A Regional STUDY OF SOLID WASTE ... - Okaloosa County


A Regional STUDY OF SOLID WASTE ... - Okaloosa County

A REGIONAL SURVEY OFMUNICIPAL SOLID WASTEMANAGEMENT IN OKALOOSA &WALTON COUNTIESInstitute for Senior Professionals (ISP)Environmental & Natural Resources Focus GroupNW Florida State CollegeFebruary 2009

Outline• Study Approach• Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Perspectives– National– Florida• MSW terminology & process• Our region’s MSW operations– Within Okaloosa Co.– Within Walton Co.• Critical Observations• Recommendations• A brief look at 3 plasma arc initiatives• Overview - St. Lucie Co. current state-of-the-art operation2

DISCLAIMERData contained in this briefing was obtained by the ISP Environmental &Natural Resources Focus Group members during the latter half of 2008 fromgovernments, companies, and the internet. This is a survey, not a researchproject, and reflects a snapshot in time. Northwest Florida State Collegebears no responsibility for the accuracy or currency of the data presented.3

Approach• Met with and collected information from responsible parties in the twocountyarea– Okaloosa County, Laurel Hill, Crestview, Niceville, Valparaiso, Ft. Walton Beach,Eglin, Hurlburt, Cinco Bayou, Mary Esther, Shalimar, Destin– Walton County, Freeport, DeFuniak Springs, Paxton• Visited some facilities to better understand their function & operation– Transfer station, material recycling facility, yard waste landfill, Class I landfill;and St. Lucie County, FL MSW facility• Performed independent information searches and consulted withknowledgeable individuals• Analyzed data , made critical observations and recommendations, and arenow communicating the information to regional stakeholdersISP Study Team (the ‘Garbage Gang’)Loyal Weaver (project lead), Mike Flynt, David Keener, Audrey Hains, Bill Maxson, Ben Grafton, TomReynolds, Stan Berg, Joe Konecsni, Bob Garcia, Dale Blanchard, Charlie Morris, Bill Lord, Phil Hoge,Darrell James4

A Look Back *• In early 20th century North America, most MSW was burned - at home, atwork, or at an open dump– Uncontrolled junk yards at the edge of town – contained society’s discards– Prevailed well into the 1960s• Federal Government Takes Control– Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965– EPA created in 1970– Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976– RCRA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984• Granting EPA regulatory authority over landfills– RCRA Subtitle D enforcement - 1993• Result– Landfills must isolate waste piles from groundwater and limit air pollution– Physically encapsulating waste piles remains the dominant landfill practice in NorthAmerica today* MSW Management Magazine, US Landfill Disposal the Big Picture, Elements 2009http://mswmanagement.com/elements-2009/us-landfill-disposal.aspx5

NATIONAL PERSPECTIVE *• In 2006, Americans– Generated about 251 million tons of trash• individual waste generation rate of 4.6 pounds per person per day– Recycled 82 million tons (32.5%) of materials– Composting recovered almost 21 million tons (8.4%)– More than 31 million tons (12.5%) of materials were combusted withenergy recovery– About 138 million tons (55%) were discarded in landfills* EPA-530-F-07-030, November 2007http://www.epa.gov/osw/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/msw06.pdfNote: EPA’s data does not include construction and demolition debris, or hazardous, medical, radioactive orindustrial waste6

Total MSW Generation (by Material), 20067

Total MSW Generation (by Category), 20068

Number of Landfills in the United States,1988–20069

A Perspective on Landfill Life *Quotes from the MSW Management Magazine article… remaining average US landfill capacity as of 2003 was 21.3 years... severe and increasing public and political resistance to new landfillconstruction….… a second force for change: growing public sentiment for greaterreliance on other elements of the integrated waste managementsystem… landfilling ….share of the total has dropped from 93.6% in 1960 to54.3% in 2005It appears that landfill capacity within feasible transport distance isnot an expandable commodity.* MSW Management Magazine, US Landfill Disposal the Big Picture, Elements 2009Young, Leon and Cellular, Alina. “Solid Waste ABC’s: Industry Primer on Garbage in the U.S.” Citigroup Smith Barney. Jun 7, 2005,Part 1 and 2.10

Some European Stats11

STATE OF FLORIDA PERSPECTIVE *• Population – 18,349,142• Municipal Solid Waste - 35,039,009 tons• Includes 10,044,829 tons of C&D waste– Recycled 8,567,930 tons (24%)• In 2008, the Florida legislature establishes a new statewide recycling goalof 75% to be achieved by the year 2020– Combusted 3,729,820 tons (11% )– Into landfills 22,741,259 tons (65%)• 6.8 pounds/person/day* Florida DEP Annual Report 2006Note: Data reported by states include all types of municipal solid waste including construction &demolition and therefore can not be directly compared to national EPA generated data12

MSW Process in Okaloosa & Walton Counties13

DATA FROMOKALOOSA & WALTON COUNTIESIn the interest of brevity, our briefing does not go into detail on C&Dwaste, and special items such as tires, batteries, medical waste, etc.15

Okaloosa County *• Population 192,672• Total MSW Managed - 336,020 tons– Residential single family - 77,285 tons– Residential multi-family - 6,720 tons– Commercial - 252,015 tons• Disposition– Combusted – 0%– Recycled - 42,022 tons (12.5%)• Single Family - 19%• Multi-family – 9%• Commercial – 11%– Into Landfills - 293,998 tons (87.5% )• 9.56 pounds/person/day* Florida DEP Annual Report 2006Note: Total MSW managed includes C&D, yard trash, special waste, white goods, & tires16

Okaloosa County (cont.)• All Class I / II landfills (6) have been closed for some time• All government entities in Okaloosa County currently contractfor services to– Place C&D and yard waste in local permitted landfills– Process a limited amount of recycle– Collect and transport remaining MSW to landfills in other counties17

Walton County *• Population - 55,786• Total MSW Managed – 139,641 tons– Residential single family - 25,322 tons– Residential multi-family - 21,633 tons– Commercial - 92,686 tons• Disposition– Combusted – 0%– Recycled – 4,539 tons (3%)• Single Family - 8%• Multi-family – 7%• Commercial – 1%– Into landfills – 135,102 tons (97%)• 13.3 pounds/day/person* Florida DEP Annual Report 2006Note: Total MSW managed includes C&D, yard trash, special waste, white goods, & tires18

Walton County (cont.)• All Class I & II landfills (1) are permanently closed– Walton County has recently permitted an MSW section adjacent totheir Class III landfill in the north County as a contingency site• Our understanding that it is not in use at this time• All government entities in Walton County currently contractfor services to– Place C&D and yard waste in local permitted landfills– Prisoners sort recycle collected from containers located around county• not sure about the method of eventual sale– Collect and transport remaining MSW to Jackson County landfill19


Our Region’s MSW Collection Contracts• Okaloosa County:– Unincorporated County – high population areas contracted to WasteManagement– Unincorporated County rural – open market (Adams Sanitation popular)– Ft. Walton Beach –provides their own service– Mary Esther, Niceville, Cinco Bayou, Destin, Shalimar – are contracted toWaste Management– Both military bases – contracted with El Dorado– Crestview – contracted with Waste Pro– Laurel Hill – contracted with Two Cans– Valparaiso – provides their own service– Commercial dumpster service - is open market in unincorporated OkaloosaCounty and Valparaiso. Some other municipalities franchise the commercialdumpster business with their collection contractor• Walton County:– DeFuniak springs – provides their own service & is reimbursed by the County– South of the bay and along Hwy 20 – is contracted to Waste Management– North of the bay - is contracted to Dayco21

Our Region’s Transfer Stations• Okaloosa County (3)– Transfer Station (off Martin Luther King Blvd) owned by the Countyand operated by Waste Management• Co-located with Waste Management’s Material Recycling Facility– Baker Transfer Station owned by County & operated by WasteManagement– Allied Waste Transfer Station (on Ready Ave, FWB)• Owned and operated by Allied Waste• Walton County (1)– County transfer station north of DeFuniak near the prison• Design/Build of a new one underway at same location• Waste Management under contract to dispose of MSW in SpringhillLandfill in Jackson County22

Our Waste Goes to These Landfills• Springhill Regional Landfill, Cambellton, FL (Jackson County)– Owned & operated by Waste Management– 198 mi round trip from VPS airport (reference)– 2008 tipping fee $46.07/ton (price to general public)– ~4000 tons/day life remaining – claimed to be 47 years• Timberlands Sanitary Landfill, Brewton, AL– Owned by Escambia County Environmental Corp. – operated by AlliedWaste– 160 mi round trip from VPS airport– 2008 tipping fee $35/ton– ~2500 tons/day life remaining – information unavailable• Santa Rosa County Landfill, Milton, FL– Owned & operated by Santa Rosa County– 100 mi round trip from VPS airport– 2008 tipping fee $32/ton for household waste $22/ton for C&D– ~500 tons/day life remaining – information unavailable23

Cost Per Single-Family Household• Okaloosa County– Monthly household costs• $12.50 - $26.34 per month• Some include local government add-on fees – some don’t• Some have recycle – some don’t– Commercial franchises are typically part of MSW contracts• Difficult to obtain comparable rate data– Many contracts are renewing between 2009-2013 after many yearsof no rate increase for fuel cost escalation• Walton County– MSW program funded entirely with sales tax revenue24

How Does Our Recycling Effort Compare ?3025201510% Recycle50National (est) Florida Okaloosa Walton25

Critical Observations26

Critical Observations (no particular order)• Okaloosa Co. and municipalities contract independently for MSWservices apparently driven by home rule and lowest bid prices– Little interdependence in contracting• Within both Counties, MSW is exported to out-of-county landfills– Large MSW vendors in our region transport waste not to the closest landfill,but to the one they own/operate– Long haul trucks are a continuing source of roadside trash in Okaloosa Countyalong N Beal, CR 123, SR 85N, and I-10• Recycling in this region is far below National and Florida averages– Multi-family & commercial participation are particularly low– Fundamentals for improvement are not in place• Large containers, penalties for not participating, consolidated regional stream,regional processing center, constant effective education, etc.– Strictly voluntary• Number of “drop outs” over the years (FWB, Laurel Hill, ValP , Okaloosa SchoolSystem, NW FL State College, etc.)• We are going the wrong way !27

Critical Observations (cont.)• We could not determine when the out-of-county landfills being used willbe “full” – and we could find no reasonable alternatives• Initiatives to reduce the quantity of waste going into landfills have beenfew and far between– Eglin & Hurlburt – mandatory recycling– Waste Management‘s single stream initiative (w/Gulf States Recycling)• There is no clearinghouse for MSW data for our region - difficult for thegeneral public to understand big picture– Many contracts and vendors – highly competitive – constantly changing– Information is fragmented and available only to those willing to dig it out– The State does not publish data on individual municipalities – only estimatesfor counties• Current hazardous waste disposal process does not make it easy forcitizens to use– Eg: Extremely limited days/hours in south Okaloosa, special days a year inWalton Co., etc.– We suspect few bother to use the service for periodic small quantities – itprobably ends up in the garbage cart28

The Case for Recycling• Potential to save money– For every ton of recyclable materials, ~$40 in transport and landfill charges isavoided in our area– Extends life of the few landfills that are available to us• What needs to change– Consolidation of our region’s recycle stream and processing by a single facility– Need to incentivize industry for the long term– We need recycle carts for households – so we can learn how to fill them up– Current multi-family, commercial accounts need single-stream recycledumpsters– Recycling needs to be mandatory in every solid waste contract• If our region can generate sufficient recycle stream– Perhaps we can attract commercial investment in an automated recyclingfacility in Okaloosa County29

Recommendations• Establish an effective regional recycling program– Recycling should be a mandatory requirement in all collection contracts,including commercial and multi-family– All single-stream recycle from within Okaloosa County needs to be processedthrough a single sort/bale/sell facility – to generate adequate volume– Eventually a recycle facility should be established in Okaloosa County• Create a regional MSW workshop for continuous planning andcooperation– Initially take on recycling as the highest priority regional issue to solve– Conduct long range MSW planning for the region• Life determination of currently used landfills, planning for regional MSWinfrastructure, evaluation of new technology, etc.• Okaloosa Co. should explore cooperation with Walton Co. on theirPlasma Arc Gasification initiative– Concept requires more than the Walton Co. waste stream– Consider contract language in new MSW contracts – to allow participationwith Walton Co. if project is a success30

Recommendations (cont.)• Make our hazardous waste disposal program more convenient to use– Open up drop-off hours and locations• Continue to raise public awareness of our region’s MSW situation,performance, and trends– Perhaps look to regional colleges to conduct ongoing comparative analysis &research on causes of poor performance & trends– Give results widespread distribution31

Relevant TechnologyDemonstrations32

St. Lucie County, FL Initiative• GeoPlasma, LLC is funding a demo facility & operation– MSW stream previously destined for landfill to be vaporized, broken downinto its elements, and ionized at very high temperatures by Plasma ArcGasification– Syngas created is used to power electrical generators to run the plasma arcfacility & they sell excess– Clean operation with small amount of residual inert slag• Proposed demonstration facility would zap 200-400 tons per day with thepossibility of additional capacity later– Phase I commercial facility would likely cost about $60 - $120 milliondepending on its final size• The demo will validate– Cost effectiveness for disposal of MSW– Environmental compliance– Readiness of the technology for larger scale use33

Walton County Initiative34

Hurlburt Initiative35

St. Lucie County Solid Waste Balingand Recycling FacilityCURRENT OPERATIONApril 8, 2002

Facility Construction• Construction began in July 2000 andcompleted in August 2001• $10 million total cost• First municipal solidwaste baling andrecycling facilityin Florida

Baling Facility Equipment/Features• Tipping Floor• Two Infeed Conveyors• Two Macpresse Balers• Dust Collectors• Debris Conveyor• Emergency Generator

Tipping Floor• Tipping floor is 275 feet by 200 feet(55,000 square feet)• Anvil top, 1.5 inchthick metallic coating,abrasion resistant,concrete floor in thetipping area• Recyclable/bulkymaterials are sorted

Infeed Conveyors• Dual 50’ long x 5’10” wideconveyors• Conveyors carry garbagefrom the tipping floor tothe baling equipment• Conveyors are recessed inthe tipping floor• Recyclables/bulkymaterials are removed

Balers• Two Macpresse Balers• Increased waste compaction rate up to1800 pounds per cubic yard• Process up to 75 tons per hour

Dust Collector• Two, twelve-cartridge dust collectors• Air surge capability• Pneumatic pulse jet filtercleaning system• Mounted at top of balerfeed hopper on each unit

Debris Conveyors• Debris conveyors recyclefallout from the extrusionchamber back into the wastehopper• Liquid is captured in trenchdrain system and flows tothe on-site lift station• Leachate pumped to localwastewater plant

Emergency Generator• Emergency standby generator to powerfacility in the eventof power failure orcatastrophic events(hurricanes,tornadoes, etc.)• Diesel Fueled

Additional Features• Resident Drop-off Area• Roof fans facilitate air changes of22,000 cubic feet per minute• Fire sprinkler system• Air conditioned Motor ControlCenter• Wire storage room• Closed – circuit television system• Adjacent Administration Building

Resident Drop-Off Area• Isolated drop-off areaprovides a safe,economical solid wastedisposal method forresidential customers• Roll-off containersavailable for variousrecyclables

Motor Control Center (MCC)• Air conditioned MCClocated along side thetwin balers• Viewing window tobaling floor• Situated on thebaling floor level,13 feet below thetipping floor

Wire Storage Room• Storage room located off baling floor,adjacent to MCC room• Reserve wire rolls stored onwheeled carts for ease oftransportation to wire tyingarea on baling equipment• Wire feeds into needleson balers• Each baler requires10 rolls of wire

Administration Building• Three-story facility• Houses solid wasteoperators andadministrative personnel• Viewing areasoverlook thetipping andbaling floors

The Baling and Recycling Facility is Unique andInnovative• First of its kind in Florida• Enhanced recycling program• Extended landfill capacity by 20+ years• Reduced daily cover requirements• Reduced operational costs50

Extended Landfill Capacity• Landfill capacity will be extended in excess of 20years• Increased compaction rate to nearly 1800 poundsper cubicyard• Decreased size of thedaily working face onthe landfill51

Reduced Daily Cover Requirements• Prior to Baling Facility Construction:220 cubic yards per day• Since facility implementation: 31 cubic yardsper day• Result: $175,170 savings annuallyon daily cover material• Reduction results in58,590 cubic yards peryear of airspace savedin the landfill52

Reduced Operational Costs• Currently operating plant 5 days per week vs. 6days per week prior to Baling Facility Construction• Fuel consumptionhas decreased by3,000 gal per month• No additional staffwas required53


Benefits of Baling FacilityFirst of its kind in FloridaEnhanced recycling programExtended landfill capacity by 20+ yearsReduced daily cover requirementsReduced operational costs55

Comparison with Our Region• St. Lucie– Population 259,315 In Landfills in 2006 - 419,460 tons• Okaloosa County– Population 192,672 In Landfills in 2006 - 293,998 tons• Walton County– Population 55,786 In Landfills in 2006 - 135,102 tons• Significant Differences– St. Lucie operates a single transfer station, recycle, and landfill that serves theentire County– St. Lucie pursues SWM as a government owned and operated profit center.Upgrades of the operation began in 1993 and have enhanced profits whilekeeping costs competitive with the southeast region56


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