.

7COMMUNITY RESOURCESFinally, continuing historic trends, it is likely thatthe projected population growth will include newimmigrants. Schools in the area should be culturallyattuned to meet the needs of these immigrantcommunities.Higher EducationLaney College is a major feature of the PlanningArea and provides educational and cultural programmingto residents of the surrounding neighborhoodsand beyond. An accredited Californiacommunity college, Laney College offers 32 Associateof Arts and 12 Associate of Science Degreesas well as 28 Certificate Programs. Programs aredesigned to provide general, transfer, and occupational/careertechnical education; English curriculum,basic skills education; and cooperative workexperience education. Laney College also functionsas a community facility and cultural gatheringplace. The campus is home to Laney Bistro, arestaurant operated by students, and the PerformanceTheatre and an Arts Center and Gallery,which hosts numerous artists and performers.Community members identified a desire for theCollege to offer a broader range of classes and programstargeted to the Planning Area community,such as job training programs for immigrants, andexpanded job training opportunities in growthsectors, such as green industry. Further, throughsuch efforts, Laney College may gain an in-depthunderstanding of the talents and skills available inthe local population, which could allow the Collegeto serve as a conduit for job placement andcorporate investment by linking the area’s humancapital with both local and citywide businessopportunities.The Plan seeks to leverage the asset of Laney Collegeto meet a range of goals, including expandedjob training options, additional cultural and educationalresources, and expanded communityfacilities. The City and Laney College should worktogether to ensure the College becomes even moreof an active community facility with more communityuses and classrooms; and facilitate accessby adding signage, and improving streets andintersections to be more pedestrian friendly.The Laney College campus includes educational and recreationalfacilities, including tennis courts (middle) and athleticfields (bottom).LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 7-19

7COMMUNITY RESOURCESVision• Celebrate and enhance the heritage of Chinatown as a cultural asset and a regional community destination.• Maximize the land use and development opportunities created through preservation and restoration of historic buildings.GoalsCommunity Resources and Open Space• Improve existing parks and recreationcenters, including improving access toexisting parks; and add new parks andrecreation centers to serve higher housingdensity and increased number of jobs.• Ensure all parks are safe, accessible toall age groups, clean, well maintained,and provide public restrooms and trashcontainers.• Create a multi-use, multi-generational recreationalfacility, either in addition to orincluding a youth center.• Provide space for community and culturalprograms and activities, such as multi-useneighborhood parks, athletic fields, areasfor cultural activities such as Tai Chi, communitygardens, and expanded libraryprograms for youth, families, and seniors.• Promote the Planning Area as an innovativecenter for community education andhighlight the educational resources of thePlanning Area as a major community resource.• Work with the Oakland Unified SchoolDistrict to ensure adequate capacity ofschool and children’s recreation facilities.Community and Cultural Anchor andRegional Destination• Establish a sense of place and clear identityfor the area as a cultural and communityanchor and a regional destination,building on existing assets such as Chinatown,the Oakland Museum of California,Laney College, the Kaiser ConventionCenter, Jack London Square, and LakeMerritt and the Lake Merritt Channel.• Preserve, celebrate, and enhance thehistoric cultural resources and heritage ofChinatown as a regional anchor for businesses,housing, and community services,and highlight cultural and historicresources in the planning area throughsignage (both wayfinding signage and bydeveloping sign regulations that allowthe display of items in store windows),historic walks, and reuse of historic buildings.Ensure that public services andspaces proposed preserve and reflect thecultural history and aspects of Chinatown’shistoric geography.• Promote a more diverse mix of uses nearthe Lake Merritt BART Station, such ascafés, restaurants, music venues, retailstores, nightlife, etc., that activate thearea as a lively and vibrant district.• Preserve existing historic resources andencourage restoration adaptive re-use ofdesignated historic structures that wouldachieve priority Chinatown and/or Citygoals.• Consider a cultural heritage district orrelated tools for preserving, enhancing,and strengthening Chinatown.• Make connections to the Historic JackLondon District as a key asset in the PlanningArea.7-20 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

7COMMUNITY RESOURCESPoliciesThe cultural resources policies in this chapter identify priorities and actions for supporting the preservation and reuse of historic resources andenhancing the neighborhood as a vibrant cultural asset and destination.Historic ResourcesCR-1 Owner information. Inform owners oflandmark properties, all properties inAreas of Primary Importance and Areasof Secondary Importance, and owners ofall Potentially Designated Historic Properties(PDHPs) of: a) their property’s classificationunder Historic Resource programs,and b) benefits and incentivesavailable for historic properties.CR-2CR-3CR-4Façade Improvement Program. Explorethe creation of a Façade ImprovementProgram that would target commercialand residential façades in Areas of PrimaryImportance and Areas of SecondaryImportance.Existing historic buildings. Concentrateefforts on working with property ownersin the Historic Chinatown Commercial Districtand the 7th Street/Harrison SquareResidential District to secure financialand/or procedural assistance for improvementof existing historic buildings.Adaptive re-use. Update the Planningand Building Code, in order to promotethe adaptive re-use of historic resourcesby allowing the relaxation of certainBuilding or Planning Code requirementsthat do not impact safety but which maymake reuse more viable. Require thatadaptive reuse of historic resources thatmeet the City of Oakland’s CEQA thresholdsto follow Secretary of the Interiorstandards.CR-5CR-6Relocation sites. Identify vacant sitesin existing historic districts that maybe suitable relocation sites for historicstructures in the Planning Area that arecurrently not within a historic district.Heritage Survey update. Update andreview the historic status of individualbuildings and historic districts in thePlanning Area.Cultural ResourcesCR-7 Consistent design. Ensure futureground-floor development and landusesalong 8th and 9th Streets are consistentwith the existing urban designpattern and character in the Chinatowncore to promote cultural vibrancy.CR-8 Connections. Improve connectionsbetween the Jack London District andthe Planning Area, particularly to theChinatown Commercial District and the7th Street/Harrison Square ResidentialDistrict, investing in higher visibility andsafer pedestrian connections under theI-880 freeway. Provide lighting, improvedsidewalks, public art, and frequent publicsafety patrols along the freeway underpasses.CR-9Wayfinding. Incorporate historical andcultural destinations into the wayfindingsystem.FestivalsCR-10 Cultural events. Incorporate public realmand transportation improvements thatsupport cultural events within the PlanningArea. Increase multi-modal accessibilityby improving traffic flow andpedestrian access within and to theseevents, including links to Lake MerrittBART Station, which connects the PlanningArea to the greater region.CR-11 Festival streets. Designate festivalstreets for community events.CR-12 Existing annual cultural events. Phasepublic realm and transportation improvementsto avoid conflicts with existingannual cultural events.Community FacilitiesCR-13 Asian Branch Library. Ensure that theAsian Branch Library can meet theincreased need of library services resultingfrom the new development.CR-14 Library Mitigation Fee. Consider developmentof a library facilities mitigation feeprogram as part of the larger communitybenefits program.CR-15 Multi-generational community center.Target the provision of a shared multigenerationalcommunity center in theLake Merritt BART Station Area Plan District.Involve the community in arrangingthe design, programming, access, andmaintenance of such spaces.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 7-21

7COMMUNITY RESOURCESEducational ResourcesThe following policies will be primarily realizedby schools, with cooperation from the City.CR-16 Pedestrian routes to schools. Ensure safeconvenient pedestrian routes to and fromschools through streetscape improvements,adequate sidewalk widths, trafficcalming, and by coordinating with OUSDand local school sites to implement SafeRoutes to School projects.CR-17 Public transit access. Coordinate with ACTransit to ensure that public transit adequatelyserves all schools in the PlanningArea by aligning routes and schedules.CR-18 School capacity. Work closely withOUSD to ensure new development isaccommodated in local schools. Considernew school locations if the numberof students increase over time andexceeds school capacity.CR-19 OUSD joint use agreements. Considerestablishing joint use agreements withOUSD to allow the sharing of schoolplaygrounds and recreation facilitieswith the general public, including facilityrental for community events, during eveningsand weekends.CR-20 Multilingual wayfinding. EncourageLaney College to provide multilingualwayfinding on its campus.CR-21 Course availability. Encourage LaneyCollege to expand courses that target theneeds of the Planning Area’s population,such as English language classes, jobtraining for immigrants, and job trainingin emerging industries.CR-22 Connections. Work with Laney Collegeto provide accessible and safe pedestrianconnections between Eastlake andChinatown, through the campus itself,and to the Lake Merritt Channel.CR-23 Center for workforce training. SupportLaney College in its objective of becominga local center for job placement and workforcetraining, linking business needs withthe Planning Area’s human capital.7-22 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

8 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTIN THIS CHAPTER8.1 Economic DevelopmentObjectives........................................... 8-28.2 Components of the EconomicDevelopment Strategy...................... 8-4Policies.............................................. 8-10

8ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTEconomic DevelopmentThis chapter includes policies and programsthat promote economic development andsupport for existing and future businessesin the Planning Area. The economic developmentstrategy will work in tandem withnew building construction, improvementsto streets, parks, and safety to improvequality of life to the benefit of existing andnew businesses and residents. The Plan’semphasis is on helping local and emergingbusinesses in Oakland Chinatowngrow, promoting commerce and jobs, andenhancing the district’s appeal to visitors, inthe context of robust new transit-orienteddevelopment.8.1 Economic Development ObjectivesA coordinated economic strategy is essential tofostering investment and growth in the PlanningArea. Such a strategy should include focused publicimprovements, and a balanced approach to landuse in which residential, office, and retail usesare economically viable and produce a high qualityof life. The development strategy should buildon and reinforce initiatives already undertaken bythe City and capitalize on technical assistance andgrant funding provided by regional, State and federalagencies. Not only will economic developmentbenefit the local community by providing jobs anda vibrant street life, it will also generate tax revenuesthat can help the City implement improvementsand/or provide services. This element proposesthe following key objectives:• Actively highlight and enhance the economicasset of Oakland Chinatown. As one of themost vibrant and economically viable retaildistricts in Oakland, a primary goal of theeconomic development strategy is to supportand expand the Chinatown commercial core.Marketing and branding of Chinatown as aunique regional shopping destination will beimportant in achieving this objective.• Strengthen crime prevention efforts andimprove public safety. A safe environment cancreate a favorable impression, instill confidencefor investments, and ensure that visitors andcustomers are comfortable using public spaces.• Improve quality of life to attract a diversepopulation to live in the Planning Area.The Plan aims to attract a diverse range ofpeople that are interested in living in a vibranturban center. Attracting a diverse population,including a variety of age groups and householdtypes, will help support a range of businessesand ensure that the area is active at all hours.• Actively engage with multiculturalcommunities in business and employmentdevelopment. Oakland, and in particular thePlanning Area, has a tremendous resourcein its richly diverse population, with manycommunities that all bring their own skills,unique cultural heritage, business connections,and market penetration capabilities.• Further develop the potential of LaneyCollege. Laney College is an important asset inthe Planning Area, and can serve as a physicaland economic anchor. The Plan seeks to fostergreater synergies between the College, theChinatown core, and Downtown Oakland inorder to fully take advantage of its presence andcontribute to workforce education.• Develop a strategy for the City of Oakland’sand BART’s own real property assets. One ofthe public sector’s firmest assets is in its ownland. Using City- and BART-owned propertyfor “catalyst projects” can be a key tool forenabling physical development of a desiredtype and spurring further development in thesurrounding area.8-2 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

8ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT• Improve the Planning Area’s visual image.The condition of streets and public spacescontributes to an environment’s appeal forresidents, business owners and workers.Improving the image and comfort of thePlanning Area will be an important aspect ofeconomic development.• Support business development and jobcreation. Supporting locally-run start-upsadds to the City’s existing employment baseand fosters innovation. Through policyinitiatives, the City may be able to improveaccess to resources and capital for theseenterprises, helping them overcome obstacles toestablishment. At the same time, establishmentof reasonable goals for local hiring will ensurethat economic growth benefits neighborhoodresidents.• Ensure adequate access. Ensuring that thePlanning Area is accessible for pedestrians,bicycles, by transit, and by car is essentialto promoting economic vibrancy. Improvedstreetscape and improved accessibility by allmodes are addressed in Chapter 6.Specific strategies for achieving these objectives aresummarized in the following section. With all ofthese strategies, the Plan encourages local, multicultural,and cross-sector business and workforcedevelopment, which has the potential to leverageconnections between public and private businessesand training programs and potential employeesthat reside in or near the Planning Area.Economic development objectives include improving the publicrealm accessibility, including pedestrian and transit access.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 8-3

8ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTEconomic development strategies include supporting andenhancing events such as Streetfest (above), and furtherdeveloping local branding and marketing (bottom).8.2 Components of the Economic DevelopmentStrategyThe Plan proposes a broad array of strategies toachieve the objectives established in the previoussection. Strategy components are presentedhere, in the context of an objective they serve. Inmany cases, strategies support multiple objectives,a characteristic that points to the way the physicalcity and its economic and social vitality are linked.Highlight ChinatownThe Chinatown commercial core is today a successfularea and one of Oakland’s gems, but is alsochallenged by changing demographics, perceptionsof public safety, and other issues such as increasedcompetition from Asian markets in other East Baycities. Components of an economic developmentstrategy to support and leverage this tremendousasset should include the following.Events and FestivalsSpecial events and festivals give Planning Area residentsand businesses an opportunity to strengthenbonds while highlighting the area’s cultural diversity.Events bring short-term infusions of economicactivity, and have the potential to expose manymore people to Oakland Chinatown who are thenlikely to return. The City should work in partnershipwith the local business community to organizeand carry out special events, including coordinatingpromotion and security, temporarily closingstreets, and streamlining permitting. Refer toChapter 7 for details on current events.Marketing and BrandingMarketing is more than just a mere promotionof place. Marketing can help define the PlanningArea’s image and increase its visibility to potentialinvestors and the world at large. In particular, themarketing program should highlight the addedbenefit of shopping in Chinatown as a vibrantexperience, as opposed to relatively new suburbanoutlets for Chinese retail goods which lackthe same mix of offerings and cultural vibrancy.The commercial district could create a larger webpresence and put more information on-line, sincethis is the most economical way of marketing shortof running advertisements or directly approachingpotential investors. Additionally, partnershipsbetween the local Chinatown Chamber of Commerceand/or the East Bay Economic DevelopmentAlliance, the City, and other business serviceorganziations could maximize promotionalopportunities. A Community Benefit Districtor Business Improvement District could help tofund marketing and promotion and special events,among other things (see Chapter 10).Rename Public SpacesThe character of Chinatown could be explicitlyemphasized in the public realm, through namingof new public spaces after prominent local neighborhoodfigures. Further, the Lake Merritt BARTStation could be renamed to identify it as an accesspoint to Chinatown, as described in Chapter 4.8-4 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

8ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTEnsure Public SafetyEnsuring safety from crime, and people’s perceptionof safety, is a priority for the community.Strategies for enhancing the overall sense of securityfollow. They point to ways the communityand other City departments can complement workbeing done by police and others to ensure the areais a desirable place to work and live. Small, localactions and changes to the environment may havea large, positive effect on overall safety in the PlanningArea.Ambassador ProgramThe Downtown Ambassador program establishedand funded by the Downtown Oakland Associationhas helped build confidence and enhancesafety downtown. The Ambassadors are a highlyvisible presence on downtown streets. They help toresolve minor incidents, act as liaisons to the policedepartment, and help to maintain streets and publicspaces, while providing permanent jobs for residents.A similar program in the Planning Areawould need a long-term, ongoing funding source,such as a Community Benefit District (CBD, seesidebar) or other source described in Chapter 10.LightingImproved lighting of streets and sidewalks hasthe potential to improve public safety. Lightingimprovements should be pedestrian-scaled, andtargeted to areas of concern identified by the communityand police. Improvements may be achievedthrough funding mechanisms as described inChapter 10, or other means.“Eyes on the Street”Neighborhood watch programs and security camerasin public places and parks are a few examplesof initiatives to increase “eyes on the street” andcontribute to increased public safety. This strategywould also be supported by the idea under discussionto relocate BART’s Police Headquarters, currentlylocated underground at the Lake Merrittstation, to street level. While BART police wouldnot patrol the area, their presence at ground-levelcould improve the perception of surveillance.The Role of New Development inEnhancing SafetyLand use intensification proposed by the Plan mayhave the greatest effect in adding to public safetyby ensuring that streets are active and vibrant. Amix of development types, including entertainmentuses, would bring more people to the area atall hours.Building and Landscape DesignThe design of new buildings and changes to existingbuildings and public spaces will also have animportant effect in ensuring public safety. DesignGuidelines for the Lake Merritt Station Area Planbuild on the ideas of Crime Prevention throughEnvironmental Design (CPTED). Key strategiesinclude promoting active ground floor uses thatdirectly face the street, and demarcating publicand private space. Design should make it clear thatactivities are visible, and should encourage a senseof “ownership” on the part of building owners andresidents.Community Benefit Districts(CBDs)Business or property owners within adefined geographic area may agree toassess themselves annual fees, as part of aCommunity Benefit District (CBD) or BusinessImprovement District (BID). The CBD/BID may then fund activities and programsto enhance the business environment; thesemay include marketing and promotion,security, streetscape improvements, andspecial events. Once established, the annualCBD/BID fees are mandatory for businesses/properties located within the district. NineBusiness Improvement Districts are currentlyin place in various parts of Oakland,including the Downtown Oakland Associationin downtown.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 8-5

8ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTThe Plan also calls for improvements to existingstreets and public spaces. These must be designedto address security concerns and enhance thesafety of the area.Attract a Diverse PopulationWith its walkable, urban character, its accessibilityto jobs and transit, and its proximity to Lake Merritt,the Planning Area has the potential to appealto a broad range of Bay Area residents, includingmembers of Oakland’s Chinese community, newimmigrants, professionals with disposable income,and families with children. A larger and morediverse resident population will in turn supportmore local businesses.Land Use and ZoningThe City can play a key role in enhancing the PlanningArea’s appeal to a diverse population. Establishinga land use pattern through zoning regulationsthat permits high density housing and openspaces, ground floor retail on key pedestrian corridorsand a mix of commercial uses will provide theframework for the future composition of the area.Affordable and market rate housing for single individuals,small and large families, and seniors willensure the area is home to a sufficient populationbase to support local businesses. Transit-orienteddevelopment should also cater to professionalsand seniors attracted by the location and amenities.The development of new housing in a varietyof formats and the crafting of a balanced Land UsePlan that seeks to optimize the potential of commercialstreets and cultural anchors are covered indetail in Chapter 4. Updating the City’s PlanningCode will be the key implementation action.Incentives Program and HousingDevelopmentA program of incentives to developers for providingcommunity benefits will be an important strategyto produce transit-oriented development in thePlanning Area. The program, more fully describedin Chapters 4 and 10, could grant additionalheight, floor area ratio (FAR), or reduced parkingrequirements, in exchange for amenities or benefitsdesired by the City, such as affordable housing.School PartnershipsThe quality of local schools is a chief considerationof many families with children who maybe attracted to live in the Planning Area. LincolnElementary School is a top-level, award-winningschool, and the Downtown Educational Complexis an important new investment. Partnering withlocal schools to maintain and improve school qualitymay be an important component of attractingfamilies. Partnerships with Laney College aredescribed below.Engage the Multi-Cultural BusinessCommunityRelationships between the City and the diversecommunities in the Planning Area may bestrengthened through established business organizations(such as the Oakland Chinatown Chamberof Commerce and the Oakland VietnameseChamber of Commerce) and new organizationsfor communities that are less organized. Outreachmay be done by the City in conjunction with thebusiness service organizations (BSOs)—groupsconvened by Economic Development staff—andchambers of commerce. Another mechanism toorganize the diverse business community in thePlanning Area is the creation of a CBD or BID.Successful partnerships between the City andorganized groups will require bridging languagebarriers with marketing, business outreach andattraction, and targeting.Connect with Laney College and OUSDLaney College and Oakland Unified School District’snew Downtown Education Center (DEC)have the potential to be successfully integratedwith the neighborhoods around them and with theeconomic life of Oakland. An economic developmentstrategy for the Planning Area should pursueopportunities to partner with Laney College andthe DEC, including the following.Partnerships with Local BusinessesEconomic development in the Planning Areawould benefit from partnerships between LaneyCollege, the DEC, and the local business communityto establish internships and mentorship programsand coordination on employer recruitmentefforts.Sharing FacilitiesLaney College’s facilities, including classroom andmeeting room space, athletic facilities, and openspaces are a valuable resource not only for the collegebut potentially for the surrounding neighborhoods.With clear arrangements for joint useof facilities, these amenities could significantlyimprove the appeal of area for living and doingbusiness. The DEC has been designed with suchcommunity use in mind. Joint use agreements aredescribed in Chapter 5.8-6 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

8ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTLeverage Public Real Estate AssetsThe Planning Area features a significant amount ofpublicly-owned land that is vacant or potentiallyredevelopable. In particular, the two BART blocksare located directly adjacent to the Lake MerrittBART Station. A “catalyst” development projecton one or more of these blocks (as describedin Chapter 3) would act to stimulate additionaldevelopment in the neighborhood by proving thevalue of investment and adding new destinationsand new customers.Some other key assets include the MTC/ABAGoffice buidling, which may be vacated; the CityownedFire Alarm Building site, which could bereused as a public facility or restaurant; and theKaiser Convention Center, which should be reusedto establish an additional destination in the PlanningArea. Redesign of 12th Street has created anadditional City-owned potential development site.Additionally, improvements to existing publiclyowned parks would help improve the attractivenessof the Planning Area to visitors. Open spacesare addressed in greater detail in Chapter 5.Improve Visual QualityStreetscapes, Parks, and DesignGuidelinesThe Plan supports improvements to the publicrealm in the form of streetscape improvements,park improvements, and the creation of new publicspaces as part of new development. Large developmentsites will provide on-site publicly accessibleopen space (as described in Chapter 5), adjacentto the street. Design Guidelines for new development(under separate cover) aim to enhance thevisual quality of the area. Additional opportunitiesfor public realm amenities exist in establishingmerchant/restaurant alleys (for instance re-activatingthe historic alley located on the King Block),and participation by local businesses in the Cityof Oakland’s parklets program, which allows thetemporary conversion of parking spaces to seatingor pedestrian amenities, by application (see Chapter5 for more detail). A cohesive signage programas discussed in Chapters 6 and 7 should be consistentwith and build on existing signage in theChinatown core.These strategies will contribute significantly tothe attractiveness of the Planning Area as a placeto invest, live, and do business, and are coveredin other chapters. Improvements may be financedusing a variety of mechanisms covered in Chapter10, including the creation of a CBD or BID andthe use of incentives for developers to help pay foreconomic and community benefits.Façade ImprovementsFaçade improvement programs have historicallyexisted through the now dissolved City of Oaklandredevelopment agency. A similar programshould be explored post-redevelopment, and theseprograms should be actively marketed for use inthe Planning Area. Historically, these programsprovided matching grants to existing businessesfor storefront and façade improvements. A moretargeted program in the Chinatown commercialcore could help to make area properties and busi-Façade improvements and support for small businesses areessential components of the economic development strategy.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 8-7

8ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTnesses more vibrant, economically competitiveand inviting. Under this new program, the citycould approach property owners and businessesalong each block face on the main pedestrian retailstreets, and employ financing assistance, designconsultation and city facilitation tools to encourageprivate investment in façade improvements.Small Business Development ProgramsMultiple organizations currently exist that providetechnical and financial support to start-ups andsmall businesses. The City could ensure that Chinatownbusinesses are aware of and have access tostart-up and business support services, includingservices in Cantonese and Mandarin.MaintenanceEven in the absence of streetscape and façadeimprovements, the visual quality of the PlanningArea can be enhanced. It will be importantto resolve loading issues, so delivery vehicles don’tpark in travel lanes. Regular cleaning and maintenanceis also important, particularly given that theeconomic benefits of improvements to streetscapesand public spaces will diminish over time withoutgood upkeep. This also includes maintenanceof the roadway condition to reduce the number ofpotholes. A Community Benefit District or similarmechanism would be well-suited to taking responsibilityfor maintenance activities (see Chapter 10).Support Business Development andJob CreationSupport for local businesses, job placement supportfor local residents, and expansion of key economicsegments are the nuts and bolts of an economicdevelopment strategy. Effective economicdevelopment and business support will require culturalunderstanding and language capacity. Specificopportunities are outlined here.The City or another organization could also supportbusiness retention by maintaining a revolvingloan program for local businesses needing temporaryfinancial support. These programs should helpto support thriving commercial centers with a mixof small and larger businesses such as the PacificRenaissance Center.A “Small Business Innovation and IncubatorFund” is another option. Such a fund could providelower rents and support services for start-upfirms, and help entrepreneurs get businesses off theground.Local Hiring, Job Training and PlacementIn collaboration with community stakeholders,the City can establish local hiring goals thatwould apply to City-funded activities. Goals couldinclude defining what constitutes a local hire, identifyingappropriate industries and sectors in whichlocal hiring will be encouraged, and developingtarget numbers of local hires for those businessesor institutions. Local hiring in the Planning Areashould be encouraged as a component of progresstowards the overarching economic development8-8 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

8ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTgoals. A local hiring-related service could also bepart of a community benefits program, wherebybusiness owners are connected with workforcedevelopment programs including those administeredby the City. In addition to job placement,these workforce development programs provideessential job training and job readiness services.Together, job training and local hire goals can providecareer pathways and can indirectly engageyouth in pursuing construction jobs. Possibleopportunities for matching youth in the area toconstruction jobs include employing local apprenticesenrolled in the California State CertifiedLabor-Management apprenticeship program.While workforce development programs are currentlyin effect, there may be challenges related tolanguage, and the need to publicize the availabilityof these services in the Chinatown community.Public/Private PartnershipsPursuing public/private partnerships can helpachieve catalyst development, business development,community engagement and other objectives.Examples include OUSD working with thelocal business community to connect studentswith local businesses, and the potential for BARTto work with an entity to redevelop property. Inthe latter case, BART requires “project stabilizationagreements” with prospective partners inTransit-Oriented Development (TOD) projects, toensure efficient project delivery.Improve AccessImproving Planning Area accessibility is covered indepth in Chapter 6, including detailed guidance onenhancing the pedestrian realm and access to transit,creating bicycle facilities, and improving traffic flowand parking access. These programs will be a necessarycomponent of successful economic development.The creation of a Parking District and/or in-lieu feemay be important in funding access improvements.These mechanisms are described in Chapter 10.Undertake a Local EconomicDevelopment StrategyDuring the implementation phase of this Plan,a detailed local economic development strategyshould be undertaken with an emphasis on international,and especially Asian, business development.The strategy should consider:• Strategies for expanding or updating existingbusinesses;• Reaching out to existing, successful Asian/Pacific Islander-owned businesses in the region,to promote establishment of locations in thePlanning Area;• Private sector corporate headquarters exportand import business as an opportunity withan already strong institutional presence(particularly in regard to the Port of Oakland);• The unique opportunities of the Asian market; and• Creation of an Immigrant Investor Program/EB-5 Regional Center, which will establish alower barrier to entry and attract internationalinvestment that would be complimentary tothe existing community and business mix.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 8-9

8ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTVision• Provide for community development that is equitable, sustainable, and healthy.• Increase jobs and improve access to jobs along the transit corridor.• Celebrate and enhance the heritage of Chinatown as a cultural asset and a regional communitydestination.BusinessGoals• Strengthen and expand businesses in Chinatown, through City zoning, permits, marketing,redevelopment, infrastructure improvements, and other tools.• Attract and promote a variety of new businesses, including small businesses and start-ups,larger businesses that provide professional-level jobs (e.g., engineers, attorneys, accountants,etc.), and businesses that serve the local community (such as grocery stores, farmersmarkets, restaurants, pharmacies, banks, and bookstores).• Promote more businesses near the Lake Merritt BART Station to activate the streets, serveChinatown, Laney College, and the Oakland Museum of California, and increase the numberof jobs.Jobs• Attract development of new office and business space that provide jobs and promote economicdevelopment for both large and small businesses.• Increase job and career opportunities, including permanent, well-paying, and green jobs;ensure that these jobs provide work for local residents.• Support the provision of job training opportunities. Ensure that local training opportunities(including vocational English as a second language opportunities) exist for jobs beingdeveloped both in the planning area and the region, particularly those accessible via thetransit network.• Employ local and/or targeted hiring for contracting and construction jobs for implementationof the plan (i.e., construction of infrastructure).8-10 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

8ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTPoliciesThe policies that follow aim to achieve economic development through actions that help to highlight the assets of Oakland Chinatown, and to forgepartnerships between public agencies, local businesses, and Laney College. Other policies focus on improving public safety (actual and perceived), andimproving the visual character of the area. The redevelopment of public real estate assets is recognized as a potential catalyst.Overarching PoliciesED-1 Planning Area promotion. Promote apositive image of the Planning Area asa desirable place to shop, live, and dobusiness.ED-2ED-3ED-4Foster positive relationships. Supportlocal businesses and foster a positiverelationship between the business communityand the City government.Attractive environment. Support andcontribute to a clean, attractive, andsafe environment for residents, businessowners, employees, and shoppers.Local jobs. Attract professionals andskilled workers with local jobs to live inthe Planning Area.Highlight ChinatownED-5 Events and festivals. Work in partnershipwith the local business community,including the Chinatown Chamberof Commerce, to organize and promoteregionally recognized events and festivalsas a means of fostering a positiveimage of the Planning Area as a place tovisit, live, and conduct business.Examples of community events thatcould draw visitors include night marketsand street festivals.ED-6ED-7Marketing program. Design and implementa marketing program, focusing ondefining the Planning Area’s image andincreasing its visibility. The marketingprogram should:• Highlight the Chinatown commercialcore as a vibrant shopping experience;• Encourage coordination between theChinatown Chamber of Commerceand/or the East Bay Economic DevelopmentAlliance and other businessservice organizations to ensure activeparticipation of the business community;• Highlight cultural and institutionalresources that might draw additionalvisitors, through coordinationwith the Oakland Asian Cultural Center,Laney College, and the OaklandMuseum of California;• Focus on web-based content; and• Include a funding source, such as aCommunity Benefits District or BusinessImprovement District, if feasible.Name public plazas to reflect local heritage.Work closely with the communityto identify appropriate prominent localfigures, and to identify public plazas thatcould be named to reflect the heritage ofthe area.See Chapter 4 for policies related torenaming the Lake Merritt BART Station.Improve Public SafetyED-8 Crime prevention. Work with the policedepartment to strengthen crime preventionefforts, to assure businesses that itis a desirable place in which to work andlive.ED-9Ambassador Program. Pursue a longterm,ongoing funding source for a programlike the Downtown Ambassadors,to help to ensure the actual and perceivedsafety of the Chinatown area.ED-10 Pedestrian-scaled lighting. Implementpedestrian-scaled lighting improvementsthat are targeted to areas wheresafety has been a concern in the community.See Chapter 10 for possible implementationoptions.ED-11 Security cameras. Assess the value ofplacing security cameras at specific locationswhere public safety is of highestconcern, and discuss this with the community.ED-12 BART Police Headquarters. Support theidea for BART to relocate its Police Headquartersto street level at or near theLake Merritt BART Station, as a way tobolster perceived public safety directlyaround the Station.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 8-11

8ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTAttract a Diverse PopulationED-13 Diversity of housing. Encourage a diversityof housing types, both affordableand market-rate, to meet the housingneeds of single individuals, small andlarge families, and seniors. Housingtypes should include condominiums,town homes, studios, and multifamilyapartments.Other housing related policies and programsare included in Chapter 4: LandUse.ED-14 Developer incentives program. Craft aprogram of developer incentives in sucha way that it stimulates market-rate, transit-orienteddevelopment in the PlanningArea.See also Chapter 4: Land Use.ED-15 School partnerships. Initiate programsand partnerships with local schools tohelp to connect existing and new residentswith the schools and improveschool quality where needed.Engage the Multi-Cultural BusinessCommunityED-16 Diverse business organizations.Strengthen and pursue relationshipswith the diverse communities in thePlanning Area, by connecting with establishedbusiness organizations such asthe Oakland Chinatown Chamber ofCommerce and the Oakland VietnameseChamber of Commerce, and supportingthe incorporation of communities thatare less organized. Outreach may becoordinated with business service organizations(BSOs) and metro and ethnicchambers.Connect with Laney CollegeED-17 Laney College partnership. Foster apartnership between Laney College andthe business community, so the Collegecan conduct academic and skill trainingprograms that meet the needs of localbusinesses.ED-18 Laney College joint use agreements.Work with Laney College to ensure cleararrangements for joint use of facilities,including meeting room space anduse of athletic facilities and open spaceareas.Leverage Public Real Estate AssetsED-19 Publicly-owned blocks for redevelopment.Support BART and MTC in redevelopingprime publicly-owned blocksaround the Lake Merritt BART Station.Development of one or multiple of theseblocks should be approached as a catalystto stimulate development in thelarger area.Redevelopment of the BART blocks isexpected to be done through a public/private partnership under a “project stabilizationagreement” to ensure efficientproject delivery.ED-20 Publicly-owned assets for reuse. Promotethe active reuse of publicly ownedassets, including the Fire Alarm Buildingand Kaiser Convention Center.Improve Visual QualityED-21 Façade improvement program. Identifynew funding sources for a façadeimprovement program. Once secured,approach property owners and businessesin the Chinatown core along each8-12 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

8ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTblock face on the main pedestrian retailstreets, and provide financing assistance,design consultation and city facilitationtools to encourage private investmentin façade improvements.ED-22 Cleanliness and maintenance. Strive tomaintain cleanliness and order in thePlanning Area. A Community BenefitDistrict or similar mechanism would bewell-suited to taking responsibility formaintenance activities.Support Business Development and JobCreationED-23 Local economic development strategy.Complete a local economic developmentstrategy as part of Plan implementation,with an emphasis on Asian businessdevelopment. The strategy should consider:• Strategies for expanding or updatingexisting businesses;• Private sector corporate headquartersexport and import business asan opportunity with an already stronginstitutional presence (particularly inregard to the Port of Oakland);• The unique opportunities of the Asianmarket; and• Creation of an Immigrant InvestorProgram/EB-5 Regional Center, whichwill establish a lower barrier to entryand attract international investmentthat would be complimentary to theexisting community and businessmix.ED-24 Local hiring goals. In collaboration withcommunity stakeholders, establish localhiring goals, by defining what constitutesa local hire, identifying appropriateindustries and sectors in which local hiringwill be encouraged, and developingtarget numbers of local hires for thosebusinesses or institutions. A local hiringrelatedservice could be part of a CommunityBenefit District formed in thePlanning Area.Possible opportunities for matching youthin the area to construction jobs includeemploying local apprentices enrolled inthe California State Certified Labor-Managementapprenticeship program.ED-25 Workforce development. Continue toprovide job training and readiness servicesthrough the Workforce InvestmentBoard, and ensure that these servicesare publicized and accessible to PlanningArea residents, including ensuring Cantoneseand Mandarin language access.ED-26 Internship, mentoring and apprenticeshipprograms. Encourage local businessesto offer internship, mentoringand apprenticeship programs to highschool and college students.ED-27 Small Business Innovation and IncubatorFund. Evaluate a “Small BusinessInnovation and Incubator Fund” to providelower rents and support servicesfor start-up firms, and help entrepreneursget businesses off the ground. TheCity’s role may be to ensure that startupsin Chinatown are aware of existingprograms and can receive assistance inCantonese and Mandarin. See Chapter10 for more detail on how such a programcould be implemented.LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 8-13

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9 INFRASTRUCTURE AND UTILITIESIN THIS CHAPTER9.1 Dry Utilities......................................... 9-29.2 Sanitary Sewer Service................... 9-39.3 Water Service.................................... 9-69.4 Recycled Water SystemService ............................................... 9-89.5 Storm Drain....................................... 9-109.6 Solid Waste Disposal..................... 9-12Policies.............................................. 9-12

9INFRASTRUCTURE AND UTILITIESInfrastructure and UtilitiesThis chapter provides an assessment ofexisting utility systems serving the LakeMerritt Station Area, potential impacts tothese systems to accommodate plan buildout,and key infrastructure issues. Theexisting conditions and planned upgradesare assessed for current physical condition,capacity and compliance with updatedregulations.The City of Oakland and regional districtsprovide a variety of infrastructure servicesincluding potable water, sanitary sewer(wastewater), recycled water, storm drainage,electricity and natural gas service, andsolid waste disposal services to meet thedemand of residents and businesses. ThePlanning Area, while completely servicedwith existing utilities, will require upgradesand relocations of certain infrastructure elements.9.1 Dry UtilitiesElectricity and natural gas service in Oakland isprovided primarily by Pacific Gas and Electric(PG&E), which owns the gas and electrical utilitysupply lines. Throughout most of Oakland, electricalpower is delivered via overhead distributionand transmission lines, and natural gas is distributedthrough underground piping. Undergroundingefforts have been initiated as opportunities fornew developments arise.Within the Planning Area, two potential problemsexist which may impact future developments: subsidewalkfacilities (high voltage vaults, transformers)and a high water table. PG&E staff has indicatedthat there is adequate capacity for any immediateplanned development. When applications fornew services are reviewed, PG&E may determinewhether new circuits will be required, and there istypically a one and one-half to two-year lead timefor new developments. A new development mustexceed six to eight megawatts (MW) of powerrequirements before exceeding current capacity.For comparison purposes, a multi-story, 400 unitresidential development would consume approximatelythree MW. Power is generally supplied toa development site through underground vaults,ground-level vaults, or transformer pads.Buildings constructed after June 30, 1977 mustcomply with standards identified in Title 24 ofthe California Code of Regulations. Title 24,established by the California Energy Commission(CEC) in 1978, requires the inclusion of state-ofthe-artenergy conservation features in buildingdesign and construction, including the incorporationof specific energy conserving design features,use of non-depletable energy resources, or a demonstrationthat buildings would comply with adesignated energy budget.AT&T and Comcast are the telecommunicationsservice providers for the Planning Area.Both overhead cables and underground conduitsin joint trenches are present. Comcast typicallyleases spaces with occupancy agreements fromeither PG&E or AT&T, who owns the physicalpoles for installing telecommunication cables. Forunderground joint trenches, PG&E is typically theowner and conduit placement must follow PG&E’sconstruction standards. In every street within thePlanning Area, there is a Comcast facility present.From the base map that Comcast provided, subsidewalkvaults are located fairly evenly throughoutthe Planning Area.9-2 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

9INFRASTRUCTURE AND UTILITIES9.2 Sanitary Sewer ServiceExisting Sanitary Sewer SystemOakland’s sanitary sewer services are provided bythe City’s collection network of mains and lateralsconnected to EBMUD’s interceptor systems (largerdiameter pipes) which deliver the raw sewage to itsmain wastewater treatment plant. EBMUD hastwo interceptor systems within the vicinity of thePlanning Area. The South Interceptor system traverseseast-west on 2nd Street and the AlamedaInterceptor system begins at the pump station atthe end of Alice Street. Most sewage in the PlanningArea is collected at this point and conveyedto the Main Wastewater Treatment Plant throughthis system. The City’s sewer pipes in the PlanningArea are in poor condition. Many lateralsare shown on the City’s sewer maps as “plugged”or “abandoned,” and many pipes do not have anydata associated (diameter, flow direction, material,etc.). Where information is available, sewermain pipe diameters are shown to range from eightinches to 12 inches.Most of the City’s sewer collection system is over60 years old – some as old as 100 years. A twentyfiveyear capital improvement program was initiatedin 1987 to rehabilitate up to 30 percent of thesewer system to eliminate wet weather overflows,which are caused by rainwater and groundwaterinfiltrating into old, leaky sewer pipes. This programis mandated under the City’s sanitary sewerdischarge permit with the Regional Water QualityControl Board, and is due to be completed in2014. This program does not address the remaining700 miles of sewer system that continue todeteriorate with age. Only a small fraction of thisremaining portion is rehabilitated on an as-neededbasis each year.The existing sewer system is currently in need ofrepair. The current deficiencies with respect toleaking pipes result in inflow and infiltration andcause the pipe capacity to be exceeded. This problemis currently being addressed on a citywidebasis but funding is limited and the City’s fundsand priorities are focused on the most urgent needsthroughout the entire city owned system. There iscurrently a backlog of requests for cyclic replacementprojects, with only the highest priority projectscompleted each year. The highest priority projectsare those with ongoing overflows, backupsand/or collapsed pipes, none of which are locatedin the Planning Area.Capacity and Opportunities forUpgradesWhile new development may present an opportunityto have these pipes replaced, projectswould only contribute to the cost of new pipes ifthe capacity of the pipes is exceeded. If the pipeshave deteriorated and/or have diminished capacitybecause of deteriorating conditions, then thisis not a development cost. Where installed, newpipes would likely be a larger size – for instancean eight-inch pipe would likely become a ten-inchpipe and an existing ten-inch would likely becomea twelve-inch pipe. Increased pipe size assumes theslopes remain about the same; the same size pipecould have increased capacity by increasing theslope of the pipe and changing the pipe material.Capacity is measured as flow rate, either in gallonsper day or cubic feet per second. The flow rateis determined by the size (diameter) of the pipeand the slope of the pipe. For instance, an eightinchpipe with a one percent slope has the samecapacity as a ten-inch pipe with a 0.3 percent slopeand a twelve-inch pipe with a 0.12 percent slope.All other things being equal, the cost differencebetween the pipe sizes is not significant. The materialcost of the pipe does not change much betweensizes varying from eight to twelve inches.Issues and Potential ImpactsThe key issues for development, regardless of thetotal number of residential units and square feet ofcommercial spaces are:• Aging infrastructure and unknown condition;• State regulatory requirements for replacement;• Improvement costs of system wide upgrades; and• Local regulatory requirements for sustainabledesign.The Planning Area is located in five sub-basins ofthe City’s wastewater collection system, which willdisperse increased flows from new developmentinto five different pipe systems. Each numberedLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 9-3

9INFRASTRUCTURE AND UTILITIESsub-basin encompasses a specific physical area, andits sewer flows are assigned to a single dischargepoint from the city’s collection system into theEBMUDs interceptor lines. The sub-basins andimpacted pipe lines are shown on Figure 9.1.Planning Area Capacity and NecessaryImprovementsCapacity of the pipes in the sanitary sewer systemis assumed to be limited if the projected flowsexceed 20 percent, based on the City of Oakland’s2008 Sanitary Sewer Design Standards. Preliminaryestimates of project waste water flows basedon Plan development potential indicate that thereis adequate capacity in the pipes in Sub basins52-05, 52-13, 64, and 54-01. Based on the preliminarycalculations of existing and proposed capacity,pipe system upgrades are assumed to be neededin sub-basins 64-01 and 64-02 for the pipes thatrun under the freeway. Figure 9.1 shows sewerlines in the Planning Area that would be impactedby new development and the two locations wherepipe upgrades would be needed.Larger pipes to replace the existing ones or parallelpipes would be required to increase the capacity ofthe system in these two locations. The downstreampipes have a greater capacity (and therefore do notrequire upgrades) because they have steeper slopesthan the lines under the freeway. The capacity ofthe replacement pipes should be sized to handlefuture demand.Treatment plant capacity is not likely to be an issueas the build-out will be phased and is within theexpected, incremental increases of the treatmentplant system and within the maximum capacityof the treatment plants operated by EBMUD. Thenew State and City requirements that will reducewater demand in new development will also havethe effect of decreasing the wastewater that entersthe sewer collection system. In addition, re-use ofgray water is also encouraged by the policies in theCity’s newly adopted Green Building Ordinance.Capital Improvement Program andSewer Mitigation FeeMaintenance and upgrades to the sewer systembecause of age and deterioration are being handledby the city-wide capital improvement program(CIP) although, as noted, only the highest priorityneeds are typically addressed. The CIP assumesthat the existing system is at about 80 percentcapacity, with remaining capacity of around 20percent overall.The City of Oakland Master Fee Schedule authorizesthe assessment of a Sewer Mitigation Fee todevelopments based on the proportional share ofgrowth induced improvement costs. This fee isassessed to new developments in sub-basins thatexceed the assumed remaining capacity, or in otherwords, that increase sewer flow rates by more than20 percent. A project’s flow rate increase is determinedbased on land use changes, which havecalculated flow rates per the city guidelines. It isalso possible to borrow the allowable growth rateincrease from an adjoining sub-basin.The City collects the sewer mitigation fee as partof the development permitting process and the feegoes toward replacing pipes that would increasecapacity. The fee is determined on a project-byprojectbasis, depending on the sub-basin the projectis located in. Because nearly all the pipes areold, any new pipe installation has the side benefitof removing an old pipe that they may otherwisehave needed upgrades as part of the city’s CIP program.9-4 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

19TH ST17TH STATHOLAVEE. 18TH STFigure 9.1:SANITARY Lake Merritt SEWER SYSTEMStation Area Plan:Sanitary Sewer SystemBROADWAY64-07 52-0412th StBARTBROADWAY64-0652-0530FRANKLIN STFRANKLIN ST8 6319PacificRenaissancePlazaWEBSTER STWEBSTER ST1564-02WEBSTER PL32HARRISON STHARRISON ST314TH ST13TH28ST11TH STLincolnSquarePark10TH ST9TH ST8TH STChineseGardenParkALICE STALICE ST6412TH ST1352-13PostOfficeLincolnElementary7TH STJACKSON STJACKSON ST121151864-016TH ST5TH ST4TH ST3RD ST2ND ST15TH STMadisonSquareParkMADISON STMADISON STPublicLibrary3619LakeMerrittBART22MTC/ABAGLAKESIDE DROAK STOAK ST11THST TUNNEL3837LAKECountyCourtBARTParking214TH STMERRITT BLVDOaklandMuseum ofCaliforniaFALLON ST39LaneyParkingKaiser Auditorium20Laney College64VICTORY CTLakeMerritt880LAKESHORE AVE441ST AVEOaklandUnified SchoolDistrict4345E. 7TH STFOOTHILL BLVDE. 15TH ST2ND AVE4654-01Oakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampusE. 10TH STPeralta Community CollegeDistrict Administration3RD AVE47E. 12TH STEMBARCADERO54-024TH AVEE. 11TH ST5TH AVE54-02612Impacted SanitarySewer LinesUpgrade ExistingSanitary SewerExisting SanitarySewer IntercepterSanitary SewerBasin/Sub-basinOpportunity Siteswith CommunityAgreement orVacant SitesApprovedDevelopment(not yet underconstruction)ParkBART StationEntrancePlanning AreaEMBARCADERO WESTAMTRAK1ST STWATER ST0 500 1000100FEETLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 9-5

9INFRASTRUCTURE AND UTILITIES9.3 Water ServiceExisting Water ServiceThe East Bay Municipal Utility District(EBMUD) provides water service to the PlanningArea. EBMUD is responsible for water treatment,supply and the network of distribution pipelines.The Planning Area is serviced by a network oftransmission and distribution lines ranging in sizefrom four inches in diameter to 24 inches in diameter.Distribution mains are located on every streetthroughout the Planning Area. Maintenance,capital repairs and upgrades are the responsibilityof EBMUD and financed by new developmentconnection fees and on-going customer servicecharges. The potable water system is shown in Figure9.2.Issues and Potential ImpactsEBMUD is also responsible for long-range watersupply planning for its service area. Oakland is oneof twenty incorporated cities and 15 unincorporatedcommunities receiving water from EBMUD.EBMUD’s water supply is adequate to meet theneeds of the District’s future projected 1.6 millioncustomers (ABAG’s projections 2030) duringnormal and wet years, but in prolongeddroughts, customers may face severe rationing.In addition to long-term development and expansionprojects, improvement programs and systemupgrades, EBMUD’s 2010 Urban Water ManagementPlan outlines drought protection measures,which include conservation, recycling, water banking(storing water in underground aquifers for usein dry years) and possible future sources of waterusing desalinated ocean or bay water.Average daily system-wide demand is currentlyapproximately 220 MGD (million gallons per day)with an average daily per capita consumption of162 gallons for all users within the EBMUD servicearea. With the new California State BuildingCodes, CalGreen, effective January 1, 2011, andthe City of Oakland Sustainability Ordinance,adopted in October of 2010, it is expected thatfuture per unit water consumption for residentialand commercial customers will decrease by 20 to50 percent, which will reduce the system-wideneed for increased capacity.Long-range water supply planning by EBMUDincludes the future projected growth in Oakland,and development potential for the Planning Areais within the future water supply projections forthe City. However, California does experiencesevere droughts which impact available supply.The adoption of CalGreen and the City’s SustainabilityOrdinance will decrease water demandfrom new development, but system-wide demandscould impact building permits during an extendeddrought.Aging pipes within the Planning Area will likelyrequire repairs during the planning horizon.Maintenance, capital repairs, and upgrades are theresponsibility of EBMUD and will be financed bynew development connection fees and on-goingcustomer service charges. Therefore, there will beno costs to the City for water system upgrades.However, fire hydrant relocations may be requiredas part of construction of widened sidewalks andthe street corner bulb-outs. These costs are a partof the City’s streetscape work, outlined in Chapter10. Figure 9.2 also shows the location of firehydrants that may need to be relocated if curb bulboutsare installed.9-6 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012


9INFRASTRUCTURE AND UTILITIES9.4 Recycled Water System ServiceExisting Water ServiceIt is EBMUD’s current practice to promote recycledwater to its customers for appropriate nonpotableuses such as landscape irrigation. Recycledwater use that meets a portion of water supplydemand increases the availability and reliability ofthe potable water supply and lessens the effect ofextreme rationing induced by a prolonged severedrought.Within the Planning Area, 12,500 linear feet ofrecycled water mains have been placed, which areshown on Figure 9.3. The recycled system originatesfrom a source further west on 7th Street, withthe majority of the pipe runs flowing east-west on9th Street and 11th Street. A “loop” was providedon Market Street to link the two lines. The 11thStreet pipe reroutes onto 10th Street at HarrisonStreet, extends around the Laney College SportsFields, and ends midblock on East 7th Street. Anotable extension is the eight-inch recycled mainon Oak Street (Lakeside Drive) servicing the irrigationrequirements at the recently-renovated LakeChalet and Lake Merritt Boathouse.and wildlife. To date, however, EBMUD has beeneffective in providing incentives to use recycledwater, rather than mandating its use.Projected and proposed development under thisPlan is likely to have little in terms of landscapedareas, and those areas should be landscaped withdrought tolerant plants. Therefore, it is not anticipatedthat new development in the Planning Areawill generate sufficient demand for non-potablewater uses to justify the cost of extending the existingsystem to serve the limited park area and landscapeexpansion.However, in order to provide reclaimed water tonew proposed open space areas south of the I-880Freeway, approximately 750 linear feet of newreclaimed water needed to irrigate the park below880. The cost per foot is $90 totaling $67,500 forreclaimed water. Other new identified open spaceareas are already served by recycled water pipes,though the lateral connections will be needed.Issues and Potential ImpactsEBMUD’s Policy 8.01 (consistent with CaliforniaWater Code, Section 13550) allows EBMUD torequire the use of recycled water for non-domesticpurposes when it is of adequate quality and quantity,available at reasonable cost, not detrimental topublic health and not injurious to plant life, fish9-8 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012


9.5 Storm DrainExisting Storm DrainLike the sewer system, much of the storm drain systemis old and approaching the end of its intendeddesign life. The City of Oakland is responsible forthe construction and maintenance of the localstorm drainage system within Oakland’s publicareas and roads.Stormwater runoff is collected from within thePlanning Area through various storm drain systemsand culverts, as well as direct surface flowto San Francisco Bay, via the Oakland Estuary orby way of Lake Merritt. Existing infrastructurearound and serving the Planning Area includespipes ranging from 10 inches to over 30 inches indiameter. Several box culverts of various sizes serveas connectors in the east-west direction towardsthe southern half of the Planning Area. Followingthe natural drainage patterns of the terrain, moststorm drain pipes run north to south, with themajority of the flow direction to the south. Fourteenculverts and outfalls drain directly to LakeMerritt from the northern half of the PlanningArea and seven (observable) to the estuary fromthe southern half, as shown in Figure 9.4.The City makes structural improvements as necessaryto ensure that the system is able to reasonablyhandle stormwater flow. However, due to recentfinancial constraints, it is generally assumed thatthe storm drain system is aged and would not beable to handle increased runoff flows. Furthermore,there are new National Pollution DischargeElimination System (NPDES) regulations, effectiveOctober 2009 requiring more stringent standardsto be applied on new developments of oneacre or more in size. In accordance with provisionC.3 of the City of Oakland’s NPDES permit, newdevelopment that creates or replaces 10,000 squarefeet or more of impervious surface is required toimplement storm water treatment measures.Development will also be required to comply withnew storm water regulations stated in the MunicipalRegional Permit (MRP), such as providing 100percent trash control into waterbodies by 2020,providing bio-based storm water treatment, andmeeting numerical standards for storm water treatment.Issues and Potential ImpactsBecause of new regulatory requirements regardingrun-off from new development, the capacity of theexisting systems, if not in disrepair, should be adequate.New site development and redevelopmentof existing sites and roadways will require typical,associated drainage improvements with featuresto enhance water quality prior to discharge intoLake Merritt, the Estuary, or the Bay. The capacityof the existing system will not be significantlyimpacted by new development as there is unlikelyto be an increase in stormwater flows; the Planwill not increase the amount of impervious areaor contribute to higher flows than currently exist.Regulatory requirements for low impact designincluding infiltration, reuse, or evapotranspirationof stormwater will further limit any increase (andperhaps decrease) flows to the existing pipe network.However, compliance with NPDES regulationstends to reduce flows as well.Street widening and bulbouts will require modificationto the drainage system along the street curbin those locations. This could include modificationand/or relocation of the existing catch basins. Thecosts for the relocation of drain inlets and connectingpipes would be part of the cost of streetscapeimprovements. Locations of potential relocateddrain inlets are shown in Figure 9.4.9-10 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012


9.6 Solid WasteDisposalNon-hazardous waste in Oakland is currently collectedby Waste Management of Alameda County(WMAC), which provides curbside pickup forresidential, commercial, and industrial non-hazardouswaste and transports it to WMAC’s DavisStreet Transfer Station in the City of San Leandro.Transfer trucks haul waste to the AltamontLandfill and Resource Facility, located approximately35 miles east of Oakland near Livermore.The Altamont Landfill has a daily permitted maximumdisposal of 11,500 tons per day. The landfillclosure date is January 1st, 2029 and in 2000, thelandfill was at 26.3 percent capacity.In 2008, Oakland disposed of approximately327,589 tons of solid waste or about 898 tons perday. The Integrated Waste Management Act (AB939) requires jurisdictions to meet diversion goalsof 50 percent by the year 2000. In 2006, Oakland’sdiversion rate was 59 percent.Sanitation can affect the health of a community.The community has identified trash and litter asan ongoing issue within the Planning Area. Litterand overflowing trash can harm the environmentby providing areas for insects and rodents, and bydamaging the appearance of a neighborhood.PoliciesThe infrastructure and utilities policies outlined in this section identify actions to ensure adequateinfrastructure and utilities are provided within the Planning Area.IU-1IU-2IU-3Coordination with EBMUD. Coordinateupgrades to sidewalks and roadwayswith EBMUD’s system upgrades in orderto limit construction, cost, noise, and circulationdisruption within the PlanningArea.Sewer lines. Upgrade sewer lines runningunder I-880 in Sub-basins 64-01 and64-02 as new development is built. SeeChapter 10 of this plan for phasing andfinancing.Water Efficiency and Conservation. Promotewater conservation and efficiencyin new and existing buildings and infrastructure,by encouraging installation ofwater efficient fixtures and plumbing,along with rainwater and graywater systemswhere appropriate.IU-4 Stormwater capture and treatment.Encourage site designs that optimizerunoff capture and treatment via landscapefeatures, including permeable surfacesthat allow on site infiltration andgreen roofs.IU-5Stormwater runoff. New developmentmust be designed to limit the amountof storm water runoff into drains or surfacewater bodies including Lake Merritt,the Lake Merritt Channel, or the OaklandEstuary.IU-6IU-7Streetscape design and stormwaterrunoff. Design bulb-outs, sidewalk widening,and other streetscape improvementsto adequately handle projectedstorm water runoff.Native and drought-resistant landscaping.Plant native and drought-resistantlandscape when and where appropriatein order to reduce water demand and theCity’s utility costs.9-12 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

10 IMPLEMENTATIONIN THIS CHAPTER10.1 Regulatory Actions........................ 10-310.2 Implementation StrategyElements.......................................... 10-410.3 Improvement and InfrastructureFunding Mechanisms.................. 10-2210.4 Overview of CommunityBenefits......................................... 10-2910.5 Detailed Infrastructure andImprovement Costs.....................10-33

10IMPLEMENTATIONThe following Implementation Strategies describethe future policies, tools, and activities designed toensure that the goals and objectives of the Lake MerrittStation Area Plan are realized. The ImplementationStrategies include recommended public (capital)improvements, as well as programs and activities. Toensure the Plan achieves its goals and objectives, itis important to develop an Implementation Strategythat does not impede development in the PlanningArea compared to adjacent areas that can potentiallytake advantage of similar market forces.It should be noted that as this ImplementationStrategy was being written, in mid 2012, effortsto realize the development goals and objectivesof the Plan are limited by a series of unusual constraints,including:• The global economic recession that startedin 2008, before the planning process wasinitiated, continues to dampen real estatevalues and development activities and hasled to declining municipal, State, and federaltax revenues. Oakland’s government isnot unique in having budgetary challengesthat make it particularly difficult to adoptnew initiatives.• In 2011, the California legislature approveda budget measure introduced by theGovernor (and later validated by the statesupreme court) which dissolved all RedevelopmentAgencies in the state. Oakland’sRedevelopment Agency, which dated backto the 1960’s, has been disbanded. Thus,a major tool for funding economic developmentand affordable housing has beenImplementation Strategieseliminated in California, without successormechanisms in place to address importantlocal objectives. 1There are five sections to this chapter.• Section 10.1 outlines regulatory actions,which include the General Plan and thePlanning Code amendments. A separatezoning text will be presented.• Section 10.2 outlines the implementationstrategy elements. This includes a summarytable with all the actions required toimplement the Plan, the estimated costs foreach action, and identification of the variouspossible sources of funding.• Section 10.3 provides a discussion of eachimprovement and infrastructure fundingmechanism that is potentially available.• Section 10.4 includes an overview of communitybenefits, discussion of how thecosts of providing benefits can be shared,and detailed information on some of thelargest improvements.• Section 10.5 includes detailed estimates forall infrastructure improvement costs.1 Although Redevelopment Agencies wereeliminated by state legislation in 2011, therewas no legislation that eliminated the RedevelopmentProject Areas, or the many laws andregulations that had been passed over 40 yearsaffecting Project Areas.10-2 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

1010.1 Regulatory ActionsThe City of Oakland will complete General Planand Planning Code amendments to ensure bothare consistent with the Lake Merritt Station AreaPlan, to maintain “vertical consistency” across thedocuments, as required by State law. It is essentialthat necessary regulatory changes are completed tofacilitate Plan implementation, including:• Amending the appropriate General Planpolicies and Planning Code provisions to beconsistent with this Plan (these amendmentswill be adopted concurrently with the Plan);• Pursuing implementation of impact fees andother fees recommended by the Plan to supportdevelopment that serves the community;• Updating conditions of approval to includeparticipation in any operations- andmaintenance- related funding sources, such as acommunity facilities district.General Plan and Planning CodeAmendmentsWhile the General Plan establishes a policy framework,the Planning Code—also known as zoning—prescribesstandards, rules, and proceduresfor development. The Planning Code translatesPlan policies into specific land use regulations,development standards, and performance criteriathat govern development on individual properties.The Lake Merritt Station Area Plan provides directionfor new and modified land use districts andoverlays, use and development standards, and densityand intensity limits. Topic areas in the Planthat are reflected in the Planning Code amendmentsinclude:• Land Use Character;• Active Ground Floor Uses;• Building Height and Massing;• Parking Requirements;• Additional development requirements,including:––Requirements for development occurringadjacent to the I-880 Freeway.––Public Open Space standards for large sites.The Design Guidelines corresponding with theLake Merritt Station Area Plan will also informamendments to Planning Code developmentrequirements.City Council will adopt General Plan and PlanningCode amendments concurrently with theStation Area Plan. Other remaining regulatoryactions should occur early in the implementationprocess.Other Regulatory ActionsDesign Guidelines for the Lake Merritt StationArea Plan will be aproved by the Planning Commission.Development incentives, impact fees, and otherfunding sources would require regulatory action.These mechanisms are further discussed in Section10.2.IMPLEMENTATIONLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 10-3

10IMPLEMENTATION10.2 Implementation Strategy ElementsThe Plan’s Implementation Strategy was developedover the multi-year planning process, with inputfrom an engaged community. The specific implementationactivities were developed from inputfrom a combination of:• Community meetings;• City staff efforts to develop a responsivecommunity benefit program; and• Consultant team identified improvementneeds.Feedback from the community throughout theprocess has been an essential component of theplanning process, including in developing theImplementation Plan. A key element of communityparticipation is the involvement of advisorygroups, including the Community StakeholdersGroup (CSG) and the Technical Advisory Committee(TAC), that act to guide the planning process.In addition to advisory groups, a variety of strategieshave been employed to engage and involve thecommunity in the planning process, including aninitial engagement process that included four communitymeetings and a survey, partnerships, stakeholderinterviews, four well-attended communityworkshops, focus groups and neighborhood teas,and surveys.More detail on community engagement and outreachis described in Chapter 1.Implementation MechanismsThe Implementation Strategy has some mechanismsthat can be undertaken directly, such as developerincentives, which are described as Phase I mechanisms.Other elements require additional actions orstudies before they can be undertaken, such as animpact fee program or formation of an assessmentdistrict, which are described as Phase II improvements.The timing of the Phase I mechanisms isdependent only upon securing funds or the timingof related development activities that are associatedwith their completion. The timing (and determinationof feasibility) of Phase II mechanisms is dependentupon completion of necessary pre-conditions,such as a nexus study or a rehab and reuse study.Phase I and Phase II mechanisms are summarizedbelow, and pre-conditions required for Phase IImechanisms are described. Detailed descriptions forall mechanisms in 10.3.Phase IPhase I Implementation strategy mechanisms haveno pre-conditional requirements.• A Developer Incentive Program––Developer Incentive Program allows adeveloper to receive additional developmentrights (via height, density, or FAR bonus; orrelaxation of requirements, such as parkingor open space) in exchange for provisionof certain amenities, such as affordablehousing, public open space or childcarecenters.––The incentive program must be entirelyvoluntary. Any amenity requirements wouldtrigger a legal pre-condition for a nexusstudy, and thus could not be implementedimmediately.• Development Agreements––Section 17.138 of the Planning Codeestablishes a framework for DevelopmentAgreements. Development Agreementsallow the City to negotiate with developersfor public amenities through a contractualprocess and reach a recorded agreement.––The Planning Code limits DevelopmentAgreements to projects involving at least 4acres of land or 500,000 sq. ft. of proposedfloor area, which would limit applicability inthe Planning Area.––Development Agreements cannot berequired.• Grants and LoansPhase IIPhase II Implementation strategy mechanismsrequire pre-conditions.• Developer exactions (e.g. requirements foron-site amenities or payment of in-lieu fees)would require a nexus study. A nexus studymust:––Identify the purpose of the fee.––Identify the use to which the fee is to be put.If the use is financing public facilities, thefacilities must be identified.10-4 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

10––Determine that there is a reasonablerelationship between the fee’s use and thetype of development project on which thefee is imposed (commonly called a Nexus).• Another method of paying for ImplementationPlan elements is through assessment districtswhich would impose taxes on propertiesin the study area to finance improvements.Depending on the method of assessment, thefollowing studies/economic analyses would berequired:––Infrastructure Finance Districts (IFD)require legislative adoption of the districtand its purposes. At this time IFDs cannotbe adopted in redevelopment project areassuch as the Planning Area.––Community Facility Districts (CFD) requireengineering studies and definition of the costof meeting the infrastructure and serviceneeds of new development. The costs arerecovered in the form of a special propertytax on real estate.––Special Assessment Districts requireengineering studies and development ofbenefit formulas to define the improvementprogram and to establish how much eachparcel would be taxed. Each parcel in thedistrict would be assessed according to thebenefit it receives from the services andimprovements (example: the City’s existingLandscape and Lighting District).––The particular method of allocating thespecial tax, and the facilities and services tobe authorized, would need to be specified.––If bonds are to be authorized, their amountand maximum term must be specified aswell.In addition to the complex economic studies, someof these mechanisms would also require voterapproval (to establish assessments, pass bonds,etc). All would require political support and CityCouncil adoption. Each funding mechanism isdiscussed at greater length in section 10.3.Phasing for Plan ProjectsWhere known, an estimated cost for each proposedproject is included, along with an indication of thelikely timing of its implementation. Table 10.1 includesa detailed list of actions required to implement theplan, costs, timing, and funding mechanisms.Similar to the Implementation Strategy mechanisms,some specific improvements are phased basedon whether or not they require a study. As outlinedin Chapter 6, several streetscape and circulationimprovements will require studies. Improvements thatdon’t require studies are identifed as Phase I – includingbulbouts, specific lane reduction stripings, andstreetlighting – while other improvements that requirestudies are identified as Phase II. Phase II improvementsinclude converting one-way streets to two-way.Some open space improvements can be pursuedbased on Plan adoption, including enhancementsto existing open spaces and extension of openspace along Lake Merritt Channel. The provisionof open space as a required part of new developmenton large sites will require a nexus study, andshould be considered a Phase II action.Most other proposed actions, including actionsrelated to jobs and businesses, historic preservation,BART station access improvements, andprogramming improvements may be pursued asresources are available.Shared ResponsibilitiesA shared responsibility approach, including Cityregulatory actions, developer contributions andcommunity initiative will be necessary to achievecommunity improvements and amenities, giventhe costs and current fiscal environment.• Apply for grant funding(for technical studies,etc.)• Require onsiteimprovements asStandard Conditions ofApproval (for streetscapeimprovements, etc.)• Enter into public/privatepartnerships (for socialservices, etc.)Development• Pay impact fees, onceadopted by the City (forstreet improvements,etc.)• Provide amenity inreturn for developmentbonus (for open space,etc.)CityCommunityImprovements& AmenitiesCommunityIMPLEMENTATION• Vote to pass taxes topay for improvementsvia special districts(for streetscapeimprovements, etc.)• Establish BusinessImprovement Districts(for communitypolicing, etc.)• Help build citywidesupport for impact feesor inclusionary housingpolicy (for affordablehousing, etc.)LAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 10-5

10IMPLEMENTATIONTable 10.1: IMPLEMENTATION COSTS, TIMING, AND FUNDING MECHANISMSACTION STEPINCREMENTAL COSTSTOTAL COSTS;PRIORITIES IDENTIFIED WHERE NEEDEDCOSTS AND TIMINGSHORT-TERM 0-5 YEARSPRIORITY PROJECTSLONG-TERM 6-25 YEARSPROJECTSAffordable Housing• Mixed-income residentialrental development.• Housing affordable toextremely low and verylow-income households.• Prioritize family housing.Community FacilitiesCommunity and YouthRecreation and WellnessCenter and accompanyingoutdoor space.Public Recreational Center(similar to Lincoln RecreationCenter) with large multipurposeroom with stage.Improvements to LincolnRecreation Center.Revive Kaiser ConventionCenter.Fire Alarm Building reuse andopen space.In Oakland local affordablehousing subsidies haverecently ranged from$101,000-$141,000 per unitfor rentals; $74,000-$234,000per unit for ownership units.$1,000 per sq. ft. for newconstruction; $500/sq. ft. torenovate existing building.$1,000 per sq. ft. for newconstruction; $500/sq. ft. torenovate existing building.$7.5 million for CIP identifiedimprovements.Rehab and Reuse : FeasibilityStudy at $150,000-250,000.Feasibility Study at $100,000-200,000.Very Large: If redevelopmentrules still apply, 4,900 new unitsin the Planning Area wouldrequire up to 735 new affordableunits somewhere in the CentralDistrict (not necessarily in thePlanning Area). Cost would rangefrom $48 million to $152 million.Very Large: $3,000,000 to$7,500,000.Very Large: $3,000,000 to$7,500,000.Very Large: $7,500,000.Very Large: $3,000,000 to$10,000,000. Rehabilitation costsunknown, subsidy need currentlyestimated at $8-10 million per Citystaff initial estimate.Very Large: Cost to be determinedby feasibility study at $100,000-200,000.Unlikely, other than unitscurrently in construction.Small Minor Improvements inshort-term.Feasibility Study at $150,000 -$250,000.Feasibility Study to determinerehabilitation cost at $100,000-200,000.Implement developmentincentives using increaseddensity for affordable housing.Mid-to Long-termimplementation.Mid-to Long-termimplementation.Mid-to Long-termimplementation, cost of$7,500,000.Rehabilitation – huge cost overlong term.Rehabilitation – huge cost overlong term.10-6 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012


10IMPLEMENTATIONTable 10.1: IMPLEMENTATION COSTS, TIMING, AND FUNDING MECHANISMSACTION STEPINCREMENTAL COSTSTOTAL COSTS;PRIORITIES IDENTIFIED WHERE NEEDEDCOSTS AND TIMINGSHORT-TERM 0-5 YEARSPRIORITY PROJECTSLONG-TERM 6-25 YEARSPROJECTSOpen SpaceImprovements to MadisonSquare Park.Hardscape costs estimated at$50 per sq. ft. $2,959,000 forCIP identified improvements.Capital improvements listidentifies Madison Squareimprovements at $2,959,000.Short-term implementation,cost of $101,250 for minorhardscape improvements.Mid-to Long-termimplementation cost of$2,959,000 or greater.Webster Green. Not Available. Mid-to Long-termimplementation.Parklets.Pocket open space/ rooftopgardens.Community Gardens.Jobs and BusinessesJob training to meet local hirerequirements of construction– apprenticeship trainingprograms.Local hire/recruitment andoutreach (a percentage).Ensure a percentage ofpermanent jobs go to Oaklandresidents.Long-term job trainingprogram in partnership withlocal institutions – Laney,OUSD, etc.San Francisco programparklet design andconstruction costs at+/- $25,000, shared byparklet sponsors (adjacentbusinesses/property owners).Operations and maintenancecosts also shared. No publiccosts in the San Franciscoprogram.Local owners and/or businessespay.$30 per sq. ft. Small Cost: $6,000 for a 200-sq. space.$10 per sq. ft. plus ongoingmaintenance and operations.St Vincent DePaul Culinaryprogram cost $4,000 pertrainee, for a six-week sessionor $440,000 annual cost.Not AvailableNot Available. Cost is forenforcement mechanism.St Vincent DePaul Culinaryprogram cost $4,000 pertrainee, for a six-week sessionor $440,000 annual cost.Small Cost: $20,000 for a 2,000-sq. ft. community garden, plusoperating costs.Large Cost: $300,000 to$1,000,000.Large Cost: $300,000 to$1,000,000.Small Cost: Less than $100,000.Large Cost: $300,000 to$1,000,000.10-8 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

10STANDARDCONDITIONS OFAPPROVAL (SCA)IMPACT FEE DEVELOPERCONTRIBUTIONS(REQUIRED)FUNDING MECHANISMS AND ELIGIBILITYDEVELOPERCONTRIBUTIONS(INCENTIVES)SPECIALASSESSMENTDISTRICTSINFRASTRUCTUREFINANCE DISTRICTLOANSGRANTSISSUES/RECOMMENDATIONS/OTHER MECHANISMSIMPLEMENTATIONX (requires nexusstudy)X X X X Identified CIP project.X X X CFD’s could be used for maintenance ofparklets.X X XX (requires nexusstudy)X (requires nexusstudy)X XX X CFD’s could be used for maintenance ofparklets.X (requires nexusstudy)X X May be eligible for CDBG Grant funding.X (requires nexusstudy)X XX Needs an enforcement mechanism; Cityenforcement potential.X X X XLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 10-9

10IMPLEMENTATIONTable 10.1: IMPLEMENTATION COSTS, TIMING, AND FUNDING MECHANISMSACTION STEPINCREMENTAL COSTSTOTAL COSTS;PRIORITIES IDENTIFIED WHERE NEEDEDCOSTS AND TIMINGSHORT-TERM 0-5 YEARSPRIORITY PROJECTSLONG-TERM 6-25 YEARSPROJECTSSmall business innovationfund.Creation of an EnterpriseDevelopment Program toprovide technical and possiblyfinancial support for local startupbusinesses.San Francisco invested$1.65M (for micro workingcapital loans at $30,000-$50,000 each). Fundmanaged by WorkingSolutions, a San Francisconon profit.Business training andmentoring programs cost$600-700 per business ona limited basis, but up to$13,000 for intensive support.Very Large Cost: $1,000,000 to$3,000,000.Medium To Large Cost: $100,000to $1,000,000.Cultural Preservation & VitalityHistoric Preservationincentives for reuse.$10,000-$100,000 dependingon the property. 1Large Cost: $300,000 to$1,000,000.Prioritize one per year; seekgrants.Public art around the Lake Not Available.Medium Cost: $100,000 toMerritt BART Station.$300,000.Public art at uniqueNot Available.Medium Cost: $100,000 todestinations throughout$300,000.Planning Area.Historical Markers. $20,000 each. Small Cost : 4 signs: 80,000. $80,000Renaming BART station. Not Available. Large Cost: $300,000 to$1,000,000.Monument/gateway signs. $30,000 each for monument Small Cost : 2 signs: 60,000. $60,000sign, $20,0000 each for panelsign.Prioritize one per year; seekgrants.1. In the CBD, Oakland has funded façade improvements grants to buildings that are typically historic in nature. This program was funded by redevelopment.10-10 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012


10IMPLEMENTATIONTable 10.1: IMPLEMENTATION COSTS, TIMING, AND FUNDING MECHANISMSACTION STEPINCREMENTAL COSTSTOTAL COSTS;PRIORITIES IDENTIFIED WHERE NEEDEDCOSTS AND TIMINGSHORT-TERM 0-5 YEARSPRIORITY PROJECTSLONG-TERM 6-25 YEARSPROJECTSLake Merritt BART Station AccessElectric vehicle parking/recharging stations.$3,000-$4,000 each. Small Cost : Less than $100,000. Part of BART Redevelopment.Bike corral.$3,000 holds 12 bikes per Small Cost : Less than $100,000. Part of BART lockers. Unknown. Small Cost : Less than $100,000. Part of BART Redevelopment.Nextbus arrival screen at $12,000 Small Cost : Less than $100,000. Part of BART Redevelopment.transit passenger waiting area.Transit Kiosk at Hub . $13,500 Small Cost: 2 Kiosks: $26,000. All Proposed: $26,000. Part of BART Redevelopment.Bus, taxi and passenger pickup directional signs.Programs and ServicesMore joint programming foryouth and seniors (multigenerationalfacilities andprogramming).$500 to $1,200 per sign. Small Cost: $7,500 to $18,000 for15 signs.Not Available.Medium Cost: $100,000 to$300,000.Part of BART Redevelopment.Expanded library programs. $100,000-$150,000/annually. Medium Annual Cost. $100,000-$150,000/annually.Transit passes such as ACTransit EasyPass.$81 to 121 for employers orresidential communities with100 to 500 participants; lowercosts for higher number.$71 to $92 for college with5,001 to 10,000 participants.Costs are higher for fewerparticipants, lower for moreparticipants.Range depends on level oftransit service included.Depends on number ofparticipants.10-12 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012


10IMPLEMENTATIONTable 10.1: IMPLEMENTATION COSTS, TIMING, AND FUNDING MECHANISMSACTION STEPINCREMENTAL COSTSTOTAL COSTS;PRIORITIES IDENTIFIED WHERE NEEDEDCOSTS AND TIMINGSHORT-TERM 0-5 YEARSPRIORITY PROJECTSLONG-TERM 6-25 YEARSPROJECTSCirculation Projects 2Street Restriping. $50,000 (per mile), plus 35%for soft costs;$0 (per mile) when done aspart of the City’s Five YearPaving Plan.Small Cost: $43,100 plus 35% softcosts = $58,185 (already funded).Additional cost for Phase IIimprovements on Franklin andWebster Streets: $50,284 plus35% soft costs = $67,884.Restriping for bike lanes andsome lane reductions on8th and 9th Streets betweenHarrison and Fallon Streets,10th Street between Oak andMadison Streets, and onMadison Street and Oak Street$43,100 plus 35% soft costs =$58,185 (Already Funded).Restripe Franklin Street and/orWebster Street for bike lanesand lane reductions (Phase IIimprovement, requires study):$50,284 plus 35% soft costs =$67,884.Intersection Improvements:Bulbout and Special Paving;includes storm drain and firehydrant realignment.$80,000 (two bulbouts)$160,000(fourbulb-outs); plus 35% forconstruction.Very Large Cost: 15 PriorityIntersections Assumed:$1,960,000 plus 35% =$2,646,000. ( All ProposedIntersections: $10,000,000).Three intersections: $648,000. 12 intersections: $1,998,000.Pedestrian ScrambleIntersection.$50,000 (one intersection);plus 35% for construction.Medium Cost $202,500.Short-term implementation ofall: $202,500.Pedestrian CrossingsAdditional Lights.Sharrow BicycleImprovements.Pedestrian-Oriented StreetLighting (25 feet on average).$100,000 (one intersection);plus 35% for construction.$100/linear block; plus 35%for construction.Per linear block (both sides:$200,000 east/west; $160,000north/south; plus 35% forconstruction.Medium Cost: $135,000.Small Cost: $12,400.Very Large Cost: 15 PriorityLocations Assumed; $4,050,000;Priority Streets: $14,600,000 AllProposed: $27,933,333.Short-term implementation ofall: $135,000.Short-term implementation ofall: $12,400.FIve Blocks: $1,350,000;Developers will also undertakestreet construction with streetlights.10 Blocks: $2,700,000;Developers will also undertakestreet construction with streetlights.2 The cost of all the projects has been calculated in a separate table, Table 11.2. Proposed priorities are shown by colored boxes in Table 11-2. Where the cost was still too high, 15 improvements total are shown.Costs for circulation projects include capital costs and 35% of soft costs.10-14 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012


10IMPLEMENTATIONTable 10.1: IMPLEMENTATION COSTS, TIMING, AND FUNDING MECHANISMSACTION STEPINCREMENTAL COSTSTOTAL COSTS;PRIORITIES IDENTIFIED WHERE NEEDEDCOSTS AND TIMINGSHORT-TERM 0-5 YEARSPRIORITY PROJECTSLONG-TERM 6-25 YEARSPROJECTSNecklace of lights on 14thStreet.Wayfinding.Street Trees (50 feet onaverage).Sidewalk Widening (to 15 feet).Expanded median island(pedestrian refuge).Street furniture.Rain Gardens.Per linear block (one side:$6,000 east/west); plus 35%for construction.Per linear block (both sides:$1,500 east/west; $1,200north/south; plus 35% forconstruction.Per linear block (both sides:$30,000 east/west; $20,000north/south; plus 35% forconstruction.Per linear block (both sides:$225,000 east/west; $150,000north/south; plus 35% forconstruction.$100,000. Includes demolitionof existing median, restriping,etc.Bench – $3,000 each; Table– $1,800 each; Trash Can –$1,500 each; plus 35% forconstruction.Per linear block (both sides:$45,000 east/west; $30,000north/south; plus 35% forconstruction.Medium Cost: $113,400. $113,400.Medium Cost: $127,575. $127,575.Very Large Cost: 15 Selected asPriority = $729,000; All Priority:$1,800,000; All Proposed:$3,840,000.Not Available.Medium Cost: $100,000.Not Available.Not Available.Six blocks: $243,000. 12 Blocks: $486,000.10-16 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012


10IMPLEMENTATIONTable 10.1: IMPLEMENTATION COSTS, TIMING, AND FUNDING MECHANISMSACTION STEPINCREMENTAL COSTSTOTAL COSTS;PRIORITIES IDENTIFIED WHERE NEEDEDCOSTS AND TIMINGSHORT-TERM 0-5 YEARSPRIORITY PROJECTSLONG-TERM 6-25 YEARSPROJECTSFestival Streets.Under crossing special lightingand/or screen walls.Paint re-paint vehicle stoplines (at least 5’ back fromcrosswalk).Traffic signal timingcoordination.New traffic signals.Other Infrastructure ProjectsSanitary Sewer Upgrade.Other Public ProjectsRedevelop City-ownedremainder site.Reclaimed water systemextension to park south ofI-880.New Lake Merritt ChannelPark.Extend the linear park alongthe Lake Merritt Channel tomake the link across the I-880freeway and to the greenwayand Estuary Park.$72,000-$96,000 (Fallon);$54,000-$72,000 (Alice); plus35% for construction.$5,000/panel; plus 35% forconstruction.$110 for letters; $64 forstop stripe; plus 35% forconstruction.$2,500 per intersectionper day; plus 35% forconstruction.$220,000 each; plus 35% forconstruction.Per linear block (both sides:$130 east/west; $130 north/south.Medium Cost for Fallon StreetOnly: $259,200.Large Cost for Fallon and oneBlock of Alice: $356,400.Two Blocks Built out of five – OakStreet and Webster Street.Not Available.Not Available.Not Available.Medium Cost: $166,000.Fallon Street (two blocks):$259,200.$162,500 $162,500Concurrent with newdevelopment.Not Available. Unknown. Design RFP in first five years.Alice Street (one block):$72,200.$90 per foot. $67,500 Mid-term project.Soft costs at $25 per sq. ft.,plus channel engineeringcosts.Not Available.Very Large Cost: $1,000,000 to$10,000,000.Very Large Cost: $1,000,000 to$10,000,000.Mid-term project.Long-term project.10-18 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012


10IMPLEMENTATIONTable 10.1: IMPLEMENTATION COSTS, TIMING, AND FUNDING MECHANISMSACTION STEPINCREMENTAL COSTSTOTAL COSTS;PRIORITIES IDENTIFIED WHERE NEEDEDCOSTS AND TIMINGSHORT-TERM 0-5 YEARSPRIORITY PROJECTSLONG-TERM 6-25 YEARSPROJECTSEstuary Park/ Lake MerrittChannel overhead pedestrianbridge crossing.Not Available.Very Large Cost: $1,000,000 to$10,000,000.Reuse King Block alley. Not Available. Small to Medium Cost: $50,000 to$300,000.ProgramsFaçade Improvement Program.$10,000-$100,000 per façadedepending on improvementrequired.Large Cost: $1,250,000. One Façade per Year –$250,000.Mid-term project.Mid-term project.One Façade per Year –$1,000,000.Marketing Program. Not Available. Unknown. Mid-term project.Festival Street events. Not Available. Unknown. Mid-term project.Pursue joint-use agreements. Not Available. Unknown. Mid-term project.Downtown Ambassador Not Available. Small Cost. Mid-term project.Program.Recommended StudiesTwo-way conversion study;where not feasible studypotential lane reduction andsidewalk widening.Not Available.Small to Medium cost: $50,000 to$300,000.Mid-term project.Interim bike lane and lanereduction restriping study forFranklin and Webster streets.Not Available.Small to Medium cost: $50,000 to$300,000.Nexus Study. $600,000-$800,000 Medium Cost:$100,000 to $300,000.Local Economic DevelopmentStrategy.$150,000-$250,000 Medium Cost:$100,000 to $300,000.Near to Mid-term project.Near to Mid-term project.Mid-term project.Mid-term project.10-20 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012


10IMPLEMENTATION10.3 Improvement and Infrastructure Funding MechanismsIn this section possible funding mechanisms forthe above identified Implementation Plan actionsteps are described. The mechanisms describedbelow can be classified as follows:• Standard Conditions of Approval. These Cityof Oakland conditions require developers toprovide certain improvements.• Developer contributions. Other developercontributions may be required as impact fees(following completion of a nexus study) orgained through incentives.• Special Districts. Special taxing districts maybe created to fund capital and in some casesoperating costs.• Grant programs. Grants are fundingmechanisms from non City sources that do notrequire repayment. They are typically focusedby the sponsoring agency on a particularpurpose.• Loan programs. Loans, as used in this analysis,are made available from the sponsoring entityfor a specific purpose and require repayment.• Other mechanisms including the City’s CapitalImprovement Program, and incentive programssuch as the Mills Act.Standard Conditions of ApprovalThe City requires that developers provide certainimprovements as Standard Conditions of Approval(SCA). These SCA fall into three basic categories:General Conditions of Approval for All Projects,Additional General Conditions of Approval forMajor Projects, and Uniformly Applied DevelopmentStandards Imposed as Standard Conditionsof Approval. The first category includes requirementsfor conformance to approved plans andother requirements, and administrative requirements.The third category includes detailed standardsto ensure that potential environmentalimpacts are minimized.The second category applies to projects that requirePlanning Commission approval, and includesrequirements for undergrounding utilities, makingimprovements to public right-of-way, andestablishing parking and transportation demandmanagement programs. Some Station Area Planstreetscape-related improvements will be createdthrough this mechanism.Developer ContributionsImpact FeesImpact fees are fees charged to new development tocover the costs of capital facilities required to servethat development. Typical impact fees address thecosts of roads and road equipment; parks; openspace; fire and police facilities and equipment; justicefacilities, such as courthouses and jails; libraries;and general government facilities, such as cityhalls and corporate yards. The two key conceptsto the implementation of impact fees is that theymay only be charged to new development and thatthe funds collected must be expended on facilitiesto serve new development. The funds may not beexpended to alleviate existing deficiencies, but canbe expended on debt service payments for bondsor other existing indebtedness that was used tobuild the facilities needed to serve future growth.An impact fee program can cover an entire City orCounty, or can be calculated for a specified area,such as the Planning Area.Impact fees are collected based on the amountscalculated in a nexus study that establishes thelegal basis for the fees. The overall future costs offacilities for development can be based on a capitalimprovement plan or can be based on existingfacilities, calculating future costs on a per-capitabasis. Impact fees are typically collected at thetime building permits are issued, but collectioncan be delayed as late as the time a certificate ofoccupancy is issued, if desired. Because of the timingof fee collection (right before vertical construction),impact fee revenues are not available to assistwith the construction of infrastructure early in thedevelopment process. Developers can receive creditagainst their impact fees if they construct publicinfrastructure directly as part of their overalldevelopment plan.In 2009, Oakland considered hiring a consultantto perform the necessary nexus study to adopt acitywide impact fee program. After a consultantwas competitively selected, City officials decidedto drop the study, feeling that impact fees wouldbe in conflict with City development goals. Thenexus study required to support a City-wideimpact fee program would likely cost in the rangeof $600,000 to $800,000.10-22 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

10Developer Incentive ProgramA Developer Incentive Program allows a developerto receive additional development rights (viaa height, density and/or Floor Area Ratio (FAR)bonus; or relaxation of requirements, such as parkingor open space requirements), in exchange forprovision of certain amenities, such as affordablehousing or additional public open space. The incentiveprogram must be voluntary to be implementedimmediately, without need for a Nexus study. Currently,the City incentivizes public plazas in theCentral Business District zoning by relaxing privateopen space standards, and incentivizes additionalbicycle parking (beyond minimum requirements)by relaxing auto parking requirements.Providing an incentive or “bonus” program is a toolfor achieving a wide range of community benefits,as discussed in Section 10.4.Public-Private PartnershipsPublic-private parnerships involve a contractbetween a public agency and a private entity tojointly develop or manage a project. The contractmust specify the financial risks, costs, and returnseach party is responsible for, and the communitybenefits that are expected. Public-private partnershipsare negotiated between parties, and canprovide more flexibility than some other fundingmechanisms. They are most typical of developmentinvolving publicly-owned land or facilities. Developmentof the BART and/or MTC/ABAG blocksare candidates for development through public-privatepartnerships.Infrastructure Financing Districts (IFDs)Infrastructure Financing Districts (IFDs) have beenpermitted by State law for over 20 years, but to datethis funding mechanism has not been widely used:only two districts have been formed in California.With an IFD, a jurisdiction can elect to contributeits share of the pre-existing property tax levy within adefined geographic area, subject to electoral approvalof the qualified voters. There is no special tax levy.Rather, an IFD diverts a portion of the existing levelof property tax payments to fund infrastructureimprovements. In Oakland, the City’s share of theproperty tax ad valorem levy is roughly 28 percent.This is in contrast to tax increment, whereby the formerRedevelopment Agencies were able to capturemost of the property taxes (less only state-mandatedpass through amounts). IFD districts have a limitedterm of 30 years; are available only to fund capitalcosts (rather than operating costs); and are intendedfor use in previously undeveloped areas.The vast majority of the Planning Area is withineither the Central District Redevelopment ProjectArea or the Central City East Redevelopment ProjectArea (while redevelopment agencies have been eliminatedby the state, the project areas have not). By statestatute, Infrastructure Financing Districts (IFDs)cannot be adopted within a Redevelopment ProjectArea. 2 Thus, in the absence of special legislation, IFDsare not a viable implementation financing option forthe Lake Merritt Station Area Plan. In addition, thegovernor and state administration have stated clearly2 A measure to permit use of IFDs in project areas failedto gain approval in the State Legislature in 2011.However, special Legislation has been adopted bythe State of California that permits more liberal useof IFDs along the City of San Francisco waterfront.that it is not their intention to allow IFDs to replaceRedevelopment tax increment financing generally.Special Assessment DistrictsMello Roos Community Facility Districts(CFDs)Local government agencies can adopt a special taxassessment district such as a Community FacilityDistrict (CFD) and use the special taxes leviedwithin that district to finance a variety of communityfacilities and services. CFDs are a vehicle tofund both capital and operating costs. In an areawith greater than 12 residents, adoption of a CFDdistrict requires a two-thirds majority approvalby the qualified voters within the defined district.At the time of adoption of a CFD, the district’spowers must be defined, including clearlimits to the district’s purposes and the amountsof special taxes to be levied, the method of allocation,and the amount and maximum term of anybonded indebtedness to be issued. When multiplegovernment agencies have interests in a potentialCFD, these agencies’ interests may be representedthrough a Joint Powers Agreement (JPA). CFDsare designed to mitigate the impacts of new development.Pre-existing facility and service needs, orfunding existing facilities and services, are not eligibleuses for CFD financing.To date, Oakland has made limited use of MelloRoos CFD financing. However, it is currently proposedas a financing vehicle for the Oakland ArmyBase development. The tax liability for CFD specialtax assessments is passed to future propertyowners over the life of the district or until thespecified improvement are constructed and fullyfunded.IMPLEMENTATIONLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 10-23

10IMPLEMENTATIONLandscape and Lighting AssessmentDistrict (LLAD)As provided in the California Landscape andLighting District Act of 1972, Oakland votersapproved a city-wide Landscape and LightingAssessment District (LLAD) in 1989. TheLLAD allows an incentive assessment on realproperty through property taxes. Funds for Oakland’sLandscape and Lighting Assessment Districtare generally used for the construction andgeneral upkeep of street lighting, landscaping ofparks and streets, and related activities. In FiscalYear 2010/11, the City approved $18.4 million inLLAD expenditures. The LLAD covers both capitaland ongoing operations costs.Currently, Oakland’s Landscape and LightingAssessment District is responsible for maintaining130 City parks, as well as maintaining street trees,community centers, street lights and traffic signals.According to budget documents, the LLADis currently underfunded. Therefore, the Plan’slighting program would likely not be funded fromthe LLAD in the near term. Instead, this shouldbe considered an incremental, long-term fundingsource for major projects.Business Improvement Districts (BIDs)and Community Benefit Districts (CBDs)Businesses or property owners within a given geographicarea can agree to assess themselves annuallyto fund activities and programs that benefitthe business community. These uses includemarketing and promotion, security, and specialevents. Business Improvement Districts (BIDs)can be either property based (PBID) or businessbased (BBID), depending on the party who is tobe assessed. Assessments cannot be made on an advalorem basis, but are instead based on other measures,such as lot size, linear frontage, or locationwithin the BID. All properties or businesses in thearea are assessed, so both existing and new propertyowners share in the costs of this program.Downtown Oakland already has two successfulCommunity Benefit Districts (CBDs) which areadjacent to the Planning Area, as described below:• Lake Merritt/Uptown CBD. Roughlybordered by 24th, Harrison, Vernon, andJackson Streets and Telegraph Avenue, theLake Merritt/Uptown CBD had 257 parcelsand projected revenues of approximately $1.1million in Fiscal Year 2009/10. The LakeMerritt/Uptown CBD was established July 15,2008 and has a proposed 10-year term.• Downtown Oakland CBD. Composedof a 19-block area extending from 18thStreet between Clay and Franklin to 8thStreet between Franklin and Washington,the Downtown Oakland CBD consists ofapproximately 114 parcels and generatedrevenues of approximately $934,411 in fiscalyear 2009/10.Both the Downtown Oakland and Lake Merritt/Uptown CBDs work to:• Provide supplemental security services througha seven-day a week ambassador program;• Provide maintenance services including:ongoing cleaning of sidewalks and gutters,graffiti removal, removal of abandoned newsracks and parking meters, and new landscapingservices throughout the district;• Promote programs and events that create apositive district identity;• Create safe havens to and from BART stations,particularly during rush hour periods; and• Create new, dynamic and attractive publicspaces for their respective districts.There is some cooperation between the two existingCBDs.A new BID or CBD could be adopted to fundoperations and management in the Planning Area,and is especially suitable for the historic ChinatownCommercial district.Parking Benefit DistrictParking benefit districts, or parking assessmentdistricts, enable net revenues collected from onstreetparking and permits to be dedicated to fundingpublic improvements within designated ParkingBenefit Districts, ensuring that revenue is usedto benefit the blocks where the money is collected.Parking Benefit Districts can be designed to supporteconomic development goals and viability ofbusiness districts as the primary goal. In this way,the community manages parking as well as therevenue, which can be used to the benefit of localmerchants and the vibrancy of the neighborhood.10-24 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

10A detailed study of parking demand would beneeded to determine feasibility, pricing, and managementsystems.Grant ProgramsThese grant programs are potential sources ofexternal (non Oakland) funds to finance improvementsto the Planning Area. Note that this list isnot exhaustive.One Bay Area GrantIn May 2012, the Metropolitan TransportationCommission (MTC) adopted the One Bay AreaGrant Program, a framework to distribute fundsfor regional transportation improvements in a waythat will be supportive to the production of housing.The formula used to distribute One Bay AreaGrant funding to each county takes into considerationthe following factors: population, pasthousing production, future housing commitmentsas determined by the Association of BayArea Governments (ABAG) Regional HousingNeeds Assessment (RHNA) and added weightingto acknowledge very low and low income housing.The objective of this formula is to support transportationinvestments that will lead to focuseddevelopment of housing, complementing theregion’s Sustainable Communities Strategy (SCS)and Priority Development Area (PDA) focusedinvestment strategy.Funds will be administered by County CongestionManagement Agencies (CMA). In AlamedaCounty, One Bay Area Grant funds will be administeredthrough the Alameda County TransportationCommission (ACTC). As of 2012, ACTCis expected to have approximately $60 million infederal transportation funding to program for avariety of transportation uses throughout AlamedaCounty. ACTC may distribute these funds toprojects that meet the eligibility requirements forany of the following transportation improvementtypes: Local Streets and Roads Preservation, Bicycleand Pedestrian Improvements, Transportationfor Livable Communities, Safe Routes To School/Transit, Priority Conservation Area, Planning andOutreach Activities.In Alameda County (and other counties with apopulation over one million), the minimum grantis $500,000. Each grant requires an 11.47 percentlocal match. MTC has requested that CMAs issueone unified call for projects for their One Bay AreaGrant, with a final project list due to MTC byJune 30, 2013.Infrastructure BondsStatewide bonds approved by the voters can providevaluable funds for local governments to makeimprovements to infrastructure and public facilities.In recent years, several bond measures havebeen approved, with monies distributed to localgovernments.Transportation Infrastructure BondOf particular relevance to the Station Area Plan,Proposition 1B, passed in 2006, provided $19.9billion in bond funds for a variety of transportationpriorities, including public transportation andlocal streets and roads. As of Fiscal Year 2010/11,MTC was eligible for $532 million in allocationsfor public transportation, modernization, improvement,and service enhancement, approximatelyhalf of which was slated for AC Transit, BART,and San Francisco.Public Edcuation Facilities BondThe Kindergarten-University Public EducationFacilities Bond Act of 2006 (Prop 1D) provided$7.3 billion for the construction of new schools,modernization of existing schools, and creation ofnew charter, joint-use, and small high school facilities.Housing and Emergency Shelter BondState Proposition 1C, the Housing and EmergencyShelter Trust Fund Act of 2006, allocates$1.35 billion to fund three new programs aimed atincreasing development projects in existing urbanareas and near public transportation. The programsprovide loans and grants for a wide varietyof projects, such as parks, water, sewerage, transportationand housing.State Transportation ImprovementProgram (STIP)The STIP is a multi-year capital improvementprogram of transportation projects, funded withrevenues from the State Highway Account andother funding sources. The STIP is composed oftwo sub-elements: the Regional TransportationImprovement Program (RTIP) and the InterregionalTransportation Improvement Program(ITIP).IMPLEMENTATIONLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 10-25

10IMPLEMENTATIONMTC develops regional project priorities for theRTIP covering the Bay Area. The 2012 RTIP providesabout $143 million in new project capacity inthe nine-county region. Alameda County’s shareof total STIP funding is $69 million in 2012, to beused to pay for planning, programming and monitoringby various transit and congestion managementagencies, as well as certain specific projects.Community Development Block Grant(CDBG)The Community Development Block Grant(CDBG) is a federal program designed to distributefunds to urban cities and counties negativelyimpacted by economic and community developmentissues. Since 1974 annual funds have beenallocated to states and eligible localities by theUS Department of Housing and Urban Development(HUD) by a formula assessing a demographic,economic and community developmentissues. Nationally, CDBG funding has been fallingfor the last decade or more, from a high of nearly$4.8 billion in 2005 to $3.9 billion for 2011. Tobe eligible for CDBG funding, communities mustdedicate 70 percent of funds to citizens with lowand moderate income. Jurisdictions must also usefunds to reduce the presence of blight in their communityand promote community development inareas that suffer from extenuating circumstances.The City of Oakland could seek additional CDBGfunding for several of the proposed communityand economic development programs.Federal Transportation FundingIn June 2012, the new federal surface transportationbill was signed into law: “Moving Ahead forProgress in the 21st Century Act’’ (MAP–21). Thelaw provides $105 billion in funding for essentialhighway and public transportation programs,most of which are in the form of formula-basedallocations that direct money automatically tostates and metropolitan areas. (Approximately 80percent of funds are allocated to highways/roadsand 20 percent to transit.)Funds also exist for projects that support TODthrough the “Transportation Alternatives” program,which could provide funding for a varietyof improvements including bike and pedestrianfacilities, traffic calming, lighting and other safetyinfrastructure.Safe Routes to School (SR2S)The Alameda County Transportation Commissionhas partnered with a local non-profit toimplement the Safe Routes to Schools (SR2S) program,which encourages children and teenagers towalk and bike to school safely through transportationeducation, programming and constructionof pedestrian friendly sidewalks and bike pathways.The goal of this program is to encouragenon-motorized forms of transportation by localyouth, thus decreasing traffic and smog congestionas well as supporting active forms of transportationfor the prevention of childhood obesity.During the 2011/13 grant period, AlamedaCounty received a total grant of $3.2 million tobe used for both school programming and capitalimprovements. Typical capital improvementgrants averaged around $100,000. The City coulduse small grants to fund sidewalk and bicycle laneimprovements on an incremental basis from thisfunding source.Loan ProgramsBay Area Transit-Oriented AffordableHousing (TOAH)The Bay Area TOAH fund provides financing foraffordable housing development near transportationcenters throughout the Bay Area. The TOAHfund was the product of an initial investment bythe MTC and several other community financialinstitutions, resulting in a fund of nearly $50million. It is available for experienced nonprofitand for-profit developers, municipal agencies andjoint ventures of these entities. The Fund is availableto borrowers with established track recordsof developing affordable rental housing, includingsupportive housing, and who meet the Fund’sunderwriting requirements. The TOAH Fundseeks high-quality TOD projects that maximizethe availability of affordable housing units and/orlevel of catalytic neighborhood change. Generaluses include affordable rental housing located nearor within a half-mile of transportation centers andfall within PDAs defined by the regional FOCUSprogram. Other permissible uses associated withTOD housing development include retail spaceand community services such as child care, grocerystores and health clinics. Loan productsinclude acquisition, predevelopment, constructionand mini-permanent loans. Projects in the past10-26 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

10have secured loans for up to $7 million. Affordablehousing developers, both non- and for-profit,could access this source of capital with its favorableterms to develop TOD housing in the PlanningArea.California Infrastructure & EconomicDevelopment Bank (I-Bank)The State of California provides financing forinfrastructure and private development throughthe California Infrastructure & Economic DevelopmentBank (I-Bank), which has provided nearly$32 billion in financing to date. The goal of I-Banklending is to promote economic development andrevitalization. The loans terms include 30 yearamortization loans between$250,000 and $10 millionwith a fixed interest rate through the term ofthe loan. Loans are obtained by local municipalitiesor non-profits on behalf of their local government,a private party must be responsible for debtservice payments; there is no state obligation torepay these bonds. Eligible uses in the PlanningArea include improvements to city streets, drainage,educational and public safety facilities, parksand recreation facilities and environmental mitigationamongst others.Federal Loan ProgramsFederal loan programs, such as the U.S. SmallBusiness Administration (SBA), assist small businesseswith a range of short- and long-term capitalneeds and could help Planning Area businessespurchase and improve properties.Community-Based LendersThere are a number of non-bank sources of microloansand small business loans in Oakland, includingthe following:• Oakland Business Development Corporation(OBDC) uses a variety of City and non-Cityloan funds, providing up to $250,000 inflexible capital to borrowers who cannot qualifyfor traditional SBA loans.• Youth Business America (YBA), based inOakland, offers small loans up to $25,000and is able to work with borrowers who haveseverely impacted credit.• Opportunity Fund is a micro-lender thatoperates in Oakland and provides loans ofup to $50,000 to low-to-moderate incomeentrepreneurs.• Working Solutions is a micro-lender active inOakland specializing in SBA microloans of upth $50,000.• One Pacific Coast Bank is a community-basedbank in Oakland, and offers business loans ofup to $25,000.• Grameen America Bank provides microfinancingto low-income entrepreneurs that fallbelow the federal poverty line.• Pacific Community Ventures offers businessadvisory services. Clients may be eligible forbusiness loans.Other Funding MechanismsCapital Improvements Program (CIP)Infrastructure and facilities improvement projectsthat meet the City’s priorities could be eligible forfunding by the City of Oakland’s Capital ImprovementsProgram (CIP), part of the City’s, GeneralFund budgeting process. The CIP covers projectscosting more than $50,000 and funds are used forthe construction of new facilities or the repair ofexisting facilities. Citywide priorities are evaluatedand a portion of those priorities are included in theCIP in the adopted Citywide budget. In the twoyear budget adopted in Fiscal Year 2009/2010, theapproved CIP included $123.9 million of capitalimprovements, including $82.6 million for FiscalYear 2010 and $41.3 million for Fiscal Year 2011.Funded projects range from $50 thousand to $7.5million in size. Eligible projects include parks/open space, streets/sidewalks (including lighting),sidewalks/sewers, technology, traffic hazards anddisabled access and various other categories.It is reasonable to assume that the Planning Areawill receive some CIP-funded improvements overthe life of the Plan. However, because the CIP coversthe entire city, it is not necessarily a good mechanismto fund focused improvements in the PlanningArea within a given time frame, or to fundimprovements at a level above city-wide norms.IMPLEMENTATIONLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 10-27

10IMPLEMENTATIONTransportation Demand ManagementProgramTransportation Demand Management (TDM)strategies aim to reduce automobile use by shiftingvehicle trips to non-auto travel modes. TDM programsare made up of a number of different initiativesthat are meant to increase the attractivenessof modes other than the car. These include but arenot limited to:• Carpool/vanpool preferential parking;• Ride-share matching services;• Bicycle parking/lockers (short and long term);• Shower facilities;• Free or deeply discounted employee or residenttransit passes;• Dedicated spaces for car-sharing vehicles;• Flexible work schedules and telecommutingoptions; and• “Guaranteed Ride Home” programs, whichallows transit users and car/vanpoolers access tofree or reduced taxi service to get home in caseof an emergency.City ordinance would then incorporate one ormore of the following mechanisms:• Allow reductions in the amount of parkingprovided, in exchange for participation in anapproved TDM program under a developerincentive program;• Require certain amenities, such as a minimumnumber of bicycle spaces or bicycle lockersand bicycle showers, or a certain number ofspaces dedicated to carsharing, carpooling orvanpooling; and• Allow other adjustments to parkingrequirements in exchange for participationin a TDM program. For example, allow thedeveloper to provide a certain number ofcarshare spaces instead of standard spaces inexchange for TDM program participation.Measure BMeasure B was initially approved in 1986 as afunding mechanism that would be used for transportationimprovements and development inAlameda County. Measure B funding is generatedthrough a tax on transportation-related sales.In 2000, Measure B funding was reauthorizedto address additional transportation needs andimprovements over 20 years for the amount of $1.4billion. Alameda County transportation agenciesand cities receive Measure B funding to implementeligible transportation-related uses. The uses ofMeasure B funding include capital improvementprojects, local transportation (such as AC Transit),and paratransit and bicycle/pedestrian safety. InNovember 2012, voters failed to pass an increasein the transportation tax by a half percentagepoint, which would have resulted in $7.8 billion infunds over a 30-year period.Mills ActThe Mills Act is a voluntary program wherebyproperty taxes may be reduced for historic propertiesif the owner signs a contract with the localgovernment – the City of Oakland – agreeing torepair and maintain the historic character of theproperty. This can be used to support rehabilitationand preservation of historic resources. SeeSection 7.1, Historic Resources, for additional discussionof the Mills Act.Cap and TradeThe Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB32) established the goal of reducing greenhouse gas(GHG) emissions statewide to 1990 levels by 2020.In order to help achieve this goal, the CaliforniaAir Resources Board (ARB) established a programthat places a “cap” on aggregate GHG emissionsfrom entities responsible for roughly 80 percentof the state’s GHG emissions. The ARB will issuecarbon allowances that these entities will, in turn,be able to “trade” (buy and sell) on the open market,at quarterly auctions The first cap-and-tradeauction was held in November 2012.AB 1532, passed in January 2012, created a greenhousegas reduction account within the Air PollutionControl Fund. The bill requires that moniescollected be awarded to fund measures andprograms that reduce GHG emissions, includingsustainable infrastructure development, includingtransportation and housing.Of the $1 billion estimated to be raised by theprogram in 2012-13, the Governor’s budgetassumes that $500 million will be used to offsetthe costs of current GHG mitigation activities,and the remaining revenues will be used on newor expanded programs intended to reduce GHGemissions.10-28 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

1010.4 Overview of Community BenefitsThe term “community benefits” refers to a range ofcommunity amenities and services that are essentialto a sustainable, diverse, and highly livableneighborhood. This section provides an overviewof the Plan’s recommended approach to achievingcommunity benefits. Several of the listed communitybenefits provide added value through co-benefits.Actions, policies, or strategies that meet twogoals simultaneously are those that have co-benefits.An example of co-benefits is in the preservationof older homes, which not only preserves historicresources, but also helps avoid displacementof existing residents.Table 10.1 includes the community’s desired benefitsand improvements that they would like tosee implemented in the Planning Area during the25-year build out of the Plan. The list is based onfeedback received from the Chinatown Coalition,at community workshops held on the PreferredPlan, and from stakeholder comments on the PreferredPlan.These benefits could be implemented through avariety of strategies, such as:• Implementing an impact fee or Planning Areafee, such as through a lighting district, parkingrate surcharge, or permit fee surcharge.• Requiring new development to provide certainbenefits, or contribute to the provision of abenefit (such as an in-lieu fee).• Establishing a development incentive programthat incentivizes the provision of certainbenefits in exchange for achieving identifiedheight, density and/or floor area ratio (FAR)bonuses above what is allowed without theprovision of benefits.It is noted that several of these funding mechanismswould require an additional study beforethey could be implemented by the City. The conceptof a development incentive program has garneredsignificant support from the community andis described below.Development Incentive ProgramProviding an incentive or “bonus” program, asdescribed in section 10.3, is a tool for achievinga wide range of community benefits. Providing adevelopment bonus is intended to make the provisionof community benefits economically feasible,and incentivize private development to includesuch benefits.It is important that the community benefits programis carefully crafted so that it results in clearbenefits for the community. The program mustoffer incentives that make sense in the marketplaceso that developers actually make use of them andthe desired benefits are attained. For this reason,the economic feasibility of development must bea determining factor in arriving at the trade-offbetween development incentives and the amountof community benefits to be provided by a project.Key Community BenefitsThis section provides detail on some of the keyand/or larger community benefits identified.Affordable HousingEnsuring that a portion of new housing is pricedas affordable to low and moderate income households,particularly family households, is a broadlyheld community objective for the Planning Area.The Planning Area is located within two designatedRedevelopment Project Areas. At the time ofRedevelopment Agencies were terminated in 2011,both of these Project Areas were in compliancewith the State Law requiring that 15 percent of allnew units built in a Project Area be made affordableto low and moderate income households. Atthe time this report was being written, it is uncertainwhether the many regulations and laws governingredevelopment project areas, including therequirement that 15 percent of new units built in aProject Area be made affordable to low and moderateincome households, remain in effect followingdissolution of the redevelopment agencies and thetax increment financing mechanisms previouslycharged with implementing those requirements.Regardless of how the legislature and courts resolvethese issues, both the Central District and CentralCity East Redevelopment Project Areas are now incompliance. Therefore, according to local sourcesany remaining regulatory/legal requirement relatedto redevelopment to include affordable units equalto 15 percent of total new units would not impactthe Planning Area in the immediate future.IMPLEMENTATIONLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 10-29

10IMPLEMENTATIONPrior to the termination of Redevelopment Agenciesthroughout California, a portion of the RedevelopmentTax Increment was allocated by law tofund affordable housing (“the housing set aside”).In Oakland in 2011, the average for-rent projectrequired a local subsidy (funded with the set aside)ranging from $101,000 to $141,000 per unit, andownership developments required $74,000 to$234,000 per unit. After available sources of nonlocal subsidies have been exhausted, most affordableprojects in Oakland depend on local funds tocover this remaining financial gap. The Plan showsdevelopment of 4,900 new units in the PlanningArea between adoption and 2035. At 15 percentof that new total, 735 new affordable units wouldneed to be constructed within the two designatedRedevelopment Project Areas. Per redevelopmentlaw, these affordable units would not necessarilyneed to be located within the Planning Area andwould have to be completed at typical subsidyrequirements, the local cost for those new affordableunits would range from $48 million to $152million. With the termination of the OaklandRedevelopment Agency and the loss of the formerportion of the Redevelopment Tax Increment thatwas allocated by law to fund affordable housing,there is no local funding source dedicated to thispurpose.Oakland’s director of housing and communitydevelopment has stated that new housing policiesjust for the Planning Area are not likely to beadopted; instead that future programs would havecitywide application. Thus, a Planning Area-specificinclusionary housing program is highly unlikely.However, a citywide program has been consideredin the past and may be reconsidered, given the currentlack of local resources for this purpose.Other methods for implementing the affordablehousing strategy:• Funding sources. Tremendous uncertaintyexists around the future of affordablehousing finance given the elimination ofRedevelopment Agencies. To close the$101,000 to $141,000 gap for which localfunds have generally been needed to financeaffordable units, additional funding sourcesmust be identified. The Station Area Planwill prime future use of the Bay Area Transit-Oriented Affordable Housing Fund. Bay AreaTransit-Oriented Affordable Housing Fundis a $50 million collaborative public-privateinitiative to encourage inclusive transitorienteddevelopment. These funds can beused to finance the development of affordablehousing, as well as critical services, such aschildcare, near public transit hubs. Borrowerscan also access predevelopment, acquisition,construction, mini-permanent, and leveragedloans for New Markets Tax Credit transactions.• State-mandated density incentive program.Government Code Section 65915, also knownas the Density Bonus Law, requires that localjurisdictions grant at least one density bonusand permit an additional housing incentivefor developers who agree to construct housingaffordable to lower-income households,unless the city makes a written finding thatthe density bonus or housing incentive is notrequired for the units to be affordable. Thisrequirement is enacted in Section 17.107 of theCity of Oakland Planning Code.––Applicants may receive a density bonusof 10 percent or less, if the project is aresidential condominium development, and20 percent of the total housing units are andwill continue to be affordable to moderateincome households.––Applicants may receive a 25 percent densitybonus if:º º 20 percent of the total housing units areaffordable to low income households;º º 10 percent of the total housing units areaffordable to very low income households;º º 50 percent of the total housing unitsare affordable to qualifying residents asdefined in Section 51.3 of the Civil Code(senior citizens); orº º 50 percent of the total housing units areaffordable to moderate income householdsand an additional 10 percent of thetotal housing units are affordable to lowincome households and the proposalconforms to the general use permit criteriaset forth in the conditional use permitprocedure in Chapter 17.134 except thatthe density bonus cannot exceed themaximum density in the General Plan.––Where the request is for a density bonus ofgreater than 25 percent, but not more than100 percent, the proposal must conformto the criteria set forth in the conditionaluse permit procedure and must provideadditional affordable housing units beyondthe minimum requirements.10-30 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

10• Incentivize the provision of affordablehousing. One way to incentivize the provisionof affordable housing is to relax developmentstandards for developers who include affordableunits in housing construction projects. TheDeveloper Incentive Program is described inSection 10.3.• Anti-displacement Strategy. Preservation ofthe existing housing stock in the PlanningArea is achieved through various regulatorytools including Condominium Conversionregulations and development standards. TheCity’s Condominium Conversion Ordinanceaddresses the conversion of rental units toownership condominiums. The CondominiumConversion “Area of Primary Impact” could beextended to include the BART Station area andgreater Chinatown Area which would requirerental housing that is converted to condos tobe replaced (in the area). This would help toensure a balance between rental and ownershiphousing in the Planning Area where renterscomprise the majority of residents (84 percent).• Citywide Housing Policy. A citywideinclusionary affordable housing policy (whichwould be implemented through inclusionaryzoning) could be an important componentto providing affordable housing in thePlanning Area. A comprehensive citywidepolicy will alleviate the concern that requiringcommunity benefits, including affordablehousing only in the Planning Area, wouldover-burden developers and put this area at adisadvantage compared to the rest of the City.Cities in California have not been required todemonstrate a relationship, or “nexus,” betweenthe impacts of a development and inclusionaryhousing requirements. Depending on theoutcome of an appeal, a nexus study may berequired in the future.Parks and Open SpacesThe Plan recommends that the City apply forgrants to fund a nexus study on a requirement forall new development over half a block in size toprovide on-site public open space or pay in-lieufees equivalent to having provided that space. Thisrequirement would not apply to individual, smallerparcels. A publicly-accessible open space requirementcould also be extended to new schools andsimilar community uses. All of this must be evaluatedby a nexus study.Various funding mechanisms exist for parkimprovements in the Planning Area. The most relevantfunding sources or potential funding sourcesfor park improvements are:• General Fund revenues allocated through theCity budgeting process;• Revenues from bonds such as the currentMeasure DD program;• Revenues from the City’s Landscaping andLighting Assessment District (LLAD);• Revenues from a Community Facilities Districtor other special assessment district createdthrough voter approval;• In-lieu fees collected on new residentialdevelopment through a citywide Quimby ActFee (currently only projects that are identifiedin the Open Space, Conservation andRecreation (OSCAR) Element of the OaklandGeneral Plan may be funded through QuimbyAct fees without a nexus study); and• A development incentive program that allowsan increase in development intensity for theinclusion of additional public open space. SeeChapter 4, for a more in-depth discussion ofthis strategy.Circulation and StreetscapeImprovementsImprovements to the circulation system and in particularto the street environment are fundamentalto the Plan’s strategy to support commercial revitalizationand transit-oriented infill development,and improve pedestrian and bicycle access.• Some improvements envisioned by the Planare likely to be achieved in connection withnew development, as Standard Conditions ofApproval. These include pedestrian-orientedstreet lights, street trees, and street furniture.• Many circulation improvements may be eligiblefor grant funding through the One Bay AreaGrant, Community Development Block Grant(CDBG), or Measure B. Improvements focusedon pedestrian and bicycle safety and access maybe eligible for Safe Routes to School grants.• A special assessment district such as a new BID,or an Infrastructure Finance District, couldfund intersection improvements includingcurb bulbouts, storm drain and fire hydrantrealignment, pedestrian scrambles andadditional pedestrian crossing signals, as well aswayfinding signage.IMPLEMENTATIONLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 10-31

10IMPLEMENTATION• Street restriping and intersectionreconfiguration may be included in the CapitalImprovement Program, with potential supportfrom grant and loan sources or throughcreation of a special assessment district.Circulation and streetscape funding priorities aresummarized in Table 10.2, and include:• Street lighting on 8th, 9th, 10th, Webster,Harrison, Alice, Jackson, Madison, and Oakstreets, and in the I-880 undercrossings;• Street trees on specified blocks;• Prioritized (not all) intersection improvements,as specified in Chapter 6;• Festival streets on two blocks of Fallon Street;• Pedestrian scramble intersections at 8th andHarrison Streets, 9th and Harrison Streets, and10th and Webster Streets;• Additional mid-block pedestrian crossings on10th and 7th Streets;• Bike lane and lane reduction restriping on 9thStreet between Harrison and Fallon Stretesand on 10th Street between Madison and OakStreets.Kaiser Center and Fire Alarm BuildingsRehabilitation of historic buildings to maintain thecharacter of the Planning Area is another major communityobjective. As described earlier in the Plan,there are many historic resources in the Planning Area.These include the two major civic buildings detailedbelow. In addition, there are many smaller-scale commercial,civic and residential buildings where historicallysensitive rehabilitation would help protect thePlanning Area’s sense of place and heritage.Henry J Kaiser Convention CenterThe Henry J. Kaiser Convention Center, a large historicentertainment venue located along Lake Merritt,has been closed for nearly seven years. Since itsclosing, the City has explored various options for thereuse of this large public venue. In previous years,the City had been in negotiations with Peralta Collegesto purchase the site, but was unable to cometo a financial agreement. Prior to the dissolutionof California Redevelopment Agencies, the Citysold the Kaiser Convention Center to the OaklandRedevelopment Agency. Per ABx1 26, the HenryJ. Kaiser Convention Center is now owned by theSuccessor Agency. Although recent analysis has notbeen completed, City staff estimates that the cost torehabilitate the Henry J. Kaiser building is approximately$8-10 million, which they assume will continueto rise as it continues to sit mostly vacant withoutregular maintenance. The City anticipates thatthe building will require a new HVAC system, ADAaccessible bathrooms, seismic upgrades, and the listwill likely continue as the site is further reviewed.However, the surrounding outside grounds are currentlybeing enhanced by the Measure DD-funded12th Street improvements, which will include anewly reconstructed parking lot.City staff has recently been conducting informalinterviews with developers to gauge interest indevelopment and rehabilitation of this site. Thecombination of recent improvements to the nearbyLake Merritt park and channel, and longtimeinterest from Mayor Jean Quan, will likely makethe Henry J. Kaiser Convention Center a priorityas a major project in Oakland.Fire Alarm BuildingThe Oakland Fire Alarm Building is located at13th and Oak Streets. Originally constructed in1911 for the City’s electrical department, the buildinglater served as the main receiver station for allfire alarm boxes in Oakland. Conversations withCity staff have indicated that there are significantchallenges to adaptive reuse of this site, including:• Likely toxic contamination, given historic use;• Lack of adjacent parking;• Expensive relocation requirements for theequipment now stored on site, or residual fromprior use; and• The costs of improvements specific to futureuse.The Plan recommends a public facility and/or restaurantfor the Oakland Fire Alarm Building withsome public space. The City has worked on an inhousebasis to identify viable rehabilitation andreuse alternatives for this site, but has been hampereddue to the properties’ complicated developmentconstraints. The cost to rehabilitate the propertyis assumed to be significant, and a need forsubsidy has been assumed as well. While there hasnot been an environmental review, it is possible thatgiven the historical use of the building, there will behazardous materials present, most likely lead and/orasbestos. A full-scale rehabilitation and reuse plan isneeded to determine a viable strategy for this property.Funding sources for the redevelopment of thesesites is currently unknown with the dissolution10-32 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

10of California redevelopment agencies. The City iscurrently evaluating different funding options, buthas not settled on a specific approach, or on a viablerehabilitation and reuse plan for either property. Afinalized approach cannot be determined until thelegal status of the former Redevelopment Agencyassets, including the Henry J. Kaiser building, isresolved. As it stands both sites will continue to be“mothballed” and the City will continue to workto identify viable reuse options.Downtown Façade and TenantImprovement ProgramPrior to Redevelopment Agency dissolution,the City of Oakland offered a façade and tenantimprovement program largely funded with Redevelopmentfunds. According to the City website,“the Façade and Tenant Improvement Programoffered matching grants to business and propertyowners in target areas, including the downtown.Grants were used for approved exterior renovationsto commercial and mixed-use properties.”The Façade Improvement Program also offeredfree architectural assistance. At the time Redevelopmentwas dissolved, the program was essentiallyput on hold. While current grant awards arebeing processed as a continuing obligation by theSuccessor Agency, new applications are no longerbeing accepted “until, and if, there is anotherfunding source located.” Typically, these Façadeand Tenant Improvement grants were awarded inthe $10,000 to $100,000 range, but occasionallygrants reached $300,000.10.5 Detailed Infrastructure and ImprovementCostsCosts for Community BenefitsA list of desired community benefits was generatedin the community participation process for thePlan. A rough estimate of the costs for those benefitsthat are unlikely to be supported by resources(grants, loans, etc) from outside of the PlanningArea totals roughly $186 Million. If these costs areall supported by developer payments, it is likelythat the value of property in the Planning Areathat is burdened by the $186 million in costs willbe significantly reduced. Other potential fundingsources are shown in Table 10.1.Costs for Infrastructure ItemsAs discussed in previous chapters, the Plan Areawill require upgrades and relocations of certaininfrastructure elements. The cost for infrastructureimprovements is based on costs for increased capacityand/or relocation of facilities impacted by thedevelopment. Utilities that were reviewed in Chapter9 for capacity increases include water, wastewater,and storm drainage to meet the demand of newresidents and businesses. The costs for streetscapeimprovements include all elements in the publicright of way for pedestrian, bicycle and vehiclemobility including, curb, sidewalk, trees, paving,striping, lights, and traffic signals.Detailed costs for circulation and infrastructureimprovements, as well as prioritization ofimprovements, are shown in Table 10.2. The costof streetscape improvements are broken into PhaseI and Phase II improvements. Planning level costsare based on standard Oakland city block lengthsof 200 feet in the north-south direction and 300feet in the east-west direction.IMPLEMENTATIONLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 10-33

10IMPLEMENTATIONTable 10.2: INFRASTRUCTURE AND IMPROVEMENT COSTSSTREETBIKE LANE ANDLANE REDUCTIONRESTRIPING – FUNDEDLANE REDUCTIONAND SIDEWALKWIDENINGFESTIVAL STREETS(HIGH-ENDESTIMATE)PHASE IALL INTERSECTIONIMPROVEMENTS: BULBOUTAND SPECIAL PAVING5th Avenue $0 $0 $320,000PRIORITY INTERSECTIONS:IMPROVEMENTS: BULBOUTAND SPECIAL PAVINGSHARROW ANDLANE BICYCLEIMPROVEMENTS7th West of Fallon $0 $0 $640,000 $160,000 $07th East of Fallon $0 $0 $160,000 $320,0008th Broadway to Harrison $0 $0 $160,000 $80,000 $3838th Harrison to Fallon $0 $0 $400,000 $240,0009th Broadway to Harrison $0 $0 $160,000 $80,000 $3879th Harrison to Fallon $16,200 $0 $400,000 $160,00010th West of Madison* $0 $0 $320,000 $80,000 $010th Madison to Oak $3,000 $0 $80,000 $010th Oak to Fallon $0 $285,000 $80,000 $010th East Fallon $0 $1,605,000 $160,000 $400,000 $6,42011th $0 $0 $640,000 $80,000 $012th $0 $0 $640,000 $013th $0 $0 $640,000 $014th $0 $0 $560,000 $760Franklin $0 $0 $400,000 $467Webster $0 $0 $480,000 $80,000 $743Harrison I-880 to 8th $0 $0 $160,000 $160,000 $0Harrison 8th to 10th $0 $0 $160,000 $80,000 $0Harrison 10th to 14th $0 $0 $320,000 $0Alice $0 $0 $72,000 $640,000 $160,000 $0Jackson $0 $0 $640,000 $80,000 $0Madison $9,400 $0 $640,000 $80,000 $0Oak $14,500 $0 $480,000 $80,000 $0Fallon $0 $1,035,000 $192,000 $320,000 $320,000 $0I-880 Undercrossings $0 $0 $720,000 $0Total $43,100 $2,925,000 $264,000 $10,320,000 $2,640,000 $9,160TOTAL WITH 35% SOFT COSTS $58,185 $3,948,750 $356,400 $13,932,000 $3,564,000 $12,366Priorities Subtotals n/a $192,000 n/a $2,640,000 $9,160PRIORITIES WITH 35% SOFT COSTS N/A $259,200 N/A $3,564,000 $12,366Final prioritized cost n/a $259,200 n/a $3,564,000 $12,366Final cost total10-34 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

10PEDESTRIANSCRAMBLEINTERSECTIONPEDESTRIANCROSSINGSADDITIONAL LIGHTSPHASE ISTREET LIGHTING(BY BLOCK)SANITARYSEWERUPGRADEWAYFINDING STREET TREES INTERIM BIKE LANEAND LANE REDUCTIONRESTRIPING$1,000,000 $0 $0 $- $15,909PHASE IIOPTION 1– TWO WAYCONVERSIONOPTION 2 –SIDEWALKWIDENING/LANEREDUCTION$0 $50,000 $1,600,000 $0 $0 $240,000 $700,000 n/a$0 $100,000 $1,506,667 $0 $0 $226,000 n/a n/a$0 $0 $600,000 $0 $4,500 $90,000 $400,000 $675,000$25,000 $0 $1,000,000 $0 $7,500 $150,000 $300,000 $1,125,000$0 $0 $600,000 $0 $4,500 $90,000 $400,000 $675,000$25,000 $0 $1,000,000 $0 $7,500 $150,000 $300,000 $1,125,000$25,000 $0 $800,000 $0 $0 $120,000 $400,000 $900,000$0 $0 $200,000 $0 $0 $30,000 n/a $225,000$0 $0 $200,000 $0 $0 $30,000 n/a n/a$0 $100,000 $1,426,667 $0 $0 $214,000 n/a n/a$0 $0 $1,400,000 $0 $0 $210,000 $0 n/a$0 $0 $1,600,000 $0 $0 $240,000 $0 n/a$0 $0 $1,600,000 $0 $0 $240,000 $900,000 $1,800,000$0 $0 $1,400,000 $0 $10,500 $210,000 n/a n/a$0 $0 $1,600,000 $0 $12,000 $240,000 $13,258 $800,000 n/a$25,000 $0 $1,600,000 $55,000 $12,000 $240,000 $21,117 $800,000 $1,800,000$25,000 $0 $400,000 $0 $3,000 $60,000 $100,000 n/a$25,000 $0 $400,000 $0 $3,000 $60,000 $300,000 $450,000$0 $0 $800,000 $0 $6,000 $120,000 n/a $900,000$0 $0 $1,600,000 $0 $0 $160,000 n/a n/a$0 $0 $1,600,000 $0 $0 $160,000 n/a n/a$0 $0 $1,600,000 $0 $12,000 $240,000 $900,000 $1,800,000$0 $0 $1,600,000 $39,000 $12,000 $240,000 $800,000 $1,800,000$0 $0 $800,000 $72,000 $0 $80,000 n/a n/a$0 $0 $1,000,000 $0 $0 $- $0 $0$150,000 $250,000 $28,933,333 $166,000 $94,500 $3,840,000 $50,284 $7,100,000 $13,275,000$202,500 $337,500 $39,060,000 $224,100 $127,575 $5,184,000 $67,884 $9,585,000 $17,921,250$150,000 $250,000 $14,600,000 $166,000 $94,500 $1,380,000 $50,284 $4,500,000 $11,250,000$202,500 $337,500 $19,710,000 $224,100 $127,575 $1,863,000 $67,884 $6,075,000 $15,187,500$202,500 $135,000 $4,050,000 $127,575 $729,000 $67,884 n/a n/a$9,000,000 to $10,000,000IMPLEMENTATIONLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | 10-35

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ADEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL234567891011121319202122232425262728293031323334A D F H I J K M N O P Q R S T U V W XSITE # ACRES EXISTING USE ASSUMED % LOT BUILT PLANNED NEW SQUARE SQUARE PUBLIC COMMUNITY EXISTING NET NEW NET NEW NET NEW LESS HOTEL NET NEW LESS HEIGHT BUILT ACRES USES UNITS FEET FEET RETAIL SPACE FACILITIES/ UNITS/SF* UNITS OFFICE RETAIL ROOMS INSTITUTION INDUSTRIAL/AOFFICE(acres) INSTITUTIONALAL UTO SERVICESCENTRAL BART BLOCKSBART StationBART ParkingMTC/ABAG70% 0.98 Housing 142 -­‐ 142 -­‐65% 0.92 Retail/ 72,000 -­‐ 72,000Entertainment (minus BART Operations)n/aBART 8,000 8,000Operations15% 0.21 Plaza 0.21 -­‐70% 0.98 Housing 384 -­‐ 38450% 0.70 Retail/ Entertainment30,000 -­‐ 30,00015% 0.21 Plaza 0.21 -­‐40% 0.56 Housing 220 -­‐ 22059% 0.83 Office 250,000 106,000 144,00050% 0.70 Retail 30,000 -­‐ 30,00010% 0.14 Plaza 0.14 -­‐1415 Subtotal Central BART Blocks residential tower. 746 250,000 132,000 0.56 8,000 746 144,000 132,000 -­‐ 8,00016 OTHER SITES WITH COMMUNITY FEEDBACK AGREEMENT OR VACANT SITES30.17 Parking Lot Mid-­‐rise: 6-­‐8 70% 0.12 Housing 17 -­‐ 1717stories1835% 0.06 Retail 3,000 -­‐ 3,0005 0.38 Parking Lot Potential 70% 0.27 Housing 72 -­‐ 72Development Based on Application 689111.40 BART Admin1.40 BART Parking1.401.40MTC/ABAG Offices1.40 Parking lotMid-­‐rise: 6-­‐8 stories; Assume 8 stories over 65% of the siteHigh-­‐rise: 9+ stories; Assume one 23 story tower on 40% of the site, with an 8-­‐story base over 65% of the siteHigh-­‐rise: 9+ stories; Assume one 20 story tower on 40% of site, with 5 story base over 65%. Assume 7 stories office above one story retail; with 12 story High-­‐rise: 9+ stories; Assume 25 stories 1.40 Structured High-­‐rise: 9+ parking lot stories; Assume 6 stories office above one story retail; 17 stories residential tower0.28 Parking LotStructured parking lotMid-­‐rise: 6-­‐8 storiesHigh-­‐rise: 9+ stories; Assume Alameda County Master Plan70% 0.98 Housing 441 -­‐ 44135% 0.49 Retail 21,000 -­‐ 21,00015% 0.21 Open Space 0.21 -­‐Parking70% 0.98 Housing 384 -­‐ 38470% 0.98 Office 256,000 256,00035% 0.49 Retail 21,000 -­‐ 21,00015% 0.21 Open Space 0.21 -­‐Public parking70% 0.20 Housing 28 -­‐ 2820% 0.06 Retail 2,000 -­‐ 2,00047% 0.66 Office 290,000 -­‐ 290,00022% 0.31 Retail 13,000 -­‐ 13,00010% 0.14 Open Space 0.14 -­‐23% Public parking (1000 spaces)-­‐-­‐-­‐A-2 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

AA D F H I J K M N O P Q R S T U V W XSITE # ACRES EXISTING USE ASSUMED % LOT BUILT PLANNED NEW SQUARE SQUARE PUBLIC COMMUNITY EXISTING NET NEW NET NEW NET NEW LESS HOTEL NET NEW LESS HEIGHT BUILT ACRES USES UNITS FEET FEET RETAIL SPACE FACILITIES/ UNITS/SF* UNITS OFFICE RETAIL ROOMS INSTITUTION INDUSTRIAL/AOFFICE(acres) INSTITUTIONALAL UTO SERVICES235 3 CENTRAL 13 BART 0.80 BLOCKS3637383940414243444546474849505152535455565758596061626364656615 1.40 181920 1.84 Kaiser Convention Center212228303136 0.45 Vacant +one story37380.70 Parking + developed one story1.100.410.52 VacantReuse of existing space (four levels including a basement)1.40 Developed two High-­‐rise: 9+ story building stories; Assume two high rise 25 0.30Developed one story parking Developed one story: charter school and parkingDeveloped one storyParking + developed one Developed 1-­‐2 storiesHigh-­‐rise: 9+ stories; Assume Alameda County Master PlanHigh-­‐rise: 9+ stories; Assume one 25 story tower above mid-­‐rise baseMid-­‐rise: 6-­‐8 storiesHigh-­‐rise: 9+ stories; Assume 12 stories High-­‐rise: 9+ stories; Assume 12 story stories 0.50 Developed one High-­‐rise: 9+ story stories; Assume 12 0.34 Parking0.93BART Maintenance, Auto Services, motelstories Mid-­‐rise: 6-­‐8 stories; Assume 3 stories office above one story retail; residential 4 stories above baseHigh-­‐rise: 9+ stories; Assume 12 stories storiesHigh-­‐rise: 9+ stories; Assume 12 stories Low and Mid-­‐rise: 3 stories facing 7th and 6 -­‐8 stories facing 6th Mid-­‐rise: 6-­‐8 stories60% 0.48 Office 250,000 -­‐ 250,00020% 0.16 Retail 7,000 -­‐ 7,00010% 0.08 Open Space 0.08 -­‐10% Public parking (400 spaces)70% 0.98 Housing 441 -­‐ 44135% 0.49 Retail 21,000 -­‐ 21,000 (23,998)15% 0.21 Open Space 0.21 -­‐70% 0.49 Housing 71 30 4165% 0.46 Retail 20,000 -­‐ 20,000 (4,000)10% 0.07 Open Space 0.07 -­‐70% 0.77 Housing 302 4 29850% 0.55 Retail 24,000 -­‐ 24,000 (24,000)10% 0.11 Open Space 0.11 -­‐n/a n/a Reuse of existing space70% 0.29 Housing 114 114228,000 228,000 -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐35% 0.14 Retail 6,000 -­‐ (2,723) 6,00070% 0.35 Housing 137 -­‐ 13735% 0.18 Retail 8,000 -­‐ 8,000 (14,500)60% 0.20 Housing 30 -­‐ 3070% 0.24 Office 30,000 -­‐ 30,00035% 0.12 Retail 5,000 -­‐ 5,00060% 0.31 Housing 122 -­‐ 12235% 0.18 Retail 8,000 -­‐ 8,00050% 0.26 Parking -­‐60% 0.84 Housing 329 -­‐ 32935% 0.49 Retail 21,000 -­‐ 21,000 (83,725)10% 0.14 Open Space 0.14 -­‐60% 0.27 Office 140,000 -­‐ 140,000 (15,040)40% 0.37 Office (8 stories facing 6th Street)20% 0.19 Housing (4 stories facing 7th Street)130,000 -­‐ 130,000 (33) (1,019)27 -­‐ -­‐10% 0.09 Open Space 0.09 -­‐70% 0.21 Housing 30 -­‐ 30DEVELOPMENT POTENTIALLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | A-3

A D F H I J K M N O P Q R S T U V W XSITE # ACRES EXISTING USE ASSUMED % LOT BUILT PLANNED NEW SQUARE SQUARE PUBLIC COMMUNITY EXISTING NET NEW NET NEW NET NEW LESS HOTEL NET NEW LESS HEIGHT BUILT ACRES USES UNITS FEET FEET RETAIL SPACE FACILITIES/ UNITS/SF* UNITS OFFICE RETAIL ROOMS INSTITUTION INDUSTRIAL/AOFFICE(acres) INSTITUTIONALAL UTO SERVICES380.30 Developed 1-­‐2 Mid-­‐rise: 6-­‐8 2stories stories3 CENTRAL BART BLOCKS67398.60 Parking lot68697071727343 3.007475767778798081828384858687888990919293949596974445471.30 Vacant1.50Developed 4 story and 1 storyDeveloped 1-­‐3 stories 46 0.50 Parking and 1 story2.00Parking and 1 storyHigh-­‐rise: 9+ stories; park (assumes all the parkland for the Laney site 39 along the channel) High-­‐rise: 9+ stories; Assume 12 stories; park space along channelHigh-­‐rise: 9+ stories; Assume 20 stories Mid-­‐rise: 6-­‐8 storiesMid-­‐rise: 6-­‐8 stories Mid-­‐rise: 6-­‐8 stories35% 0.11 Retail 5,000 10,555 (8,000) 2,44540% 3.44 Instructional/Community/Insti3% 0.23 Retail/Community Apparatus300,000 -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ 300,00010,000 -­‐ 10,00033% 2.84 Structured -­‐Parking -­‐ 1,800 spaces30% 2.58 Open Space 2.6 -­‐30% 0.90 Housing 353 -­‐ 353 (112,410)4% 0.12 Retail 5,000 -­‐ 5,00030% 0.90 Open Space 0.9 -­‐70% 0.91 Housing 357 -­‐ 35735% 0.46 Retail 20,000 -­‐ 20,00010% 0.13 Open Space 0.13 -­‐70% 1.05 Housing -­‐ mid 152 2 150rise35% 0.53 Retail 23,000 8,765 14,235 (75)10% 0.15 Open Space 0.15 -­‐70% 0.35 Housing 51 -­‐ 51 (3,878)25% 0.13 Retail 5,000 -­‐ 5,00070% 1.40 Housing 203 -­‐ 203 (26,202)12% 0.24 Retail 10,000 -­‐ 10,00010% 0.20 Open Space 0.20 -­‐n/a Varied Channel Parks n/a n/a n/a Open Space 9 -­‐ -­‐South of I-­‐880, NE of I-­‐880; 4 acre DD ParkSubtotal 3,662 1,096,000 258,000 14.3 528,000 3,599 1,085,277 246,680 (108) 49,787 (58,559)PIPELINE AND UNDER CONSTRUCTION12 0.50 Vacant (planned Mid-­‐rise: n/a n/a Approved 68 5,000 68 -­‐ 5,000housing) APPROVED AFFORDABLE HOUSING PROJECTAffordable Housing Project32 325 7th Street: 380 9,110 380 9,110APPROVED n/a1331 Harrison 98 9,000 98 9,000Street: APPROVED n/a630 Webster 27 2,000 27 2,000Street: APPROVED PROJECT (note ground floor is an estimate)Subtotal 573 -­‐ 25,110 -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ 573 -­‐ 25,110 -­‐ -­‐TOTAL Future Development 4,980 1,346,000 415,110 15 536,000 4,917 1,229,277 403,790 (108) 57,787 (58,559)With 5% vacancy for households 4,672Jobs 3,073 1,154 (54) 58 (146)Total Future Jobs 4,084A-4 | PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT DECEMBER 2012

19TH ST17TH STATHOLAVEE. 18TH STFigure A.2: 2.2OPPORTUNITY Opportunity Sites SITES (SITESMOST (Sites LIKELY Most Likely TO REDEVELOP)to Redevelop)12th StBARTBROADWAYFRANKLIN ST314TH ST8 69PacificRenaissancePlazaWEBSTER ST15HARRISON ST13THST11TH STLincolnSquarePark10TH STPostOffice12TH ST13LincolnElementaryJACKSON ST1215TH ST11518MADISON STPublicLibrary1922LAKESIDE DROAK STLakesidePark11THLAKECountyCourtST TUNNELMERRITT BLVDOaklandMuseum ofCalifornia21LakeMerrittKaiser Auditorium20PeraltaParkLAKESHORE AVE44LakesidePark1ST AVEOaklandUnified SchoolDistrict4345FOOTHILL BLVDE. 15TH ST2ND AVEINTERNATIONAL NAL BLVD46Oakland UnifiedSchool DistrictDowntownCampus3RD AVE47E. 12TH ST4TH AVEE. 11TH ST612Opportunity Siteswith CommunityAgreement orVacant SitesApprovedDevelopment(not yet underconstruction)ParkBART StationEntrancePlanning Area289TH ST8TH STALICE STMadisonSquareParkLakeMerrittBARTMTC/ABAGBARTParking38Laney CollegePeraltaParkLake MerrittChannelParkE. 10TH ST5TH AVE303132ChineseGardenPark7TH ST6TH ST363739LaneyParkingE. 7TH STBROADWAYFRANKLIN STWEBSTER STWEBSTER PLHARRISON STALICE STJACKSON ST5TH ST4TH ST3RD ST2ND STMADISON STOAK ST4TH STFALLON STVICTORY CT880LakeMerrittChannelParkPeralta Community CollegeDistrict AdministrationEMBARCADEROEMBARCADERO WESTWATER STAMTRAK1ST STEstuaryPark0 500 1000100FEETLAKE MERRITT DRAFT STATION AREA PLAN | A-5

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DYETT & BHATIAUrban and Regional Planners755 Sansome Street, Suite 400San Francisco, California 94111415 956 4300 415 956 7315

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