Meat products containing - Danish Technological Institute

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Meat products containing - Danish Technological Institute

hydrolysis was performed with Alcalase®,Protamex® and Flavourzyme® (Novozymes, DK)at approx. 55°C for one hour and was thenterminated by heating to 90°C followed by spraydrying.Each hydrolysate was tested for antihypertensiveactivity using the ACE inhibitoryassay [3]. Four Danish meat products, all based onpork, were produced using traditional recipes:wiener sausage, fermented sausage, liver paste andmeat balls. The hydrolysates (concentration of 8%(weight)) were added individually to the productsbefore processing. A reference of each productwithout added hydrolysate was also produced andevaluated in the sensory tests. In the sensory tests,the meat products were served cold. Theconsumers were given rye bread with the meatproducts, as these are normally consumed together.The trained panel performed a sensory profileanalysis (unstructured line scale from 0-15), whilethe consumer survey was based on associationswith abstract words, such as “traditional”,“appetizing” and “chemical” (scale 0-15).III.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONAll four hydrolysates showed anti-hypertensiveactivity corresponding to carnosine, which wasused as a control in the assay (Table 1).Table 1. Anti-hypertensive activity for eachhydrolysate and carnosineHydrolysate IC 50(mg/ml hydrolysate)Pig Shield bloody meat (BM) 16Pork greaves (PG) 10Beef greaves 9Pig liver (L) 11Carnosine 14IC 50 is the concentration needed for a 50% inhibition of theACE enzyme central to blood pressure regulation. Thelower the concentration, the higher the activity.The sensory profile of the meat productsrevealed an interesting interaction of flavourcharacteristics between a given hydrolysate andthe meat products. For example, the off-flavourof liver paste with hydrolysed pork greaves wasclearly lower than when the product was wienersausage. Furthermore, some of the hydrolysateshad a more pronounced chemical flavour thanothers (several hydrolysates were tested in a prestudybut were taken out of the study). It wasexpected that the meat products would containsome chemical flavour, since the concentrationsadded were relatively high and since no attemptwas made to mask this flavour. The results ofthe sensory profile of liver paste are shown inTable 2 (please see the poster for all meatproducts).Table 2. Sensory profile of liver paste. Differentletters in superscript indicate a significant difference.PG L BM REFOdourLiver 5.1 abc 8.0 a 3.1 c 6.2 abSpicy 5.1 ab 5.0 ab 3.5 b 5.6 aBurnt 3.4 b 6.5 c 1.7 ab 0.6 aSoy 2.5 a 7.3 b 2.0 a 0.8 aSurface colourBrown 6.2 a 11.2 b 5.8 a 5.0 aFlavourLiver 5.9 ab 8.5 b 3.1 a 4.9 aSpicy 5.2 ab 5.5 b 4.1 a 5.2 abSalt 2.2 a 3.7 b 2.3 a 1.9 aSour 3.7 a 5.5 b 4.7 ab 3.8 aBitter 5.6 a 9.4 b 6.3 a 4.3 aSoy 2.3 a 7.6 b 2.2 a 1.0 aOff 2.7 a 3.8 a 8.1 b 1.8 aTextureFirm 7.3 b 6.6 ab 9.2 c 5.2 aCoarse 6.4 a 6.6 a 4.7 b 6.7 aCreamy 6.5 a 7.3 ab 8.4 b 6.1 aAftertasteBitter 5.2 a 8.7 b 5.4 a 3.9 aPG: hydrolysed pork greaves, L: hydrolysed liver, BM:hydrolysed neck trimmings; REF: referenceThe consumers evaluated the meat productsserved on rye bread. The consumers werecanteen users and were recruited at differentworkplaces during their lunch break. A total of85 consumers evaluated the liver paste usingabstract words. These words are used ineveryday language. The results of the consumersurvey for liver paste are shown in Table 3(please see the poster for all meat products).Liver paste is a very traditional meat productand is included in many children’s packedlunches almost every day. This is probably thereason why it is rated as rather boring.Furthermore, it can be seen from Table 3 that thereference is the most appetizing, followed by theliver paste with added hydrolysed pork greaves.However, the differences were not significant.59 th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, 18-23 rd August 2013, Izmir, Turkey


Table 3. Consumer evaluation of liver paste.Different letters in superscript indicate a significantdifference.Abstract PG L BM REFwordTraditional 8.4 ab 7.2 a 7.2 a 9.0 bDifferent 7.3 b 9.5 a 9.4 a 7.7 bFamiliar 8.1 bc 6.8 ab 6.5 a 8.8 cStrange 7.4 ab 8.7 a 8.9 a 6.1 bBoring 9.6 8.6 9.6 8.7Exclusive 5.1 ab 5.3 ab 4.7 a 6.3 bDiscount 8.3 bc 8.7 abc 9.9 a 7.8 cAppetizing 6.8 abc 6.2 ab 5.9 a 7.8 cNatural 7.5 ab 7.5 ab 6.6 a 8.6 bChemical 7.0 ab 7.2 ab 7.7 a 5.8 bPG: hydrolysed pork greaves, L: hydrolysed liver, BM:hydrolysed neck trimmings; REF: referenceWhen comparing the sensory profile and theconsumer survey, it is interesting to note that thepaste with added hydrolysed neck trimmingswas scored very differently with regard to offflavour(panel) and chemical flavour(consumers). In this study, these two flavourswere regarded as being quite similar.The panel rated this paste as having asignificantly higher degree of off-flavour thanthe other pastes. However, the consumers ratedthis paste as having the same level of chemicalflavour as the other pastes (except for thereference). This could indicate that consumersmay not be particularly sensitive towards thechemical flavour introduced by the hydrolysates.In fact, hydrolysed pork greaves added to wienersausages were rated as being slightly more“appetizing” than the reference.Taking into account the high concentration ofhydrolysates added to the meat products and thefact that product development or flavourimprovements were not performed, the sensoryresults show a promising potential for theapplication of the hydrolysates. The challenge isto identify the perfect match betweenhydrolysate and product in order to optimiseboth the bioactivity and the flavour.was increased by 33% compared with thereference.In order to move forward, research efforts willneed to focus on i) screening hydrolysates basedon various raw materials for bioactivity, ii)identifying the perfect match betweenhydrolysates and meat products (or other fooditems) and iii) documenting the preservation ofbioactivity in the processed meat products.IV.CONCLUSIONThe sensory evaluations showed differentintensities of chemical flavour in the meatproducts depending on the added hydrolysate. Theconsumers rated some of the meat products withadded hydrolysate as being equally appetizing asthe reference. This underlines the potential thatlies in the application of hydrolysate as a healthpromotingingredient.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThis work was financed by the Danish Pig Levy Fund,the Danish Cattle Levy Fund and the Ministry ofScience, Innovation and Higher Education. DAT-Schaub and Danish Crown are thanked for the deliveryof raw materials and the production of hydrolysates.REFERENCES1. World Health Organization, WHO (2012). Worldhealth statistics 2012, Geneva, Switzerland.2. Murray, C. J. L. & Lopez, A. D. (1997).Alternative projections of mortality and disabilityby cause 1990-2020: global burden of diseasestudy. The Lancet, 349: 1498-1504.3. Ahhmed, A. M. & Muguruma, M. (2010). Areview of meat protein hydrolysates andhypertension. Meat Science 86: 110-118.Furthermore, as previously mentioned, thehydrolysates can also be used as protein boosters,resulting in a substantial increase in proteinconcentration. The protein content in the liverpaste with added hydrolysed neck trimmings59 th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, 18-23 rd August 2013, Izmir, Turkey

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