Fawzaan Islamic Jurispridence Vol 1 - Al Quran wa Sunnah [Home ...

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Fawzaan Islamic Jurispridence Vol 1 - Al Quran wa Sunnah [Home ...

A SUMMARY OFISLAMIC JURISPRUDENCE____________ ~lun'-l1lVolume 1Dr: Salih AI-Fawzan- -M_m • • , of the Boo ••• f S''''. ' Ulom. a " om • • ,of ....... r ...... . ' ComotI" .. h, F ......... H ... ...,.A~ alm an PubliShing HouseSaudi Arabla, P.O.Box 90020, Rlyadb 11613


AI.Mulakhkh~lAI-Fiqhi,First Editionby Prof •...,r S;l lihAI.hwdnCopyrighl 0 1005, AI· M.im. n Publishing Hom • . All righ .. "",,,,.d,Tun,lot.d by AI ·Ar.bi. f", lnforn,ation T«hnology. Dim,49th Noob. r St, B.ab AI · Loq, 2nd Hoot, City M. 1I Building,'1',,1: +202 794937Qfax: +202 7%27 ).(1P"bli,h«l by AI·M.im.n Publi>hing Hou«, S.udi Arabi . , Ri),.dh,p,a./!: 90020 Ripdh 116 13Ri) .. dh; rot + 966 1 462733


In tlI~ Namr cM Alld, IM £nUrdy Merciful, tile &p«Iolly MtrdfuJCONTENTS,,'"viiA , know l edg~menlTta~sblor', Pmac~IntroduclionI: PURIFICATION,;""Chapler 1Purifkalion and Water ............. "".................. 9Cllapler 2Di.belitver,' Pot. and Clothes ...........................t5C ll a pl~r ,)Chaplu"Chapln SChal'ler 6Chlpltr 7Chapltr 8Things Rhu.l lmpurity Prohibiu Doing .......... 19Eliquel1c of Answtring DU o(Na l u~. .............. 2SSi w1k and Acts of Natural Di.po$ilion.............. 29Ablution ............................................................... .Wayof Performing Ablution.......... ................. 41Wiping Over tht Khuff •........... " .. "............... 47"Ch.pler9C hlpl~r 10ThIngs Nullifying Ablution.................................Ritual Bat hing. ............................. ~ .. _....................S3S9Chapln 11Chapter 12CIUpltr IJTayammu m (Dry Ablulion )~ .•.•. ~.............. ......... 63Rcrnov.l of Impurity........................................... 69Menstru.tion and Postn.t.1 BI~d i n8." ... 75


CO NHNTS11: PRAYERChap'" 1Chaptt.4Chapter SChaptn 6Choplu 7Ch.pler"Ch. plU'Ch a pler 10Chaplu 11Chapler 12Chaplt. IlChopin 14Chapler 15Ch'ptt.16Chaplt.17Chapter 18Chapler 1\1Chapl ... 20Chopin 21Chapln 22Chapler 23Chapl ... :wObligation ollhe Fi>" Prayers ...... __ ..... _. __ ...... 87Prayer Call ( ... dMn) and Immediate Prayuc;"1I ( I q~mah) .... . .... . ... ... . ..... .... . . .... ... .... . . ...... . ... ..... 93P ra)"~ COndilions. ..... __ ..... ___ ._ ... __ ..... _ ... _..... 97E! i ~u e U e of Heading for M""l"e ........... _.......... 113I'r.)"er: lm'sral P.rts, Obligatory Practicu and... ctoof the SUnn.h............................. 11 9Mmnn of I'raye •. __ ._._ .. _ ....... _ ..•.•. __ ...•.. ____ .. 129P"'}"r: Deleslablt ... ct •........... _.......................... 135Pr.)"~r : Iksir.ble and Permiu ible ... ct.............. 139Prostnltion of r"()rg .lful~ ................ . . . ....... . . ... 143Dhikr (~of Allah) fuIIowi"llP"r3yrr. 149Voluntary Prayn ........... ...........•................ ,,Witr Pr.yer.......... ........ ........................................ .. 159rar:l.w!b Prayer ........................................ .Sunn.h Rltibah: Pnoyers ~ . formft! along withOblig.' ..... r PrayOI'"l.. .................................. _.......... 167Dub! (Forenoon) Pray. r............... ...................... 173Prostration of R«il.tion..................................... 175Non·rq;ula. Su~ rerogatory l'rayeT .•..._.____... 179Tim ... When Prayer ;' "".bidd.n............ ]85Congregation.1 Pr.y.r......................... ................ 189TIlt Lot,""om • • to Congregational Prayer..... 203\\'0"""'. AU.ndaoce in Mooques._ ... __ .... __ .... 209lrnamate (in Prayer) ................ _...........................'"21SInvalid Imama te ...................... ......... ,......... .......... 221DUlies of ,he [m1m .. _ .. _ .......... _ ..... __ ................. 22 7


Chapter 25Chapter 26Chapter 27Chapter 28C h ~pt er 29ChapteT 30Ill: ZAKAHChapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapl.r4Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7ChapteT 8Chapter 9IV: FASTINGChapter 1Chapler 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Chap"r 5y, HA))Chapler IChapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Prayer ()fTh()~ H~ving Legal Excuses.............. 233lumu·ah (Friday) Prayer..................................... 247Two Feast, (·Ids) Prayer ........... 265Eelip'" Prayer.Rain Pm)·er ..........................................................Death and Burial ................................................Za k ~h: Legality and Virtue... .......... 319ZakAh: GrazingAnimals and Livestock 325Zalclh: Gr";",- Fruits. Honey. Min/."r"d l$ and Rikh.".. 335ZakAh: Gol d and Silver .. ....................................ZaUh: Tr.de Goods................................. 347ZaUtul · Filr (Fast·breaking ZalG'oh) 351Giving Z.kOh........................................................ 357Entitled Recipients of ZakAh............. ........ ... 3-61Desirable Charity...................................... 369Fasting Ramaliln: Obligation and Timing... 375Beginning and End of. Fasting Day.................. 381Things Null il)ing Fasling. ...... 387Making up for Missed Days ofRumall.n.......... 391Breaking the Fast: llln.ss or Old Ag.................. 395The Obligation ofHajj (Pil grimage) .................. 403Wcmni;; l:lajj & I'


CONTENTSChap l ~r SChapler6Chaptn1ChapterSHow 10 Assume lhr~m ....Acts Prohibited during lhnim............................ 427RM. ofTarwiyah and · Arafah Day................... 437AC1S on Mutdalifah and Minl 443Chapler9Chaplcr 10Chapter 11VI: JIHA.nChapler IAPPENDICESDap ofT.shrlq .nd F3fewell Iawlf .................Sauificial Animals (Hady and UJlliiyah).......... 459. Aqiqah (Sacrificial Animal for the Newborn} ....... 463Jihld (F ighti ng in the Cau"" of Allah}............... 471Glossary..................................... .................................................. 481Name Index................................................................................ 489Subject Index.............................................................................. 493Quranic Verse Index................................................................... 499ll.adith Index............................. .................................................. 503Transliteration Syst.m................. .................................................. 527


ENGLISH ISLAMIC LIBRARYEn g lish Islamic Lib ra r y: A series in English covuing centraland various ,"ues in Creed, Jurisprudence and IsJ~mic SciencC'S byauthors who ha\'( ex~r l knowledge in their flclds. I! larg(lS both the Mu~ limsand lhe non-Musl ims in lhe wnl as wd] as I""'" who sw dy IsJ~mic Scicnces inEnglish in Arab munITi ~. 11 also tar&els thas.. who a.., engaged in propagatingIslam in the West.IN THIS SERIES:l. Ccmciu Commenttlry "" the Book ofT


EDITORIAL STAFFMAIN EDITORS• Dr, Attia E"S'))'M Ani.o Dr. Muh.mm. d y.hy.• Dr. Fah.d M. A]· M.lik, KFSC. Soudi Arabi.REYISERS• ~bhmoud foo ly Muhommad• B. haa EI·Din lbrahimNATIVE EDITOR• U",,,, AlxMI.hCQNIRIHIITlNG TI!ANSJ AlllRS• Muh. mm.d Abtlul ·M1Hl


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTAll pra; .. and thanks ure du e to AII.h. OUT Lord Who facilitoted Ira oslatingand (ompleting this invaluable book. In the course of translating this invaluablebook inlQ English, ~ find oorso:lvrs indebted tQ mo r~ pt'Ople than ......, canpossibly nominate hCIT, without thtir help. this book would ha~ never come10 the ligh l. At the outset, wc d« ply appr«iatc :;lIld thank $htikh prof~r~ I ih AJ·Fawz;\n forgiving usuclusiw ~""i S5ion totranslate and publish hisbooks u well as his follow·up with t~ d; ffer.,n! ..tages of publishing the books.May Allah give him sUC«$t in th is Worldly Life and Hereafter.We arc pleased to h. ,'c th e opportunity to express our gratitude andprofound thanks to Or. Muhammad Mahmild Gh ~l1, profcuor of Linguisticsand the n-dun ofFa cultyof~ngua g .. and Translation. AJ·A>.har University,for thoe grcat help and moral support h ~ r~nd~r«I Il5 when Wf start...! th~proartment. Faculty of lanSIlagn and Translation. forhis ~nel"'ti ng advic ~ and inspimtion III roughout tile process of translation.Morwvt'r. we are ~hold~n to heartily thank Dr. Ahmad Zakl Hammid.professor of [slamic Studin in Engli'h. !'acuity of languages and Tr. nslalionfor provid ing IlS with invaluabl~ suggntions ,nd important insights ontranslation.In addition. ~ utend our thanks 10 Dr. MIlhammad Yahya. p ro f~rof Literary Criticism at f aCilIty of Art.\.. Cairo University. for his editorial.. sistanct. Thanks are also due to Dr. 'Ani. Es-Sayyed . Ania. lecturer inELT ~nd Applied Linguistics, Faculty of Education. AI -A~h3r University forhaving professionally ediled this work and others. His pe rtinent co mmentsand valuable touches at the fina l stage of writing the book added much to th efinal version of the book.. Fina ll y yet importantl y, we thank Umm Abdullah,the nati~ editor. who ue.t"'! great dJorls in ...!iting the book. and wit h whosefinaltou'hn she mad ~ it more appealing to the target audience.Sulli_P.WisIoerA. Almaimln


Translator's PrefaceThis book is an English t,.nslalion of sheikh prok Wl' S}.lih AI-Fawziin',~I ... -:..11' 'A Summa,), "f "',mtie Jurisprudence, Dar Al-' A~imah.2001 (ISBN:3%7121). Our main aim in providing th e English translatiun ispropagating lhe true Da' wah that derives from Allah's Book.nd His MessengersSunnah. This is a duty that .,'ery Muslim _,honld cherish. Allah says' ~A"d letfhfrt /t( /ari5ing] from you a natioll inyjting 10 [1l1I that isl good, enjoiningwhnt is right and forbidding what i. wrtOng, ""d 'hose will In Iht succm/uI.H(Alu ' [mran, 104). With Ihi., in mind. this translated work is. then. a humhleresponse to our realization of a great re,ponsibility 10 give the English sp


The next step of the proc~s is undertaken by a reviser who has a highprofile in translating religious texts and is aware of the traps that onc mightfan into. In addition, he has a thorough religious backgroond knowledge thatenables him to detect any unintendc


C-ENDNOTES" Summary of 1.I.mic Juri.prude",,"In the endnNes, we have given clear and concise explanations of the termsthat a ... not dear Or understandable to the target reader due to the sociolinguisticdifferences in addition to the commentaries written by the author himsdf,Furthermo,"" each fladith meotioned in the text of the book is ascribed in th eend notes to the book it i, quoted from,V-INDICESTo facilitate the pa){ess of going through th e book: .and save the reader'stime, we have included two indices, namely, subject index and name index. So,if the reader is looking for specific information Or a given name, ,/he would godirl'Clly to the index 10 find th e page number.4. QUR'AN TRANSLATIONTh. Qur'an is Allah', exact words, These words Can never ever be exactlytranslated into other languages because of, among other things, pmsiblemisinterpretations and limited human underslanding. What is followed inthe book is to translate the meanings as understood by Mu~lim scholars. Wesolely depended on the 'Translation of the Meaning of the Qurll,,', translatedby Saheeh International - Riyadh and p"blished by Abulqasim PublishingHou~, When a verse is cited, the English interpretation is given betweenq"otation marks « ••••" in indented, bold, and italicized formal. The locationof the Qur'anic verse, the name of the sura is given below to the verse as it isillustrated in the example below:~A "d We senl not Infon you a"y mllMe"ger exupt that Werevealed 10 him that there is no deity ""rept Me, J .. worship M(,~5. HADiTHTRANSLATION(Al-Anbya': 25)Similarly, when we cite a bOt/I};!, we mention the book of bat/ltl, it isquoted from in addition to its number in the book. Further, the translalion ofProphetic flodfth is ",presented in an indented format, it alici1.td and betweenquotation marks ""." as it i$ illustrated in the example t>elow:"fJ;J not drink in gold or silver v~els nOr eat in similar bowls(i.e. bowls made of gold or silver), for they belong to them (thedisbdievm) in this world ~nd 10 U5 ill Ihe HereOl!Icr:


PARTINTRODUCTIONAll prai~ ~ 10 Allah, tile Lord of Ihe Worlds, and peace M upon ourProphet Mubammad, the ~aJ of propMts., and upon his household. his Companions.,and w~r follows Iheireumple with good conduct until the Dayof it«Oml'V'S'"To commence, thi5 '$ a odd account of juristic issues. in which. views areprovided with proofs from the S"nn~~ (Prophetic Tradition) and the Queln.1 have previously delivered the content of this book in the form of sermonlbroadcast on radio. and I have bun repeatedly asked by the audience toredell~r t hem, and 10 publish them ;as a 'reatioe. (or the Mh of continuousbenefit, if Allah wills. In fact,] ~ri nl ended thi.book lOb.. publWted w~n ilwas under prqnralion. but in rtSpOr»t 10 IM wish 0( many people, [ omewWi1, arranged its contents. Ind prnentft! it 10 Iw publishtd. And ~n: it is now,senile reader. ~~n your hands.: whalcvercor=lness and bendi! you rindtherein are out of the Grace of Allah, Alone, and whatev~r mi$t3M$ you findar~ mine, and ! .~ek th~ forg!venC$. of Allah for them.


,This I ~,ti"" is an abstract of a book ( ntitlM Ar-RawJlul_Murl>i' fl SharbZAd,,'-Muslnqnr induding its fOOlnotes, wrinen by Sheikh ' Abdur-Ra,bnulnIbn Muh,mmad Ibn Oisim (may Allah haw ""'n:y on him), bnring in mindthat [added $Om., ~marks, when necnsary.[ask Allah, Glorified and Exa lted be He, 10 Ilu id~ us all to useful knowledgeand rightwus d«ds. May Allah con fer puce and blessings upon n ur ProphetMubammad his housc.'hoId. and his CompanioJl5.The Virtues of Understanding ReligionAll pra;"" be to Allah. Lord of the Worlds. and peace be upon Our ProphetMuhammad, and upon his housdtold, his Companions. and whoever followstheiren mpk with good conduct until the Day ofR


The", is no doubt that before one starts doing something one should knowhow 10 perform it in Ihe besl way, so as to pe rform it well to harvest its desi",dfruit!. Likewise, it is by nO means ",asonable that one starts worshipping one'sLord - the way through which one's salvation from Hellf,,,, and admiltance toParadise are gained - without havi ng due knowledge,As such, people are divided into three categories regarding knowledgeand deeds:The first category is represented in those who combine u""ful knowledgealong with righteous deeds, those a", the ones whom Allah has gUidedto the straight path; the path of those upon whom Allah has b esto"",dfavor of the prophets, the steadfast affirmers of truth, the martyrs andthe righteous, and excellent in deed are th ese as companions.The second category is represented in those who learn useful knowledgebut do not act accordingly, Those a",theone, who have evoked Allah'sanger, like the Jews and whoever follows th eir fooWeps,The third category is represented in those who act without havingknowledge, Those are the oneS who are astray, namdy the Christiansand their likes.The~ thr.., categories are mentioned in the Sura of AI·Fatib~h (theOpening Chapter of th e Qurlln), which we recite in every r~k 'ah (unit ofprayer) of Our prayers:"Guide us to the Itraight path - the path of those UpOIl whomY()U h


,people ofthest tWO qu ~Ulies. Glory be /0 Allall! How do those igmmmtproplt think rh", they all' safe from these qualities, though they"'"taught and commanded by Allah to keep OM invoking Him (throughthe aforeSllid vcrjes) saking His refuge against them?! Are they noraware a'n//hey thus assume evil about Allah ?!"'This shows the wisdom behind the obligation of roxiting this great Sura(Le .• AI-F


In addition. you should lake an interest in attend ing religious symposiums""cl ]e


,Finally, W


I:PURIFICA


CHAPTERPurification and WaterPrayer is the second pillar ofIslam. after the Two Teslifkalions of Faith'.Prayer is what distinguishes Muslims from disbelievers; it is the (OrneNlOne ofIslam, and it is the first thing one is questioned about when called to .ccount(on the Day of judgment). Therefore, if il is correctly performed and (thus)accepted (by Allah), all one's good de«ls will be accepted, but if rejected, MIwill b. all onc's deeds.Prayer is mentioned in many different contexts in the Glorious Qur'an,stressing its various virtues; sometimes Allah commands establ ishing ilregularly, and sometimes He demonstrates its muils; at times, Anah showsthe reward for establ ishing il, and at other times He associates il with patience,enjoining seeking His help through both (patience and prayer) in adverSity.Hence, prayer has been made the comfort of the eyes of Allah's Messenger(PBUH) in this world, as it is the ornament of prophet ~ the sign of righteousservants, and the connection betw"",n servants and the Lord of the Worlds.Prayer, in addition. prevents immorality and wrongdoing.


"I: r URlFICAllONPn~ r ;s nO( d«med v.lid unl..s:s th~ on~ po,f


purification. Yet, if it is jl.lst a slight change and is caused by a pl.lre material,it is permissible to be used as a purifi.r, according to the preponderant of thetwo opinions maintained by scholars in this regard.Shaykhul-bUm Ibn Taymiyah .tatts:"Thtre are many cases in which Ihe ehameleri,tie, of little or muchwaler are affected by pure obj~ct" such as potash, soap. lott tre~leaves, dUSI, dough, 'lIId suchlike tllings that may chang~ water. Forexample, water might be put in 11 pot containing traus of lote treeleaves Illal would IIffect il, eharaeteri,tics, Ihough the W


1: PURIFICATIONIbn Hubayrah states:"Muslim $(holars uniformly agree Ih~I purific~Iion with waleI' i$obligalory for whoever is obliged 10 perform prayer, provided ",aleris available; in c~Se w~tu is unavailable, one should use its subslilule(i,t. clean earlh), in accordance wilh Ihe Qur,mi, verse in which Allah,Exall~d be He. says. ', .. And find no w~ter, then .eele clea" ""rth .. :(Qur'an: An-Nis:!.': 43), and, '" . And sent d"' .... upo" youfTom thesley, roi" by which 10 purify you,.,' (Qur'an: AI -Anfal: 11)"This shows the greatness orlslam, the rdigion of purity, and both phys icaland spiritual cleanliness. It also shows the loftiness of prayer which one cannotenter upon without heing in two states of pUT ity. The first is the spiritual purityfrom polytheism, by means of testifying the Oneness of Allah and worshippingHim sincerely and devoutly_ The second is the physical purity from ritualand tangible impurities, which is p"rformed by means of water or ilS legalsubstitutes. We should also know that provided water i. still in its originalstate. mixed with nothing else, it is deemed pure as scholars uniformly agree.They also agr.., that if any of its th= bask characteristics - odor, taste, andcolor _ change due to any impu,", object, then water is deemed impure and itis impermissible to use it a, a means of purification. Yet, some scholars differ,",garding the purity of water when any of its characteristics has (hanged dueto a pure obje


Oup'''" 10 I'u,ifi"uioo and W."OfEndnotes"I Th< Two T""tification' of Faith: Saying, "I te'tify that there i. no deity but AII.h andthat Muhamm.d i. the M.,...ng



CHAPTERDisbelievers' Pots and ClothesPots couLd be m~d( of iron, wood, IC3lher Of the like. The original rulingis I~ ~rmissibil ity of using such poI5. Thai is IQ .5;1y. it is permisllble 10 use('Very pu~ pot. exr;c,pl two types:1- POI& made of gold or silver, and the pots having anything rdated10 gold or silvu, such as being inlaid Or plated wi th gold or silver,or anything of the kind that makes pots connected with them. Theuceplional casairing them.The legal proof of tile prohibition of using gold and silver pots is thefol lowing Jy.dilh ~latC'd by I ~ Group of Compilers of tJpdlth':~Do nor drink in gold or si!,," ~ 110r tar in simil


In another bodilh, the Prophet (PBUH) also says:I: PURIFICATION"Ht wlw drinks in silver ve>srI, is "nly ftlling his abdomen with Hellflrc.·'When something is legally prohibited to use, the prohibition isapplicable whether this th ing is used pa rt ially or totally. Therefore,it is prohibited to use pots inlaid Or plated with gold or silver orcontaining anything related 10 these IWO materials, excludingthe caSe of a pot inlaid wilh a little silver, which is permissible asmentioned above; Ihis is mustrated in the bodith rdated by AI ·BukharJ, on the authority of Ana, Ibn Malik (may Allah be pleasedwith him). who said:"The ClIp of Allah" Messenger (PBUH) got broken. and he fixed ilwith a silver wire at the (place oflhe) crack."'An·Nawawi (may Allah ha,·. mercy on him) said:"Muslim scholars uniformly agree that it is prohibiled 10 "01 or drink insuch pot, or even 10 us< I/,em in purprues rc/Med to eating or drinking:'This prohibition of using or keeping golden or silver obje\:t~ applie~to both ma les and femal .., a, the addressee of this prohibition isgeneralized (i.e. the prohibition applies to both ""xes). There is nothingspecified for a certain sex in this concern, exc ~ p t for the permissibilityfor women to make uSe of both silver and gold for purposes ofadornment for their husband"On the other hand, it is perm;'"ibl. to US" the utens il, of disbeli..-versunless one knows that they ore impure. In this case, one Can use themonly after w3shing them.2· The hides of d ~ ad animals: It i. pro h ibit~ d to u,e them un less they aretanned. Yet, scholars differ regarding whether it is permissible to useIhem after tanning or not. Th • • ound opinion, which is maintainedby the majo rity of scholars, i. that it is permissible to use the hidesof dead animals after tanning. due to the many ~bib (authentic)bodl/hs" ind icating that. Thi' i. because their impurity is temporary,so it is removed by ta nning. The Prophet (PBUH) .aid that the hidesof dead animals:•... Are pm"ifled by water and qarl (leaves of a kind of lree which isu"d for lonning)."


EndnotesHe WSUH) also said:"T.mn;lIg is the purifriltg mrollS for hides:'As for ,t.., dot~ of disbdie""rs. it is ~ r missi ble ~o _u them unlessthey are known to M impu~. This is beea"",, the original ruling onth eir clorhes is that they are pu re. and they c.nnot h< deemM impureou t of mere suspidon. l.ikewise, it is ~rmi!i.Sib l e 10 use what....." Is_aV('(! or dynl by tht di~lin·ers. for the Proph(1 (PBUH) and hisCompanions USNIIO wen clothes weavrd and d~ by disbelievn-s.And Allah. Exalted be He. knows MS!.I 'l1>('.md'"1t af Muslim. Shia (7/255).6 Sa!Jia (.u l h~"'i


CHAPTERThings Ritual ImpurityProhibits DoingThUt are some deeds which Muslims a~ proh.lbitm to ~rform unle"they art in a stale of purity. d"" to the gTt,lI ne" and th" loftiness ofth,,"d«ds. What folJ


I: I'UIl.lFICATION"None touch 11 except/he purifi~d ... ~(Qur'1n: AI -Waqi'ah: 79)That is, it is prohibitro to touch it unlcs~ by tho~ e purified from minor andmajor ritual impurity, according to the opinion that the words -the purified"in the verse refer to human being~. However. there are SOme exegetes who stateIhal Ihe words 'the purified' in the aforesaid verse refer to the noble angels.Even if th e verse is interprNed that the word.! 'the purified' refer to the angels.they also refer to human beings by i rnplication. To illustrate, it was mentionedin the INter sent by Allah's Me~SCllg e r (PBUH) to the people of Yemen, a~narrated by' Amr Ibn Hazm, that:"No one should I(wch Ihe Book of tl'e Quriin un/"" they ~re purr."'(Related by An -Nasa' and other compilers of Hadith with a continuouschain of transmitters)In addition, Ibn . Abdul-Barr ... id:"TI,is uMith is more likely /0 be a I1wtawMir (continuOljsly reCl/rrent)llndl/h ' as it is rommonly accepted by scholars.~)Shaykhul-hlam (lbn Taymiyah) states that the prohibition of touchingthe Book of the Qur'an while being in a state of (major or minor) ritualimpurity is agreed upon by the Fou r Imams' '. Ibn Hubayrah also st.t .. inhis hook entitled AI- lf~~b (Enu,"ci.-.tlm,). "They (i.t. the Four Imdms) agreethat it is impermissible for o>le In a stale of ritlwl impurity 10 to",h the Book ofthe Quran: However. one in a state of ritual impurity is allowed to hold theBook ofth. Qur'an in a cove r or a bag so as not to touch it directly. Similarly,one in such a state of impurity is allowed to read or browse through the Bookwithout touching it.2- Offering Prayer (neither Obligatory nor Supererogatory Prayers)Sehol.,..,. uniformly agree Iha! il is impermissible for nne in a state ofminor or major ritual impurity to perform prayer at .11. k it oblig.1tory orSUI"ererogatory, provided on ~ is able to purify oneself. This is be


o..plCl' j ; 1hings Ri.wl lml"'ri'1 I'roh;bill Doi"l\Bftides, tM- Prophel (PBUH ) said, as related by Muslim and OIM-r,ompil~rsof HPdith:"A llah doa nOI acu pl a prayer wit/lOut purification .. : 'He (PSUH) also s.>id,"Allah does nOI a,,~pl I IJ~ prayer of anyone of you if he f'tJ S5tS,.,ind, urine, or 5/00/ un/it he ~rform5 /he ablu/ion (IIne,.,).-'The a~ btldith . hoWI Ihlt ,I is i mp ~ nni ssib l ( for one 10 pray whilebdng in a "ate of impurit y, provided one is able 10 purify one~ lf. Thus, Iheprayer offerM by one in , s tate ofimpurity is invalid. whether il is ~r formedin such a .tate while onc is aware of the ruling or nOl. ~nd whelher oncperforms il inotlen(ively or inlentionally. If onc is awnr~ of the ruling andoffers pray'" inlentionally, one ,s regarded as a sinner who has 10 und~rgodi SCrdionary punishment. BUI if one is un awa~ of it, and offers prayerinallenlively. One in Ihis , a~ Is not rcprded as a sinner, ~I o nes pra)'ff isdeemed inval id.1- Performing Iawdj(C lrcumambulating the Ka ' bah)It is impermissible for onc in a SI.te of minor or major rilual impurity topcrfornl/Qwd/. for the Prophel (PHUH) said:"IQ"'''f is (comidend) Q proyer. ti,e diffm'nce is Il1al AI/ah made itIllwfut wspellk durillB il."The Proph.ct (PBUH) used to perform ablution tw:fort performing 10wd}.It was also aUlllmlical1y n arrated Ihat ~ (PBUH) forNde a menSlruatingwoman to perform 10wdj unless she purified herself". All the above showsIhat 0"," in a Slale of minor or major ritual impurity is prohibited to perform11l 14'~f unlil onc purifies oneself.Among the proofs thal on~ in a state of major ritual impurity is prohibitedto perform l~wJ!is the fo llo wing Qur'~nic verse:"0 yo .. who haVl' bellc",", do "0' approach pro~, ,,'hil£ yo .. tin/"toncoltd ""Ill yo .. ;;"0'" .. ·htl' yo .. on sayi"g 0' ill tI •• ole of.i4"Abah, ~cq •• hou piWi"l .h,..,"gh {a pU>ct! ofpmyu}, u"tiIYO" hallf' ...... htd {yo .. , ""'olr bodyl ... ~ ( Qur'~n : A n - Nis~' : 43)Th~ yerse mean s that onc should ","yer enter a mruque while being in a stateor major rilu.1 impurity except fnr those who are passi ng through it on their


k PURlflC ..... TIQNway. Since one in a slate of janclbal, is prohibiled to stay in a mosque, then,with greater reason. one in the same state is prohibited to perform tawdjIn a nutsheU. the ~b.Jve·mentioned deed, a", prohibited to be performedby one in" .tate of ritual impurity. whether minor or major.Deeds Prohibited for One in a State ofMajor Ritual Impurity in ParticularAs for the d~d5 specifically prohibited for onc in a state of major ritu alimpurity, Ih ey are as foUow,:1- Reciting the Qur'anOne in a ,tate of major ritual impurity is prohibited to redte the Qur'anaccmding to the foU()wing i1adW, rebted by At-Tirmidht and other compilers of/:iadllh on the authority of ' Ali lbn AbiI l"iilib (may AUah be pleased with him):"Nothing prevented I,im (i.~ . th~ Prop/,et, PBUH) from (reciting) theQuran ot/,er tlran being in a state ofjamlbah (major rituai impurity;:"The wording of At -Tirmidhl of the aforeS;lid hadillr is a, foUow,:"He (PBUH) used to recite the Q"r;j,'for ", unless he was in a stateofjandbah:This proves that it is prohibiteJ for the p


There are many other examples of that This is illustrated in the followingnadirh narrated by' kishah (may Allah be pleased with her):"The Prophet (PBUH) used 10 mention Allah in all his condifions:"2- Staying at 11 MosqueIt is pcohibited for one in whatever state of major ritual impurity, be itjanJbah, menstruation or postnatal bleeding, to stay in a mosque unless oneperforms ablution. Anah, Exalted be He, says:HO you wh" h,we believed, d" ,,,,t apprmlch pr"yer while you "rt'intoxicated u"til you know what you art' .aying "r in "itate ofj"n4""h, except those pa .. ing through [.. pl"u of praytr], untilyou have washed lY"ur wholt b" dy] ... " (Qur':\n: An-Nis,f: 43)This meaOS that one in a state of major ritual impurity is prohibited 10 entera mosque to stay therein, In addition, in the hadith related by Abll D~wIld,on the authority of 'kishah, and graded as "'nin (authentic) nadi/h by IbnKhuz.ayrnah, the Prophet (PBUH) said:"[ do 1'101 deem the mosque lawfulfora menstruating woman or fora person who is in a sMe ofjamlbtlh:"However. if one in a state of major ritual impurity p erforms ablution, it is~rmissible for one then to stay at the mosque. as . Ala' reported:"[ Saw some of the Companions of the Prophet (PBUH) staying atthe mosque while being in a state ofjanabah only after performingthe (ordinary) ablution performed for prayer . •The Significance of performing ablution here, though one is in a state ofjanJbah. is /esuning the state of jana""h so as to make it ~rmissible to stayat the mosque_ Likewise, it is permissible for one in a state ofj~nabah to passthrough the mosque without staying therein. for Allah says:~ •• , Exc~p t tho.e pll$jing Ihrough fa pl"uafpr~yer]",~(Qur'An: An - Nis~': 43)That is, one in such a state is only allo~d to pass th rough it for the sakeof mere passing.Whenever there is an exceptional case of a certain prohibition, it is deemedpermissible. So, being a passerby is the exceptional case of th e general rulingstated by the h~dilh of the Prophet (PBUH) that gOe5:


I: I'URlF1C.JHION"I do 1101 make Ihe mosque lawful for a mell5lrualillg womlln or fora i'"JDn wI.o is in ja"'lbah."Simibrly, i ~ is prohibi~w for ~h e one in a "a~e of major ritual impu rity,without even being in a staleof ablution, 10 be present at the place of ~ rrorm ingthe Fea~t ( ' Id) ProY"" Y~ t , it is ~.mi ssib\e (or one 10 pass through il. for theProphet (PBUH) ~Y":"MCllstruMing womell sltoldd keep 1111'(1)' from til e placeof performingprrtycr:"End.notesI MAlik (277) I]>. 1961, Ad· ll:Ioraqutnl (43)) 1111191, Al.Bayhaql (4011) 11/1 41 1, AI'W kim(6 122) 1315951 and Ad ·mriml (lI8J) 1216021.2 .II .. IQ...tII. (conIin...,...;]y ..,....,.,...,..) bndIlh is a/Jpdlrh rq>OI1cd by a ~ numb..- ofna.....-OI1I ...t.ow ~ upon tdling a lit is l~nbk (dois condition mUS! bemet in t "'m.i",~hai n from I'" begi nning 10 lhemd).J s... AI· Ta .. hld (L 7f JJS, JJ9].. 1h


CHAPTEREtiquette of AnsweringCall of NatureIt will not escape you. my den reader · may Allah grant you, me and allMuslims success - that Islam is a perfect, unique, integral religion. There isnothing required for our worldly and religious lives that is not dearly pointedout in Islam. Eve" the et iquette 10' be observed upon ans~ring the call ofnature ;s pointed Qui, so that man - whom Allah has hoomed over animals• becomes distinguished from animals in this concern with such proprieties.Islam is the religion of cleanliness and purity. There fore, there are Islamicetiquette! 10 be observed on entering the bathroom, while answering the callof naWre, and on leaving it.Upon entering the bathroom, it is desirable for a Muslim to say. «[n theName aj Allah, I suk refoge with Allah from all ojftnsive and wicked thing>(~vil deeds "nd evil spirits)" stepping in with hi. left leg. Wh ~ n leaving. it isdesirable to step out with the right leg invoking. -I seek Your forgiveness. P,ai.ebe to AII"h. Who removed hmm from me and gave me "eaUh"


I: PURIFICATIONThis is ~cause the right (hand or leg) is used for whatever is related tohonor and ~autification, whereas th e left is used for whatevu is relalfflloremoving impurili es and Ihe lih.In case one h:l$ to answer the call of nature out of doors, (al a place nolprepared for Ihal purpose), il is de~irable for on e 10 do so away from people.scn:ening oneself~hind a wall, a tree, or the like. In addition, while answeringthe call of nature out of doors, one is prohibited to face or turn one', back towardsth e qiblah' '_ Rather, onc should move eastward Or westward to avoid facing orturning one's back towards the qibltlh, as the Prophet (PBUH) has forbiddenboth to be done while answering the call of nature. On the other hand, one mustbe caulious of splashing one', urine least it might soil oni , body or clothes.Hence, one is recommendffl to select a smooth ground when having to urinateout of doors, so as to avoid bei ng soiled by the «atter of one', urine.Besides, while answering the call of nature, it is impermissible for one totouch one', ,tool and urine uits with onc's right hand. It is also impermi$.S ibleto anSWe r the call of nature at a public mad or at a place used by people a~ a_'helter, or in a source of water used by propl •. This is because the Prophet(PBUH) ha, forbidden doing Wo' as such deeds cause harm to people.On the other hand, one should never enter a bath while having something(like a paper, a document, Or anything el~ .) containing the Name of Allah,Exalted and Ev~r - Maj~~tic be He, or any Qur'anic verses. If On ~ fears that onemay lose them (that pap~r or document) when Ihey arc left outside the bathuntil one finishes, it is permi,sible for one to enter th e bath whil ~ having them,provided that they are covered.Moreover, One is not allowed to ~peak while answering the call of natur~ ,becau~~ it is mentioned in a b.adith that Allah hates such a dud'. One i$ alsoprohibited to recite the Qur'an in a bath Or while answ.,illg the call of nature.When one finishes answering the call of nature, one must perform istinjd',';stijmdr: or their sub,titulC$_ In fact, ;t i, better to combin~ both istinjd' andistijmdr when deaning on ~ :' stool and urine exits following defecation orurination, yel performing either is sufficient. During istijmdr, one shoulddean one's slool and urine exits with stones or what may substitute for them,~uch as a coars~ paper, a rag, or the I i~ e, ensuring the d . anness .nd dryness ofth~ stool and urine exi!.


"Some jaqihs (!Khnl~T$ of Islamic Jurisprudence) maintain that i:


I: PURIFICATIONIn this conneclion. ;1 mighl ~ worth menlioning {hat SQme ?Wplemi~laken1y ~li eve Ihat ;st,'njtl i~ an inlegral port of ablution. Th ey thinkthat one has 10 statt with isrinja' whenever one desires to perform .blution,even if one ha. previo usly pedormffi it (i.e. islilljll1 after answering the ca llof nalure. Thi' i. romplctdy wrong: i,linjd' is no t part of ablUlion. but it i,just one of its lnjuiTc menls - as previously menlionW _ and is performffionly after answt'ring the ca ll of nature. Thu .. ont d~ not have to pcrfonn itunnecessoorily before ablutiOll. wit hool a reason such as answning Ihe call ofnalun: and the impu rity of one's slool illld urine exiu.To sum up, we would like to stale that our n:liglon. [slam. i5 the reHgionof purity and deanlineM; Ihe religion of the oot standards of ~hav ior andthe noblest of manners. h we .•• es a nd clarifi es whalever i$.Sues Muslims mayn~d. and whatever prin ciples Ihal may rectify their lives. There is nothingthat knefrt. Muslims unless it is stated. SITtssW and enjoined in Islam, sopraise k to AII.h for all His graces. We invoke Allah 10 make us steadfast inestablishing and obst'rving this great rdigion, grasping its ruli ngs. abiding byIts teachi ngs. faithfu lly. sincen:l y and deV()IJ1 Iy. SO thal Allah may accept ourgooddecds.EndnolesI lh. qiN.lh: Th< di.-..ction of pra ~r. n. mdy l"""nI, , 11 .. Ka ·boll.2 AI·Bulddri (1401 ) IlfJ22J ond MmJi m (6{18) J21 148 1.1 AbIll);JwUd (Z6) [11271.nd Ibn Mijoh (328) [112081.~ Ahmad (11296) 13/451. Ab\ll);Jwild (15) [11ll1"'" IIm Mljah (3-12) [inl51.5 Istu.jd·: Cleaning "",,', 'lnDI and urin< ail< afI ... dd«aIlon 0< urination with w" ....6 Wij ..... r. Cleaning "",,', IIOO aod uri"" ai ... fi ... drfeauion or "ri"'lion with ..""""or "'h ~ t m ~ pulntilu t t for thtm.'Muslim (605) 12/144j and (1\07) 12/!481.~ AI· Buklltr! (2611) 11/4921 .nd Mu. lim (69J) Il/lOJI.q Th i, badirh ""'. nornlo«l by Ad · n~ ' ''G "\!ll. ond AI'l:IlfilluI" I h.! il" h. ;n of, ... n,,,, i .. ion"authenlic . • nd 111. ...... wl!n ...... lu tl>< ilX idenl 0( ihil 11


CHAPTERSiwllk (Tooth-Stick) and Actsof Natural Disposition, A'ishah, Mother of tile Believers, (may Allah be pl".sed with her) narratedthaltll" Prophet (PBUH) said:' SiwJk (tootil-slick) is a way of purifying the mot,r/! and l(1tisjyingthe Lard.~(Related by Imam Ahm~J ~nd other compilers of Hadilh)'It is "'prted in the TWo ::iab.ltL,' that Ab~ HUTayrah (may Allah he plea,edwith him) narrated that Allah', Messenger (PBUH) ,aid:"Five (practices)"", of the natural disposition: circumcision, istibdM.'cutting Ihe moustache $hort, removing the hair of the armpils, andclipping the nailJ:'It is also staled as a marfll' (traceable) b.adirh' in the Two :iallills th~t Ibn'Urn., (may AUah be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet (PBUH) &aid;'Cut the mousMCl!e~ ,Imrt ami lellve tht beard grow."


1: I'UIUHCATIONDu~ 10 tne aforesa id badirhs as well as olher related IJadiths slrr$sing tne samepoinls,faqihs (scholars of Islami c Iurisprud~ncd d~rived some rulings amongwhich is Ihe preference of using ,i,.,clk, whicn is a kind of stick used in brushingthe I""th and gum in ord .. 10 remove yeIlownr$s and undesirable smdL11 is slaled Ihal using ,j,.,tlk is one of Ihe praclicr$ of AlIah's messengers';Prophel Abraham (PBVH) was Ihe first to use , i,."lk, Prophet Muhammad(PBVH) has pointed out that ,i .. ,ik is a means of "purifying th~ mouth; i. e. it isa mouth deaner that removes bad odor and the like. He (PBUH) has also statedthat siwak is a way of ":;.atisfying the lord." i.e. ming liWllk is an a"that pleasesand salisfies Ihe Lord. Blessed and Exalted be He.There are mOre Inan one hundred iladiths slressing the desi rability of usingsiwclk. This indicates that using siwJk is a slressed act of the SUMMah (PropheticTradition) enjoined and made desirable by the Lawgiver of Shad 'ah '. iwak hasgreat benefots and ,·inues. the greatest and mOSI comp reh~nsiv e of which is IhatSlated in th~ following nadith:"SiwJk is a way of purifying the ",outh and satisfying the Lord."Brushing th e t~th with siwJk is to be done with a


Th~ way .iw.lk is uS«! is by rubbing the gum and tuth sta rting from tileright side of the mouth (and then moving towards th( ld t) , and one shouldhold $iWllk with th( left hand.Among th( m(rits preKnt(d by Islam, the True Rdigion, are the acts nfnatural disposition m(ntion~ in the ~fores.1id b."dith. Th ey a~ called the acts ofnatural disposition as the)' a~ ob~rved by tho5c who adhe~ to innate, natural~l$ of purity upon which Allah has cre at~ all His so:rvants, urged them toOOstrv( thcm, and des i~ such acts to be observed by I hem. Allah, Glory be 10Him, desirtS such acts of natural disposition to be observed by His servants sothat they anain tlK rnSt ptrf«t, honorable, dignified qualities, and combineth( best appnranu with the Mst manners. Th~ actS of natural disposition.re the old. inh. rent acts and practices of purification observed by all prophetsand unanimously agreed uPOI! by all Heavenly Laws. TheK acts a~:1- Istil!dad: Istibd6d means shavi ng the pubic hair. This act, in Arabic, iscalled 'i,tibd&l' beauK it isderived from tile word 'b."dfti'. i.e. the rawrIUftI. for" shavi ng hair. Removing such hair is a way ofbcautification aswdl as purificatioo. Also, one is free ~ t hn to re~ it by shaving oranything d~.2- Circumcision: Tt Is the removal oftht lOOK fo reskin covering a mlle'spc:nis.1t is preferable to bedone du ring childhood, uthe wound wouldheal faster, and in order to let the child grow in the healthiest way.Amons the num erous virlues of circumcision is to purify the organfrom the impu ri t iel ca used by th( forelkin.).. Culting W mOllltache short Cutting the moustache too short is away of beautificaHon, purification, and avoi dance of imitating thepolytheists. Then a", many b"dilhs slressing IIle act of CUlling themoustache too short as wdl as growi ng the burd and beautifying il,as the be~rd i.! ~ sign of mannish o.,luty and Is among the featuresof manhood. Ironically. many pwpl ~ reversed thiS matter; theywould leave th e ir moustaches and shave their beards, cut themshort, or depilate parts of them. This is regard ed as excessiveness incontradicting th e .cts of th ~ S""""h (Prophetic T .... d ition ). as wellas an imitation "f the enemid of Allah and Hi.! Mdsenger (i.e. thepolytheists and the d isbelievers). In addition, shaving thr beard andgrowing the moustache i.! also a way of abandoning IlK f(Ollum ofmanhood ~nd gallantry, and adopting thOR o f womrn and low mrn.Such a muning is whalth. pot!: intmded when he compost'd:Ma" at t;mts of moral "!fUer/onM"y $~C what i, ugly as per fecI Ion.


Anolh~r pod say,:No wo",kr 'ha! womtn htnl' mascllli"iud1l1I' mrn jtmj"jwf is ,h. ",,,I wornkr.I: PURIFICATION4- Clipping the nails: Clipping the nJil, is among th~ qu~liti rs ofnatural disposition. as it is a way ofb


l3Endnotes1 Ahmad (24196) [6157 I onrl (7) [115 ], An-Nos.!. (5) ilI17], Ibn M1j.h (289) 11/186[,AI_BukM ri 141202[.2 The Two Sabib." The Two Authentic Book> of Ai ·A ukh1ri . " d Mu,lim,3 r"ihdJd, Shavi ng the pubk h.i,.4 AI-BukMrl (5889) 11 0/412[ . nd Mu,lim (597) (21 140].5 M.if" . ('ra«.ItI.) /tiU/ilh i< wh.,


CHAPTERAblutionAnah, Exalted be He, says:"0)"''' who haw Iulieved, when you rise'" {pert".m) pro.ye~wash your factJ and your jonarnu 10 Ihe dbows and wipe over)'(IlIr /lead$ and wash ,..,UT feM III the ankles ... H(Qur'~n: AI·M;l'idah: 6)This ~rse states that performing ablution whenever rising to prayeris obligatory, and tells us which Dcgan. should b


I: PURIFICATIONenSure the validity of ablution. As for the acts of the Sunnah related to ablution,they are considered complem~nta ry pra(tic~s that guarantee the ~rfection ofablution. Observing these acts of the SIInna/, during ablution in creasel onesreward, yet abandoning them does not affect the validity of ablution.The Conditions of AblutionThere are eight condition, of ablution:I-Being a Muili m2- Being mentally sound3- Having discrltion4- Having the intention of pcr(onning ablutionAccording to th~ aforementioncd four conditions, ablution is invalid ifperformed by a di,beli""cT, an inl.1n~ ~rson, a young child who d~snot diltinguish (b ~ tween right ""d wrong), Or one who d~s not havethe intention of .blutin" (upon performing it), such as Jl"rforming it asa way of refreshment in a hot weather, or as a means of .:leaning on. ,body organs or r~moving certain impurities or the lik~ ,5- Using pure water: Water used for performing ablution must hi" pure,SO impure water is inadequate for performing ablu1ion.6- Using legally-obtained water: If the waler used for ablution i.unlawfully acquired, Or taken by forc~, ablution will not be valid.7- Being preceded by istinjll' or istijlll


with W31~r. This is because the mouth and tile ~ bclons to the face,and Allah. Exalt..:! be He. say. (regarding ~blulion), ••. . Wa.h )'(Iu~Jam;, .•" (Qur'~n: AI ·Ma'id ah: 6) Thus, Al lah commands washing thewho l~ face du ri ng ablution. '" who.:ver dis regards wa,hing any panof the face is considered 10 be disobedient to the Command of Allah.Exalted bc He. Mo~ ove r, lhe l'ropht1 (PB UH) used to rin~ hismoulhand nose "';Ih water "'hile ~rfonning ablution.2-Washing Ihe forurms including the d bows: Allah, Exahedbe He, says • .... . A"d Y


t I'Ul(lflCAnONThe Prophet (PBUH) used to follow Ihat order while performingablution, saying:"This is an ablution without which Allah does not accept any pmyrr··This is as rdated by AM! Dow(ld and other compilers of Jjadith.6-Succession: This means to wash the organs successively without anyinterval between washing Iwo organs. i.~. the organs must be washedsuccessively wilhout pau,e. as much as possible.Theseare the obligatory acts of ablulion that must ~ fulfilled a,commandedby Allah in His Ever-Glorious Rook, the Qur'an.Scholars di"'gree concerning the ruling on lasmirah' upon startingablution; they differ whether it is an act of the Sunnah or an obligatory practiceof .blution. At any rate, according to a!! Muslim scholars, it is permissible tostart ablution with lasmiyah and it should not ~ abandoned.The reason - Allah knows best - behind specifying those four organs forablution (i.e. the face. hands, head, and the feet) may ~ ~cause they are thecommonest bodily parts related to sins, ro their physical purification may bean indication of spiritual purification (from the sin. committed by them).The Prophet (PRUH) has stated that whenever a Muslim wash..-s one of theseorgans (during ablution), the misd"~ds committed through it are remitted,and that such misde~ds fall and vanish with the now of the water used forwashing th.t organ, until the last drop of it. In addition, the Prophet (PBUH)enjoined "'ring the Two Testifications of Faith following washing these organs(i.e. following ablution) as a sign of combining both physical and spiritualpurity. The physical purity is achieved through washing those organs in theway preS\:rit>ed i;.y Allah in His Ever·Glorious Book, the Qur'~n. As for thespiritual purity, it is achieved by utt ~ ring the Two Testifications of Faith thatpurify one from polytheism and disbetief.In the last pan of the aforesaid verse related to ablution. Allah. Exalted beHe, says:"... Allah don not intend 10 mau difficulty f"r you, I ... t HeintmdJ to purify you and romp/de Hisfavor upon y"" that youmay ~ gmt.,ful.H (Qur'ln: AI-MA'idah: 6)Thu,. gentle reader, every Muslim has to know that Allah has dec...,edablution in ordu to purify them from sins, and 10 complete His favor upon


o,'pt


I, PURIFICATION6- Washin g the fact , hands and feel up to th ree times Instead of once.Thus. we h ave tackled the conditions, the obligatory acts, an d the acts ofthe Sunnnh to be observed d uring a blut ion. $0, you, gentle read er, should learnthom. and keop observing them whenever you perform ablution to ensure thelegal ptrfectio n a nd va lidity of your ablutio n as well as the ",ware! for it.We ask Allah to grant us all more beneficial knowledge and gu ide uS to therighteous deeds.EndnotesI Ad . Dloraqulnt (268 ) ! t/86] and AI . Bayh_ql (256) ! 1/93].2 Muslim (246).) Abii DlwUd (134) [I/nl. AI·Tirmidhi (37) [1/531. Ibn MAj_b (444) 111262j.nd Ad­D1raq ulnl (53) 1111081.4 H," MIoj.ah (419) [1/250j. Abii Y. ' Lt (5598) and Ad .Dloraqulnl (257) 11/831.5 r",mi)'


CHAPTERWay of Performing AblutionSince you are now acquainted with the conditions, the obligatory acts,and the acts of the S"",11l1r 10 be observro during ablution. then you ;rn,aWflrt of the pro~r way ablution is performed. which is an application ofthe loovc-menlioned rulings. PUI differently, the perfect way of performingablution is achieved by observing the~ condition~, obl igalary acts, and ~CISof t h ~ SUM,,~Ir. which arc derived from the texts of Sharl'oh (Islamic Law).So, every Muslim has to spare no effort in observing them once he kn ewthem, Allah willing.The Way of Performing Ablution1·lntention, To intend perfonning ablution for tne aets of wt:>!'Ship forwhich ablution is ~uircd, such as prayer and the likel -Tasmiyah: To uy "8i$mill


I, PURIFICATION4-To rinse the mouth three times and then to rinse the nose threetimes (by sniffing water and then blowing it out using the left hand)5-To wash the face three times, from the upper part of the forehead(the beginning of the normal hairline) to the lower parts of thejaws lengthwise, and from one ear to the other widthwise (withoutwashing the ears, as they are treated as part of the head, not the face, aspreviously mentioned). The beard. as well, must be washed; ifthe hairof the beard is not thick, one has to wash it internally and externally.But if it is thick. it has to be washed from the outside, and it is desirableto insert We-! fingers washing it internally, as mentioned above.6-Towash the hands up totheelbows three times; each band isto bewashed from the up~r parts of the fingers and nails to the beginningof the upper arm. Moreover. one has to remon whatever sticks to thehands or the fingernails (such as dough, mud or thick paint) beforewashing them, so as to allow water to reach such parts.7-To wipe over the whole head only once, including the ears, withwet hands (provided the water used for wiping over them is fresh one,unlike that remaining from waihing hands). The proper way of wipingover the head is to be by putting one's wet hands on the upper part ofthe forehead and let them pass backwards till they reach ones nape,then ,..,turn them forwards to the starting point. After that, one is toiniert ones two wet forefingers in the holes of th e ea ... while wipingover their outer parts with one·s two thumbs.8-To wash the feet three times including the ankles. As for onewhose hand or foot is amputated. such one is to wash what i.left of thearm or the feet. To clarify, if the arm i, amputated from the joint of theelbow, one is to wash. the front part uflhe upper arm, and if the foot isamputated from ankles, one i, to wash the tip of th e (amputated) leg:Allah, Exalted be He, s ay~:"So feo.r Allo.h as much 0.. Jlou o.re o.hl


Ch.pter 7: w'Y of P" rform ing Ablu,;oll9- After finishing performing ablution, in a'cordal1c~ with theabove stated form, one may raise one', sight towards the heaven andinvoke Allah with some of the invocations of the Prophet (PIlUH) inthis regard, such as saying:"/ tesrify that rilere is no deiry bur All~h, AloIIC, with no partner, alldI testify th~t Mub.ammad is Hi$ &rvanl and His Messenger. 0 AII~h!M~ke me ammlg those wlro Me conwmtly repellt~lIt, and m~ke meamong those who purify themselves:'Or Saying:"Exalted are You, 0 AII~h, ~"d "If praise !J., to YOlj . IINtify rhallhert is nOdeiry but You. I ask You for forgivelless alld turn to You in repelltallce:'Th~ reason behind mentioning dhikr ' and invocation followingablution is to rombine both physical and spiritual purity. for ablutionis a means of physical purity. whereas dl,ikrand invocatinn (implyingmonotheism and re~ntance) are signs of spiritual purity. In thisway, one becomes in the most perfect state of purity (co mbiningboth physical and spiritu.l purity), and becomes pure enough to beadmitted to stand before Allah (in praye r), imploring Him humblyand submissively.By the ...


1: PURIFICATION"The prayerofanyof you is nOI camplele u"til he performs ablutionperfectly, as AI/ah, E;o:alted be He, has ordered him, He should washJ.i$faCt and hands up to the dlm",s, wipe over his head and (wash)hisfeel up 10 lire aIrkles .. : 'However, Muslims should know that the perfection of ablution is nO! tous~ a lot of wat ~ r, but it means to let water reach all parts of th~ organ b"ingwashed. In foct, mere over-use of watu is regarded as prohibitw wastefulnessof water. Also, one may pour water wastefully during ablution withoutperforming it perfectly; the perfection of ablution with little water is exactlywhat is legally enjoined. 11 is stated in the Two ~l!iIls that the Prophet (PBUH)used to perform ablution wilh one "'udd' and 10 tnke a bath with one 1


C~ . p'


,H.


CHAPTERWiping over the Khuffs'Islam is a religion of easiness and simplicity, not difficulty and strictness;it decrees suitable rulings for each case, which ensure fulfilling legal purposesand duties with no difficulty.This aFplies to the rulings on abll.ltion decreed by Allah. To illustrate,somrlimes there is something covering the organs washed during ablutionwhich is hard 10 remove and maybe needed as a means of protectiOll, eitherfor th e feet (such as khufft and the like), or for the head (such as turbans andthe liko). or for protecting wounds or the lih (such as splints, bandages, etc. Itis d~mM permissible for the one performing ablution to just wipe over suchcovorings instead of removing them and washing what is underneath. Thisis the easiness made by Allah, Glorified and Exalted ~ He, for His ~ervants ,rdkving them from difficulty and strictness,As for the permissibility of wiping over the khufft (and their likes. such assocks) during ablution, instead of removing them and wa.\hing underneath, it


I, PURIFICATIONis ~lateJ in many mutawJtir,' ,ahih' badith. Ihat Ihe Prophet (PBUH) used 10wipt: over them whether al home Or on a journey; he (PBUH) enjoined doingthe same,A, regards the legal proofs of the pennissibility of wip ing over the khliffi;,AI-Hasan said, "/ was told by sevenly of Ihe o,mpanions of AI/ahs Messe'lger(PBUH) that he "sed /0 wi~ over his kllUffs (with his wel Ilonds during ablution)." 'Moreover, An-Nawilwl said, "J1,e pcrmis.


a tnlvdtr and one day and night fo.- a resident'. For both (the resident andthe tn"eler), th e period of permis,sibility (of wiping OVeT the khlllfs) startsfrom the time of being in a state of ritual impurity (causcd by pas,sing urine,stool or wind) after wearing the /chuffs, as ritual impurity necessitates ablution(for pn)'ef). Still, some scholars ,~cw that Ihe dun 1ion begins from tne firstablution afur be ing in a state of ritual iml'tlrity.The Conditions of Wiping O\'e!' the Khuffs, the Socks, and the LikeI· To ~ in I $ t ~ t e of ritual purity (i.e. a state of ablution) upon wearingthem , for it is Slated in th e Two Sall/hs' and other books of Jiadilh tha tthe Prophet (PRUH) said to the o nc who ""'nted to help him (ie. theProp""t) in taking his khuffs off to perform ablution:"Ledw Ihem liS I hUll pl4llhem after for/arming ablulio" ....It is also narntrd that ,safw;!.n lbn . As.s;\1 said:"We arr cOlHmandM (by Ihe Prophet) to wipt over Ihe k/uifft if ..... putthem on while being in a Slale of ritlla/ purity (j.e. after ~rformi ' lgabllltion).""Thus, it is quite obvioo$ that the ruling is dependent On being in astate of ritual purity when putting th e khuffs on, so if one is in a stateof rilual impurity when putting them on, it is in'permi.ssible for onc10 wipe over them.2· The khuffs must be lawfully acquirrd, gottcn, and made. To clarify, ifthey arr taun by f01"(( . or made of silk (for men), it is imIXrmissibleto wipe OYff them during ablution. In a word,a legal ~ission is notappli~d to what is ~Irrady illegal.3· The khuffi and their lik~s mwt completely cO\'er the feet up to theankles. One cannot wipe over t h ~m unlfSS they are thick enoogh andcovering the pamofthe fut which a", to be wuhed. Thus. ifth~ aretoo short to cover the fett up to th e ankles. or arr not thick enough toconceal underneath, it is impermissible to wipe O'o·e, them.Since it is permissible 10 wipe oVff lhe khufJi it is IXrmissible 10 wipe overany fOOl covering.!. such as socks made of wool or s\"hlike mat eri.l. whicha", thick enough to cover underneath. Th nt '" due to the fact thal th e Prophet(PBUH) wiped ~ IUs ro.:ks and hi. shoes while performing ablution, as


I: PU RI FICATIONlute


Oupl


I, PURIFlCA:n O N7 1bid8 M..,.,Jim (6J7) [21 1671.9 1he Two :;.,bih" ~ Two Au'hentx: IlouU f Al·lll1kh l rl . nd Mudim.10 AI·Buf.h.lrl (2()6) i1141}4] .nd Mur.lim (630) 11 11 ~2].I1 Ab.maJ (l1lO1!) [4/HO].n Ahmad (18167) I4/.WlJ. Ab


CHAPTERThings Nullifying AblutionGi~n that you ha"" become 1"10"' aware ofhow ablution is ~rformed. what;15 conditions are, and what its obligatory practices and acts nfthe Su"nah :oK,you n.ud now 10 know what causes ablution to be nullified. In this way,)"Ouwill avoid performing an act of worship (such as pr.!)'ffJ while your ablutionis null, and so will be tht3C1 ofwor5hip performed in that stale. Every Muslimshould know that th~T e are things that nullify ablution and that it becomescompletely null if any of them is done; in this case, one has to re-performablution to do any act of worship n«e ... itating ablution.TM thIngs nullifyinll ablution tany of whi.:h makes it invalid) are cerlainmalte" idmtified by the lawgi""r' to be affecting Ihe validity or ablution.The Things Nullifying Ablution are of Two Types1- Dirert nulliliers: They are the mallers that cause th e nullification ofablution direclly. such as urine. stool, 3nd whatever comes OUI of Ih eanus ~nd Ihe sexual orpn,


I: PURIFICATION2- Indirect nullifiers: Th~y a", the matters that c:I~ nullifotalionof ablution indi",ctly. or makes Ih~ validity of ablution suspicious.Such mallers include unconsciousness or similar slates like sl""ping,fainling. insanity. etc. The reason i< that if one is in a state of un con·sciousness, one h«omes unable to fed what COmeS out of onll bodyor what one does. ThUs, doubt in such CI~ is ~rded as an adUllnullifying (actor.For more clarification, we can classify the things nullifyingablution as follows:I) Whatever comes out of the s\ool and urine exits, such as stool. wind.urine. sptrrn. p", . ~mina l fluid. and unusual menstrual blood. Stooland urine are among the dirl'


AiSQ, h~ (PBUH) u id rtgard ing 0""" ,,,,certainly whdh~ r one hadbrokn wind or not:"One ,hould not leav ~ proyer (to re·perform ~ b1ut jon) unless one hearsround (ofbreaki ,rg wind) or smells wmething." 'AJ for what COnK$ OUt of one's body other than urine. slool, and theaforesaid secretions, such as blood, vomit, nrunlttd and the 11".scholars disagr« whdheT such things nullify ablution or nol. Yet, theprq>


I; PURIFICATIONshould one do in Ihis case? It is slated thal the Prophel (PBUH), in Ihe l1adithrelated by [mam Muslim on the :!ulhority of Abii Hurayrah {may Allah bepleased with him),.aid,• If a My One of you feds any f1 mule nee ( while being in a state of a blut;o n)and;s doubtful whether anytlting (like wind) has jSjuedfrom him ornot, he should notleavt the mosque (to re-perform ablution) unlesshe hears a sound (of breaking wind) or pe"cives a smell:'This honorabie hadith, as well as similar ones that state the samemeaning, indicates that if one who is certain about one', purity thendoubts it, one should deem one,df pure (despite one's suspicion) and actaccordingly. ThL, is because Ihe original ruling is Ihal one is slili in a Slaleof purity, as purity is cerlain in I his case, and the null ification of ablUlionhere is based on mere suspicion. Thus, certainty i, nOI to be: eliminaledbecause of suspicion. This is. in faCI, a greal generic ruling 10 be applied inall cases; namdy, Ihe original ruling is to remain applicable until otherwiseis verified. By comrast. if one is certain about the nullification of one',ablution and suspects its validity, one has to re.perform ablution, .. theoriginal cose here is one's minor ritu al impurity. which is not abrogateddue to mere suspicion.OMuslim reader, you should keep yourself pure and verify your ablutionwhenever you stand for prayer. and Care for the validity of your ablution asmuch as you can, for prayer without valid abl ution is invalid. You shouldalso beware of i ,,,inuation and Satan's whispers thal cause you to doubt th evalidily of your ablution, making you in a state of doubt and confusion.Therefore, you should seek refuge with Allah from the evils and pay hisinsi nuations no al1entinn. Moreover, you should ask Ihe people of ju rist j,knowledge about whatever confuses you of the issues of purification andpurity, in order to b~ art.in about your purity_ You shoutd .. Iso care forthe purity of your clothes So as to verify the validity of your prayer andthe perfection of the acts of worship you perform, fo r Allah, G lorified andExa lted be He, say"";., Indeed, Allah love. Iho.e who a~ con.tantly 'opentant andIOW'J thou who purify Ihe . nstlvts.~ (Qur'an: AI -Baqarah: 222)May Allah guide us all 10 useful knowledge and righleous deeds.


Ch.ap«r 9: Thin!,;' Nullifying Abl"tionEndnotesI lhe Lawg ... , of Sh"rl'~h (hlamk Law) i. Allah, F. .. IIM be He: In. torm u n . 1", «fe,to In. Propbel (PBUH) •• h. n.,.r ordained but what was ,.,..,.IM 10 him by Allah,2 S« ,1.1,,1."""1 [11134[,3 hlillJdah: Vogin. 1 bluJing oth.r Iban ,,,en.,ru.tion.~ Abir D1wild (186) [ 111431, An ·N.d'l (J.60) [11203 ] and Ad·m. .. qujn; (778) [11213].s AI- l\u kMrl (137) [11312] and Mu,lim (W2) [21272].6 Mudim (833) [2/2%]7 MUllim (SOO) [lI27Ij; ~ al", Ahm.d (18495) [-11190[, AM Dolwild (184) [11961, AI­Tirmidh! (81) 111122] .nd Ibn M1jah (494) [1 12831·8 Mu,lim (803) 12/2721.


CHAPTERRitual BathingYou ha~ al~ad y b«n introdU«d 10 the rulings on ablution. whkh is ameans of purification from mioor ritual impurity (OIUKt! by passing wind,acnmenl a r urind, and tile things Ilullifying it. So, the focus is now givr"10 highlighting the rulings on purification from major ritual impurity, be itjlllr~lmh,' menstruation. ()r postnatal bluding. This kind of purification isca ll ed ritual bathing, during which one wash es onc:' whole body in a specificway on which we will elaborate on below. The legal proof that ritual bathing isobliptory in such cases is that Allah. wl!ed be He. Py':w • •• And if you ,n" ;11 .. ""Ie Df jantJbah, Ih,,, purify yourwlvn ... ~(Qur'~n: Al·M:I.'idah: 6 )It is said that ritual bialhing from jQnAbllh was practice


I: PlJRI~ICATIONThell' all' six cas~ in which perfonning I rifual balh is ob lig~lQry for• Muslim:Ejaculation by a man or a woman, being awak/.: or asl"",p, provi


Oul"


I: rURIFlO'I1 QNMOretlVCr, onc should by no m~ans use water wastefully whil ~ taking a rituallNth. Rather, 0"'" should use li uI~ wata provided ~it u..1 lNt hing is JX'rfonntdPl"OJX'rtr lnd JX'rf«t1y as prescrikd in Shllrl·~h. Muslims should fOllow theexample of the Prophet (pIIUH) ,nd r.ltionalize their use of water duringpurificatiull, for he (PBUH) u..,d to perform ablu tion with one mudd and totake a bath with one ~d· '. AI$. it is obli g~tQry for a MUSlim to sc rt


CHAPTERTayammum'(Dry Ablution)AUall. Glorified and Enlln1 lit: He. has d~rttd purinClllion for pn)'t'Tfrom both . lat~ of minor and major ritual impurit y by using pure WIltC'!".which He ~ lI ds dOWIl from the sky_ PurifICation with watCT (when being ineither statn of ritual impurity) is obligatory for a Muslim as long as waler isavailable. However. in some cases, eithn water is unavai lable or one is unable\0 use it due 10 a legal excusc. for that Allah. oul of Hi s g,.a and mercy.has kindly provid ed a substitute for it, namely tayam" lum with clean carth, tomal«. things easy for Hi ~ ",rvant 5 and 10 spare them difficulty.Allah, &.oiled be He, in His Pr«i~, Glorious Book, the Qur'h. says:"0 }'flU who '!lI ve bdievtd, "'hen)'Du ,i,e ' 0 1 ~rf"rm J pr/J~r,... Dsh ""U,'QU, lInd your ""ellrmJ 10 riot elbow. "lid wipt avrryou. h, ,,d. ,,,,d ...".h your ftet 10 tht ""kl~l. Alld if you "re ill"""t~ "fj"mtbah. ,h,,, purify )'flur'tIVtl. HUllf,ou


le PURifiCAT ION" imulf Or ro" " OWl conllulw womu ond do IU1/ find wo/u,Ihen .ui; dton r" rlh "nJ wipe OWlr your fact. ond hand . wilhit. Allah dot. n OI inlend /0 mab difficulty fo r you, bUI HtInl,nd. I" pllrify J"'" "nd ro",pld . HI. f"vor upon Y"U '''0'YO" may b. " roltful." (Qur'h: AI·M$·idah: 6)Linguislically, Ihe word 'taYOlIIIOl""" in Ar;obic means intention, and I ~gally(according 10 the Warnic ruin) il rnr;1nS wiping ova Ihe fac:c and hmdswith clran eanh in a !p«Hic ..... y. Tayammum is slaled in the Nwle Qur'!n,prescribed in the SUllllah (Prophd ic T,adition), ~nd approvtd by consensu •.la", ,,,,,,,,,,, is a privilege wh ich A II~h . oul of His grace and mercy. has Sp


a..p


t, PURIfiCATIONIt is permissible to ~rform layalllmum with dean earth, saliM earth,sand, and suchlike pure earthy stuff, according to the preponderant of the twojuristic opinions in this regard, for Allah, Exalte


a...", ... 11: T"J" ........ (Dry AbI~r ion) "7~Sofwr Allah ... ..... rh as yo .. " .... .. b/r. ,,~Fu rthermore, the Prophet (1'IlUH) said:(Qur'in: At - Tagh~bun: 16)~Ij I romlMM )'QII IQ do $(}fllet/,ing, then do of ilm much lIS )'QII ( ,,".'"ThUs. '"' ha..., n plained to YOll, gentle reatkr, a summary of the rnli ngoon ,,,yomm .. m, and if yw 3 1'(' doubtful about any of them or any OI her ruling>..you ha..., urgently to consu lt men of religiO\lll kflQWlw ge: you should n~ r!leglect any migious issues, np«ially those related to prlI~ r. the pillar ofIslam, for the i$s ue is really !erinus.May Allah guide us .11 to felicit y and rightwusneSf regMding our wordsand deeds, making our righteous deed$ $incerdy done for His Sake, and indevotion to His Honorablc Fa(ct May Allah grant our invocation, for He is...,rily the Hearingand ResponsivttEndnOles1 Ta"""mum: ~""i"g dry .blut;"n with ~ earth (.m.n ... t ... is u ....... U.bk orone .. nno( Uot it).1 Al.!lukhl r! (335) !1/56Sj .nd Must im (t 163) [31613 Muolim (t t 65) 1317].4 At·Bukhlr! (J.l8)ll/S74j.nd MUllIm (818) [21284).5 Al·Bukhlrl (72&8) [1)/3081 and Mwlim (6066) [SJ t()8l .


CHAPTERRemoval of ImpurityAi a Mu$lim is I~ally required 10 ~ pu~ rmm minor and major ritualimpurities in order 10 perform prayer, he is also commanded to pur ify hisbody. doth es and remove any spot of impurity. Allah says:-A"d ytJur d oth'''g p .. rlfJ'.~ (Qur';!.n: AJ·Muddaththir: 4)The Prophet (PBUH) commandrd a woman to >nm the menstrual bloodfrom her g.1rment '. With this in mind, it is our duty to ,hed more light on thiSi .. ue, namely the removal of impurity, illustrating the m05t important relatedrulings. hopinglha\ it may benefit Muslims. Fllqfhs (may Allah have mercy onIMm) uKO! to 5p


J: ruRIFICATION~ ... A"d " lfl daw" uPO" yo .. from ,ht sky, nil" by ... hl,h lap"rify yo...... (Qur'an: AI·Anr.;l: 11)Kinds of Impure Objects That Must be RemovedImpurity may be linktd to the ground, the floor, or what is connected tothem, such as wall., WlItl'1' ~ins. rocks. etc. In such a case. jt ii sufficient to~move such impurity by washing it only once, i.e. to pour water once until itc~rs Ihe impuIT object. as IM Prophel (PBUH) orderw 10 pour a buckel ofwaler over the urine oflhe B«Iooin who had urinated in Ihe mosque'. Such anImpurity is naturally ITmoved when coveml with nlinwaler or floods.. So longas the impure object is ITmoved by pouring water, or by rainwater or floods,it is sufficient to deem the are. concerned pu~. On the other h.nd. impuritymay not be relatw to the ground, the floor. or what isconnected to them. suchas Ihe impurity a ustd by dogs. swine, or what Is rei lied to them. In Ih is case,the impuIT obj«1 mU$1 be washw ~ n limes. one of lbem wilh earth. for IheProphCl (PBU H) J,l.id:"Whm " dog liclq 0 ",nujj br/o"ging /0 ""yo"e of 10", Id him wmhjl $O't''' tjm~. tht firsl oflllmt wilh torlh.'"(Relatw by Muslim and other «)mpilel'!; of Hmlilh)Still . this rul ing is not restricted to ute",ils; it is also applicable to dothes.sherts. and the like. If the impu,", object is rel.lw to nei th .... dogs nor .wine.such as urine. stool, blood, and Ihe like. it hl$ to be washed. rubbed. andwrung oot until it is completely ITmoved, leaving neilher sign nor color.In ~nnAl. Ihings washed can "" divided inlo Ihrtt cattgorirs:I. Squeeuble things such as clothes. so Ihey must be wrung oul afterWllshing.2. Unsquenable things such as leather and th e like, so they have to beoverlurned during washing.3. Things that can neither be wTUngOU! nor overturned;such things hawto be washed, scrubbed and tllen pressed wilh a heavy obj«1 untilmost of their water dries..When the fillhy aITa on ones body. dothn. a small place ofprayer, or Ihelike.. cannot be located, Ihe whok ou.pecled aITa has to be washed until it isc(rlain Ihal impurity has been ITmov~d. Still, if t he i"'puIT aru itself cannOtbe id~n tifie d, th e whole object has to be washed.


"As 1Or" pun: rnalerialsoiJed will! urine of ilIl infant, it is sufJkicnllo purify itwilh sprinlding water, nOl washing it, as stated in t~ badirh n arraled on the authorityorUmm Q II)'" Bint Mi~n (may Allah be pleased with her), She narrated,"' brought my baby Wn (who had "", slarted eating ardill"ry foodrhen) la AI/",h's MesMngv (PBUH) who look him and mad~ himsit in h .. lap. The child urinolw on Ihe garmcnt of /Ju Prophd(PBUH), SO he (PBUH) tWwI for >I",ler and sprinkled i( ovrr 'heSOl/M a~ without WI1$hi"8 il,··However, if the child iJ old enough to eat ordinary food, the ruling onhislher urine is regarded as that of grown-ups. In such ca~5, urine is 10 ~removed by washing a5 in th e cue of olher kinds "fimpurity.There are three kinds of impure objects:• Major impure object$. such as I h~ ClIuKd by dogs and the loo,• Minor impure objects, such as tM urine ,,£infants (who have not ~st.uted eating ord inary food)• Moderate impure objects, .... hich indud~.1I other impo"" objects.At this point, th~ "" mu st ~ distinction betwee n pu"" and impure urineand manuu of animals. ThoK of legally edible animals, such as camels. cows.shup and the like, a"" pure, according to a badith ""Ialed by AI.Bukhlrl andMu&lim stating that the Prophet (PBUH) gave permission to the ~le of• Unaynah to take the uri ne and milk of In.: camels of charity as medicine' . ThisI1adffh implies that the urine of camels is pu "". for it is i m~issi bl e to bke animpo"" object as medicine. Some may argue that the Prophet permined taki ngor drinking such urine l5 medici ne only in case of necess ity. To this. W~ say thatthe Prophet (pBUH) n ~ vlr enjoined wash ing the trace of th e urine of camels~fo "" performing prayer. wh ich shows that he did not deem it impu"". It is.Iso stated in a ~bib (authentic) fJpdith that the Prophet (PBUHI. before theProphet's Mosque was built ..... ould perform pra~ r at shu pfolds· and wouldcommand hill Companions to J'C'rform p"'~ r in such folds,' though they hadb«n liurdy urinated in.snaykhul,Wlm Ibn T'IIymtyah (may Allah have mm:yon him) said:·Purity i. the original ruling on ~II kinlh of manure except jor thosewhich ore ruled Ollt .. :'


nI: PURIFICAnONThe leftover of legally edible animals is pure and so is the leftoyer ofcats. "ccording to the hadith narmted on the authority of Abfi QatAdah. whoreported lhat the Prophet (PBUH) said about cats:"/( (i.e. ~ (~t) is not impure; it is one DJ tllose (m~le or female domesticaJ1ima~) wMch go round among you:(Related by At-Tirmidhi. who cl""ms it lallib. (authentic), and othercompilers of Hadirh)'In the h.adith at hand, the Prophet (PBUH) resembled cats to ~rvants whogo round among their masters waiting for their orders. Thus. deeming catspure as stated in the badith is a way of relieving Muslims from strictness anddifficulty. Some ",holo .. maintain the same ruling on legally inedible animalssmaU .. than calS, such as birds and the like. They view that the leftover ofsuch small animals (or birds) is as pure as that of cats. On the other hand, themanu"" urine, and the remaining food of any legally inedible animals otherthan cats and their likes 3"' impure.Thus. ta king care of physical and moral purity is central in a Muslim'slik Moral purity requires mon


a..pco, 12: Rcmcwolollmpu ,i,yEndnotes1 AJ · llu~rI U27111l001.nd Mwlim (li7J) 1)11110).1 AI· Bukhtrl (6025) (10/5521 and Muslim (li57) IlI1811.) MUJiinl (6019) III 1751: ..., also AI·BukhJrl (171) 11/3591.4 Ai· Buklllr1 (223) 111425J Ind Mu.lim (66)) J2JI8S).5 AI · Buklllrl (2))) 1114361 and Mu.>!im (019) 161154 ].6 AI · 8ukhJrI (2~) II1U 41 .nd Mw.l im (l1 74) 1111 I j.7 Musl im (SOO) jlI171 ): >« . 1"" fani .-\I·Oadld4'.I!) Ind M ..silsll". Ad.-Da ' ifoh (29(12).~ m I~n 11Iymiyah' Mojmli '" I-fIII4!nl (20IJJ9), (21/40, 7(, 75, 534, S117, 613) and (25/239).SH .1$0 .-\I.IJJu(y.!"" M-"IIm,)')\lh p.4!.9 Ab


CHAPTERMenstruation and Postnatal BleedingFirst: MenstruationAllah, Exalted be He. says:':And they /lsk )'I'J1l abuut memt1llatian. 5.1y, 'It iJ harm, JO knp.. wuyfrom wives during mellstruation. A"d do nolupproadr themuntil they art purt!. And when they have purified Ihemulvn, thencome to them from wheT


"Rulings Slated in the Noble Qur'an and the SunnahConcerning MenstruationI: PURI FICATIONIt is prohibit~ d for a menstruating Woman eithe r to perform prayer Of observefasting. as tht Prophet (PBUH) ,aid to F;\timah Bin! Ab() Hubaysh:"Give hp prayer ... hell )'OlIr mens/rulll pniod bq:ills..~ 1Thus.lhe pram and fastingof J menstruating woman afr d=nffi invalid,as rhe Propl>c1 (PBUH) has prohibilrd Ihat,' .00 tht Prophefs prohibitionmt:ins it is invalid to perform wnnt he hu prohibited. Theufore. a womanwho J>"fforms such acts of wor$hip in that state of impurity is considerffi tu ~di$Obedient to Allah and His Messenger (PBUH),When the menstru.1 period is ovu, a woman has ID rnake upfoT th e mi$.Scddays of fasti ng accorcling to the juristic consemus, wilhout making up for thtpnl).., n slle ha. missed .. }.'ishah (may Allah b4. pleased with her) said:·When lOT mellUrulllM duri"g lilt lifeoJ AI/ahi Messe"K'" (PBUH) ....., uwd 10 be rommo"dtd (b)' Allalt's Mmt"ll"r) 10 mab up fo'lire missed days of/ruling. bUI ......... ere IWl onlerM 10 make- up forthe miS5td pruYfrs."'( Relat ed by AI·BukMrl and Muslim)It i. impermiss ible for. menstruating worn al1 10 make lawJf(circumamhula1ingthe Ka' bah). 10 ~cile Ihe Noble Qur·~n . or 10 ~Iay in a m0"lue, Inaddili.:>n. il is prohibittd for her hu~\>and to have &.exua l inte rco urs.e wil h herunlil her period i. OWl' and she takn a rilual balh. Allah, E.Jalted ~ He, says:-And Ihty"sk YOII "bolll me"",.....';o,,. s..y, '/I;' h",m, sa kup"""')' from ""_ durin: me",'nll.lion. A"d ,/0 "0' "pp","""Ihtnllllllillht)' on pll rt. A "d whe" I/oe)' h" ~ pllrified IlInnsdVQ,Ihln come 10 Iht m/rom ",htu Allllh ha/ ordained/or ~u ...•(Qurln: Al· Baqarah: 222)Th. phras.e ••.. keep "w"y from wi ..... during m f ll$lruntio,,» means not tohave ~e~ua l intercuurse with them within that period. The Prophet (PBUH)also 5."lid:·You '"'' do e!'try/hillg (with )'Oil' ",ivn durl"g mem/rualiOIl)exupl sexual inlerrouru (or 'copula/la,,; 4J ill ,,"olh" ""lion}."( Rdated by the: Group of Compile ... of Htufl/" ncelJl: AI·Bukllirl)It is p"rmissible for the hu5band of a menstruating woman 10 enjoy her bykiSli ng. touching, a" d the like, except ror having s.e~ua l inlercourle with her.


It is impermissible for the husband of a menstruating woman to divorceher before her menstrual ~riod is over. as Allah says:"0 Prophet. when you {MusUm.' divorce women, divorce tlltmat [tht '''''''''MUfflent of] their waiting fUrlod., ,»(Qur'an: At-Ialaq: 1)That is, when Ihey become pure (from menstruation, sexual intercourse,elc.). Also, the Prophd (PBUH) ordered a man who had divorced his wifeJuring her menstrual period to take her back and la divorce her (ifhc insisted)when her period was oveT.Once the menstrual blood SlOpS discharging. a woman becomes pure andher menstrual period is d""med over. She must then take a ritual hath, afterwhich she is allowed to do whatever acts of worship which were prohibited forher during menstruation. After blood slops discharging. a woman does nothave to be concerned about any secretion or yellowish di&


"I: PURIfiCATIONMaghrib alld 'Md' Pra)'t1'S of lire same night. This;s MCllU"", Ihn


In fact, there are three cases of the mustallJaah,1- When a woman used to have a stable, regular menstrual period (i _e.haYing certain duration of menstrual period) before sh e had istiMdah.In ~uch a case, a woman can distinguish bnween both states rdyingon her stable menstrual period, (i.e. the bleeding that contradicts theduration of her menstrual period is regarded as that of istiMdah)_Thus, such a woman can wait until hN usual period ends, then deemany other ble


".: PURIfiCATIONJ·Wft


"Th~n he {Ibn Taymi)'llh) mcntion~d th e remaining three caleS and in hiscondusion he uld:"... The ,"()Sl mlid opinion if ""lbide by ,lot finl (Ih,,") CiUU "I Ihry_ slared in the Summit. " Old la rtjecr tht others." "Obligatory Acts to be Observed by a MU$lahltdahIn CaM: She 1$ Dumed Ritually Pure1) S~ h.s to lau a ritual bat h when ~r ~ l im~ l nI ~ iod for merwroationtnds. u mention«l abol'l:.2) She has 10 wash her vulva upon e,"e ry pt'rforrnance of prnyer, put a pieceof COllon or the lik .. in there 10 pre .... nt bluding. tie it well SO as nol tofall, and prrforrn ablution for nny P"')"ff. About a woman in a slate oriSlihlldDh.the Praphe! (PBUH) said:"She should give up pmyu during her menstrual perif)({, after whichs/'e should take a l1a,i! and then slw «"HI fluform prartr."This hadil" is ulatM by Abii Dlwild, Ibn MJjah and AI·Tirmidhi; Ihelaller mai ntains that it is a iwStlll (good) b.adilh" ". The PnJphel (PBUH) ;a]ro$aid about a muslabddah,"1 advise you to use ' QUem (to stuff thr I'


I: I'UR j ~ lCAT10N'People of religious knowledge among the Companions of the Prophet(PBUH) and their s""mors u"iformly agree that a woman in a stateof postnatal bleeding must give up prayer for forty days unless herbleeding stops before that; in thi' ca,e, s/Ie Ili1s to rake" ritual bathand perform prayer""So. if the bleeding of a woman in a state of post.natal bleeding stops beforethe fortieth day, her period of postn.tal bl~ding end!, and she must have aritual bMh, perform prayer, and practice all acts of worship that have b~nprohibited (or her during her postnatal bleeding period.If a pregnant WOman miscarries and starts discharging, and the stillbornhas reached a distinctiyely recogni1able form, sh e is considered a woman ina ,tate of postnatal bleeding. An embryo takes about eighty-one days to threemonths in order to have a distinctively recognizable shape. [fthe embryo isa me .. lump of flesh or a clinging clot (without a distinctively recognizableform), the woman is not considered in a state of postnatal bleeding, even ifshe uarts discharging; she is not to give up prayer or fasting, and nOne of therulings on postaMtal bleeding is applicable in this ca ...N.B.Tt s~mS suitable to thoroughly complete our discussion at this point bymentioning that some wom ~ n may take SOme kinds of medicine that pn:ventsmenstrual bleeding in order to observe f~sting in the month of Ramall~",or to perform liajj (Pilgrimage), Such medications are permissible if theypre.-ent blood only for a period of time. not forever. If this medicine preventsmenstruation forever, a woman is not permitted to take it without her husband'spermission, since her ability to give birth i! also prevented as a result of takingthis medicine.Thus, wc han bri.tly highlighted the rulings on menstruation, whichn~ds a much longer time to elabm-ate on. If • Muslim is confused or in doubtregarding any of the aforementioned rulings, or any other one>;, helshe mustconsult flUjihs (scholars of Islamic Jurisprudence), and surely they will findwhat eliminates their confu,ion and doubt, Allah wiiling. We invoke Allah togrant us success.


0..". .... 13: Mcm"u,uion.nd !"boo ... ,.! Bk


II:


CHAPTERObligation of the Five PrayersPrayer is the most obligatory of the Five Pillars of i$lam next to the TwoTrslificalions of Faith,' and it wa~ ordained in the best and the most perfectway for an act of worship. Prayer includes many of the aCIS of worship. like theremembrance of Allah, the recitation of the Qur'an, standing humbly hefo,",Almighty Allah, bowing. promation, supplication, and rakbfr'. PrlIyer is alsoth~ head of the physical .cisof worship, of which none of the religions broughtby any of Allah's Ml'Ssengers is void. Prayer, unlike all Olher acts of worship.was enjoined by Allah on His Messenger, Muhammad (PBUH). the Seal ofMessengers, on the Night of AI·Mj'rJj (Munammad"s ASCen$ion) ' , Thi. i. anindication of it!; greatness, a confirmation of its being obligatory, and a signof its high stalus in the Sight of Allah. There are many badiths indicating thevirtues of prayer and showing its being obligatory on all Muslim individuals.The fact that prayer is an obligatory act of worship is primarily known in Islam.So. whoever denies this fact is considered to be an apostate; such a person is tobe asked to ",c.nt, and ifhe does not, he is to be killed as unanimously agreedupon by Muslim !Kllola".


.. 11:PRAYERLinguistically. p rar~ r means im"Oafion; Allah, Exalted],., H". , omrnands!h~ Proph~ to 'pray' for the believers. saying:M, • • And j,,¥okl l ... /I~I,~ blt lsingS} IJpon tlmn .. ,"(Qur'A n: At -Tawbah: 103)Atcording to tbe Shnrl' ah (Islamic Law), pra~r Is defined as a spn:iaJ kindof Jayings and d~ Mglnning with lakblr and ending with ,,,slim', I1 is called'prayd b«au~ il ind udes invocation; du ri ng pra~ r. the worshipper is in aSlatc of invocation through W{l!'lihipping Allah, praising Him, or supplicatingHim for somrthing. This is ",'hy it is called f rayn'o Pra)'l:r was decreed byAllah on the Night of AI-M;'rdj. before Hij mll, as five prayers !O be performede,..,ryday and night at spe.: ifi ed limes by every legally accountable Muslim.Allah . h.lted be He, 5ays:" ... /ndud, pr(l~r h.rs MC" d«ned up"n Iht Hlie""rs" duruof.J>«ifird /imn,." (Qurln: An-N isiI': 103)11105( pray~r timfi u e the times poi rltfil out by Allahs Messenger (PBU H)through hi. words or his


is not obligatory for wonlen in the aforesaid two cases to perform prayer,nor to perform it laler afler purification. On the other hand, whoever isin a stale of unconsciousness, as in sleeping, fainting, and the like, has toperform the prayer(s} hdshe has missed when he/she wakes up. Allah,Exalted be He, says:"0> . And ut~blish prayer for My rt'membranu.»(Qur'an: TaM.: 14)In addition, the Prophet (PBUH) says:"Whoever misses a prayer out of oversleeping or forgetfulneS!; lethim perform il once he remembers it.'"A guardian of a child has 10 command him to perform pra)'er when thechild .. aches the age of seven, though it is slill not obligatory for him. But thepurpose is 10 make Ihe child interested in prayer and used to it. Thus, Ihechildand his guardian will be rewarded when the former performs prayer. for Allah,Exalted k He, says in general:"WhOt'WT COmeJ {(HI Ihe DtJyof Judgment} with tJ guod dud willhtJYe len lim« the lib thereof ['D hiJ cndit[,.,W(Qur'1n:AI · An ' ~m: 160)Moreover, when a woman showed Ihe Prophet (PBUH) a young boy whowas wilh her saying:"Does this one have 10 perform H~jj (Pilgrimage), 0 MeS!;enger ofAllah?" He (PBUH) replied, "l'es, and you will have a reward."'So, a guardian has to teach his child how to pt:rform prayer and how toperform ablution for it. A guardian has also to beat his child if the latter is tenyear. old and neglects prayer, for the Prophel (PBUH) said:"Command your children to perfor", prayer when they become seven)"'a,.. old. tJnd beat the", for (not performing) it (i.e. prayer) whenthey become len years old; and armnge their beds (so Ihlll bo~ andgirls sleep) sep"mlely."'(Related by Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi, Ab" Dawud, and olher compilersof H


"II , I'RAYJ:Rw ••• /"dud ~rlJJ'C' Iuu bun d«rffd "po" tlr" bel;"..., .. Q decru afsfI«ifitd t;",u.~ (Qurl,,: An-Nisi'; 103)The meaning i~ thal prayer has specified timc$ at which it has 10 beperformed. A prayer is Impermissible \0 be deferred except for those whowould like 10 combine il wi th the following prayer, provided IIl.tlhe saidpra~ r can tu: combined wi th another, and thal the case is among those inwhich tombin!ng ~wo p"'~1'$ is ~rmis.sibl e .s W('li u the lK,son Ming oncwho is allowed 10 combine pray"rs in thi~ "';lY. As for deb.yi ng ~rforming• nighl prayer until the morning. I day prayer unlillhe nigh!. or the Flljr(Dawn) Prayer unlil sunrise, it is by nO mnns ~rmissible, whether the""3.011 is a state of major ritual impurity, m inor ritual impurity, or anyth ingelse. Rather, one has 10 perform them at Iheir specified times, ~gardl eS&of one's state.A pel"$Qn might happen to JM, dnained in hospital whrre he i. confinedto a bed that he a nnot luve 10 pray, or cannOt (hange Ihe impu ~ clotheshe wean. or (annOI find puu earth to perform IQ","''''"''' (dry ablution)irutcad of ablution to pay. Some ignor1l.nt porople in tllis (a~ dd,r pr.llyeron the p~teJl"t that they will perform it later when possible. In fact , thiS is'grave mistake and a mnns of missing prayer whose reuon is unawarenesslod lack of juristic consultation. What they have to do is to perform prayerat it , specified times rega rd less of their states.. Their prayer will be sufficient,even if it is pt'rformed without '''y"mmu," or in impulC' dothes; Allah,Exalted JM, He. says:"Sa fN' Allah '" mlltft '"~ 1"''' ,,'" ,,"'e... W(Qu.'1o: At-TagMbun: 16)Ev


Ch.F'tor 1: Obliption of the Fiv< P",ye",There are many o(her legal proofs. Those who abandon prayer are to bep


CHAPTERPrayer Call (Adhiin) andImmediate Prayer Call (Iqamah)The Five Prayers have specified times, befo'" which it is lm~rmissibleto perform them. Many (>"ople (at the time of the Prop het) did nOl know thet'XaCi time of prayer, or were so busy that they did not pay attention to the timeof prayer. Therefore, Allilh decreed the prayer call (adhJn) to notify them ofits due time •. The prayer call waS decreed in the first year after Ihe Prophet'sImmigration 10 Medina. The reaSOn behind its prescription was lhal il WaSdifficult for the Muslim, then to observe the exact times of prayer. Therefore,they conferred and agreed to have a certain sign to gather them for prayer.Afterwards, the wording oflhe prayer call was revealed to' Abdulllh Ibll Zaydin a vision, which waS confirmed by the Divine Revelation;' AlIah,.Eulted beHe, revealed:


11: " RAYER"Oyuu wlrOM .... bdiI:l'M, whm [tMIldh6,,/IIrt>IIM fO~tM prGyt ~"n the day ,,[Ium u' ah [Friday/. Ihm proaM 10 the lVflembrGnu


to pause after pronouncing each sentenc~ of the prayer call, and to face theqibluh while calling, inserting one's index fingers into one's ~ars , In addition,it is d .. irab l ~, whil ~ callin g for pray ~ r, to turn to the right when saying, "Hayy'ala ~ -SaMh·, i,e. "Come 10 prayer," and to the left when saying, "Hayy 'alal­Faillh", i,e. ' Come to suc= ss!" When calling for the Fnjr {Dawn} Prayer, aftersaying "Hayy 'alal-FaMtJ" twice, il is desirable for the prayer calb to callsaying, ilbSaldtu Khaynm minan-Nawm", i.e. ·Prayer is better than sleep,"twice. That was commanded by the Prophet (PBUH),' as dawn is a timewhen people are ofl~n asJ~ep. It is impermissible for the prayer caller to addany words to the original wording of the prayer call before or after calling,as this is considered to be a bid' ah (i.e., a matter innovated in religion).Whatever is pronounced other than the wording of the prayer call approvedof by Allah's M ess ~ nger (PBUH) is regarded as a prohibited and an innovatedact in religion. For example, uttering words of tasbtb..' chanting. invokingAllah. Or conferring Allah's peace and blessings upon the Prophet loudlybefore or after calling for prayer, all are nothing but bid' ahs. These acts areprohibited, and one must express one's disapproval of whoever follows any ofthem (while calling for prayer).It is not right to call for a prayer before ilSdue time, because the prayer callis to notify people of the u aC! time of prayer, but an early prayer call Caus~sconfusion instead. Still, il is permissible to call for the Fajr (Dawn) Prayerearlier than its due time, in order to allow people to get ready for prayer (inthat late hour). But the~ must be another prayer caU at the exact time of theFajrPrayer, so as to acquaint proplewith the due time of prayer and fasting (asfasting starts from the Fajr),When listening to the prayer call, it is an act of Ihe Su~~ah (PropheticTradition) to repeat what the prayer caller is saying while calling. Also, whenthe prayer caller calls saring, "H"yy 'al"~-S."Mh· (Come to prayer) and "Hayy',,/al·Fa/dh" (Come to success), One is to say, "Ld H"wl" w,,/a Quww"/,, iIIdBil/ah: i.e. " Th e~ is neither might nOr power but in Allah." Afterwards, whenthe prayer caller finishe, calling for prayer, one is to say:"0 Allah, Lord of this perfect ,,,11 and of this e5wblislled praye r.grant M"hammnd the place of AI-Wa,lIah' and the most virtuouspluce, and raise him to" prai,eworthy positio~ (ill Paradise) tll(1/you hove promised him (of)."Following the prayer call. it is prohibited for one to leave the mosquewithout having a legal excuse or an intention to return SOOn. In addition. if one


11: PRAYERis sitting whil~ I~ pra~f callfr itnlling for p "'~r, one ~ou ld nol sland, butone ~ould rather be palient until the prayer caller flnilhes calling so as not10 resemble Sa tan (who nees when hearing the p rayer call). Once a Muslimhears the prayer call, he h~ $ to head for the mO.,io N ...... d (500) 11f242j. An ·N.a


CHAPTERPrayer ConditionsThe conditions of prayer are those on which the validity of prayer dependsSO long as One is able to fulfil! them. Prayer has certain wnditions if they, Orany of them, are negl ected. prayer is nullified. Among Ihose conditions arethe following:The first condition: To be performed at it. specified times; Allah,balled be He, says:"IMeM, prayer has been d=ud upon lh£ beli"IIffS


"II,PRAVERSo, p~r is obligatory on a Muslim once its due time begins, for Allah,Exalted be He. says:"EIta/tJ;,h prayer ~I the dedin" at I/,e .un ... ~(Qur'h: AI-1sT,,'; 78)Mon:ovcr, Kho/an urlirormly ag • ...,


Ch.pt« 3, Pny


,., 11, PRAYERdeemed ~~b-,fl (i.e. authentic) by At -Tirmidhf on the authority ofSalamah, which states that the Prophet (?BUH) used to performthe Maghrib (Sonset) Prayer when the sun disappeared from thehorizon' . At-Tirmidhi commented, "Thi. is also the opinion ofmost of tile people o! religious knowledgeo/the Prophets Companionsand their followers."4- The' fsha' (Night) Prayer: The time specified for this praycrbeginswhen the time of the Maghrib Prayer (Le. the time during which it isperformed) ends. Thu~, the time of the 'Ishd' Prat'" begins when thered twilight disappears and continues up to half of the night This tim eis divided hllO two parts; an optional time and an obligatory time. Theoptional time continues until the third of the night, and the obligalorylim~ hegins from the thirJ of the night until the =:ond (1"


"Bul/hue Clime afttr them s .. "esw" (i.e./Dler Ipmerlltions] whonegleckd p'Dyer .md pursued des;res; $I) they lire go'''g to medevU -nup/those who repent ... " (Qur'an: Maryam: 59-60)The phrase "neglected prayer" in the abov~ verse means Ihat those peopleused to negl~t observing prayer at its specified lim...,;. In brief, Allah refersto tho,e who do no! perform prayer at its due times as "h...,dless" peple who"neglect" prayer, and He stat .. that such prople will be severely tortured inthe Hellfire and IhM " •.. they lire go;ns to mu t evil." If one forgets performingone of the five obligatory prayers or misses it out of oversl"",ping, one has 10perform it once olle remembers or gelS up; the Prophet (PIJUH) said:"if ""yone forgets a prayer or misses it because of sleeping,he should perform it when he remembers it; there is .10 otherexpiation for it."Thus, it is obligatory to make up for a missed prayer as soon as possible.One should byno means wait 10 ~r form a missed prayer with the same prayeron the following day, as mistakenly done by some people. Also, one should notpul off performing a missed prayer until such time when its r~g ula r time isoverdue, but one has to perform it immediately instead .The second condition (of prayer): Tocon,eal one's '~wrah" whileperforming prayer, i.e. to s


'"'!l: PRAYERSo, it is indisputable that it is obligatory to con~al one's 'awrah duringprayer, in the presence of p'""ple, or ~ e ll while b


So. you should know, gentle Muslim ..,,,der, that 'awrtlh (private parts) huto N conceal.-d in a way Ih~1 makes such parts unnoticeable; All ah, fualtffibe He. uYS'"0 childun of Adllm, We ha"" bestowed U/XIII you dothing toc"lIu IIl your p';"I'/' "".t •... - (Qur'An: AI·A· rH: 16)Thus, concealing one's' ,: ....,."I! (private paris) with clothing is a necessary,obligatory act.A mans '"",.-.:rh is from his TIlIVellO hi. kr>«S, fOf • AIi lbn AM Plib narratedthl' the Prophd (PBUH) !-aid:"Do nor unveil your thigh. ami do 110/ look alllle Origl! of the livingor the dead:"(Related by Abil D1wild and Ihn M ~jah)In anot~ r h .. dlth, lhe Prophc1 (PB UH) said:'Uw.. r )"lilT thigh for" mon~ thigh i5 a parI ofhis 'Qwruh (priva tepartl '."(Related by Mllik, Ahmad, and At·Tirmidhl who d~med it a hasan(good) hadlrh)..In spit., of all the above. regrenably. wr find that a lot of men nowada)'$when praclicing certain sports expose th .. ir hodi.., and ,over only thdr oexualorga.ns.. which ill an rxpl icit contradiction 10 Ihe afonmtntionM religioustexts.. Such mm ha"" 10 bewarr of that, and 10 abide by I h~ teachings of Iheirrdigion, refraining from whate\'ffcontradict.s !hml.1\5 for a woman. all her body is considered' awrah. as the Prophet(PBUH) . aid:"A wamml is (regarded as) 'awrall (i.e, she /ras 10 be concealed jusllike' awralr).""Thil /liIdllh is d~med VJtJltJ (aurthentic) by AI_ TIrmidhl. Also. il is narratMOtllhe authorityof Umm Salamah that she asknI the Prophet (PBUH) saying:"Can 0 woman perform pmytr while M'euring a di, (0 long uppergannenl) and Q vdl bul nOI >Wllringa 10incJollr~ He (PBUH) rtplied."(Yrs,) only ifth~ dir ' is I"ng enough to wwr Irer instep ....(Related by AbO m wOd),.,


11: PRAYERMo~r, AbiJ Dlwild, At -Tirmidh1, and Ibn M~jah narrated on tM authorityof' A'ishah (may AUah be ple""-"


Oupta 3, Pro)"" Condition.."It is re.ily shameful. upsd ting and disappointing th.t many ofth. Muslimfemal~s of this modern age have reached a dangerous ext~nt of dissolutenessand debauchery; they compete in expo,ing th eir bodies and wear see·thmughclothing and th~ like, imitating the unbelieving and apostate females. There isneither might nor power except in Allah, the Mo.t High, and the Most Gr~at!Allah, Exalted be He, does not only command concealing '


11: I'IV.YERTf one notkes .


On the other hand. pl1l~ r i5 invalid if performed at a mosque ".. hoseqibl~h " faces a grave, for the Prophet (PBUH) !-aid:"Do rmt/ace gmvts in prayer:It is alS


W" 11; PRAYERThe fourth condition (of prayer): Facing the qibwh (di"",tion ofprayer). Among the conditio ns of the validity of prayer is facing the W'r you /belu""nj """ him your/tJu, {i.• . yoursel_} toward it (in prayer) ••. ~(Qur'an: AI-Baqarah: 144)So. wh""ver is so near to th e Ka' bah that he can S~ it, it is obligatory forhim to turn his whole body toward it during prayer, as such a prrson can faceit well, as he sees it with his eyes. Thus. it is im~rmis.sib l . for .


Chapter 3: Prayer Condiriomso ill that one is unable to face the qiblal,. on. in such case, can perform prayerin th e same state one is in, even if one is not f~cing the qiblah. and onc's prayerwill be deemed valid as well. This is b""ause the condition is nullified in ca."of inability; Allah. Exalted be He. says:"So fear AI/ilk ilS much as you are able ..• ~The Proph~ (PBUH) said,(Qur'an: At -Taghabun: 16)'Ifl command you 10 do something, tl,c" do (of) it Q$ much as you can."Also, it is stated in a lIadilh related by AI -Bukhid and Muslim that theMuslims in case of u treme fear used to perform prayer with and withoutfacing the '1ib/ah".How to Identify the Qib/ahThere He many ways through which onc can know the qib/ak. amongwhich are:Informing: Onc can be informed by a legally r e~ponsible, trustworthyperson of the direction of qib/ah, provided that the informer is cenainabo ut it.Following the qibJal1 observed by mosques and mil1rabs: One Canidentify the qib/ak by following the qiblah observed by a mosque or amilirab (prayer nichel, which would show one the right direction ofthe qiblah.Astronomy: The qil>lah can also be identified by means of stars; Allah.Exalted be He, says:" •. ,And I>y the stars /lley li re {lIba J gJJided.»(Qur'1n: An-Nahl: 16)The fifth oondition (of pray ... ); Intention; to intend perfrmingan act of worship to draw near to Allah. Exalted be He. The heart is the realplace of inte ntion, so one does not have to d""lare it overtl)" for this is regardedas an act of innovation in religion that had """er been observed either by theProphet (PBUH) or by his Companions. So, one is to intend performing acertain prayer only with one's heart. not tongue, in accordance with the iJpdilhthat states:'""


'""D«ds {i.t. tMir alrm:l'nm (IIID m


hat lmdm Ash·5hdfi 'f meant that it was obligatory to pronounceones imfntion overtly upon eacl, pmyer. However, all the fol/owe rs ofImdm Ash-Shaft'; deemed this a misimerpmatim., pain/ingo,,! thatlmdm Ash-Shaft· j only m ea nt the overr pronullciation of tilt openingr"kbi, of pmyer. no/ the intention. ,: "In addition to tb~ fact that expressing intention oveTlly is bid'ah (a matterinnovated in religion), it could also lead to hypocrisy; one's intention has tohe expressed secretly in one's hea rt as a sign of sincerity and devotion to Allahwhile ~rform ing ads of worship.To sum up, a Muslim has to abide by the limits sd by the SJ1I!ri'ah (IslamicLaw), to adhere to the acts of the Sunnal, (Prophet ic Tradition), and to avoidwhatsoever kinds of innovation (in religion) regardless of its a dh~r e nts . Allah,Exalted he He, says:"S


'"11: PRAYER12 Ah~ (l'l'rnl) [515[. Abol DlwOd (4017) 14I19?I. AI·T1rmidhl (2799) 1511101. IbnMljlh (192 ) 1214411[, I« .100 AI·llukhlrl (11500) r 115001.II AI>il Dl wUd ()totO) 111)27jlnd IM M.ljtb (10460) 1212001.14 Ahmod (H~2) [1f)42] I nd At · TI rmidhl (2801) [511 Ill: 5twV


CHAPTEREtiquette of Heading for MosqueGarnlion andrudinas. so that a Muslim can eng.age in such a gIoriOU$ act of worship in tht~Slale.Therefore. if One heads f(lr the mosque to jooin one's fellow Musli ms ina congregational pny"r. one should wal k calmly, peacefu ll y. and tranquilly,withOut ha.t". One should bC' in a slat" of solemnity and calmness, avertingone's vision (from looking at what Allah prohibits). lowcring one's voice andtrying as much as possible nOllO look aro und,It is staid in IhcTwo s..b,las that the Prophet jPBUH) said:"/fthe iq4m4h is du/aml- (in "no/her nllrmlion. 'Wilt" you h~" rl/re ;qdmalr .. .')'- proc«d 10 ~rform thr pmya with (almn~ (Jndsoiem'lily and do no/ make haste. And pra, whnrewr rak'w(IJnils of pra~r) )'Ou gel (wUh the proplt) alld complttt tht restwhich)'Ou have miUtd.')'


".11: PR.\VERMorrover, ImJm Muslim main! thal th~ Prophet (PBUH) said:." . When "tit of yeu is pfl'fJIlringJor pmyer, II ~ is in fact engagedin prayer.·'When ~ MU$lim heads for the mosque to pe rform prayu, he should not~ late, so "" nol to miss tile op


"'\!h"" an,..."" of J'fJu is in ,ht mosque. ht mould no/ inurlnct (hi.jingtrJ), for in/eriad"8 (jingcr$) ;S fro'" Salan,"As for those in the mosque ror reaSO ns other than waiting for the ;q~mah .they are allowed to int e rl ~ce their lingers., as it is stmed that the Proph ~(PBUH) once in terlaced h is fingers afler concluding pr~y e r with lasl1m "While waiting for pr.l~r in the mosque, or>e should not enter into talksunrdated to religion. because it isstatw in a hadil" that doing$(! rail; up ",wudsin 1~ urne W1IY as fire ealS up wood',ln anOlher bad"h, lhe Prophd stated thatwMn anyone enters a mosque. he is considered to hi: in prayer u long as M iswaiting for the prayer, and the angds keep on a.ldng for Allah's forgi""ness forhim', Therefore. a Muslim should not miss such great rewards by being engagedin frivolous play or idle talks.When th~ ;'1llmah is d O! dar~d, on~ $hcmld stand up wh~n th~ pray~r (.lIn$;I)'! "q


'"11, PRAYERThe im~m and the ones lrd behind him ought to be cautious to straightenrows, for the Prophet said:«Straighten your rows, for thl! ,traightOling of a row is part of theperfecrion of prayer: "(Rd ated by Aj·Bukhari and Muslim)In another h~dilh , the ?raphe! (PBUH) said:'Slra;ghren your mwS or c/je Allah will alter your face5.~"Thus, when standing for congregational prayer, Mmlims should straightentheir rows so thaltheir shoulders and ankles become aligned, leaving no spacebetween one another, for the Prophet (PBUH) said in this regard:"Straighten your row, and sta nd close 10 one another.""This hadith means that the ooes led in prayer ought to stand dose to oneanother, leaving no gap' betw~n them for Satan.The Prophet (PBUIi) has always been g~atly concernro with st Taig h t~n i ngrows and making the on ~ s l ~d in pra~r stand dose to one another, whichindicates how important and usefllJ it is, This does not meM that people shouldwiden between their feet in a way that disturbs thos~ standing ~sid ~ them,as mistakenly done by some ignorant people, Such people thus leave gaps inrows, causing harm and annoyance to Iho.se Slanding next to them withouthaving any l"Sal proof supporting . uch an act Therefore. MIIslims should paymOre attenlion 10 such issues and ca ... for straightening their row. in pra~""following th e example of the Prophet (PBUH) and ensuring the perfection oftheir prayer; may Allah guide u, all to whatever He liko. and pleases,Endnotest Al-Bukhltl (636) 111531 _2 AI·Bukh1r1 (908) [21l05].nd Mu.lim ( 1358 ) 13/1001 ,3 Mm.!im (1359) 131 toll,4 Al-Bukh1r1 (471) [ 1/73] and Muslim (1504) III t68].S Al- Bukh1r1 (I 163) [31631 .nd Mu.lim (1652) 13/2321,6 Ab,m.d (I 1324) 131431 and loo A\>il Shaybah (4824) [1 14201, AI.Haythoml in hi, book'Majm'" At -Ztlwd'jJ (Ih. CoJlccrion of Additional iiadlth.) (2/25)_7,0.1- Bukh;\r1 (482) {tm tJ and Mu,l im (1288) [)/69 ]8 Thi. I ... d ili"" w.' ndith .. said byAI-'Iraqi in hi. book li1khrij.J 'lhJll' (11136), Ibn A.·Subkl in hi, book Ta!>a.jdt Ash­Shift' iyyah' (41145) and Al-Albdnl in hi. book lI,-SjJsil~h ~4 - !lil 'lfah ' (4) 11I18J


9 Al· Buk~r1 (4n) (InJOj and Mu.lim (1S04) (31 168110 Ai ·Bll khJfI (61,) [V1261 .nd Muolim (9lIO) I !Il78111 M.ulim (984) 12IJ8j12 Mu.llm (97)) IW76]lJ AI·Bukhir1 (72]) 1212711 ."d Mu.llm 1 97 ~ ) IlI376j14 AI-BuWrl P(7) 12120Jl1.,,J Muslim (977) 1113n!IS AI. BllkIWl(719) 1212(9)'"


"" .. """"" .. """""M,·,,, "i .. ,"~""/,,,;, ., "d',' ,;mw",-, _""ki",""" _, ,~"" _i, '-"_" __ ",","':1",0\", .. ,-'",- ,h?,~_-' L-""i - -,,.,j:'d"':.'. ",', 'hi0)_?!>;.? "',{nVi


CHAPTERPrayer: Integral Parts, ObligatoryPractices and Acts of the SunnahPrayer i~ a great 'CI of wor~hil' which includes decreed stateme,,!.and postures forming the perfe~1 form of ilS performance, Scholars der; neprayer as special s!aterne,,!s and postu"", starting with w kblr and endingwith ,aslim.These statements and postures of prayer arc divided into three seclions,namely the integral parIS, the obligatory practices. and the acts of the Suml"h.The integral parts of prayer an: th(>,le the negligence of any of which,intentionally or inallenlively, invalidates pr~yer or invalidates the rak' an (unitof prayer) in which il is ""glecled; being replaced by the next one, as we willpoint out laler. As for the obligatory practices of prayer, if any of themis intentionally neglected, prayer is im.,.lidaled, but if inattentively, it is notinvalidated, and performing the Prmtration of Forgetfulness will b


""11: PRAYERthe negligence of any of them neit her affects th. validity of prayer nor makes itincomplete. Still, we have to bear in mind that whenever the Prophet (PBUH)performed prayer, he observed ils integral parts, obligatory practices, and actso(th. SUMnah, and we have to follow his example. for he (PRUH) said:·Perform prayer in the way you S~e me performing prayer.~tA-The Integral Parts of PrayerTher are fourteen:The first is 10 stand while performing an obligatory prayer, Allah. Exaltedbe He, says:", •. And stand be/ort AI/ah, dev"utly obedi.nl."(Qur'an: AI·Baqamh: 238)Moreover, in the marfu' (traceable) !J.adith narrated nn Ihe authorityof" Imran, the Pmphet (PBUH) said:"Perform prayer wl,ile standing; if you wn""" perform it while silling;if you cannol, Ihell perfor", il while lying on your side:'Th. above-me nl ioned verse a nd b.od i Ih prow I hat standing is ob I i ga torywhi le performing onc of the obligatory prayers SO long as onc is ableto. Yet. if onc is unable to pray while slanding due to an illness. oneis allowed then 10 pray w',He silling or lying un on., side. The samegoes for one in a state of extreme fear, one who is naked (finding noclothing to conceal one's 'awrah ), One whose recovery requires sillingor lying on one's side rather than st~nding , or one who is unable tosland ~(ause the roof Oflhe place where one prays is not high enoughprovided one is unable to go out (to pray in the mosque). likewise, incase the regular imdrn of a mosque leads the people in prayer whilesilting, due to a legal excuse, the people led in prayer ~hind himshould also perform it whi le silling. following their regular im~ rn. Thisis IJ


U'P' or 'Oe s"nI",h 121The second integral part of prayer i! the opening fa kbir (in the beginningpf prayer); the Prophet (PBUH) :;aid:", .. Then faa the qibl~h (directiDn of pr~yer (ow


122 11: PRAYERProper bowing during prayer is done by bending one', body forwardso that oni. hands can reach onr', knees in normal cases (i.e. whenone's hands are neither longer nor shorter than normal). Otherwise,one tries to bend one's body in a degree similar to that of normal casesas much as possible. It i, also sufficient for one praying while sittingto bend on. ·s face instead, so that it is aligned with one's knees.The fifth attd the sixth integral parts of prayer are rising followingbowing, and standing upright, as the Prophet (PBUH) u,;"d to do sowhile performing prayer; he (PBUH) said,'Perform pmyer in the wny you ,ee me performing prayer."The seventh integral parI of prayer is prostrating, i.e. making one'sforehead touch the ground, a, well as the other organs of prostration,namely the nose, the hands, the knees and th e bottom of the toes.Prostration is to be done twice in each mk . oh; it is a Divine command,as All ah, Exalted be He, says, " •.• And prostrote .•. ~ (Qur'ln: AI-Hajj:]i) It is also a Prophetic command according to many aadiths." for he(PBUH) said, as mentioned above:'Perform prayer in rile way you sec me performing prayer.""The orgam of pro,tration a,.., seven as previously mentioned (thefo,..,head and rhe noS


prayer serenely, humbly and submissively, moving as less as possible.The Qurln and SUMMah state that the prayer of one who does not~ rform it in a state oftranquility and devotion is deemed incomplete,and it is obligatory for one to re-perform it in this case.T h e tenth and the eleventh integral parts of prayer are the FinalTashahhud" and the posture of siUing for it. It is authenticatedthat the Prophet (PBUH) used to recite Tashahhud during prayuand neVer abandoned it," so we must follow in his footsteps, as he(PBUH) said:"Perform proyer in tile way you see me performing pmyer:Ibn Mas'ud (may Allah be pleased with hirn) .,aid, ·Befor~ Ta.sllllhhudwas decreed, we used to redte instead .. : "; the phrase "wa.s decreed"here: implies that it is obligatory to recite Tashahh"d in prayer.The twelfth integral part of prayer is invoking Allah to confer Hisblessings upon Muhammad, by saying:"0 Allah! Confer Your blessings upon Muhammad .. :Whatever is recited more than this is an act of the SUMnah, not anobligatory act.The thirteenth integral part of prayer c, observing succession wh enperforming the above-mentioned integral parts of prayer, as theProphet (PBUH) used to ""rform thern succ;c,ssively, and he (PBUH)commanded Musl ims to follow h is example while performing prayer,saying, as mentioned above:·Perform prayer in the way you see m, performing pmyer."In addition, when the Prophet (PBUH) taught the one, who ""rformedprayer improperly, the right way of ~rforrning prayer, he pointed outthe aforesaid acts successively, one after another ".The fourteenth integral part of prayer is concluding prayer with taslim,for the Prophet (PBtJH) said:• ... And its conclusion is tas/im:"$0. after taslim, what has been unlawful 10 be done during prayer (suchas eating, drinking, talking, etc.) becomes lawful once again, as laslimis decreed as a sign of the end oflhe prayer.


".110 fRAVER~ntk ..,,,de., you should be a .... a.., rhal a Muslim should ~r ~«Iany of the aforesaid inll'S",1 part. of p"'ye •. As for the opening rakb •• , if il i.!not pmnounced, th en pr~yer is nO! ~un, and one 1111.15 wi ll nOI beconside..,din a state of prayer. Regarding the other integ,al parts of puyer, inte nt ionalnegligenc. of any of them cau"", prayer to be inva lid. How~r. if il I.inattenli"dy negl«IW, such as bowing or prostrating. and one ..,'nembersl!utl Wore starting anOlbe. rok "oh, " ". then performs whatever one hasinanemivd y miSKd. Dut. if One .... mrmbn. after the following mIr. '"h has ~nstarted, the previous ",k '"k (0"" of wh


4- Saying, "Subl!{ma Rabbiya/- 'A;lm" (i.e. "Glory be to my iA>rd,the Most G",al") only once while bowing; it is an act of th e Sum,oh(Prophetic Tradition) to say it three times at least. or ten time. at most,for the sake of perfe


'"1- Verbal Acts of the SrmnahThen: are many verbal "'h of the Sutlnah to be ~rvtd during p ... ~r,among which are the opening invocation of prayer, seeking refuge wit h Allah(mm Satan, saying Balmalall," la'mln," and reciting some of the Q ... r'~nfollowing reci ting AI-Fdtihah (the Opening Chap/ttr of rile Quran) in the Ftljr(Dawn) Pra~r. thellO ,"1I 'ak (Friday) Prayer, tile 'Id (Feu!) Pn)TI, the Edipst"Pnyer. and in the fint two ",t'"lIs of the MQghrjb (Sunset) Prayt"r, the IsM'(Night) P~r, tht Zuhr (Noon) P",)",r,and t~ ·.I!.'r( .... flernoon) P.-yer.Among tM vtrbal Imofthc Sunnah of pnyt"r is uying. foUowing tllb.mfd:"(Our wm, 10 YOII be (all) prai.e) with ",him art fill~d the hfflVCIJand Ihe t arth, und what is between them. IInd whlluWI. You willaft~ r ward:It is only an act of the SunMh to say, · Subh4na RablliY


In addition 10 the ahove, there are many verhal and physical acts of theS~""ah concerning prayer point ~d out in details in jurj,jk hooh_ At anyrate, it is not obligatory to observe these acts of the Sunnah during prayer;whoever ohserves them or any of them will be rewarded, and th e...., [,s no sinon those who do not ob,erve them, just like the ruling on all other acts nflheSlInnah . We do not find any logical justification fo r the 'Irictness and narrowmindednes.sobse~dby SOme youth nowadays when applying the acts ohheSunnah during prayer, which may lead them 10 perform it in a very strangemanner. For instance, some of them may bow their heads while standing asif they were in a state of bowing. They may also put their hands on the upperpart of the chest. under the neck. instead of putting them on the chest Or underthe navel as stated in the Sunnah. In addition. some or the m are SO strkt inkeeping th~msdves sc reened while praying (so that nO one can pass in frontof them) that they do not perform the supererogato ry prayer in the samerow (where they have offered a congrega tional prayer); they rather performit elsewhere in the mosque provided it is a screened place. Some of thosestrict youth also stretc h Iheir heads forwards and their legs backwards duringprostration that they look as if they were lying On th e ground rather thanprostrating. Furthtrmore. some of them, while being in a standing position,keep their feet wide apa rt in a way Ihal disturbs those beside them, These are.in fact, strange practices that may lead to slrictness and excessiveness. whichare detestable in religion.May Allah guide Ihem and us 10 Ihe straight palh, and make us workaccordingly.EndnotesmJ Al- !lukh~rl (6008) 1101538]_2 Al· Bukhiri (1 I 17) 1217,S!, Ab" D~wM (952) [1141)9) . od AI -Tirmidhl (372 ) 1212081,3 AI-BukhAri (805) [21375J and M,,-,I im (920) [21351 1_4 MuooI< of :4.1·Mu 'i-lmul Mu/an,as' (214 IS).11 Aj· Bukhiri (6008).12 Mu


""tle PRAYER13 Mu.lim (498)14 (The Fiml) Tmhall""d: Recit ing. "(A 11) m"'p/im,,,, •• pr"),,,, "nd good d,ing' at< du, toAI/,m; i'hipJ but Allah, Alon •. wifh no por)n"" ami I 'tttify rh,,/ M"ilamm"d isHisservam "n,/ /I., Mt"'nS'., 0 ""Ia~.' CDnfrr You, b/min8' "PO" Mub.ammad a"d th'family of Mub.ammaa a, rou (QnferrtJ Iou, ble. #ngs "pon lordhlm (Abmlra",) and thefamily of I.rdlllm. I'''ily. You art 1'",;"",o,)lIy and Honombl • . And l>ku Mubnm"'"'!amlth. family of Mu/!ammad as You blmd Ibrtlhim and lht family of i/mlhim. Ve'-;Iy.Y"" "re Prai" worlhy ,,",I Ho"o,ablt,·15 Thi, may bt condud.cl frum . 101 of un/11th. ,uch .. that one ... t'IN by Mu,lim(1 110) [21438].16 An· N ... ; (1276) [2124il. AI· Rukhjri (6.1"8) [lltIS7] . nd Mu,lim (895 ) [2/3371 _17 AI·Rukhlr! (757) [21.\06 ] and Musl in\ (883) [21329]18 MLlllim (1110) [2/43RI_19 r"'ml ': Saying "Sami '"IMhu limo" namillah' L. _ 'Allah list.n, to (he AA. who proi ...Him; wh.n ,(.nding fllowing b-owing in prayer,20 r,,/Jmjd (in 1""),. ,): Saying as • reply (0 IMmi, • R"M-ln,j."",loko/./!am,r i.. , ' Our Loo!.(0 y"" bc(AIl) pr.ilt."21 AI· Bukhl.rl (689) 11122SI.nd Mu.Hm (nO) [21351 ].11&",nolalc Saying •• 8i'mjll~hir- Robmll"i, - ,",/Jim ' i,o. "In th. N'm< of Allah . (he En( irelyMtr.:iful, tht 8pu ially Mtr1iful;23 Ta'mi,,: Sa)"ing. "dmin" 1.. _"Amen" aft. , the ",citation of AI-Ftltib.ah in p"yer_


CHAPTERManner of PrayerWe have deal! with the integral parts, the obligatory acts. and the verbaland the physical acts of the SU'lMah of prayer. Therefore, we would like now topoint out the way prayer is performed, as stalet! to have been observed by theProphet (PBUH), so as to follow the Prophet's example in thi' regard and inaccordance with the hadUh in which he (PBUH) said:'Perform pmyer il1l"e way YOlj see me performing prayer.~Here is the Prophetic way of performing pra-yer:• Whenever the Prophet (PBUHjstood ro, prayer. h. (a""cl the qiblah,' raisedhis hands making the palms face the 'lib/oh. saying. "Allahu·Akbar,· i.e."Allah i.o; the G"".test:• H. (PJ!UHj then holds his left hand with his right one, puuing i1 on his chest.• Then, he (PBUH) says the opening invocation; he (PBVH) did notobserve a certain opening invocations regularly> so it is permissible tosay any of the o!",n ing invocation reported to have been said by theProphet (PBUH). Among the~ invocations is:


""It PRAYER"Glory be tv You, OAI/oli, and 10 You be all praise, and Blessed is YourNQme, and Exalted is Your Majesty. and there is no deity (worthy ajworship) bllt You·The Prophet (PBUH) then says:"1 seek refuge with Allah from Salan, the expelled (from Ihe men:yof Allah).In the Nmne of AI/ah, Ihe entirely Merciful, Ihe Especially Merciful"• Then, he (PBUH) r~ites AI-Ftltillah (the OpeningChapler of the Qur


(i. ~ . "Glory ~ to my Lord. th e Most High"); he (PBUH) used 10 makehis prostration neither long nOr short.• Following the first prostration, he (PBUH) raises his head saying lakN ••pladng his left fOOl on its side and sining on it, keeping the right footas it was since prostration (i. •. ,",sting on the bottom of its toes whilethe hed is up). He (PBUH) alStify that there is 110 deity (worthy of worship) but Alloh, A/one,with nO partner. and 1 testify that Mub.ammad is His servant and HisMesstngt r."• He (PBUH) used to make this sittingas short as possible.• After this. he stands upright saying takbir. performing both the thirdand the fourth ,ok 'ahs just like the first two, but making them shorter;he (PBUH) also recites A!·Fdtill"h in both the third and the fourthrok ·ahs.'"


'"11, PRAYER• He (PBUH) sits for the Final Ta$hahhud, placing his left foot on its sideand sitting on it, heping the right foot as it ",as since prmlration (i.e.,reSling on the bollom of its toe.' while the lIed is up), or puning his leftcalf under his right one, keeping his right fOOl vertica!, and sitting Onthe ground (or the place of prayer) instead.• The n, he (PBUH) r~ite, the FinaI1~shahhud, which is the same as Ihefirst with the following addition:• ... 0 Allah! Confer Your bie>sinss upon Mu!.Jmnmad and the family ofMuilamm,


~ The,." has certainly luenfor you in the MesJenger of Allah anexallenl pal/ern for anyone ... h".,e hope i, ill AllalJ alld Ihe Imlday and { ... ho! relllellllurs AllalJ of Un."(Qur'an: AI -Ahtiib: 21)May Allah grant us a ll suc c ~ss and a ccept. llce of our good deeds.EndnotesI lhe qiblah: n. dir«tion of praY'r. namtly low,nI, Ih. K. -b.h.2 Ta,m": Soying · Sam,'oIJahu limon b.amidah" i.e. 'Atlah I;'ten, to the on< who p,..; ....Hin,; whe" 'tanding following !>Owing in praY'f.



CHAPTERPrayer: Detestable Acts11 is de-testable to turn around wilh one', race and chest, for the Prophet(PBUH) said ahout turning around in prayer, as rdated by AI-BukMr1:"It iJ wilat Salan steals from the prayer of aMY one oj you:"The"" ."" exceptional case,1 such as turning around in case of rea r or fora valid excuse. However, if one turns around with all one's body, or turns hisback to the Ka 'hah in cases other than fear, nne'~ prayer will be invalid, foroneIhus turns and does not face the qiblah during prayer without a legal excuse.This shows that it is permissible to turn around in prayer only in the case offear, for it is one of the things that fighting ncussita! ... So, in cases other thanfear, it is ptrmissible tn turO with one', face and chest only when """" • .a.'y_ Yc\,it is detestable to turn around unneccssarily during pra)'er, and if one turnsaround with one's whole body, one's prayer becomes invalid.It is also detestable to look toward the sky during prayer, as the Prophet(PBUH) disallowed this saying:"Whar is wrong witll those people who look taward the sky duringprayer?"


'"iJ: PRAYERThe J>rop/lrt (PBUH) criliciRd such an act 50 biuerly that he rontinunl. saying:"TIlty should SlOp (looking toward/he sky durillg prayer) Or t~their ~ighl would ~ ,aken away."'(Rebled by Al·Bukhirl)As we have previously ~ntioned, one should look only at th e psition ofprostrating du rin g prayer. One should ncvcr let one's sight wander everywhereduring prayer. looking at the walls, "n8r.1ved poUerns. writings, and the like, asthis dislram one during prayer.I1 i$ dCkSlable 10 do~ om's eyts during prayer unnecessarily. as this is alewi~h practice. Yet. it is not detestable 10 dose OI>CS Cf"" whe" r>eea-sary, suchas closing them 10 avoid looking al what may distract onc during prayer. likedecorations, Ofnammls.elc. This is thoe opinion [bnul ·~yyim (may Allah h~mercy on him) nK'nlions in this ....gard'.11 is de1estable 10 lean on OneS fore~rms when sining duringpra~~r, as th ..Prophet (PIIUH) said:· WIr(~,...1I rais( yo"r Mad afttr pro$lration, do not ~1I"t a5 a doe$lJl/als. •T hislJmlith is rel"t~d by Ibn M~jah.' and there arc other baditlr. s tr~s.s il1gthe sgme p


Interlacing one's fingers and cracking one's knuckles are alsn detestablein prayer.It is also detestable for nn ~ to p ~ rform prayer while Ihere is SOme distractingthing in front of One (such as drawings on the prayer mat) as this negativelyaff~ cts the ~rfeclion of one's prayer.It is deleSlable 10 perform prayer in a place where there arc paintings Ordrawings, as this in a way resemhles idol airy, be they hung on walls or nOl,according to the valid view in th is regard.It is delestable to pt'rform prayer whi le ~ing disturbed by something suchas on. , n."d to anS\'o'er Ihe call of nature (10 urinate, excrete or break wind) orbeing disturbed by extreme hot Or cold weather,orntrem. hunger or thirst, assuch issues hinder one from performing prayer tranquilly and submissively.It is alw detestable 10 perform prayer in the presence of delicious food onedesires, as the Prophet (PBUH) said in the nadirh related by Musl im:"No p rayer ShOl jld be performed when the/GOd is pr~senr, or whenone is prompted by the call of n~tu~e'"The Muslim should avoid such d.testablt issues to obserw the obli gationsdecreed by Allah, Exalted be He, devoutl)" and to stand ~fore Allah in prayerattentivd y, tranquilly, and humbly.Tt is d


11: PRAYERAccordingly, Muslims a", r~quir~d to ~rform pray ~r attentively, submissively,and devoutly, observing what is decr~ed to be do ne therein, andrefraining from whatever acts or words that may affect its validity_ By doingso, their pray~r will be ~rform~d propn ly, both in form and essence. It willb~ a valid and sufficient prayer.May Allah gu ide uS all to goodness and felicity in both this world and theHereafter.Endnotes1 AI·Bukhlri (329t) 1614


CHAPTERPrayer: Desirable andPermissible Acts11 is an .CI of the Su""lIh for the one ~rforming pn~r 10 let 00 Onc passin fronl ofhim, for the p,.oph~1 (PBUH) said in a bad/lh ~lalw by Muslim:·Whtn /lnJ'Ont of you puforms prayer. IK should mM Itt /11110"" prwill from o[him; if he (lh" J>l'5.H'r) rifu'e< fa go. he (Ih, pm~r' should!urn him away JQr(i/Jly for Ihe~ i. a devil with hi'" (lilt passe.)."'However. if the~ is a concrete object in fmnt ofthe one performing prayer.such as a wall Or the like, it is permissible to lel others pay Nhind that barrier.Similarly. il is permissible for the onc performing prayer 10 lel others p .... infront of him if Ihe place is not wide enough and they haw no other way 10pass from: in this ca.." the onc ]K"rforming prayer should m>lturn thcm awayiflh~ WliInt 10 pass in front ofhim. [n addition, if onc is performing pra~rin the Pll'cinCl of MC«l, onc ,W,(lUld not turn away Ihose ~"ing in front ofone, as il was re!aled by Ihoe Fi\'eCompi1cnofHadilh Ihallhe Prophd (PBUH)uSfd 10 poerform pra},


"0 11: PRAYER1I i~an act of the Sunnail for the ,,,,,1,,, (i.e., leader in pray .. ) or the onepraying alone to perform prn)'er placing a concrete object in front "fhim as abarrier so as to let nO one pass in front ofhirn. This is illustrated in the lJ.adithrdated by Abii DAwild and lbn M.jah on the authority of Abu Sa'1d, in ..... hichthe Prophet (PBUH) sa)",'When any onc of you performs prayer, he should Irave (or place) aconcrete object i/r/ront a/him and keep dou to it."'M for the one.l led in prayn, th~y are scrrened by their im~m, 00 they donot have to plac. any concrete object in front of them if their imtl", does. It isworth mentioning that it is not obligatory for one to place a concrete object asa s,,,,,en wh ile performing prayer, for rb" . AbM. reported:'n,e Prophet (PBUH) per/omm! prayer in an open sp~ce withQ~rplacing a c,maete object infr,mt of him as a screen."'(Related by Irnlim Ahmad and Abol Dlwi1d)The concrde object put in from ofone during prayer should be S


'"11 is pcnnissibl~ for t h ~olltenga~ in p"'~ . lodraw anOlhersattenlion \0IoOmelhing u~nl, such as answrring someone knocking allhe door, drawingthe im


,., II, PRAYERYd, a Musl im sho uld not krrp doing $0 (i.e. r«iling (main vvws of theQur'tn during pn~r), but il is ~nni.ssib l e to do it from t i~ to time.Du ring pn~ r. it is ~rm i S5i bl ~ for ol\e to ~k ~ fu~ wilh Allah from theF I ~ when reciting Of listening to a ve~ In which I h~ tormcnt of the Fi.., ismentioned, and \0 ask Allah for rmn:y whm reciting Or listm ing to a versein which Allah's mercy ;s memioned. UkewiK. it is pe rmissible for Ihe oneperforming prayer to ask Allah to confer His blessing.< upon Ihe Prophet(PIIUH) when recitin g or listening \u a verse in which th e Prophet (PBUH) ismentioned, as this is what th e Prophet (PBUH ) enjoined (us) to do whennTrhe is mentioned.Gentle ..,auer, these an in brief the dninble and the perm issible aclS 10~ oN


CHAPTERProstration of ForgetfulnessM~n is subject to forgetfulness and inattention, and Satan is eager to distracta Muslim from his prayer through whispering distr.ct;ve thoughts 10turn him away. This may cause one's pmyer to he incomplete or over-perforrn.-d,out of inattention and distraction. Therefore. Allah has ordainedMuslims to prostrate at the end of prayer in Case of inattention in order toplease Allah, the Most Gracious, 10 defeat Satan, and to make up for whateverdecrease or addition made inattentively in one's prayer. Such a prostration iscalled, by scholars, "Prostration of Forgetfulness." It is worth mentioning thatthe Prophet (PBUH) once forgol while p.:rforming prayer; this is one of thesigns of Allah. favo. upon the Muslim nation to guide them to the perfectionof their rdigion through following the example of the Prophet (PBUH), andto follow in his footsteps when they inattentively err during prayer.It is authentically narrated that the Prophet (PBUH) sometimes forgotwhile performing prayer. To illustrate. he (PBUH) once ended a four·rak·ahprayer with laslim after performing only two mk ·ahs (instead offour) and thenoffered tht prostration of forgetfulness in COtn)J(nSJiion '. It is also narrated


... If,PRAYERtJut he (PBUH) (>nCl cnded ~ {oo ~-rnk '"k P"'fCT with t


Ch.p«r 9: P=tr>tion of Forgctfulne»If an ;mam (on~ who I~ads a congregational prayer) inanentively addssuch acts to a congr ~ gational pra~r, m~n ~rforming prayer behind him mustdraw his attention by saying ~SubtJd" ' Alldh" (Glory be to Allah), but wom~ncan only clap Ih~ir hands. Th~n, it is obligatory for the imJm to respond tothem unless he is sure he is right; this is th~ l~ga l way to be followed. Also, the~ople led in prayer must draw the attention of the imam in the same way ifheinanentively omits any oft he acts of prayer,As for a verbal addition in prayer, if a Muslim abstntmindedly recitessomething inopportundy during pray~r, such as recitillg some verses of theQur'an while bowing or prostrating, or re


'"11. PRAYERupright and started recitation, it is prohibited for One Ihen hi sit \0 p


Ch..p,er 9: t'rom.,ion of Forg«fuln =when doubt is related to addition, nol om;ssion, such doubt is to be disregarded,as the original rulins is to offer the prostration of forgetfulness to make up forinattentive omission, not addition, in prayer,These are the rulings on prostration of forgetfulness in brief. and whoeverseeks mOre elaboration, he may rder to the books onfi'lhi rulings, May Allahsrant us success,'"EndnotesI AI·RukHrJ (482) (11731 1 and Mu.lim (12SS) 13/691.2 Mealim (1293) 131731.3 A I · Bukh~ri (829) 121400 1 and Muslim (1269) 131601.4 Muslim (1283) 131671_5 Mu,",im (1287) (3169)6 Mu.lim (1272) 13162 1: A!lm. d ( 1655) 1112361: At· TirmidM (398) !21244 j.nd rbo Mljah(1209) [21631_


,,," '''''' ".'"


CHAPTERDhikr (Remembrance of Allah)Following PrayerAnah, Glorified and Exalted be He, says:~o yu who haw belieped, "'m"m be~ AI/lilt with much remem­Immct- and t.mlf Him m(>rning find aftrnroon."(Qur'an: AI -AhzAb: 41-42)Allah, Glorifled be He. ha. enjoined dhikr (Remcmbr.n~e of Anah) 10 besaid following the different acts o( worship. To illustra le. Allah. Glorified beHe. says regarding prayer:"And ",hell you hll"" completed l/re praY"r, remember AllalrslonJ;IIg, sm;"g, or (lying) ,m your . ide •... ~(Qur'!n: An-Nis&': 103)


""Allah, Glorified he He, also ~ays;"Alld whe., Ihe prayer /",. bun cone/ruled, diJpent within theland "nd Ulelcfrom the boun,y of AI/Dh, "nd remember Allahoften that you maysuccud," (Qur'an, Al-Jumu ' ah: 10)1" I'RAYFRAs for fasling, Allah commands Mu,lims 10 remember and glorify Him aftercompleting the faSI; ag of the month of It.mall.;,,; Allah, Glorified be He. ,ays:", .• to complett tht period and to glar;/y AI/a" for Ihal/"'I whichHt haJ guided you; and ptrhapJ you will be gmttful,"(Qur'an: Al -Baqarah: 185)The same goes for Hajj (Pilgrimase); Allah commands Muslims to rememberHim after performing the rites of Hajj saying:"And wl.en you If""" camplded your rUes, rtmemlHr AI/"h likeyour {previousl remembrance "f your fathers or with [much}gr~"ter remembranu." (Qur'an: Al-Baqarah: 200)This Divine Command (Le. to remember AII


all things Omnipo/(nf. 0 Allah.' No"e clln withhold ".hlll )'Ou gmn/.and none Can gram ",Imf YOII withhold. und I/, e jorl,me of 11 man ofmeall. is use/m before ),m (i.e. only good deeds tiff: of Wllue)."'It is aim stalM in ~aujlJ Muslim (Mus/im:' Authentic 8,,( 11/1,,11 and wt' wo.sl'ip 11011' bll' Him .Alone. To Him be/OI lS 1111 bounties. to Him be/mlgs ,Ill gn"" mid /0Him is worthy praise accorded. There is no ddly bur Allah: we aresinure 10 Him ill rellg;on. Ill/hough the di$beIiCV1'!rs dislike 1/'-'MOlnr.·~ r, it is stated ill the s.maa: ollth~ authority of Ab.:. Dharr (mayAllah ~ P~ with him), t halth~ Prop h ~ 1 (PBUH) ~aid,'WhotVU$D)'l' Itn I,'mn immtdialclYllftn finls/,illg ",t Flljr(OIIwnJPm)"'r; M!o", m""iug/rom his place Or lalki,lg 10 a"yo"e, 'Ther~is "0 deity bUI Allah, Alo"r, Wilo has ,,0 pa"lla. To Him belOMgsdomi"io", ami 10 /-lim belollgs (al/) praise, He giws life mid (ausesdratll, aMd He is over allllrhlgs Omnlpotem: "'I goml deeds will berecorded for /rIm, tC'1 sillS will bt dimlnated fro' lI him, ht will beupgmded len d~reu On .t.",,,,I), he will be wfegurmltd lrom 1111kinds 01 harm 11111111,1 dllY, ht ,..iIl bt gUllrded IIgaillSI SlIlan, IInd110 sin et'" (JW'rlllkc him on /hlll day (Ilnd nullY' his good dteds)ac ~pl ll5Socialing ()/ilnl in worship ,..ith AI/Ilh.At-Tirnlidhi comme nted On this auditl, ""rins, 'This is a bawM, 1"hjbwlllil', (i,e, 11 good and allll'e .. /i, Uadilh)." Lihwisc, it is ~n act of the Swm ah tosay the afo ... said supplicat ion of dllikr ten times followi ng the Maghrib (Suns..t)PTlyc'r, IIccording I a /ialWh ",Iated 1»' Im1m Ahmad 0 n the authority of Urn",s.alamah,' aoo another /l1l,lIth stated in Sa/li/llbn t/ibMlI (IIm Hil>b


'"11: I'RAYERAmonK t~ W~ )'S of dhih i. saying, "Sl


Ch.p'" 10; Db;/tr (Rememb,,"cc f AI!>h) FoIIOW'"g r",y"'"11 is also . tal~d in th~ Suna" Ihat . Uqbah Ibn "Amir (may Allah be pleasedwilh him) narral~d:"AUah'Mess'''gcr(PB UH)corn"wndedrneto reciteAI-Mu "awwidhaMn(the Sura, of AI-Falaq (Daybreak) and An - N~, (M ... ,kind)) followingevery pra~r" "A lllhe aforement ion.d ho n ora ble hadil hs ,Ial e I h e le gali ty of th~~ religioussupplicalions of dhikr following obligalory prayers, and the greal rewardsprepared for t hos~ who observ~ them. So, we should keep on observing them,following in the footsteps of the Prophet (PBUH). We should also bear in mindIhat they are to be ",id after concluding prayers with ra,Hm (Le. immroialelyafter finishing ~rforming pray~rs), before moving from the place where Weh.ye ~rformed pr.yer.Immediately after concluding prayer with /aslim, Ihe~ supplications ofdhikr are to be said in the following srquence:• Asking Allah's Forgiveness three times• Saying, "0 AI/ah, You are tile Perfection and You arc the One Whogrants perfection; Blessed art You, 0 Owner of Majesty and Honor:• Sayi ng. "There is no deity but Allah. Alone. Who hllS no partner. ToHim belongs dominion, and 10 Him belongs (aU) praise, and He i, overalllhitlgs Omnipotent. 0 Allah! None (an withhold what You gmn/,and none can grant what You withhold, and the fortune of a man ofmeans is usele~ before You (Le only good deeds are of value):• Saying, "There is neitlier might nor power except in Allah. There;s nodeity but Allah and we worship none but Him, Alone. To Him belongall bounties, to Him be/ongs all grace, and 10 Him is worthy praiseaccor


'"11: PRAYER• R~citing Ayalu/·Kursi (the Verse of the Thrond. and the Sura, ofAl-lkhM~ (Sencor;/y of I'ailh) and AI-Mu '~ww jdhatl!M (the Suras ofAI-Fa/a


'Whoever reported Ilwt {mdm Ash-ShJJl'I deemed i1 desirable (i.e.deemed rnising th~ voices and hands (homily in supplication desirable)must have misquoted him:According to the above, we haw to follow in the footsteps of the Prophet(PBUH) and stick to his Sun"a!! (Prophetic Tradition), for Allah, Exalted b.He, says:" ... And whatever the Messenger has given yJwnd.lbn M~j.h. At·l1rmidhl . nd An ·N•• o';'6 At· Tirmidhl (34134) [51515[ .7 A!lmad (26ok MQjmQ' ,1t·z.,w,nd(Th. Ccll«tio" of Addition"/liadith,). d •• mad it haM" bad/th (101108).8 Ibn J::!ibb.n (2023) [5/>69].9 Ab':' DlwUd (S079) 15/200[.10 M.wim (1351) [3197].11 V of .... 1· Baq.r.h (th' Cm,..), Chapter No. 2 of the Qur"n.12 Ch.pter No. 112 ofth


'"It PRAYER16 Al-I.Mtlnl in hi' book AI-Mu 1"'" A/-Kabjr (Th. Great l.txicon) «733) 1)18) ·M I17 AbIi Dj,w"d (1 52») f2l12n AI-Tiflnidhl (2908) [5117 11 .nd An-Nae 10 AlI ,h).lO Taflmid, S.yillg •• AI·aarndu -lilMh" (i .•. P",;5c l>< 10 AlI.h),II 1l,kbl~ Saying, • AlldI,u_At..,r" ii-


CHAPTERVoluntary Prayerw~ should know that our Lord, Glorified and halted be He, has ordainedvoluntary prayers, side by side with the obligatory ones, as a means for Hisservants to draw ncar to Him. Performing voluntary prayers is wnsideredamong the best means of bringing oneself "earer lO Allah. It ranks next tojihad (fighting or striving in the CaUM" of Allah) and seeking knowledge, forthe Prophet (PBUH) always drew himself near 10 Allah by means of voluntaryprayer< as he (PBUH) said:'K~~p on the right cUIl'se and (know thM) ro" will "0/ be able 10do all good acts: and know Illnr the best of your (good) deeds isprayer:'Prayer combines different acts of worship such as reciting the Noble Qur'an,bowing. prostrating. supplicating Allah, being humble and submissive 10 Him,imploring and glorifying Him, declaring His greatness (by ,aying lakbir), andpraying to Him to confer Hi, blessings .. pon (he Prophet (PIlUH).


".lk PRAYERGenerally, voluntary prayers are of two types:The first is called "regular supererogalory prayers,· as they have specifiedtimes of ~rfo rman ce. and the second is callM "non-regular supererogatorypr.)'C'u," whose performance is not restriclffl to certain tim~. The forst typeof voluntary prayers has SOme l ubestegories of which some a", more strnsedthan others; the most stres$(d of them arc the Witr Prayer,' the Tar


CHAPTERWitrPrayerlet us start with the Wit, Prayer since it is important, as it is the most stressedvoluntary prayer, and sOme scholars are of the opinion that it is obligatory top"rfofm it. Generally, the act of worship whose incumbency is disputable ismore stressed Ihan anyather act which is agreed to be not obligatory. Muslimsagree on the legality of the WilT Prayer so it should nol ~ abandoned. Thetestimony of Wh


11; PRAYER"Allah's Messenger (P8UH) performed the Witr Prayer at differentnights at various hours extending (from the Night Prayer) up to thelast hour of the nighC'It is slated in many andl/hs that the time of performing the Wilr Prayer isthe whole nighl except th~ lime before the 'IsM' Prayer. If a Muslim is sureto wake up lale al Ihe lasl lime of t he n ighl. it i. de,'irable for him 10 ~rfonnthe Wilr Prayer then; however, ifhe is not ,ertain (to be awake at this lime).he should ~rform this prayer before going to bed as recommended by IheProphet (PBUH). [m~m Muslim rel~tes on the authority of Jabir (may Allahbe pleased with him) that the Prophet (PBUH) says:"If anyone of you is afraid Ihm he may Mt be able 10 gel up al theend of the night. let him perfm-m the lVitr Proyer and then sleep, A/Idif he is confident of gelling up mid performing prayer al nighl, Ihenlet him perform il al tile end of il.jor the recitation (of Ihe Qu,~n) alIhe end of the nighl is wilnessed (I1y angels). which is beller:'The Wilr Prayer Can be as short as one rok'ah (unit ofpraye,) according10 the lladilhs (related 10 this ruling) and as narrated from ten of the prophet'sCompanions (may Allah be pleased with them all). Yet. it is desirable to performthe Sha[ < \>efme the lVilr Prayer. The mk 'ahs of the lVilr Prayer can be asm~ny as eleven or thirteen, Ultering laslil1l at the end of every two rak 'ahs and~rforming the IVitr with a single rak 'ail. Imam Muslim rdates that' A'ishah(m~y Allah be plused wilh her) narrates:"Allahs Messenger (PBUH) ",sed 10 perform eleven rak ' ahs at nighl.performing Ihe Wil, wilh a Single mk 'ah'"In another narration, she says:" ... ullering lasl!m


Ch'p,e, 12: WilT ""'yet161"Allah, Messenger (PBUH) used to perform the Wit' witl! five orseven mk 'ahs (units of pmyer) without talking or uttering tMlimbetween them: 'A diffu~n l "'''y 10 perform the Wit. Prayer is 10 perform two rak'a"s ands.ay taslim then perform a single (Iasl) on~,Tt is desirable 10 = it., the Sura of AI·A '1


CHAPTERTarawih PrayerThe TnrJwill Prayer (Nightly SUJ>w:rogatory Prayer during th~ monthof RarnadAn) is among what Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) has ordained forMuslims in Ramag,\n, and il is a st,.."sed act of the SUMMah. It is called 'th ~Ta r~wih' which meanS in Arabic ' intervals of relaxation: because Muslimsused 10 take an interval of relaxation aft .. , eyery four rak 'has' of the TnrdwiilPrayer as Ihey used to prolong the prayer. It is more desirable to p"rfor m theTardwlb. Prayer in congregation in the mosque, as the Prophet (PBUH) led hisCompanions in performing the TnrJwlb. Prayer for some nights then he s\oPP"dfor fearth.! it (i.e. the 1~rdwrb Prayer) might become. burden on Muslims. Inthe T .... o S.ahibs. . Nishah (may Allah \)., plea.,ed with her) narrated:·One night, Allahs Messenger (PBUH) j1£rformed prayer;n the mOM/ueand fOme ~ople followed him. The next night he allO performedpmyerand loo mal1y~oplega lhere d. On the third Or thefourth l1ight,mo", proplt gmhered, bul Allah, M ... ~nger (PBUH) did 110t co",.out 10 them. In the morning he said, '1 saw what you were doing andnothing butthe ftar that it (i.e. tht prayer) might be enjoined 011 you,stopped me from comil1g to you."'


".11: I'RAYERIn the narratiQn or Al· Buk/tl.rl rh" words ", .. mld Ihl1l hap~"M in tilt monthof RlUMaW1,,· ",e", added. h is well-known that the Companions ~rformedthe Tar~wih. Prayu aft~T the de.th oflhe Prophet (PBUH) and the Muslimnation has accepted nnd followed this p"'~ctice.The Prophet (PSUH) U)'5:·Wh«wr sftlnds (~rform; "g pro"",) will, Ihe im6m unlil htfinishes pruytr. (lite u,,'OnJ for) ~rforming prtl~ flll IM night willM ffforded for him ....The Proplll"l (PIIU H) 1150 says:"1VIwt.-er performs prayer


Noble Qur'an for a long lim~ than to perform Iwenly mk 'ahs with detestablehaste_ Thi~ is because the es.sence o f pr .yer is to turn one's heart 10 AII~h,haltw and Ever Majeslic be He. Verily, a few mk'uhs (with tranquility andrefil"Ction ) c~n outweigh so many ones. Also, it is better to recit e the Qur'anwith measured recitation than rIXile it with haste_ 11 is allowable to be quick inreciting the Qur'an provided that no letter is negicctw since it is prohibited 10neglect a !encr for the sake of quick recitation. However, it is good for an im~m(in congregation.1 prayer) 10 recite the Qur'an in a way that benefits thoseperforming pr~yer behind him. Allah dispraises those who recite the Qur'anwithout understanding its meaning as Allah. Exaltw be He, reveals:~Alld "mollg lhe", are rm/dln-cd one. W/IO do 1101 kllow tileS~ riplure except I illriulgellce ill} wishful/lJink111g, ,."(Qur'an: Al -Baqarah: 78)The verse refers to Ihose poople who recite (the Book) without understandingits meaning. Allah has revealed the Qur'in for Muslims 10 undersland itsmeaning and carry out its rul ings, nOI ol"lly to recite il.S


'"1 AJ.il ... klWI (1129) 13/141 ond Muslim (118(1) 1)12831.1 Ab6 I»wQd (ll7S) 1U71]; Al-Titmidhl (1105) 1)1169); An_NuIo' (1J63112l9ll_rwl lbnMljab (1)27) rUl22]_~ AI· BuiJllrl (J7l [111241 and Mudim ( I n6) 131281[.S Sre: ;.I/·AkhMr iI/· '/I",;"..m min AI· /,Uui,.,nlr AI·r-..,hl"w.' wrium by Shlykhul.Is/Im Ibn TlI)'IIliy>b,6 5om< of the ; ... d .... of mooqo .. rai ... tMir ""k .. in ~it"'ion of Ihe Qutln ... e Qur'ln no!


CHAPTERSunnah Rtitibah: PrayersPerformed along withObligatory PrayersYou should know, my dear Muslim brothers, that a ,uMnah ratilmh (a ",gularlyobservedsupc1"


".-:. Two mic '~h s after the MaghFl'b (SulI!.rlj Pra}'('r.;. Two rol',,!.s after the 'hhd'(Night) Prayer-:- Two "'/c'''''5 ~fon! the Fajr (Da wn) Prayer11: PRAYERThe proof of these aforementioned sm,na" ,n'mJg01oryJ mk 'ahs from A/lDhs Messengu(PBUN). (He uud /0 ~ rform ) two mlc'ah. M/ort r/'t Z .. k, (No(m)Pra~r and two rak 'nhs ajier it, two mic "ails after rht Magllrib(Sunut) Pmycr in hi, houu. IInlllwo mk 'ahs aft" the 'IsM'(Night) Pm)'ff in his house, and lwo ,,,/0:' ahs INftJrt Iht Fa]r (Oa ... ,,)Pm)'ff and al l/,a/ rime nobo.ly would en'" the houst of lire Prophd(PBUH). /J.lljiah (the "'ifo of tht Prophrt) told me r/uH when thtpNIygan /0 brrnk, the (lIlt Prophet) umf to perform ''''0rak 'ahs."'(Related by Al-Bukh1r1 and Muslim)In S,/lI1.11l Muslim (MIlslims AW/'mr!( /;look of Hmlith), ' A'i.hah (m~y Allahbe pleased with her) 5;lid:"Htfore the Gill" (Noon) Pra~ r, Ihe Prophet (PBUH) ustd 10perform four rnk'ahs;n my hou~ Ihe" he would go oul and lead/l,t ~plt in ,.ruyer. rUm cornr in mid ptr/!>rm IWO rnk '/lUs."'This badi,U implies Ihat it is more desirable 10 pt: rform the sumlak rat!b/lhprayu at home Ihan to pc:rform il in Ihe mOS


The most stres.sed of the arorementioned sU llnah rrlriball (regularly·observed s u ~rerogatory) prayers are the twu rok'alrs (units of prayer) t..,forethe Fair (Dawn) Prayer, for' A:ishah (may Allah be pleaSC'd with her) !oays:'Th~ Prophet (PBUH) "'as MI'U more rrgumr and JItlrticlllnr inpuformingony sll~mtJg


'IQn: PRAYERI>tlltwd in A/I",. IUld .. "",,11, .. bUll rtvtaltd to u, .. : - (Qurln: Al- Baqarah:136) in the first ...,.l:·~h and Ihe ve=, ~Say, '0 hopl, "flhe Scriptu n, COme /0"word IhM Is ,qul/nble between uSl/nd mu •. :" (Qur'~n: Alu . lmrAn: 64) inth e second ral;'all.Conceming the ''''0 supcr .. rogalory mk'alrs aftn th .. Maglrri" (SunK!)Pra~r. it is also an act ofth .. Su .. nah to rec:ile the Sura of 1t1-K4finln after Ill.Fdribah in the first mk 'air. and th., Sura of Al-Ikhldt in tht s«olld AI-Bayhaql,AI·Tirmidhi and OIhercompilns of Had"", related thatlbn Mas' ud said:"/ ,anno/ coum (1/" num~r of rimes) Ilrt/m! A.1I1l1l. M~ngtr(PBUH) rfcitblg I/It S,,,,, of A/·Ko:Ifirlln and the Sura of AI-l khl


· Th~ /ra, ("'"i"ly ~"fo~ YO" in Ih~ M al .... gn of Allah ....uulltll' p;lUtrn for ImYO"t ",'I, ,,~ "ape 1$ I" A/lalr ""d the /,..,doy IlIId {wlral rt'Hltmbtr'f AI/ .. h Ofttll. H (Qur'~n : A I - Ahz~b: 21)'"Kfcping th ~,;c, sUp"",rogatory prayers compensates for any fault committedin the obligatory Pral"'rs.. as man is fallible and nttds to comlJ("nsalc for hisfaults. Hence. a Musl im should nOI nC'Slffi this sunnllh m/lIMit as il will mullin m~rewa rd s p~red bylhc lord (10 b


CHAPTERDuhtl (Forenoon) PrayerYou 5hould know, my Muslim brothers.. that Ihe~ are many badlllu pertaining10 IMJ2ub.II ( ~noon) Praytr. In IM Two Sahibs, Ab\! HUTaynh (may Allah ~pleased with him) said:"My/riend (j.e. th~ Prophet)adl'iud me la do thne Ih,ngsond 1mull /101 leave them until I die (und thty art) 10 fast IhTU daysewf)' month, /0 perform the Dubd Prayer. Ilnd la per/ann Ih"Wil, ~fort slu:ping.-·Also. AbU SOI'ld (may Allah b


'"It PRAYERrelated on the authority of Anas (may Allah be pleawi wilh him) that theProphet (PBUH) said:"If anyone S;15 in lIi s pl~ce of prayer 11ft er fl n ish ing the 5ubb. (Mon! j n gJPrayer un,;l he performs Ihe two rak'ahs of/he I2uM Prayer. sayblgnothing but what is good. his ,;1Il will be forgiven even if they aremore thnn the foam of the sea:'(Related by AbO mwild)Th r UuiJ.~ Prayer can ~ as long as eight rak 'ails, for Umm Hin;> (may Allah~ pl ea~d with her ) said:'On Ihe day oJlhe Conq"cst of Mecca, the Prophet (PBUH) performedeight rak"ahs as the ,QuM Prayer."'(Related hy the Group of Compilers of Hadith)[mam Muslim ~lso related on the ~uthor i ty of' A'ishah (may Allah he pleasedwilh her) thal:"The Prophet (PBUH) used to perform Ihe Quad Prayer wilh fourmk'ahs and somerimes he used 10 perform as more rak"ahs asAllah willed,~'The time for the DuM Prayer begins when the sun is abOl,t a spear's lengthabo"" the hor;wn and it continues UEltil the sun approaches the meridian.It is desirable to delay it until the sun has risen high and become hot. Im;!mMuslim relates that the Prophet (PBUH) said,"The prayer of those who are penitent is to be performed when theyoung (wcmud) camel feels Ill e heat of tile SliM,'""That is. when it becomes so hot that the young (weaned) camels kneeldown because of Ihe heal oflne sun.Endnotes1 AI· l\ukh1rl (t 178) 13/731 a nd Mu,lin, I I 669) 13/241 ].2 Ahm,d (476) 1 liJH] .nd '\1' Tirmidht (I 172) 13/2 I I3 AbO DlwOd (1287) 111431 ,4 AI-Bukhlri ( 1 103) 12I746j,MusHm (76l) 12I252j; Ab;' Db'M (1290) 12144 ), An _N .. l1(21S)i I I I 37 ] and lbn M1j. h (6 14) I I 0-10].S Muslim (1660) 13Il.l6j.6 Mu, lim (1743) (3127 I I,


CHAPTERProstration of RecitationThe proslr~tion of recitation is One of the Prophetic practices and it is thuscalled as it rdates to the re


'"n: PRAYERImdm Ibnul-Qayyim,' the great scholar (may Allah have mercy on him),said, 'Pa,;tions of proslrfitions are what is reported to u. and ",hat is commandedfor '" 10 do." That is, Allah tells u. about the prostration of His ,reature.generally or at s~ cH'ic situations. So it is enaelM, for the one who redles theQur'in and the one who lislens 10 il, 10 aCl like them (Allah's creatures) whenrecit ing or listening to the verseS of prostration. and with gre.ter reason theverses that actually command prustrating.AbU. Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated. as a marfu '(tra


.-\I-In,hiqaq (the Split)," and A/· 'Alaq (thr Clinging Subs/oncd'. Concerning theprostration in the Sura of sad," there is disa~lffment betwun s


'"a a...- No. 17ofthtQurln.'Chaple, No. .90hllt Qurln.J 0 O>pln No.. 22 of!he Qur'll1.11 Chaptor No. 2S of In. Qur'l n.12 Ch.pt


. CHAPTERNon-Regular SupererogatoryPrayerThe Compilers of tire SUM" ~LatM that thc Prophet (PBUH) was askedwhich I' .... yer was most excellent (concerning reward) afler the prescriI>W011". He (»SUH) said:"Performing prAyer in I~ middl" of the night,· 'He (PIJUH) .15Q said:·Th~rt i$ On hour in tire nighl during .I'I,ich no AlI.slim peNon asksAII~hjorgood jn 'his world and Ihe I1trtoflcr bur Allah willgron, it/Q /"',,,; mIll OWl (lppli~s 10 "wry "lgM."'Moreowr, the Prophet (PBUH) said:"All/,e...: to (tIle performance of) Ihe "igl'l vigil supererogalOryprnyer,Jor ;1 is Ihe h"bi/ of the righleQus people kfore you. V"rily.the "ighl vigil supererog


ISOIt PRAYER10 AII"h "nd Ih~ way by ",hidl sins a'f remowd and one slopscommiuing sins."·'(Related by AI-H~kim)Allah, Exalted be He, prai~es those who stand for the night vigil ,uper·emg.tory prayer, as H. says:".•. Indeed, Ihey wert before dim doers of good, They used t()sleep bul liule ()f the night, mul in the hours l>efore d~ .... n theywould ask forgivellesa, ,, ~ (Qur'an: Adh· Dhilriyat: 16·18)Praising such righteous seryants, Allah, Exalted be He, al&O says:"Their sides parI {i,e. they tlnse]from (their] beds; they supplicateIheir lAIrd in fearand "spir(l/i()n, Qndfrom .... ha! We haV\' providedIh~m, they spe"d. A"d "0 soul know. wllal ha. bu" l'iddcII forthem of ~amfort for (the) eyes I i.e . ."ti.factian] a. ",ward farwhn! thty used la do." (Qur'an: As -Sajdah: 16-17)So many are the religious texts that rder to the virllle of the night vigilsupererogatory prayer. Th. night "igil supe",rogatory prayer is the mostexcellent act of worship among voluntary prayers. This is because the nightvigil supererogatory pray~r is characterized by more sec",cy and is doser tosincerity. Moreover, it is to ~perform.d whil. people are sleeping. III addition,it in voh'cs the preference of obedience to slet:p or taking rest.It is desirable to perform supe .. mgatory prayers at all times, exdudingthe forbidden times. The night vigil supererosatory pra~r is more p",ferablethan that performed at the daytime, as mentionO'd before. Th. most p",ferable,concerning the night "igil supererogatory prayer, is that it is performed at thethird of the night, which is direct! y after the middle of the night until the lastsixth of the night. This is stated in Stlil l'b. Muslim (Muslims Authentic Book ofHallil") as a marft


'"'(Dawn) Prayer. So this is the best tim" for on" tQ perform the night vigilsupererogatory prayer. However. the whole night is a time for pcrformil'Sthe nigh! vigilsupererogatory praye r. Im am Ahmad (may Allah have mercyon him) said, "O'le may perform the nigh! vigil supererog"tory prayer fromthe time of sunset fo the break o/dawn," Accordingly, lhcsupcrerogatory act(of prayer) performed between the' Maghrib (Sunset) Prayer and the '[sha'(Night) Prayer is considered among the night vigil supererogatory prayer,but it is better to delay performing the night vigil supercrogatory prayer tothe lasl PaIt of the night as mentioned hefore. Allah. Exa lted be He. says."Indeed, the hours of/he night are m()r fl tjfcc!/ve!orw/" urre fl cc [OJktaTIand tongue] and mare suitable f ar words." (Qur'an: Al -Mu7.zammil: 6)Here, the phrase ""hours of the nightn refers to performing the night vigilsUp"",rogatory prayer after sleeping.A Muslim person should intend to perform the night vigil sup


'"11: PRAYERMo~r. on~ performing Ih~ night vigil supe~roS'>lory prayer shouldpronoullCe /(u/i." (ie. final salutations in p",yer) al tht cnd of every tworok''''hs, as tht Prophrt (PBUH ) said,· The nigill vigil $U~ ... rog


Ch.pr


CHAPTERTimes When Prayer Is ForbiddenWe have introduced abov ~ sOme of the rulings on the _,upererogatoryprayers and now we are going to point out that there are '(Main times atwhich prayer is forbidden as narrated to have been pinted out by the Prophet(PBUHj. However, there are some txceptions concerning this judgment.There are five times al which performing prayer is forbidden:1- The first time starts from the second (the factual) time of dawn tosunrise. The Prophet (PBUH) said,·Wlle" tile dawn breaks, no prayer is to be performed except the tworak'lllls (units of prayer) of the Fajr Prayer (j,e. the supererogatoryrak 'ahs of the Fajr Prayer)."'(Related by Ahmad, Ab£l D~wud, and other compilers of Hadith)Therefore, when the dawn breaks, one should not perform any supererogatoryprayer e~ceptthe two rak 'ailS ofth. Fajr Prayer.


'"11: PRAYER2- The second time star!! from the time of su nrise until the Sun reachesthe height of a spear, in one's sight. above the horizon.3- The third time starts fmm the time when th e sun is at its height almidday until it passes over the meridian. This lime is known as thelime when 'shade stop" i.e. it d~ not increast nor dQ


Ch'p'


CHAPTERCongregational PrayerCongregational pm),,,r M the mosque is considered onc of the great ritualsof Islam. All Muslim s.:holars unanimously agree that performing the Five{ObligllOryJ Prayers at the mosque i, a confirmed act of obedience and amongthe best means of drawing near to Allah. Rather. it is the greate,t and mostapparent of the ,itunls of Islam.Allah, Exalted be He, ordained that Musli m, should gather at eNt.in time"Among these times are times that take place during day and night (i.e. 24 hour,l.namely. the Five (Obligatory) Prayers for which Muslims gather every day andnight five times in order 10 perform them. Morfflver, there is a time in everyw~k, namely. the Jurn" 'ai, (Friday) Prayer. which is greater than the gatheringf(}r the Five (Obligatory) PTa),e", Furthermore. there are two other times forgathering in the year. namely. the gatherings for the pr ~ yers of the Two feasts(' lds). which are greater than that of the '''''''' 'ail Pmy .. r. as all Muslims of thetown are to gather to perform them. In addition. there is a time of gatheringthat takes place once a yea)'. namdy, the gathering for staying at 'Arafah. whichis greater than the gathering for the prayers of the Two F


11, PRAYERThese great gatherings in Islam are ordain .. d (by Allah) for the sake andbenefit of Muslims. That is to lel Mu~lims be more interconnected by mean~of kindness, benevolence and mutual consi,]eration. Another reason is tolet Muslims love and show tenderness toward each other. In addition, thesegatherings are ordained to lel Muslims know and be acquainted with theconditions of each other, so they would visit the sick, follow th e bier, and helpthe n~dy. It is also to show the power and interconnection among Muslims sothat they can embitter their enemies, th e polytheists and hypocrites. Moreover,such gatherings are ordained to eliminate that which might take place amongMuslims or hatred, severing of rdationships and grudge caused by the devilsfrom among mankind and the jinn. Hence, Muslims shall live in an atmosphereof affection and hearts will gather in rightrousness and piety. That is why theProphet (PBUH) said:"D


~Alld when Y


'"110 PRAYER"0 Messenger of AI/nil! f have no a/le 10 guide me to the mosque:He. then>fore. asked the permission of AI/ails Messenger (PBUH)10 perform prayer in his house. He (the Prophe!) granted himpcnnission, Then when Ihe man tumed away, Ioe called him a"dsaid, "Do you henr the ,all/a prayer (i.e. the adl"ln)?" The mansaid, "res: He (the Prophet) said, "50, respond ro U:'Th~ Prophet commanded the man, despite wh a t he would face of hardships,10 come to th e mosque to attend the congregational prayer and to respond tothe prayer call This slresses the obligalion of the congregational prayer.For the believers .1 Ih. early period of Islam. the obligation of th.wngTeg.lional pra}'er was a settled matier. Ibn Ma.' (Id (may Allah be ple.sedwith him) said:"/ have seen the time when no ol1e among us (j.e. the Companions)Sla~d away from pmyer exupt a hypocrite. whose hypocrisy waswell known. And it could happen rilat a man walk between twopersons (i.e. with the help of two person, wilh one on each side)Im/i! he s/and~ in the row (of prayer)."'This indicates that there waS a kind of ,""solution (Le. unanimousas",ement). conceming its obligation, among the Companions of the Messenger(PBUH). They derived their agreement from the acts and practicesof the Prophet (PBUH). It is known that no one should br considered ahypocrite except the one who leaves something that is obligatory On everyindividual Muslim.Im'm Ahmad and other (ompilcrs of liadiln related. as marfu· b.adith:'Slemn(5$, all sremn(5$, ami di.


U"ptor 19: CongrogotionaJ Pr:lycr'"W~ ask Ailah 10 grant us safety and guidance loward the righl palh andenable uS to follow it, for He is the Hearing, the Responsive.What is the ruling on Ihe one who d~ nOI observ~ the congregalionalprayer? And how many persons should be present in order to make it (i,e., Ihecongregational prayer) acceplable?Thereare Iwocaseseon eerning Iheone whodoes nOI observe congregationalpray~r and ]l"rforms prayer alone. As for the first case, it applies 10 Ihe excused,whether because of an illness or fear, and who i~ nQl in the habil of leavingcongregalional pra~r. Such a ]l"rson is rewarded as similar to the one whoperform, prayer in congregation. Thi_, is staled in Ihe ~ah!h (authentic) had!thin which the Prophet (PBUH) said:'When tht strv~nt (of All~h) falls ill or travels, then he will gelreward similar to 111a1 he gets for good deeds practiad in r~sidencewhe" ,,,good health:"H e nc~, wh""ver is strictly resolved to ]l"rform his prayer in congregation,but is prevented from doing so owing to a legal excuse, is to N regardedas the one who performs it in congregation, and th


,,. lL PRAYERla "., ra;'ed aruJ that Hi. Name"" mentioned ri.£. praiKdl ,hnrinJaa/ling Him within them in the morning and the evrn; n go. r A.n] menwhom neilh£r commOT. nor ,ale diilrad. from the re"",mb,a"uof AII"h and perfen-manu of prayer and giving ofZakdh. They fear


Ch.p«' 19: ConS"'Il"ion,I P"ycr.tdve toward their destructlo". 11 it ""If'" them 10 en/u Ihemexcept i" fe.". Fo' them i" this Wl>rld i. disgrace, and Ihq willh" ve in the He,eafter a great pUlli.hme,,'."(Qur'an: AI·Baqarah: 114)'"Similarly, performing prayer outside mosques is regarded as a way ofstopping their role or reducing the numhers of Muslims performing theirp",yer in them. Hence. such an act is regarded a way of undermining theimp


'"Moreover, IM Proplld (PBUH) said 10 Mllik Ibm.oJ·Huwayrilh:"Let the oldest of rou lead I"~ pmye •. ""110 PIlAYf..RFurthermo,""" unani"H)"! agr..e ment was ~por'ed in co nformity with suchan 0l';n;on,As for women, it is viewC'd p


Ch'p"r l~ :Congrcll'rion,l l'r:ly


Ji: PRAYERSkipping the near mosque in ord .. to p .. form prayer in a distant onemay cauSl' a kind of perplexity among th e people living near the mosque.This opinion may be the mort: acceptable one, a. skipping the near m


a..ptor 19: Con~t;on.1 Prayer'"Among the rulings concerning the congregalional prayer is that it is an actof the Sumwh (Prophetic Tradition) for the one who has already performedpra~r and then the immediate prayer call (iqJmah) is pronounced while he isin the mosque, to perform th.t prayer along wilh the congregation. AbO. Dh.rrnarrated a badith on Ihe Prophel (PBUH) slaling:·Perform prayer 01 its prescribed lime, but iflhe immediate prayercall is pronounced while you are iM the mosque, IheM pray, and donol say 'r have performed prayer ~nd so r shall not pray.'·27(Related by Imam Muslim)In this case, the prayer such a person perfonns in Ihe congregalion will beconsidered a supererogalory prayer. This is stated in the badilh of Ihe Prophet(PBUH) addressed 10 {Wo men, in which he commanded them to performprayer again and he said to them'• ... It will be con,idered a supererogatory prayer for you:"This is ordained lest people should Ihink lhal the one who is not performingprayer in congregalion is nOI among those who establish prayer.Thero is also anolher ruling on the congregational pra~r. namdy if theimmediate prayer cal! (iq .amah) is established, it will not be permissible foranyone to start performing a supererogatory prayer; either the confirmed ones(supererogatory practices) or the Mo.'que Greeting Prayer (which is performedon entering the mosque). That is ~cause the Prophet (PBUH) said:·When the prayer commenu,. then tltere is nO ()'alid) prayer bUIthe obligatory prayer (i.e. one should not perform a supererogMoryprayer when the obligatory prayer starts).~ "(Related by Imam Muslim)It is stated in another narration related by Imim Ahmad as:• ... No prayer (is to be performed) but tllat which hll.5 begun:"Consequently, any supererog.tory prayer, in which the opening rakblr(saying, • AIIJhu-Akbar" i.e. "Allah is the Greatest") has just ken pronounced. isnot to bevalid as long .. the immediate prayer call (iq~mal,) for the obligMoryprayer. that One aims to perform along wilh the imJm. has been pronounudjust before.Imam An -Nawawl (may Allah have mercy on him) said:·The reason beltind this is to let tlte Muslim be devoted to tile


11, PRAYFRobligatoryprayerfrom its beginning. Th~t is, tostart it immediatelyafter the ;molm (leader in proyer), Moreover, to observe theperfection of the obligatory proyer is worthier than gelling busywith a supererogatory proyer. Another reason;s that the Prophet(PBUH) forbade disagreeing with imams". Furthermore, thestated virtue of the opening takbir (in prayer) is not to be gainedexcept when wid immediately after the imam.""Howev~r, if th~ immediate prayer call (iqJmah) is pronounc~ d wh i l~ th ~pnson is ~rforming a supererogalory prayer, in which he has al]"(ady pronouncedth~ o~ning I~kbir, he may complete it making it light and not to cutit short unless he is afraid of missing th e congr~gationa] prayer. Allah, Exalted~ He. said, ": .. And do not invalidate yourdud •. n (Qur'an: Muhammad: 33)Accordingly. if one is afraid of missing the congregational prayer, one is to cutshort the supereroga!Ory p ... yer. as the obligatory act is more important.Endnotest AbO OJwOd (664) 11/J.06]. An -N.,l"! (alO) IIHn] . n d Ibn MJj.h (976) 11151R!-2 AI-Bukhir! (645) 121171] .nd Muslim (l475) 131154].J AI-Bukhiri (647) 121171] and Muslim (1474) 131154 ],4 Individu.1 dutY' A r.,igi()lj' dUlr who .. obligol;"" .. tend. 10 every Mu.Um.5 AI-Bukhlrl (657) 121 1S4 ] .nd Muslim (I ~80 ) 1311 56].6 Mu.lim (14S4) 1311 571.7 Mu,lim (1486) 13/1 sa].8 Allm.d ( 15564) 13/H9]. AI- H'ylh.mi gradeJ it ",.uthentic bad,/h in hi. book 'Majma'M ·ZawJ·id· (J)" Compila/ion J(») 12/146] .nd Mu,'im (153J) [211791,16 AI -BukMr! (867) 1214SO] .nd Muslim (l ~S7) 131146] ,17 Allm.d (27273) 16J4SJI .nJ Abii D!wiId (592) {112821.18 Thi' wo< reported .bout . A'i.h.h .nd Umm S.lomah:os it wo, "'",led by Ibn AbOShaybah in hi. book AI.M_",,,,/ (4952. 4954) IlI4JOI. Ad · Dk.quln1 (t 492, t49))11/388 ] • . Abdur.Rutiq (5086) 13/14 1] .nd AI · B. yh.qi (5355) I 311 ~71,19 Ahm.d (212Sll) 1$/11'-11, Ab;' Dlwild (554) 1 1/2~7] and Ibo lJit>bi n in his book ..1.1-£aMI (2056) 15140~].


20 Al -Bukhtrl (65J) [2/178) and MUllim (15l L) [lIL 70).21 A1-BukhIrI (471) [InJO) .nd Muolim ( L504) (31168).22 _ Salamh wanLtc{ ( PBUH)said LlW /lIodIdo.13 Muslim (I S18) 13/1721_2 ~ Muslim ( 1 SlO) [2/177).2$ Al -Bukhlrl (6MJ [2/217) and M.ulim (948) [2/365).26 Muslim (951) 12/367).21 Muolim ( H 67) [l/l SI).18 AbO DiWOd (575) 11/274J, AI-Tormidhl (219) [ L/424] onc! An·NO$.Il (8S7) [1/ .... 71.19 Mudim (16-121 (3mS].lO Abmad (8S91) (2/0164 ].31 A.lh. f1,:u/lrhs related in AI'Bukhlrl (122) [2/1701 . nd Muslim (919) Il/3S-'[.32 Se


CHAPTERThe Latecomer toCongregational PrayerThe SO\I M er of the two viCW5 of scholars regarding the one coming laleforCQIIgr


n,PRAYERiKcording 10 liIe hlld/11r in which the Prophet (PBU H) said:"If anyont eatelres lip (Int ~ople in prayu wlrtn tlrty are) bowing,Ire already Iras gOI lilt mk . ah"(Related by Ab() D.Iowllcl )This is also stated in a hlldillr in SIlilJ/I MlIsli". (Mwll".'s AUllrtnrlc /lookof H!JdilhJ narmtnl on the: authority of AiMl Sakr who rnched the Prophet(PBUH) in the: mosqut while h~ ( the Prophet) was bowing in pr.!~r and hetoo bowed before joining the row. The Prophet (P8UH) did not order him10 perform th e mk'alr again' which proves that it is $Uffi,ient for one if onecatches up with the pl'llyer when the ,ong~gants are bowing.If • latecomer to congregat ional prayer reaches the prayer while the jmdmis in the bowing position, hc must pronounce the o~ning takblr (i n pl'llyer)whi le standing, then he should bow with the ;md", preferably after a secondIt>kblr (s;,};ng. -AlMlru·Akoor" i.c. "Allah is the Greatest"). If the iat


Chapt


11: PRAYERHariin, on his side, said 'Am,., which lakes the place of the invocation. 50,Allah, Exa ltrd be He, address.s both saying, ~ ••• Your ,upp/kation hal beenan,wered.» (Qur'an: Yunus: 89) This proves thal t he ont who says 'AmIM' afteran invocation is like that who s.ays Ihe invacalion.On the other hand, iflh. pmyer is .,ecrelly-recited or the one led in prayerdoes not hear Ih~ ,,,,dm, then he is to recite AI-FiJli!J.ah (Ihe Opening Chapterof the Quran). In Ihis wa)", all Ihe legal proofs (rdaled to that) accord wi lheach other, i.e. the one led in prayer must r«:ite A/-Faliuall in the se.retlyrecitedprayer bot he is not 10 reci'e i' in 'he publicly -recited prayer; andAllah knows best.One of the important rulings on the congregational prayer is thal il isobligalory on the one led in prayer to follow Ihe im~m compleld)" and Ihalil is prohibited for him 10 precede Ihe i"'~m. This is because the one ledin prayer must follow the i",am, and the follower is nOI to precede Ihe onefollowed. In this regard, AI-Bukh~ri and Muslim related that the Prophet(PBUH) ,aid:"Is lIe who mises his head before Ihe im~m IlOt afraid tha! Allahmay lrans/orm his head inlo Iilal of a don key or his figure (face)into tha! of a donkey?"'So the one who precedes Ih imam (in prayer) is like the donkey whichdoes not undersland Ih e wisdom behind whalever it dots. If one precedes the;m,;"" on. then d.serves to be punished. In a tabib (a uthentic) !J.adil/I, theProphel (PIlUH) says:"The imdm is appointed to befollowed; so do 1/01 bow until he /rowsand do not prostrau unlill.c proslmtes:'Im1m Ahmad and Abil Dilwild rel.te Ihat the Prophet (PBUH) said:"The ima m is appointed to IN followed; sa when he /rows, you shoulda/so bow. and do not bow ,mtil he bow,_ AI,a, ... hen he proslrales,you should 01", prostrare and do Mot prostmle umil he prostrates:'Th~ Companions of Ih~ Proph~t (PBUH ) used nol 10 bow Iheir backs 10pmstrale until the Prophet (PIlUH) prostraled. th en they would do Ihe same'·,When 'Umar Ibnul-Khalliib (may AlI,h be plea,ed wilh him) saw 3 manpreceding the imrlm in prayer. he beat him saying:


"rOIl Ni/her pcfornH!rl/M pmyn' alone nor did y"" jolkJw p.r im4m..Some people do not give due attention to this matter; they pre


, ..11: PRAYER1 AI-1lukhUl (69 I)I2I236J Ind Musl im ('.162) 121371 J.S Mu


CHAPTERWomen's Attendancein MosquesOur nligion ;5 a !"'.fed one that comi>«'hC lIsively (oYrn our wdfa,..,and interests in this world and in the HefTafter, Islam (ame with good to allMuslims, whether maleor female as Allah, bailed ~ He, says:· Whoewr dQef rigJ.,rolWlnl, whetJov ... ,de Qf' !em"le, while heIs 11 hd~""'r - We will mrrly ""'~ him '1/ lin d good life, .. "d W"will sII",,, five '''tm their rew


""11, PRAYERIt is detestable to prevent women from going to the mosque if they ask~rm issio n. The Prophet (PBUH) said:"Do not pre~enf the fem~le servants of Allah (women) from (going10) rile mosques of Allah, bur they should go while they are notperfumed: '(Related by Abmad and AbO D~w()d)This is be


'"S4b1b. Muslim (Muslims AUI~"'" Book of I:;1OOllh) and other boob of HllIlilhChal/he Prophet (PRUH) said:' W'hoel'ff woman perfumes herulf should ""I join U$ in the '/5h6.'(Night) Prayu."·Besides, if a woman went out to the mo~ue (for prayer), she should I


mJi: PRAYER"Had Allalts Mesoenger (PBUH) witnessed what the women weredoing, he would have forbidden them from going /0 the mosque asthe women of the Children of Ism cl ;",d been jorbidden."'Wh en a woman goes to th e m"'qu~ , both the benefit gained behind this(for her and for the whole community) and th~ avoiding of any cause of evilare to b~ tahn into ~ccount (by the Lawgiv ..). If Ih. Cause of evil is greaterthan the benefit g~ined, a W


Ch>pt


CHAPTERImamate (in Prayer)Imamale (in prayer) is an important religious p


216 II:PRIIYERof nothing but laziness and the weak wish of obtaining goodness. However.it is Satan only who denies them the will to undertake imamate. Knowledge·seeki ng students instead. should undertake imamate earnestly and vigorouslyand should seek the reward afthis deed anly from Allah. Thi s is because theyar. more entitled to undertake it and undertake other good tasks. The moreone e njoys the qualifications of the imamate, the more it becomes worthy ofhim to undertake it than any othn person who is inferior to him with regardto these qualifications. Rather, the qualified person ought to undertake it ifthere is no other person but him worthy of it.The most worthy to lead people in prayer is the One who is most ver,;ed inthe Book of Allah (Le. the Qur"An). The imllm should be aware of the placesof articulation of letters, make no grammatical mistakes and apply the rulesof recitation (of the QUr":in) without artificiality or stagy eloquence. Besides,th e im~m should have Islamic juristic knowledge of prayer; its requirements,integral parts, obligations and what n"llifies it in consideration o f th e b.ndirhin which the Prophet (PBU H) said:'TI,e one who ;, most versed in the Book of AI/ah (lire Qur


Cnop


tL PRAYERSoecondly, the householder: If he is qualif,ed fo r imamate (in the prayerperformed at his house), and it is not permissible to Id another person be theimJm except with his permission.Thirdly, the sultan (the ruler; the greatest person in authority) or his",present~\ive: It is impermissible to let another person lead people in prayerexcept with his permission; this is in case the ruler is qualified for leadingpeople in prayer.What proves the prdere"ce of these people over others is Ihe b.ad/rlt relatedby Abii Dlwud in which the Prophet (PBUH) says:'No man >hould lead anolher i" prayer where (rhe /arter) is in hishouse, or when he haJ ~uthority, without his permission:'The", is also a uadith in Suuib. Muslim (Muslims Authemi. Book of Hadilh)in which the Prophet (PBUH) says:"No man should lead another in prayer where (rhe latter) is in hishouse, or has autltor;ty, without his permission: 'One's authority here means the place whe", one has the authority the",ofor in one's estate.Al-Khau;\bl says:"This b.~di th memu that the houj~holder is worthier 10 lead theproyer in I,is house ifhe has rhe juristic knowledge and the knowledgeof redtation (of the Quran) that qualify him to estaMish prayerproper I y. .'Tf the imJm of th~ mosque is appointed by the rulu Or his representative,Or the people (attending prayer) agr~ upoo letting him be the imbm, then heis the worthie.st perMIn for leading the prayer. since this is considered a specialauthority. Moreover, if another person precedes him in leading people in prayer,people may think ill oflhat blter person or have an aversion towards him." is obvious from what has been demonstrated previously that the honor,the merit, and the position of imamate in Islam a'" high. This is because theimJm of prayer is an example to be followed. The imamate is an honorabledegr«, since il is a kind of distinctioo to do righteous deeds and it helpsobeying Allah and adhering to the Muslim community_ Through the imamate,the mosques of Allah are maintained with acts of obedience. The merit ofimarnate is also induded in the general meaning staled in th e verse, about theinvoxation of the sen'ants of the Most Merciful, and in which Allah, Exaltedbe He, says;


-And IhllU ... ho lilY, 'Ou ~ t..>rd, g","1 us from alflC/lIg "ur wi>'e$IIMd ,,!ftp';"g ''''''forl /0 "ur eyes "lid m"h ul If leader /i.I!_uampleJ for Ihe .iglrtrou,: ~ (Qur'~n: AI - Furq~n: 74)The imamalt in p r~yer comcs from the im am~t~ in religious affair$,particularly in case IM ;mAm preaches. advi!.tS. and remind$ people in themosqueof AlW\. He is thus among tl\os( inviting people 10 Allah, as well as thostwho ~y and do what is good and rightl"OUs. Allat. says about . ho~ peopl~-And who is bcllU In f~«Io 1/"11' o"e ""'" /ow/la 10 AlkUo ""ddoes rig"'rorunns a .. d 'AYS. 'l .. Jud, 1 tlm of ,I. .. Mu,lim': ..(Qur"n: FuUilat: H )Thus. only the deprived p~rsons (of the merits of imamat .. and its reward)are Ihe ones who are averse to undertake it; and th ere is neither Might norPow~r neepl with Allah.Endnotes'"l Ab ...... (


.'ii


CHAPTERInvalid ImamateImama!e in prayer is a great responsibility that rffJuires SOme qualificationsin th~ imam or at least it is desirable to enjoy them. In addition. the imamshould k free frum some qualities preventing him from assuming this position,or reducing his efficiency to undertake it.It is not permissible to let th" defiantl)" disobedient person lead the prayer.The defiantly disobedient person is the one who lr~nsgresses the right way bycommitting ooe of Ihe major sins. which are Ie!>s in degree than JXllytheisrn.There are two kinds of denan! disobedience; defiant disobedience in deeds andin bdid. The first kind is defiant disobedience in deeds> such as z;n,) (aduhryor fornication). stealing, drinking intoxicants or the like. The second kind isdefiam diwbediellce in belief, such as adopting the doctrine ofthe Rafl.dah, theMutazilit .. (Mu' tazilah)' or the )ahmiyyah ' .It is not ~ rmi ssible to assign a defiantly disobedient person as the imnmin prayer. This is b«ause what is told by this person is rejected according 10the ,..,rse in which Allah says:


"0 you who hav~ btlitwd, if there comes 10 you a disobedient" .... with information, inve.tigate" ," (Qur'an: Al -Hujurit: 6)H: PRAYERSo, h ~ cannot be entrusted with fulfilling lhe ~quirem e nts and rulingsof prayer, and he is thus a bad example, and making him lead the pra)"" wiUresult in evil. Moreover, The Prophet (PBUH) says:"No woman should lead a man in prayer, nOr should a Bedouinlead atl immigrant (to Medina), nor should a wicked man lead abeliever in prayer except when he owrpower~ him with his authorityso he (Ihe believer) is afraid of his sword an d whip (i,e, he is afraidof his power),·'(Related by [bn Majah)What proves our view here is the Prophet's statem ent:", .,Nor should a wicked man lead a believcr in prayer:Wickedness here means deviation from the right way.It is forbidden to perform pnyer behind a defiantly disobedient pc~on,Besides, it is not permissible 10 make him the imdm in prayer when it ispossible to do without him. It is prohibited for thos. in authority to ass igna defiantly disobedient person as im,;m, for they are commanded to observethe legal interests. So, it is not permissible for them to let the people performpra)"" khind a defiantly disobedient p~rson. In addition, s is the case of the imamate of the One unable to perform prayerstanding when there is a person who can perform it standing, except when theformer is Ihe assigne


0..", ... 23: In..!idl.........., m$(I bow duwn ... kn Ire bows down, and rise up when Ire rises u.p andptrform pruytr sitting wIr'n lIt (tlrt imolm) performs (it) sitring:·'Besides, in the hruJitlr related by AI-BukhM and Muslim on the authority ofAbiI Hurayrah, tilt Prophet (PBUH) sa id:~ .. Then perform prtl)'fT silling all togttheT ....Imjm Muslim also rdates this badltlr with slightly diae~n l wording on Iheauthority of Arw;". ~ n.. people led in prayer are 10 sit when lhe imolm sitsb«:aUK t/t( imdm should be t/t( one leading the p«Iple in prayer.If $Ome people perform pnlyer lIanding and others perform it sittingbehind an imdm who performs it sitting, their prayer will be valid accordingto the soundesl view in this regard. In this case, if the i".~m appoints a personto lead lhe people standing, it will be beuer so as to avoid any dis.agreementconcerning this~, . 1$0 bec:au$C Ihe Prophet (PBUH) appointed AbU Bakrinstead of himself 10 lead IM pnlyer during the Prophet's lasl illness'. TheProphet (PBU H) thus led people in pnlyer silting and appoinled AM Dab tolead them on his b.haIf, to show Ihal il is permissible 10 do both thinS$; . 1IdAllah knows best.The imamate of the one in a co ntinual stale of ritual impurity ;s invalid,This continual Slate of ritual impurity includes enu resis. unco ntrolled passingof wind continl101JSly and Ihe like, Yet. it is only I"'rmissibk for Ih e one afflicledwith such a diKase 10 lead liloK in IlK same slale as his.. HQWe>'eT, if a healthyptr$OI'I pel fOI 111$ prayer behind luch an imdm, his prayer will be inmid. becausein such • prayer there is a dd'ecl which is nOl: 10 ~ mended. since he ( I~ imdm)performs prayer whik M d ischatgc5 impure mall


Sha'l'khul-IsUm Ib" Taymi'l'ab ,ays:lk PRAYER"T!.is is Ihe way in which II,e Rightly-Guided Caliphs have performedprayer. 11 could Iwppen Ihal Iller le"d people in prnyer and when Iheyknew Ihat they had bWI jl""'& afrer the prnyer was finished, Iheywo"ld perform II"ir prnyer again mid wo"ld not order tho$e led inprayer to perform pr~rer again. If the imam or tho,e led in prayerknew that he was in a stare of rilual impurity or that there WIll imf-uremmter present during the prayer, their prayer would be invalid."'The imamate of the illiterate person is invalid. Illiterate here mean, tbeone who d"", nOt memoriu the Sura of AI-FJtib.ah (the Opening Chapterof the Quriln) or memoriles it but recites it improperly, such as makinggratnmatkal mistakes in words, which change their meaning. The", mistakesinclude, for exam ple, saying, "... upon whom r h"'·e b


dislike. Thu i, bNlluS( Ihe Prophn (PBUH) ("Iso) slIid, f(T'Jrnr "re)Ihree pt".Ot'S whflst pm~r does nOI riS( /Wtr tl,dr t


IL PRAYEREndnotesI The MUla.ilil .. (Mu 'l .. ilah): I! i"n 1e of the S


CHAPTERDuties of the ImamThe irndrn in prayer shoulders a great responsibility and if he performsit properly, his reward will be great. The favor of imarnate in prayer iswell -known; th e Prophet (PBUH) and th~ Rightly-Guided Caliphs have~ssumed it and have not appointed for it exapl the best people. Th.Prophd (PBUH) said:"Three persons will be "n the hillock of musk On the Day of Re,,,,,­reetiD"' (i) the person who leads people in prayer and they are wellpleased with him ... •In another bad/lh the Prophet (PBUH) said:"The reward of him (the irnam in prayer) is lib. that of those whoperformed prayer behind him.»I! is permissible for Ihe one who knows that he is qualified and fit for theimamate in prayer to seek it. This is because one of the Companions of theProphd (PBUH) onc. said to him:


11: PRAYER"Appol"t me to be the Im~m of my peopl~ In pmyer." The Prophet (PBUH)repliw, ·You are tlleir imJm bU/ lead prayer (as light lIS) the weakest of themcan perfor","What proves th.t one is .Howed to seek imam ale is what Allah, Exaltedhe He, says;"., ,And m(lire us a Itader {i,t. txampleJ for the rigilteouJ,"(Qur'iln: AJ - F urq ~n: 74)The one who assumes imamate in prayer should do the following:• Concern hims.elf with it giving it ils due in full as he possibly can. andfor this be will he greatly rewarded,• He should put into his account the conditions of those led in prayer, kun d. rst and i n g of t h ei r ci rc u mst a n c es an d avoid maki ng things dime u Itfor Ih.m. He ,hould also invite them to perform the congregationalpra~r and should not mah Ihem disinclined to perform it. Tbis isaccording to the b.adith in which the Prophel (PBUH) said:"If anyone of you leads people in pmyer. iw should lighten it becauSf(lmong them are the weak. IlIe old and one bl4Sy witl! his needs. Andif anyone among you performs prayer alo.l


CluPl


'"11, PMYERIlS#'d 10 k QOWI'" of 'he "mt


Ch. p,,, 24 : Du,in of ,he !",dmHowever, some imbms may not giv~ th ~ imJmat ~ its du~ right and ,...,sponsibility,for th~y may ...,main absent from the mosques Or COme lat e for theprayer, which causes difficulty 10 those led in prayer and gives rise to diS(:ordand diverts th e attention of those led in pray~r, Thus, such an imcim wouldbe a bad e);ample (who would be) followed by the lazy and those who do notshoulder Ihe responsibility duly, Such an imam should be rebuked, so thathe would p erform th e tasks of imamate properly wilhout causing those ledin prayer to shun (the congregational prayer) or hinder the function of theimamate. Besides, he should be dismissed from this position if he does notcome to his senSes.o Allah! Grant us success in doing whatever You like and what~er pleases You!EndnotesI -,1·BukhlrJ (703) 121258]. Mu


CHAPTERPrayer of Those HavingLegal ExcusesThoS(' wilh kgal a Cu~ art' the sick.. tile Ira~ler. and those who fearthey cannot rslablish p"'yu IS completdy as those w ltllout UC u~. TheLawgiver ' has lightened the hardship for the excusw Muslims and orde,-wthem 10 perform prayer a~ much as they can. This ruling shows the easeand rcliefilltcndcd for Muslims in the Sna rl' .. h (Islamic Law), as it alwaysdiminates hardships. Allah says:-... He Iuu chOSDl you .... d hu n,,' pI"cw "/HI"",,, in ,ht religion


11, PRAYERIn addition, Allah. Exalted be He. "'Y':" ... A.llah d",,, not chll rge 11 soul except {with that within} its,apacity ... " (Qur'an: Al -Baqarah: 286)Further, He says:"So fellr A.llah a. much as you an al>lt ... "MOI·~ov e r.the Prophet (PBUH) said:(Qllrh: At-TagMblln: 16)-ifr order you 10 do something, then do of it as much as you Clm:This is 10 b


If. Mu.!im patient cannot sit in pn.~r and it causes him a real difficultyto sit, then it is permissible for him to lie on his side facing the qib/ah'. It isd~irab l e for him in this case 10 lie on his right side.lfthere Is no one to helphim f_ce th~ qiblah and he cannot face the qibl~h h imotlf, then it is permissiblefor him to perform prayer fadng wh~tever direction he can face.If a Muslim patient cannol lie on his side in prayer, it is permissible forhim to lie o n his back. making his I~ face the qib/ah if possible. If a Muslimpatient $11$ in pr:tyer or if he lies on his side or ","dl and cannot prostra'e,then it is sumc"n, for him to bcdon bowing and prostration wilh his hnd,making his head a bit lower to b«kon prostration Ihan in bowing. If a Muslimpatient 5ilS in prayer and can prostrate, it is obligatory for him to prostrale andIt 15 not sufficient then 10 b«kon prostralion with his head.The proof of the legal pe'mi$.lion detailed previously is the hadith rel.tedby AI·BukMrI and the CompiLers of Sun~n 00 the authority of ·Imr.l.o IbnHupyn (may Allah be pleastd with him) who na rr:ttw:"/ had hemorrhoid5 so / tUktd thr Proph"t (PBUH) how I wuldrio"" prayer. Ht (PBUH) rtplkd, ·Pcrfurm pra}'cr whilcsUindingand if you cannol, perform it while .itting and if you cannot da(ewn) Ilwt, then perform it lying an you, .ide:">An.N .... ;!'i added in hiS narration that the Prophet (PIIUH) said:~ .. A"d if you (an nal, perform prayer lying on your back.."In addition, Allah lIy$:~ •• . Allah doa nol cha~ a fOlIl aupl / wllh thal w"h,,,/ ,t;Itapadty ... w (Qur"h: AI - 8~qarah: 286)Hen:, we should draw the ~ttention 10 Ihose Musliml who giveup prnyer when they are sic k or when they have had s urgic~loperations. cI.iming Ih31 they ca n not perform the acts of prayerprop"rly. or they cannot perform ablution. Or Iheir clothes a ...impurt or any ot""r tJ:CII$tS. They commit. big mista"'" since~ M",Jim is not permitted to give up pr:tyer when he cannotperform 5Qnte of ils condition., intq:ra1 pa.rts. or obligations. buthe must perform prayer a$ much as he can as Allah says:·50 ftar Allal, as ",lIrh aJ YO"IITr: a",t ... •(Qur'an: Al-Tagh~bun: 16)


II,PRAYERA Muslim paliffil may say, ·Whffi [gel ~II,! will make up for Ihe pn~rsT mis.""d during Ihe days of my illness." This is, legally considered. eilh~Tignorance. or negligence in religion for the prayer is 10 be P


Pra)'ff enjoys a great imporlance in Islam and a Muslim must establishprayer whelher he is healthy or side, as a palienl is nol legally excused to giveup prayer, but rather, it is obligatory upon him to perform il in whate .. ercondition. So, a Muslim must establish prayer as Allah, Exa lted be He, hasordained. We invoke Allah to guide us to what satisfies Him.Second: T he prayer of ridersA Muslim rider is ron side~ one of the excused as long as he can be Ilurlwhtn dilmounting his animal. Some cases of possible harm are:• When the.., is mud or ills raining• When h. cannot rcmount his .nimal iflle desccnds, When he fears to min his companions• Wkn k fcan an enemy or a wi ld animalIn such cases and tile like, it is permissible for a rideT to ptrform prayerwllil. riding Ilis animal or Ihe like. This came in Ihe aaallh narrated on theauthority ofY. ·U Ibn Murrah (may Anah ~ pkasN with him) who uid:"The Prophet (PBUH) ana his Companions were on ~ journeywllen the time 0/ pmytr became due and it mi"tl/. At Ilral limeIhey were on a p


"So ftar AI/Ilh IlS much as you art'able",-"(Qur'1fi: At-Taghabun: 16)11: PRAYERThus, onc is not legally required to do what is beyond onc's capacity. If aMuslim riding his ani mal cannot face the qiblah, then il is not obligatory uponhim to face it and he i~ to face any direction in prayer. Likewise, a passengeron a plane is to perform prayer as much as he can; he may sland, Sil, oow,prmtrate or beckon (bowing and prostration) with his head (according to thesituation), but he must face the qiblah for it is possible (to do so).Third: The Prayer of a TravelerA travder is onc of the e~cused persons for it is permissible for him toshorten the prayer consisting of four rak 'ahs (units of prayer) 10 only tworak 'ails as Slated in the Noble Qur'~n, the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition), andthe consensus of Muslim scholars. Allah, Exalted be He, says:itnd wlrtn you lravellhroughout thelnnd, there i. no blameupon you for Iht shorttning of prayer._. ~(Qur'an: An-N is ~': 101)Mor~""er. the !'mphet (?BUHj performed only shortened prayers on hisjourneys', Fu rt henno re, on journeys, shortening the pra )",r is bttte r than corn plet i ngit accon:ling to the majority of :;


A I .... vd~ r is p"rmiued 10 shorl~n the p .... ~r ""en if he frrquently I .... "'[s,11 in Ih~ caSt of a mail carri~r or, IU; driver .... ho sp"nds moSI of his lim~ onth~ way bet ..... e~n town~.It i$l"'rmissible for a t .... veler 10 combine the lolI!1f Prayer and the 'A~r(Aftunoon) P .... yer at the due lime of either of them, and, likew ise, locombinethe Mllghrib (Sunsd) P"'y


H"11: PRAYERof either of them in o,


fllan performing prayers at home, In additioll. congr~ational prayercombinea in the mosque is """" diu tlran performi"g prayers at Iromeindividuaily. according 10 tire "na"imoo" agre~mml of tire scholarswho mai"tai" the aforeme"rioned permissibility 10 cQmbi", prarers(due 10 bad K'eal/ocr). sucll as M


!l,PRAY!;Rthey have proJtrattd, let them be {in position I behind you ondhave the othu group ( OIlIe forward whkh ha. n"t {yet} pr .. yedand 1£1 them pray with you, laking precaution ond carryingtheiran.,. ... ~ (Qur'an: An·Nisa': 102)Im3m Ahmad (may Allah have mercy on him) states. "Five or six waysof performing the Fear Prayer are aulhenn,ally narrated about the Prophet(PBUH)." The Fear Prayer waS ordained during the lifetime of the Prophet(PBUH) and it is still legal to be performed until the end of the time. TheCompanions and most of the Muslim schola rs unanimously agree on that,with the exception of a slight inconsiderable dispute.The Fear Prayer is to ~ performed when necessary, both on journey an din residence, if Muslims fear that the enemy may attack them, as the cauSe ofits pumissibility is the fighling not the tmveling. In residence, it is permissibleto shorten only the way of performing the Fear Prayer. not the number ofmk 'ahs (units of prayt'r). Yet. on journeys, the Fear Prayer is to be ""rformedby shortening the n umber of mk 'ah" if the prayer consists offour rak' ah$, andby shortening the way of prayer, The Fear Prayer is ordained in two conditions:The first is when tile enemy is of those whom Muslims are ""rmitted te> fight,and the st(;ond is when Muslims fear to be attacked while performing prayer.All ah, Exalted be He, says:~ ... lfyoufear that those who di.MU,ve may di.rupt {or attocklyou ... H (Qur'an: An·Nis!': 101)And He says:"". Those who disbelieve wish thM you would neglect your"",,,{xms "nd your baggage." they could Comt do",n UpOIl youin "lie {single} attack..." (Qur'an: An· Nisa': 102)Onc way of performing the Fear Pray.r is narrated about the Prophet(PBUH) in the b.adilh on the authority ofSahl lbn AbO. Hathmah AI·An:;;' r;(may Allah Ut pleased with himJ.lmilm Ahmad considers this way (narratedby Sahl) as the preponderant view for it is similar to the way mentioned inthe Noble Qur'~n, This way of ""rforming the Fear P"'~yer is distingUished bycarefulness in performing prayer. c.ution with regard to fighting. and causinguncomfortableness to the enemy. Th. Prophet (PBUH) performed the FearPrayer in the aforementioned way during the Battle of Dhclrur·Riql! '. Jt is to beperformed as Sahl narrated:


'One row/ined up behind him (PRU H) while anatiter row (lined up)facing the enemy. The Prophet (PBUH) led the row film wa.s wilhhim in one mk"ah (unit afprayer), and he ltayed in the standingposture while that row performed (another mk'oh) by themselvesand went away, lining in Ihe face of Ihe I.'IIemy. The other groupcame "md he (Ihe Prophet) offered his remaining mk'all with Ihem,and then, remained silting until they completed thdr prayer bythemselves. and he Ihen finished the prayer along with them:"(Related by AI-Bukhari and Muslim)Muslim rdal~d another way of performing the Fear Prayn on the authorityofjabir (may Allah be pleased with him) who said:"' witnessed the Pear Prayer with Allahs Messenger (PBUH). Wedrew ourse/Vfj up in lwo rows, while the enemy WaS between usandthe qiblah. Allah',; MeS5enger (PJ;UH) pronounced takbir" and weall pmnoullced it. He then bowed ond we all bowed. He Ihen raisedhis head from bowi'lg and we all roised (our heads). He Ihen wenldown in prostration along with the row dose to him, and the rearrow faced Ihe enemy. When Allahs MeS5enger (PBUH) completedIlle prostralion atld slood up and Ille row near 10 him also did thi.!.Ihe rear row proslrated themselves; then they 5100


'"11, PRAYERrok "/Ill. Then ht pronOllnml ~ IMlim," find Ihen the mem~ oftht fin! group performed OM mk "lIh IInd those (i.e. the mmtbas ofIht s«ond group) perfurmw (lilt mk'il":"(Rd atnl by AI-BukMrl and Muslim)Ahmad. Ab\J Db'\id, and An.N.s11'" relatea fourth wayof~ rform jngtheFear Prayer in which th e Pmphd (PBUH) performed the Fear Prayer leadingeach group separately and pmnoundng taslim (with every group ~(ort hestarted prayer with the olh .. one).I< fift h way of ~rforming the Fear Prayer is narrated On the authority ofJlbi r (may Allah bot plea!ied with him) who said:"We _Ill with IM Propht!I (PB UH) ullri/we rtalW DMlur-Riq


• .•• And Id 'hem carry 'hei~ .. ~ms. •. • (Qurln: An·Nisa': 102)In addition, IM same ru lingsconc:e ~ ni n g IM afortmenlioned case of grnlfcar all' ordained for Mu.sl illl.§ while escaping from IM enany, tO ~ ll' nts or wildanimals, or wllile ellasing tile enemy. In suell ea$eS, a Muslim is pemlitled toperform pra)'t'r riding or on foot, to face tile qibu.h or any other direction, and10 beckon tile bowing and prostration witllll;s head.In conclusion, we can get some important lenons from the previouslyupl.ine< qiflWr. l h< direction of ""'rn, n.omdy toWUlb the KlI' boh,) AI·iluUtlrl i 11(7) 11I7S81·4 AI·Bukhlrl (80S) 121)51 and M ... lim i920j 121)51]S Ibn AbO SMyboh il80l ) Iln01 and Al.~yhaql (367~ ) 1214361.6 Abmad (l750)) 14/174] and Al · Tim>idhJ (4 11) 121266].7 A,j.o.rtqulnl (2275.1276) 1211(8) and AI.J!.ayhoql 1).,1141).8 AI'B


'"17 . Abdur-Rawq in hi. MUinno!( 4440) 121556).I R 5


CHAPTERJumu' ah (Friday) PrayerTh~ day of this prayer, Friday. is the ~t day of the week. as the Prophet(PBUH) said:"Among the most excellent of your d~ys is Friday." 'In another nadirh h~ (PBUH) said:'We (Muslim.5) are the las/ (10 come) but (will be) the first orl theDay of Resum!crion though the former "~Iiom were given theScriptures before IH. This (Friday) was their day of celebrationwhich was made compulsory for them but thcydifJerl'd aoout it. SoAllah save us tlw guidance for il (Friday) and all rI,e other peoplefollow uS in this respect."'Im~m Muslim ,,,,,orded that th .. Prophet (PBUH) said:"It was Friday from wllfeh Allah diverted those who were ~fore us.For Ihe Jew!' (11,e day ut ruidt jor prayer) WaS Saturday, and forthe Christia .... it was Sunday. Wlle'l Allah sent us (Muslims), Heguided us 10 Frid~y (~5 Ihe d~y a/prayer) for us _ ~'


""1J,I'IVoYEI


",The '"mU"1l1t (Friday) Pra~r is onc of tile most distinguishing acts ofworship of Friday. as it is of the most s,,,,osrd obligations of Islam and of th eg~a l esl assemblies of Mu slims. Th e Prophet (PBUH) said that he who leavesthe ]umu '


"There is an hour (a period of time) on Friday and if a MusH m getsit while performing prayer and asks something from Allah, thenAllah will definitely meet his demand:"11: PRAYERAnd he (the Prophet) pointed out the shortness of that tim e with his hands.Amongthe signifLcant actsof worshipon Friday is the sermon which is intendedto praise Allah and glorify Him, declare the testimony of His Onmess and HisM.ss ~ngd, me!"'ge, and to remind His servants (of the affairs of religion).There are so many special acts of worship to ~ obse rved on Friday (orits precroing night) which lbnul·Qayyim, in his book entitled ZAdul-Ma 'Jd(ProvisioMS for the Hereafter), mentioned, making them One hundrro andthirty three. Nevertheless. many Muslims neglect this day giving it no moreatten tion than any other day, some devote it for sleep and .loth. and othersmake it a day of diversion, play and h~edlessn . ss. away from remem~ringAllah. Consequently, the num~r of Muslims performing the Fajr Prayer (ofFriday) in congregation in the mosques is noticeably decreasing. There isneith er might nor power except in Allah!It is desirable for a Muslim to go early to the mosque for the Jumu 'ahP",yer and perform two mk'ahs (units of prayer) when he enters the mosqueas a prayer of greeting. He is f"' rmitted to perform more voluntary prayers ifit is early for the Jumu 'ah Prayer, as the Salaf(early Muslim s.cholars) usro togo early to the m"'que for the Jumu 'ah Prayer and f"'rform voluntary prayu.until the imJm came to deliver lh e :s.ermon.Shaykhul-Is];\m Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said:"/I is more entitled for a Muslim who goes early to the mosque forthe Jumu 'ah Prayer to perform voluntary pmyers unlillhe imJmcomes (10 deliver the sermon). It is stated in a ,auiu (authentic)uadith Ihat the Pmphet (PRUm said, ~ .. TheM he may performprayer as much as (Allah ha s) willed for him .. :" Moreover, thewords of the Prophet (PBUH) urge Muslims 10 pnfarm voluntaryprayeN wl,en they eMter the mosque before the sermon on Friday,without determining a specific lime (to do that). It is also narmtedtha1 the Compam'oMs used 10 ptrform voluMtary prayers a, muchas Ihty could when Ihty emered Ihe mosque before the sermon onFriday " . It could happen Ihm one of them perform ten, twelve


o,apttr 26: l.m.'


Shaykhul-lsUm Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have men;y On him) said:11, PRAYER' Before going fQr the lumu 'oh Prayer, or any other prayer, manypeople send shuts (carpttsj and the like to reserve a place in themosque, which i> forbidden according to Ihe unanimous agreementof Mwlims; rather it is prohibited. &holars helve two different vi~ ....whether the pmyer of such people is valid 0>1 such a sheet or not, asthey mllawfully seize a place in the mo'qu, l>y spreading such anobject, depriving others fro ", 1I1eir right to sit in such a place whenIheycomeearly. A Mtl$lim is togo, himself. 10 Ihe mosqu(Qnd, hence,if he selld, a sl>eet (to reserve a place) and COmeS later lie violatesthe Shari'ah in two WO)'!. The first is his delay, though he is orderedto go ea rly, and the second is his unlawful seizure of the place a",/depriving those going early from perfo"ning prayer therein andfromcompleting the rowS ill ""cession. one after another; Moreover, sl"ha person commits alloth" mistak< whC1l he disturbs t/,e peopl~. whocame before hi"" while surpassing Iheir rows, passi'lg over their necksto reach the reserved place.""11 is among the rulings on the lumu 'oh (Friday) that a Muslim shouldperform two short (light) mk 'ahs (units of prayer) if he enters the mosquewhile the imam is dd ivering the sermon, The Prophet (PBUH) said:"If anyone of you corn" for the lumu 'ah Pray", when the ;mamj,as already come out (10 deliver the lermon), (even then) he shouldperform two ro k 'ahs.""This hadilh is recorded by AI·Bukhari and Muslim and in the narrationof Muslim, he (PBUH) added, • ... olld should make them short."M However,if he ,its before performing the two supererogatory rak' ahs, he should standand perform them, for lhe Prophet (PBUH) told th e man who sat beforeperforming these two rak 'ahs, 'GeI up and perform two rak'ahs:"It is not permissible for a Muslim to speak while the imdm is delivering thesermon as Allah, Ex alted be He, ~ys:"S" whIn the Qurll" is reciled, Ihe or /isle" to iI Qord pay attentio"that you may recl/Vt mercy." (Q ur'iin: Al -A ' rar: 204)Some e~egetes of the Qur'~n maintain that this veTS


"If anyone evt'l'I SOY' (10 Itis companion sitling ~sidts ltim), 'Sahin(i,e. mum)"'" (",ltile Ihe !md", is dd!wring the Sfrmon), il will beconsidered uttering ill speech. A"d whoever wters ill speech, therewill be nO (rewMd fo r) )umlj 'all for him."In .noth~r lIadith. the Pn)ph~t (PBUH) said:·Whot...".. talks whilt Ihe imdm is delivering Ihe (Friday) sermonis /in 0 donkey fhat cllrria voIum~s (afbooks), and wh«wr IlSkshim ID ketp quiet and Iistm, thm will be no (rewllfll for) Fridayfor him:"Whal is mean l in Ihi J /J.ndlrll is Ihal Ihere will be no complele rewardfor Pr iday Prayer for him, Besides, il is re.:orded in the Two Sahl/J.s, o n theaUlhorily of Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him), thal lhe Prophel(PHUH ) said:"If YOll ask your companion /0 k«p quief ond /lsftn while Ihe imdmIs daivering fhe sermO'l, then you haw ullered nn iIIsp«Ch."'"ThiS ill sp«eh is considered a si n even if the sp«ch is the mere word"liSlen" thal is originally considered enjoini ng whal is right. So olher wordsuttered while Ihe im~m i ~ delivering Ihe sermon arc more enlilled 10 b-eprohibited.While ddivrophel (PBUH) lalked and listened losomeComp.;anio nJ for the sako. of a Itgal inlerest or to leach Ihem religioUJ rulings.This kind of spea king is perm issi ble, is it d~ nO! distJ'llct people's .tt ~ ntionwhile list~ni n g to the ~rm on.While IiSlening to Ihe krmon, one is nol permitted 10 give charityto. brggaT. a. he (Ihe be~ar), in Ihi. case. does an imprrm;s~ ible act soON: should not help him to such an ael. i.e .• praking while Ihe sermon i.delivered. When the preacher con fen blessing upon Ihe Prophet (PBUH),il is an act of the Sunnah (Prophetic Trad ition) for a Muslim 10 conferblHlling upon Ihe Prophet (PIlU H). bul wilhout ra isi ng his voke in ordernOf 10 distract the allenlton of olhen. When Ihe preacher invokes Anah, itis an ac t oflhe Slmn


Shaykhul-hlAm Ibn Tayn';yah (may Allah have mercy on him) said;lI, PRAYER·WMle the pre~cher is delivering the sermon, it is detestable orprohibited by uniform agreement fora Muslim to raise his voia, andneither the prayer caUer (m"ezzin) nor anyone else should r~ise hi,voice with conferring blessing upon the Prophet (PBUH) or by doinganything else,"'"It is noteworthy that sud, wrong acts, which Ibn Taymiyah pointed out,an' still committed in some countries. Some e~amples of such acts a"" raisingone's voice when conferring blessing upon the Prophet (PBUH), or somesupplications during or before the sermon or between the two S( rmons.Moreover, some preachers may order thoS{' present to commit such acts. Thisis considered ignorance and innovation in rdigion which is not permined tobe done.A Muslim mUSI not greet othns if he enters the mosque while the imdmis delivering the sermon; ralher, he should proceed calmly la any availableplace in the rows, perform two short rak'~hs (units of prayer) as mentionedpreviously, and sit to listen to the sermon without shaking hands with thosen ~ ar him. During the sermon one is not permitted to play with his hand, foot,beard, clothes and the like, for the Prophet (PBUH) said:"Whoever touches pebbles (while the imllm is deliverillg the FridaySermOn paying nO alien/ion to the sermon) has made an evil act."At-Tirmidhl detmO"d it a lah.ih. (authentic) h.adith". In another narration,the Prophet (PBUH) said:"... And whoever makesal1 evil act, no Friday (j,e. no reward for theFriday Prayer) will be recorded for him:This i, be.;ause playing pft'VenlS devoutness.During the sermon, a Muslim should not turn right or lefl, nor look at thepeople (around him) in order not to be distracted from listening to the sermon.Rather, he should face the preach., (looking at him) as the Companions (mayAllah be pleased with them all) u...,d to face the Prophet (PBUH) during hissermon " . If one sneezes, one should praise Allah secretly. For the sake of alegal inle""81, a Muslim is permitted to talk befo"" or after the .ermon, orduring the interval between the two sermons. However. one should not talkabout worldly matters.


In g~n .. ral, the two ,er monS of Friday (the sermOn of Friday is divid~dinto two parts) ar~ extremdy important in Islam as they contain therecitation ofthe Noble Qur'an, some bad!lhs ofthe Prophet (PBUH), usefulguidance, good instruction, and rememb rance of the days of Allah" . So, thepreacher and listeners must pay attention to the two sermons. The Fridaysermon is not an ordinary spe«h delivered in dubs, or during celebrationsor u~ual meetings.11 is worthy mentinning that during th e Friday s~rmon, some listeners raisetheir voius, seeking refuge with Allah when they hear a warning, or invokingAllah when they hear some mentioning of th .. Paradise or of the rewards ofAllah. This act is not permissible and it is included in th e acts forbidden to],., don ~ during th .. sermon. The legal texts indicate that talking during theFriday Sermon renders good deeds worth less and whoever talks during Fridaysermon will have no reward for the Friday Prayer, and will be like a donkey thatcarries volumes (of books). So, one must g uard oneself against such forbiddenacts and warn others to guard themsel~s against them.Faqihs (may Allah have mercy on them) mention that the I~m~ 'ah (Friday)Prayer is an independent obligation, not a substitut~ for the ?:.~hr Prayn'Umar (may Allah]", pleased with him) said:"The prayer of the tmveler is two rak"ahs (units of prayer), tilefumu 'ah Prayer is two rak 'ails, the Feast Prayer is two rak·ahs.Th~5~ prayer5 aFl' complete not 5horlened according to what yourProphet (PBUH) said:The lumu . ah Prayerdiffers from the Z;~hr Prayer in many ways (cone erninglegal rulings) since the former is bener and more stressed than the latter, andmore warnings are narrated concerning whoxver leaves the lumu'"h Prayer.In addition , the 'umu 'ah Pr~yer has some conditions and sp~cialties whichthe l.uhr Pruyer does nOl have. It is not sufficient for any Muslim, for whomthe fumu '"h Prayer is obHgatory, to perform the Zuh' Prayer instead of the!Umll'an Prayer, unless the due time of the laller is over; and only then theZuhr Prayer ],.,comes a substitute.The 1""'" . ah Prayer is an individual duty for every legally competent. freeand resident male Muslim, Abli Oawlid relates, with his chain oftransmil1ers,on the authority ofIlriq !bn Sh;h~b that the Prophet (PBUH) said:"(Performing) the fumu ' ~h (Friday) Pmyer in congregation is obligatoryupon ewry Muslim, with four exceptions; a slave, a woman, a boy,and a sick person:"


11: PRAYERThe transmitters of this nadir}, are trustworthy, and it is deemed Sflnia(authentic) by many scholars. Ad-Daraqutni also rdates. with his chain oftransmitters, on the authority of Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) thatthe Prophet (PBUH) said:"Whoever believe, in Allah and the Last Day mu,t perfon» thelumu 'ah Prayer ill congregation, willl four naptions; a ,ick person,a trave/er, a boy or a ,love,"»Sh ayk h u l -ls l ~m Ibn Taymiyah &;lid:"The !umu' ah Pra~ r is ablig"tory upon ''''''y group of people livingin pmnanent houses doS


There are some legal (onditions whk h make the f .. m .. 'ah Pray«valid,1. The fumu ' .. h Prayer must be performed ~t its due time which is acondition for it as the cuse with other oblig


"The Proplrtt UsM to deli>-er two urmo,rs "'kilt sta"ding Imd sjt j"MtwUII tlrem."'"(Rdated by AI -B ukhlrl and Musli m)In addition, among the conditions that make the two ~rmons of the}umu '"Ir valid i. that thq must contain words of pralK of Allah. declaring theTwo Trslification$ of Faith," conferring bkssing upon the Propoo (PBUH),givi ng advice to far Allah. as wdl as good irrstruClion. and Iht ~ i lation oftilt Noble Qur'~n (even one vt~). Many sermons or prtadters nowadays lacksome or most ofthc .fOKllXfltioned conditions.Im ~ m Ibnul-Qayylm (may Allah hav~ m. reyon him) said:'Contemplating tile strmom of the Propllet (PBUH) a~d thostof his COme of tire previous nMiom) that make His "'''VlmlJ fearHis pu"ishment. These se,mons (all Muslims to remcm!>er AII.ah amitllank Him .o tllm He mny love tllem. Also, Ihcse sermom menlionth. Majc.ty of Allah. His ,l,tt,ibults and Namu to draw His servalll.near /0 Him, and call Muslim. /0 obq. thank, and remember Him>0 Ihal H. m"y low Ihem. Thus. tho.., who IiSlen 10 sudr sermollSwould /t


preachers rrgard the sermon as a scholastic compoSItIon and improvisewhatever matt .. that comes to their minds, either related to the topk or not,making their sermons long and dull. Moreo""r, some preachers neglect ail thelegal conditions of the ser man (or at least some of them) and do not adhereto th. legal regularities of the sermon (according to the SUllllah) . Thus, theyhave So badly affected the standard of the sermonS that they (the .. rmons) nolonger fulflll their effective and useful objectives.Some preachers force irrelevant topiCS into their sermons that may bedifficult for most of those presenl 10 understand; they include topics of press,politics, and current events, which do not (religiously) benefit the worshipp


11: PRAYERThe faqfhs (mar Allah have merer on them) view that it is an aCl of theS"nnah (Prophetic Tradition) for the preacher to stand on a pulpit whil ~deliv.,ing the Friday S ~rmon as the Proph ~ t (PBUH) us~d to do. This is moreeffective for instruction as the worship~rs can see the preacher clearlr whilehe is delivering the ""rmon. An -Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said,"The preachers standing on a pulpit is a unmlimous act of the Sumwh:"For the preacher. there a", some acts of the Sunnah concerning the FridaySermon,He may gred thme present in the mosque when he ascends the pulpil.Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) said:"When Allah's Messenger (PBUH) ascended the pulpit. he used togive a salutation.""This tJ,adlth is related by Ibn M


'"of him while de1r."t'ring Friday ~rmOn and Ih~ worshippen (from among IMCompanions) also u!.W 10 face him. At·Tirmidhl related, on the authority ofIbn Mas"ud (may All ah be pleased with him), ,aying:·Wner! lhe Proph~ l (PIlUH) mod OM the pllipir, wc used lo/act him."Furthermo«, the preacher should mah ~ "',mon modenl\ely brid forfear that the wo rsh ip~ .. might b«omc oornl. H",",ver. he should nO{ makeit 100 brier l O the extent that thty might nol brndit from il. Im1m MLI5limrecords On the authority of ' Ammi. loo Vasi. (may Allah be plnsed withhim) Ihal the Prophet (PBUH) said:"A man. prolongmjon of tilt pmyt'r and shortening of rhe 5ermonMt signs of his umlersllwding (off~jth) . So prolong tile prayer an dsll/;.rlen the scrmmr:"The preacher lihould I'lIl ... his voice while delivering the sermon, for theProphet (PBUH) used 10 rai ... his voice and his ang .. r incll'~sW while deliveringa KTmOn. This is mor.. eff«liV


11: PRAYERIn the fm;t mk 'ah, it i~ an act of the Sunnah that the irnJm redtes theSura of AI-Jumu'ah (Friday)" after reciting AI - F~til1ah, and in the secondmk 'ah he may r~ i t e the Sura of AI-Munafiqun (the Hypocrires) " after recitingAI-Fdtihah acco rding to the iladith lmlm Muslim relaled on the authorityof Abo} Hurayrah ( may Allah be pleased with him)". The im~m also mayrec ite the Sura of AI-A '/J (the Most High)" in the fim rak'ah and the Suraof AI-Ghdshiyah (the Overwhelming Evenr}'" in the second rak. ·ah. It is alsoauthentically narrat. d that the Prophet (PBUH) used to recite the Sums of AI­Jumu 'ah andAI-Mlmdfiqun in the ,,,mu 'ah (Frid ay) Prayer and sometimes he(PBUH) recited the Sura of A/·A '/cl and the Sura of AI - Gh~shiyah",The irnam should not divide one sura of the aforement ioned between thetwo mk 'ahs as this is contrary to the Sunnah . The apparent wisdom behindraising the voice while redling Ihe Noble Qur'an in the Jumu 'ah Prayer is thatit is more evident and effective for achieving Ih e desired objectives.Endnotes1 Abu mw/id (1047) 11/443 ], "n-Nas,n (1373) IlIlOI), a nd Ibn M~j ah (1085) 1218 ].2 AI -8ukh.1ri (876) . nd Mudim (1975][31381 I,3 Muslim (J97\l) 13/382],~ Chaptot No, 32 of tl>< Qur'an.5 Ch.p,., No, 76 of tl>< Qur'!".6 .0.1-Bukhlr! (891) 121485 ] and M",]im (2031) Ill406],7 S= Z


25 AI·Bukhl ,\ (930) [2/523] and Musl im (2015 ) [314(0).26 Thi. ruling applies to any talk th.t may be u",,,NI during the «,mon.27 Ahmad (2033) (11230 ].28 AI-BukM.rl (934) [2/5311 and Mu


CHAPTERTwo Feasts ('lds) PrayerThe Prayer of the Two Feasls ( 'Ids), namely the Fast-breaking Feast ( "ldul­Filr) and the Feast ofSacrifiu ( . tdu/-AIillIl). is ordained by the Noble Qu(~n. theSunnah and the consensus of Musli nl scholars. Polytheists used to observe feastsat certain times and plau~. So, when [slam (ame, it invalidated such acls. Inrecompense, Islam ordained the Fast-breaking Feast and the Feast of Sacrifice asa means of showing thankfuln!$110 Allah, Exalted be He, for the rerformanceof those tWO great aCls of worship. namely faSling during the month of Rarna4i1nand performing tlajj to AI -Masjid Al -Haram (the Sacred Mosque).It is authentically narrated that when the Prophet (PBUHj Came to Medinaand there were two days that people used to celebrate, he (PBUH) said:"Allah has given you instead of them what ;s better. they are: theFe~st ofSacrifiu and the FIISI-breaking Feast,"H ~ nu. it is not perm i ~ible to exce£d the~ two feasts by inventing otherfeasts. such as binhdays "nd the like. as this is viewed as exceeding whati$ ordained by Allah. Moreover. such aCls are viewed as bid·ah (a maller


11: PRAYERinnovated in rdigion), contrndicting the Prophetic Sun"'I" and imitatingthe disbelievers. Such innovated feast~ arc not among the practices of Islam,whether they are called (eallS, corn memorations, days, weeks, years, etc" ratherth~ are considered among the practice. of the j>('ople ohhe Pre-Islamic Periodof Ignorance (the fdhlliy)'dh) as .... ,,11 as an imitation of the foreign disbdievingnations and O(her nations, In this npnl, tile Prophet (PBUH) said:"If anyone imi/lllts rile IIIDnntrS of Dny ptopk, l/ren he js (DnsidcrfCdone Df lIu'm,·1In addition, he (PBUH) s;oid:"Th e best of speeell is Ihat of IIle Book of Allalr, ~nd Ihe Mst ofthtguidanct is 11Ie guidance given by Mubam",ad, and Ih. "'OS/ nilaffairs are 1I10se itlno¥aled Un rdig;an); and ewry innovation (inreligion) is an error."'Wt ask Allah 10 let US S« tile right as right and guide us to follow il, andle! u. S« tilt wrong as wrong and guide uS to avoid it. lJnguW:ically, the WOf'd' fd (feasl) in Arabic means rq>eating the ~c t , and that il returns ("""ry ~a r)with joy IIld happiness. MorffiYl:r, Allah rc:lurns it wilh btnefKerK:~ and favoron His servants as a reward far their f'


"The menstruating women should keep away from the place ofprayer: 'Umm 'Atiyyah (may Allah be, pl~a ",d with h~r) narrated:"We were ordered to come out on the Day of Feast and ""en bringout the virgin girlsfrom their house, and the men,/ruatingwomen.Thty (men,truMing women) would stand behind people and saytakbir (saying, "AIIJhu-Akbar" i.e. "Allah is the Greatest"; alongwith them, and invoke Allah along wilh them, and hope for fheblessings of that day and for purification from sins."'In this res~ct. coming out to p


""has passed the meridian. they are \0 make lip for Il tM next morning. ThaI 1$b-rcau"" AbiI 'Umayr Ib n Anas ,eported on the authority of SOme of his unclesfrom the A,,~d r ' who sa id:"The new moon of (tht month of) Shaww~ 1 was ".... =51 so weobsuwd fllS/ing. By the ell d "I the My. some prople (lI rn , 10 IheProplr'" (PBUH) and Irstifrcd that tlrqlrad sigh/td lire ntw moon lirepm-iow d.ly. Ht (lilt Prophet), 'ht~fou. commandtd lire /'MPle 10brraJr. lire /OJlllnd 10 go ",JI la tlreir ploce of prrl~ in lire morllillg,"(RdatM by Ahmad, AbiI Dlwild, and Ad-runqUln[ who d«medil balm, (good) b.OOi/h)'This hadith is ~150 viewed a~ ~ahill (aud'enlic) aadith by a group of thememorilers among Ihe scholar5 of /:iadilh. Hence, if it wen: permissible toperform Ihe FU>I Prayer after the meridian, the Proph.et (PBUH) woold notde lay it 10 tile ne.l morning. AnOlller ruson is lhal the Feast Pra~r j, 10 NJl'


269(Qurln: AI -Kawthar: 2) AII~h ~150 omairled giving the charitybefore performing prayer on the Day of Fast-breaking in His.Mteme,,', 'He has ,,,,rtainlr .ueeuded who pUrlfie. himself· andment;ot .. the Name "fhiJ Lord ,md pra}'$.' (Qur'an: Al -A 'la: 14-15) Therefore, it becomes evident that the Sunnah ij to give charitybefore performing rhe Pr~yer of Fust-breaking and to sacrijiu afterperforming the Prayer on rhe Day ofSllcrijice:In addition, it is an a~ t ofth~ Sunna/, to go out early in Ihe morning wh~nproceeding to perform th e F ~ast Prayer, so Ihat one is able to ~ n~ar th ~ imam(leader in p ra~r) and to get the reward of waiting for th~ Pra~r, and so one'sr. ward increases. Moreovo:r, it i, an act ofth ~ SU"Mah for the Muslim to attendthe Feast Prayer looking n k ~ and wearing one's best dothes. In support of Ih is,Jabir said:"The Prophet (PBUH) had a jOOje oUlergarrnent, which he u.ed towear on th~ Two Feas,s and on Friday,:"(Related in S~bjll IbM Khmaymah (1bn Khuwymah's AuthenticBook of Hadirh))Also, Ibn 'Umar narrated that the Prophet (PBUH) used to wear his ~,tclothes on the Two Ftasts (as rel.led by Al .l\ayhaqi " with a good chain oftransmit!us).Residence is a condition for th~ F ~asl Prayer. That i s, those who int~nd toperform it must b~ s"'tl ~ d in normal dwellings, as the case with the }umu 'ah(Friday) Pray~r. [n other word .• , th~ F~aSI Prayer is not to be established exceptwheneyer it is yalid 10 establish the }",nu 'ah Prayer. III support of this, ithappened that the Feast ~ame while the Prophet (PBUH) was performing Hajjand he did not perform it (the Feast Prnyer) neither did his Caliphs.Th ~ Feast Prayer is 10 be perform. d with Iwo rak'ahs and to be performed~for ~ deliyering the sermon. Ibn 'Umar (may Allah be pleased with him)narrated:':Allah's Mlillenger (PBUH), AM Bakr, 'Umar and · Vthm"n used top~rforrn the praym of the TW(l Feast, before delivering the sermoll."(Rdated by AI_BukhM and Muslim)"Th ~ Sunnah tackled this issu~ daborately and most men of knowledge a...,of that yitw.


AI-Tirmidhi said:110 PRAYERi\ccording 10 Ihe view of Ihe men of knowledge among Ihe ProphetsComponion5 and othrr5, the prayer5 of the Two Feasts are 10 beperformed before delivering the sermoM:The wisdom behind delaying the deliver)' of the sermon after performingthe Feast Prayer, unlike that of the !umu 'ah (which is delivered before theprayer) is that the !umu 'ah Sermon is a condition for th e prayer: the conditionis 10 precede the act which depends on it. This is not the ca~ with the Feast""rmon, as it is an act of the SUMMah.According to Muslims' coosensus, th e Feast Prayer is to be performed intwo ral< 'al .. , 11 is stated in the Two Sahihs and other books of tiadHh that Ibn'AbM. (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:'TIw Prophtt (PBUH) performed a prayer of two rok 'ahs (units ofprayer) on the Day ofFast·heoking and he did not perform prayerbefore or after them:"In addition . . Urnar (may Allah be pleased with him) said:"The Prayer of tilt Fa>t-brea king Fra>1 and Ihnj of the Feast ofSacrifice are 10 be performed in two rok 'ahs. wit/lOut shorteningond this is said by the tongue of your Prophet (/'BUH); and he hasfailed who invents (faise~ood)."(Related by Ahmad and other compilers of Had'lh)"Neither prayercall (odMn) nor immediate pr~ye r call (iqilmail) is ordainedfor t he Feast Prayer. lmiim Muslim related that jabir (may Allah be pleasedwith him) said:-/ performed the Feast Pmyer along with AlIah"s Messenger(PBUH) several times mill h e performed prayer before deliveringIhe lermon, witho!ll pronouncing adh"n or iqilmal,: "When performing the Feast Pray .., one is to 'tart with .nnouncing Mkbir"in the first rak 'a/r after the opening rakbir and invo.;ation, Then, one is 10announce six takbfrs before se.:king rduge with Allah and reciting the Qur·an.The opening tokbfr is one of the integral parts of prayer that must be established(i.e. announced): pm)'er is not va lid except with it. The other takbfrs are amongthe act> of the SUNMllh (I'rophetic Tr.dition), After the opening tokbir, oneis to say the opening invo.;a\ion at the beginning of prayer, then say the sixaddition~l takbirs and seek refuge with Allah. as "'eking refuge with Allahprc.;:edes the recitation, and then one iSlo recile the Qur'~n.


In the ~e


11: PRAYERcertain ab


Ch.pl


11: PRAYERas mentioned before, and a special sermon, embedded in the Feast sermon,should be directed to them, With regard to this, when the Prophet (PBUH)found that hecould not make won,.n hear his sermon because he was far fromthem, he went to them, and advised and ordered them to gi"" charit)," . Thus,women should have their share of the topic of the Feast sermon, as they needthis and as this is considered a means of following the Prophet's t radition.Among the relevant rulings On the Feast Prayer is that it is viewed detestableto perform supererogatory prayer before or after it in the place of praye r. untilone leaves this place. This is based on the hadith narrated by lbl'l . Abbu (mayAllah be pleased with him). in which he said:"The Prophet (PBUH) performed a prayer of two rak 'ahs (unitsof prayer) OM the Day of the Fast-breaking aMd he did not performprayer ""fore Or after them.""(Related by AI ·Buklulri and Muslim)Thus, the Feast Prayer has no supererogatory prayer to De performedbefore Or after it.ImAm Ab.madsaid, "The peapleo/Medina do not perform anpupmrogatoryprayer. Neither before nor after the rea,t Prayer: In addition, Al·Zultrl said,"I knew that none of ourscholars mentions that any of the Sala/ (earlyMu,lim scholars) of thi, natjoM would perform any 5UpererogatorypraY'r be/ore or after the Femt PraY'r. IIm Ma, 'ud and 1:1udhayfahused /0 forbid people/rom performing aNY pmyer before i/.· ..How~ ver, when one returns home, there will be no harm in performingany prayer there, In support of ' his vjcw, Ahmad and other compilers ofHadilh related:"After finishing the Feast Pmyer. the Prophet (PBUH) used toperform /10'0 mk'ahs (units of prayer) on returning home.''''It is an act of the SUNMah for the one who misses (he Feast Prayer Or partofi! to make up for it according to its prescribed form and manner, namely toperform it as two rak'ahs with its additional takblrs, that is because making upfor it is similar to the actual performanc •. This is based on the generality of theProphet's aadrrh, in which h. (PBUH) says:' Pray whatever you get. imd complete whatever you missea:For instance, if one misses one rak'ah wilh Ihe imJm (leader in prayer).one is to complete prayer by performing another one, Mo,",ov. r, if olle comes


Ch.pto< 27; Two F." (' rJ.) P"'),u .. ." (Qur'an: AI-Baqarah: 185)


11, PRAYERConsequently, takbir is more stressed upon with regard to the Fast-breakingFeast, as it is enjoined by All ah.fn the Feast of Sacrifice, limiteJ takbir is ordained; namely, the takbirwhich is said after every obligatory prayer performed in congregation, In suchan act, th e imam is to face people, aftu uttering Ihe final salut.tion in prayer,and utter takblr along with them. Ad·DMaqull11, lbn Abli Shaybah and oth",compilers of liadlth rt'lated on the authority of 'abir who said:«When the Proplwt (PBUH) performed the .s.ubil (Morning) Prayerin the morning of 'Amfah (the ninth of Dhul-liijjah), he used 10pronounce takbir .... "In th i sease, one is to st" rt pro n ounci ng the t akbi r i mm ,'tIia tely after prayers.As for the non-muhrim .. person, the due time of the limited takbir starts fromthe Fajr (Dawn) Prayer on the Day of' Arafah (Mount) until the afternoonof the last day of the Days of Tashriq (da)" 11 ", 12", 13" of Dhul-Hijjah},ConHrning the muilrim, the time of the limited takbir starts fmm the ZuhrPrayer on Ihe Day of Sacrifice until the' A.r (Afternoon) Prayer of the last dayof th e Tashriq Days, as before that time a pilgrim should ~ busy pronouncingwlbi)'


jm~ oJl~k.bir is to . III,t/mm aa",n of Ihe dll)' of · .... m/nlt "'tl illlt~lru/ day oflhe Ta,hrl" Dtlys. " Md that it is /,,!>e ,,/Ier each p'''yer. Itjs ' lol~d in Ille SWIM. Ihm th e Prophet (P8UH) mid, {'The Doy of'Ma/air. "nd the Day ofSacrifiu ""d the Day. of M,'",) (,/ays II ~ .11"', 13'" o/Dllu/-Hilia1r) are our fea.t. we Mw/imJ. n'Ue da)" aufor ",linK and dri"ki"g (what 1.la .. ful) (Jj wdlllS the fe .topped when throwing /amr'"I1/­. AqalNlh". The ti",,,, of /o mrolul-'A'Iaooh .'"lm jn lire Sum,an(Propheti, Tr"diriOl') is in lilt fore noon on Ihe D Il)' of Sacrifice.Tlltn/ore, rite ",uh';'" will be tquallO rhe ",uhill (""n-mull,;m),so if he Ihrow5 /nmrnll4 l_ 'Aqablllr before dll"''', he is '10/ /0 starl'~ k "jr except ~fl~r pcrformi t!i4.IIt~ Zullr Prayer. Tltls is accordjtlg 10IIt~ mo.-I pr~vailjt!g 0p/tlrotl'-As for Ih~ mannn" ,,~, ordinll 10 which lakbir i. 10 b~ ~ r fo r med, on ~ is toAy "A11tl1t is 11t~ GmtltU, A llah is lite GrmltU; lheu js 00 /kil, "ul Allah; A/Itlltis Iltt GTUJIt$I, Allalt is the GrmleJl, atld (.. 11) proist is due la A/wit." Thtnwill ~ no harm in ~xcha nllinll fdkitation among people, saying, ·M~y AlI~haccept good d~eds from )lOu and from us." In this ugard. S haykh ul · "L ~ m JbnTay mLyah u id, "/1 was re/tiled 111111 some of lite Comp.",iom "m/ lo do such anacl, Imdm AiJmad and ollt"" view meh at! act as legally pcrmiJJiblt'-" The aimbf:h lnd . ~ c hanging felicit :l!lon Is to show affection and delight toward, on ~'1MUllim brod\tT$. Imlm Abmad u id, "I tfu no/ .tart giving Ihis felici/orio n,bur if rt (pnUH) and . 11 I~ Muhdji,aln (Ih. Emlgranu) upon theirarrival there_


'"11: PRAYERa AbU Dlwiid (1157) (1/4n1. Ad·Nasii (lSS6) [21199(. Ibn Mljob ([653) 11I)(\lJ af\dAd·l)lln.qUjnl (WU) (21 1491.9 Mu .... 1 (incompl.t,.!y 'nolUmillrd) badith i. a bodi'" whose chain oftr..,,,mi .. ion lacks• Companion lran.mltl .., i .•. a bad/lh Ih'l • Su«usor of t~ Com~io!U h •• dill'Ctly. Uributt' paMl by the rich 10 [hotpoor. In a juristic .. i .... it illO bt paid 01 any liln< throughoul Ramd1n. whnHs il Is"""'"' prrl


010 Ibn Mijoh (J 193) jVl(8), Ahmod 1}l28. ~Ol and loo Khuuymah (1469).41 Ad. DI",quln! (! 700) 12/~) ond Aj.jjlkim (1147) 1112981.42 Mu!lim (2052) [314 19].4l A


CHAPTEREclipse PrayerAllah, E.xahed be He, INIYs:~It;, H~ who nuule Ihe sun .. ,hining light and th ~ "'",,11 adu'ffi1l1ghl aM dettrmined for iI phflJU - thtlt you ",ay knowthe """,bn-of ~"rs .. lid "«0"'" [of';mel. AI/ .. " "... n,,' ~mtthis UUpl jn I.uth. Ht


I1, PRAYER" ... And Wt uHd "oil/resigns ucept as a war"ing.~(Qur'an: Al·lsra': 59)TheCC' was an edipse in the lifetime of the Prophet (PBUH) and so hehurried to the mosque filled with fear and dragging his garment out ofhaste.He led Muslims in prayer and t"ld them that the edipse is a sign amongst thesigns of Allah by which He warns His servants. He also told them that it mightbe the reawn for a .


and moon are C~ I" rcs, just Ilke the olher creatures, Ihal may be affiictffiwllh imperfection and change. Thus. Allah does this 10 show His s..rvantoHis subli me, perfect Might and 10 confirm that He is the Only One deservingworship. Allah, Exalted be He. says:·And afHis signs are 11r, nlghl and day and th., IU"


'"11, I'AAY£Rsimilar to the first, n"rneiy with two prolonged bowings and two prolongedprostrations. Finally. ooe is 10 recite T~sh"hl,wl and say laslim ".This is how the Eclipse Pmyer is to bt one and then said (after risingfrom bowing). IIlIah listens tothe one who praises Him, 0 our Lord! (All) praise is due 10 You:TI,cn, he prostrated nnd then he did the snme in the second rak 'oh:thus he completed four bowings and four prostmtions. The sun(eclipse) had de~red Ixfore he finished the prayer."(ReI.ted by AI-Bukhari and Muslim)"It is an act of the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) to perform EdipS


If the p rayn i. fi nished !>dOrt [M «lipM' is ove r. ont i. 10 rtson 10rtmmlbning and invoking AII~ h unt il it is over. and noI to rtpeat prayer.H~r. iflhe «Iipse is d ear du ring prayer. one i. to complete illightly andnot 10 finish it nraighl away. as Allah. EJlahed be He. AYS:w • • • A"d do rIot I"""lidate you ~ deedJ. w(Qur'A n: Muhammad: 33)Hence. prayer i~ to be during the lime of eclipse. as the Prophet (PBUH)says, • ... until tile edipse is clear: and. ' .. until tilt «lipst is over:"Shaykh ul. lsUlm Ibn T~ymi ya h .. id:'The time of the edipse mll)' W 10lfg lit limn. IInd shorl 01 0Ih«5.This is IUfarding ta (the IImaunt of) Ihe purl edipled af Iht sun :Ihe SWI mll1 be enlimy IIr pIIrlillU), «Iipstd. Thus. if Ihe roipseItlku a king lime. ane is la prolanK pmyrr- and rw:ilt the SUIlI ofAI-Baq


'"H: PftAYER7 ram,f', Saying' Sami 'allJhu liman iIamidah" i. • . ·A II~h jj,,,,,,, to tf>< one who pni .. ,Him ," when 'tanding following bowing in praytt.8 Toam/,) (in pray"']: Saying os a ",ply 10 'a.mr, ·RQbban~·_lakal - i1.am.r i.e. "OurLord, to You I>t (all) pr:a i""_"9 Ch.pler Nu. 3 of ,'''' Qur'in,10 Ta,Urn: S.yi n g tll< fi nol Saldm.; n proY"r ( •• )ing. "J.,..,!ldm u . "layku m wa Roama tullclh'i.t. ·P,.u b< "pcm )tIu. and /11, mercy of Allah") when


CHAPTERRain PrayerThis prayer is a means of suking rain from All ah, Exalted be He, duringtimes of drought. That is, pwple are naturally dispoKd 10 a~ help from tileOn. Who is able to support them; Allah Alone. This pnyer was known amongthe pmoiou$ nalions. It i. ~nI. also as one "fthe ..:1S 01 the proph~ (peacetK upon Ihlml all), as Allah. Exalted be He. says:-A,.d {mall] wIIm Mom prD~JorW


110 PRAYERthe sermon of Ih~ Jumu 'ah (Friday) Prayer, in which the imdm may invoke Allah,and Muslim. say, "Amin (Amen) ." Furthermore, it may be by invoking Allah after~rforming prayer~ o r by supplicating Him in sedusions with n~ith~r pra~r nor~rmOn. All such acts a,.., rdated about the Prophet (PBUH).The Prayer for Rai n is ,..,garded as a stressed SUMM(lh, as 'Abdulliih IbnZayd (may Allah be pleased with him) said:«The Prophet (I-'BUH) wwt out /0 invoke AI/nllfor rain. He faced 11"'1iblah,' invoking Allah. Then he tmversed Itis cloak and performedlwo rak '0115 o1ld recited the Quran aloud in them."(Rebted by AI -Buk hari and MuslimI'There arc many I!adi/hs in support of this practice.The Prayer for Rain is similar to that of the Feast concuning its ,..,Ie .. antrulings and the place where it is performed. That is, it is viewed desirable toperform it in the place where the Feast ( -Id) Prayer is performed; outside themosque. Moreover, its rulings and practices are the same as thos~ of th ~ FeastPra)'er, nan,ely the number of rok 'ahs, the loud recitation of the Qur'an, beingperformed before delivering the sermon, and the additional takbirs in the firstand second rak 'oh, befor~ the recitation of the Qur'an, as illmtrated befo,..,.Ibn 'AbMs (may Allah be pleased with him) narrJted:"TIle Prophel (PBUH) performed /wo mk'ahs as lie does in Ihefeasl (Prayer):At -T;rmidht .... ys that this is a hasan (good) and 1al!ib (authentic) badith,and AI·Hakim and others ' view it as a ,al!ib (authentic) hadith, as welL Theone performing Ihe Prayer for Rain i. to recite the Sura of AI-A '1


-A rod if"''')' Ih .. /nopl .. oflht ei/ieJ hlld btlin'td Il .. d fumd A/W.,W .. would hllV/! optro .. d (l.t.IHJlo ..... d] upo .. Ihtm bltui"p/romIh .. htaW'" Il"d Iht tll,th; bUI they de"itd {tht must"gt,.,}. soWt Jeiud tlltmfor whtlt the)' ", .. rt tllr"i"g.H(Qur'~n: AI -A '!if: 96)FurU...rmo..,. th .. ;molm $hould command peopl .. to giW' charity to thepoor and .-.enly. as this is ~rded as a cau~ for sending AlIah's mn-cy. Afterthat, he is to set for them a cert ain day. at which Ihey 8.., to COlllC' out and beP"'p;lred for such an honorable occasion. and according to that which bestsuits il ann act ohl\(: Su"",,II. At that date. p=ple a ", to go OUl to th e place ofpraytr showing humbleness. submissiveness and n ~d! n es.s of Allah, ExaltedM He. as Ibn • Abb~s (may Allah be pleased with him) said:"A I/ah s Messe"ger (PBUH) we"t out to ptrform tile Prayer for Rni"s/wwi"g hum;/ity. humbi .. " t1$, Il"d submo'u;wro .. $$. lI"d Jupplirat­;lfg (Allah)."{At· Tirmidhi said that this is a ilasall. s.ablh (good, authentic) /lIldilh.)No Muslim should Slay behind {from goi ng outl while abl e. even lmys andwomen, whose presence does nOI cause temptation. are 10 go out to performit. Then, the jmdm is to lead people performing two rak'ahs, as mentionedMfo",. After doing so, he is 10 del iver one sermOn. However. some scholnsview that the jmdm is to ddiver twu sermons. B(){h opinions are permissible,but t ..... soundest opinion is to deliVff oroe ~rmo n , according to the mostp""prmderant legal proof. In most casn, t ..... Prophet ( PBU H) delivered I .....$trmon aftn ptrforming the Praytt' for Rain, and Musl ims acted a.ccordingto this. HoYI~~r, it is ",lalc-d that the Prophet (PBUH) delivered the sermonbefo", ptrforrning the p~ )'t r · . This is the view of some $( hol~rs, but the firstview (delivering Ihe sermon after pc: rforming praytr) is mon:: p"'ponderant;and Allah knows best.In the ~rmon of asking for B in, the imdm should uk for All ah'. forgivenestas well as ~i te the vn'StS tllat command aski ng for forgi\'eness, in aoondmce.as this is considered a CaUK for sending rain. Moreover, the imdm shouldsupplicate Allah, Exaltc-d be H~ , with much invocation, aski ng for TlIin. WMnsupplicating Allah. t ..... i",dm should rai$t hi. hands, as the Prophet ( PBUH)used to rai~ h" hands when invoking Allah in the Prayu for Rain, SO muchth~t tile whiteness orh;s arm pits became visible'. The Imdm should also ronfer


[10 PRAYERblessi ngs upon t h ~ Propllet (PBU H). as this is. aUK for (Allah) an~ringhi. supplication. He may invoh Allah wi\n th~ supplication related aboutth e Prophrt (PBUH) in suen Sit uation~' as a m ~ ans offollow ing him, [n thbregard. Allah. Exalud ~ He. la)","Thut has cUfalnl, bUlljrJr yau III fl,~ Me_ "pr of Allah all"


Oupltt 29: R..in Prayer4 ChopItt No. 87 of the Qur'!n.5 Chlp'" No. 83 of the Qu,'an.6 Al·8ukhl" (1024) 12/6631 al'Kl Muslim (2068) 11/4281; oec 0100 Al·Bayhaql in hi.'S "n~n'IJI486 ] ,7 Al.llukhl" (1031) 12/6671 .nd Muslim (2074) 1)/4).01,8 Al · Sukh~" (1013) 1216461 and Muslim (2075) [3/431 J,,The Two WlI!


CHAPTERDeath and BurialOur snarl' ah (Islamic Law), thank Allah. is SO perfecl and comprehensivethat it ~rs all mans arrJirs ubtw to his li~ as wel l as hu do:ath. Amongthe iSSUd that our Shllrl 'Qh ~rs are the rulings OIl deathbW and death,starting from ones last ill ness aoo dath, until one's burial. Our Sharl 'nlralso c~rs the ruli ngs on visiting a dying perwn and instructing him 10 "y,'Th~rt u no deity bUI lI/1alr." washing the body of the dectas.ed, enshroudinghis body, )l


",11: PRAYER• Giving the dying and deceal«! person the kindes! treatment. thatbenefits him in his grave and on the day wh en he is resurrected.Such a kind treatment indudrs many acts. such"" visi ting thedying person, instructing him tQ Uller "The~ is no deity but Allah'bdore bralhing hislas!. Kind tn:atmmt also includes purifying thedeceuW by WlI.hing his body nd prq>aring him for mttting Allah.Exalted be He, in his besl form and m ,le, standing in rows whileperforming the Funeral Prayer over him, praisi ng Allah and n tollingHim while praying ovu the deceased, and asking Allah to conferHis blt";ng upon the Prophet (PBU H) IQ ro"i~ the deceaKd, 10h:a.~ mm:r upon him and p;ardon his sins. Among tM acts of theSunnah is funding on the side of the deceased person's grave askingsteadfastness for him (when questionni by the Two Angds), visi tin ghis grave. invoking Allah for him, being good 10 hi5 family andrel.tive$, and 50 on." IIt is worlh .mnlioning that it i, an acl of the $u,,,,aJr 10 mention deathf~uentl yand prqnnomself fori tt hrou gh ~ntanceandC(lntrilioo ,rdur n in8I"" ("mlawfully acq lLired) rightS to their rightful owners. and hastening to dogood dffiis lest one dies unexpectedly, The Prophet (PBUH) ">id:"Mention the pleasure destroyer (i. t. death) jrtquemly.·(Related by the Five Compilers of Had!lh' with au thentk chains oftransmiUen, and dttmed ~iJlh (authentic ) bDdlth by Ibn HibMn,Al-.w.ldm, and otMrcompllers of fladith )MOreQ\Tr, AI·Tirmidhl and other compilers of Hadith related on theauthority of Ibn Mas 'i1d the following marf .. · (traceable) hadith:"Allall~ Messenger (PBUH) sa ,'d, 'Show due bashfulness to Allah.'We (the ~mpiln;ollS) said, '0 Messenger of Allah! We $howINuhfulntn, ,hank Allah.' He (PBUH) said, 'I' iJ "0' ,hal (Qj)"'u,hi""). Trlle bashfll/nm 10 Allah is 10 kup the head and wh"t ;1cOI1laillS (i.t. to kup Ihe eyes. ears. lo"pe, ttc" "way from sillS)""d to leeep Ihe abdomen (away from unlawful food) and whal isrd"/td to it (i.e. 10 kup tht privalt P


Firstly: Rulings on Sickness and DyingWh~n oroe Is affIiclnl with an illn


'"11: PRAYEReye and amiction. The idea ~hind prohibiting su,h things i. that one's heartwould be anached to them instc~d of Allah, seeking their aid and protectionagainst harm, which i~ a kind of polytheism or onc of its causing faclOrs. Thesame prohibition appli


'/1 is ",,1 permissible for allY Uusli"l who has something 'a dlXlarejll ttstimony to stay for tW


11: rRAYERIt is also an act of the Sunn~h to makt the dying pt"non face the qi"'llh(direction of prayer), and to recite the Sura of Y


"A sign


lOO11: PRAYERthe back ofhis camt! and broke his neck and died, ht (PIl UH) said. • ... _sIthim with wafer alld sill •.. :" {Rdat....t by AI-BukhM lod Muslim)'" Wuhingth~ deceased is reported \0 have been r ec urr~ nll y enjoined and observ~ d bythe Prophet (PBUH)" . Momwer. the body of th e Prophet (PBUH) himsdf,the pu~ and purifie


""comes nnl1he dosal female relali~ to the dKeasro. then the closer. and soon and so fonh.In gelltn1., body of a dKeas«! Wt Prophet (PBUH), ""as washfd by women when he died.However, I~ is Im l>frmissible for a woman 10 wash Ihe body of a deceased:;even-year-old boy or upwards, and for a man to wash ~hc body of a deceasedseven-year-c ld girl or upwards.It is also impermissible for a Muslim to wash the dead body of a disbeliever,carry his ,0fflO to the grave, enshroud his body. perform the Funeral Prayerover him. or aucnd his funeral procnsion. This is b«au$.C Allah, Exalted beHe, says;"0)'011 wit .. lID .... IJdjeroed, do " .. t IrNlb IIl1ia of 0 people wit"wlwm MlDh Iuubecome""Pr"'- (Qurln: AI·Mumlahinah: Il)The general rMa ningof~he~ indica~es ~h.a~ i~ is prohibited to wash II>tbodyof .deceased disbeliever. arry his coffin. or follow his funeral p'""«ssion_In addi~ion. Allah. Enlted be He, says:-"lid do lIot proy (the FUlle,.,,1 Prayer, 0 Mu b.llmmad,j over allYof them who haJ dit d - ever - or .ralld at hi. grllVt, Indu d, Iheydl.belit~td In Allah,.," (Q ur'An: At·Tawbah: 84)Allah also says:RfI J. "0' fo, fht Prophtl and Iho" who ha", Inliewd t .. ask/orKi.... neufor Ihe po/ythtisb ...- (Qur'An: At·Tawbah: 11})


11, PRAYERThus, it is impermissible for Muslims to bury the body of a disbdiever, yetif there is no fellow disbeliever to bury him, a Muslim should throw his bodyinto a hole so that it causes no harm to othe ... That was done by the Muslimsto the bodies of the polytheists killed in the Battle of Badr, when they threwthem into the well of Al -Qalib. The same applies to apostates, like one whoabandoned prayer intentionally and one who innovated a bid 'ah (a matterinnovated in religion) that leads to disbelief.That should always be the Muslim's attitude toward a disbdiever, whichindicates denial and hatred. Reponing the story of Prophet Ibr:.\him (Abraham)and those who believed with him, Allah reveals:H •• • When Ihty $


Ch'pt.,3O, Dc.th .nd Buti,lWashing the body of th~ deceased must be a!tended only by the washerand those assisting him; it is detestable for anyone else to attend the washing.The washer should raise tile head of the deceased that the latter becomes in asemi-sitting position. Then. he passes his hand Over the deceased's abdomenpressing it gently to allow anything withheld therein (such as excrements)to come out. While so doi ng, he should pour much water over the body tooverflow and remove such excrements coming out (if any). After that, thewasher wraps his hand with a coarse piece of doth and cleans the stool andurine exits and the anus of the deceased with water.After that, the washer declares his intention of washing the deceased. saystasmiyah (saying. «Bismillclh" i.e. "In the Name of Allah~) . and purifies thedead person with the ablution performed for prayer. As for rinsing the mouthand the nose with water, it is sufficient to wipe over Ihe teeth and no,trils withtwo wet fingers or paS.! a wet piec" of cloth over them wit houtletting any waterenter th. dead person·s mouth or nostrils. Then. the washer washes the headand beard ofthe d«eased with sid," or soap. The washer then starts washingth . decea..,d·s body beginn ing with the right parts; h. should firSI wash theright part of his neck, his right hand and shoulder, the right half of his chest,the right thigh, the right ieg, and the right foot. After th at, the washer rolls th edeceased body to its left side and washes Ihe right side of his back Then thewasher rolls him on his right side and washes the left side of his back in th .same way.During washing the de


11: PRAYERwash him. In such cases, tayammum (p"rforming dry ablution with deanearth) is to be p"rformed for the deceased, wiping over the deceaseds faceand two palms with d ean earth, using a piece of cloth or the like to hinder Ih ewashers di rect contact with the deceased's body. However. if it is difficult towash onlyeerlain parts of the deceased's body. the washer then is to wash whatis available and perform tayammwm for those unwashed parts. It is desirablefor the washer to ha"" a ritual bathing following washing the deceased, yet itis not obligatory to do so.Fourthly: Rulings on ShrolldingAfter washing and drying the body of the deceased, it i, to be put in a,hroud that must cover all his body. It is desimble 10 use a white clean shroud,whether new - which is better · or not. The obligatory size of Ih e shroud ;s thatwhich covers the whole body of the deceased.It is desirable to ~hroud the deceased man in three shrouds of cloth andIhe woman in five pieces of cloth: a loincloth. a yeil, a shirt, and two shrouds.As for deceased children, a boy is to be shrouded in one shroud. yet threeare permissible, and a girl in onc shirt and two shrouds. It is also des irable tosubj oxt the shroud to a censer. after being sprinkled with rose water orthe like.so that the scent of incense would remain in the shroud.The man is 10 be shrouded by spreading the three shrouds over each other.and then he is to be brought covered with a garment or the like as i t is obligatoryto be covered, and to be put lying with his face upwards on Ihe thre


Ch'p''' 3!} J:o..,h . nJ lluri, lAs for a d~ceas~d woman, as mentioned above. she is to be shrouded inflve pieces of cloth: a loincloth, a shirt. a veil. and two shrouds,Fifthly: Rulings on the Funeral PrayerAfter washing and shrouding the deceased, the Funeral Prayer is to beperformed over him, Ab .. Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:':4.lIah$ Messenger (PBUH) said, 'Wh aever altends the funeralprlXt$.SiOn urllil he performs Ihe FUIl~m[ Prayer jor it will g~t ~ rewardeq u ~i to one qiraJ, and whoewr accompanies it until burial wiilget areward equal to two qfr~l .': 11 was askrd, 'What are two q/r~ls?' He (theProphet) replied, '(They are) like Iwo h"gc mountains (of reward),'·(Rolated by Al -Bukhdr! and Muslim)"Performing the Funeral Prayer over the deceased is a collective duty; ifperformed by some of those in the neighborhood of the de


4-Asking Allah to confer His blessing upon the Prophet (PBUH)5-Praying for the deceased6-Performing these integral pa"s in sequence7-Ending the prayer with tmUm"The acts of the Sunnah observed in the Funeral Prayer:I· Raising the hands upon saying each {akMr11: PRAYER2-Seeking refuge with Allah (from the accursed Satan) befo", ..,.;:itingAI-FMilIah3-Tnvoking Allah for oneself nnd for all Muslims4 -Being quiet while recitingS-Having a sho" pause after the fourth takMr and ~fore lasllm6-Puning one's right hand over the left wilh both on the chest followingeach takbir7-Turning to the right when saying ras/fmThe Way the Funeral Prayer is PerformedThe Funeral Prayer is 10 ~ performed in the following way: The imdm(the one who leads th e congregational prayer), Or one performing it alone Overa deceased ~~ on, should stand toward the chest oflhe deceased if a man andtownrd her middle if a woman. As for those led in prayer, they ~hould stand~hind the imdm, and il is an act of the Sunnah 10 stand in thr~ row •. On.~gins with ",ying the opening Mkbir and then s~ks refuge with Allah (fromSatan) directly following saying takMr - without saying the opening invocation- then one recites Brumalah'" and the Sura of AI-F


O",njpoltnr. 0 AII/lh! To whom~~er()f us r(lU gi~ lifo, grllnt himlife as " follower oils/am. and whomsoel'er of us You 'Il U~ dealh,eaUSf him death as a btliel'er. 0 Allah! Do nOI withhold from uSthe reward (jor sllOwing pMi'"'' upon his demh) (wd do 110/ leaveII.l t" go Ilstray aflU him (i.e. o.flt . his deo.th )". 0 AI/IlII! Forgivehim. lIaw mercy upon him. giw him /H'QU, pardon him. rrcnvehim wilh hanor, mak .. his grave spDdous (lnd wash him wilh """n;iet Imd mow. Ckonu him from sillS and taults as


11, PRAYERAs for" stillborn whose age is four monlhs upward, the FUlleral Prayer isto be performed over it; if less, there will be no funeral Prayer Over it.Sixthly: Funeral Procession and BurialIt is a collective duty upon Mu slim' who know about the death of a MuslimW carry his coffin to the grave and bury him. lIurial is legaliled throughboth the Qur'an and the Sumwli (Prophetic Tradition). Allah, Exalted heHe. say""Htlv~ w~ not mtlde the eart~ a container oft ~ e living and thedetldr (Qur'An: AI- MursalAt: 25·26)Allah. Exalted he He, also says:"Then Ht cauJU h'J death and providu " grllve for him.~(Qur'an: ' Abasa: 21)Besides, there are numerous iladiths concerning hurial, stating that itis an act of devotion and dutifulness signifying honor and concern for thedeceased.Tt is an act of the Sunnah to escort the deceased to his grave, as it is statedin the Two Sahihs, as mentioned above, that the Prophet (PBUH) said:· Whoever attentJj the funeral procession until he performs thef'uneral Prayer for it will gel a reward equal 10 one q(rilt andwhoever accompanies il until burial will gel a reward equal to twoqiral': When he (PBUH) was asked, "What are two qlrills?" Hereplied, "(They are) like Iwo huge mountai/IJ (of reward).""There is another wording according to AI-Bukhari's narration of thisb.adilh which goes as follows:·Whoever escorls Ihe deuased to tire grave ..•However, the wording oflmam Muslim is:"Whoever goes out accompa"yi"g a funeral from its house, offersprayer for il (i_e. Ihe Funeral Prayer), aMd Ihen follows il (ilsproussion) untillhe deceased is buried .. :"Thus, the different narrations of the afor~said had/lh i nd icat~ that theProphet (PBUH) enjoins u. to escort the


Ch'pt< • .l(l: o..,h ,,,J But •• 1It is an act of the SunM(!i! for those following the funeral pr


'"This ;$ bta~ th~ Prophet (PBUH) said:II,PRAYER' WMII you pUI your dead ~1'S4I11S illlhegrQV& UI,II '(We bury) illrhe Name of Allah and fUcrmlillg 10 the migio" (i.e. Ihe trudilion)of Mlllh)' Me55e/lger (PBUH):·(Related by the Fiv~ Compilers of Had/lh ex-eluding An· NasJ'l, anddeemed a lwan (good) !J.adirh by At· Tirmidhl)"The decea5Cd i~ to Ix put in his grave on his right $ide facing the qiblah, forthe Prophet (PIIUH) said, rderring to th e Ka'bah:"/1 is your qibiah in your lift Ilnd after your deMh."(Related by AbCi rnwM and other compilers)"Aner putting the dro:ased in the gn~ , a brick, a 510ne or some uflh a~10 ~ put under his had. Bnidrs, he i$ to be pul d(lllt 10 the front wall of hisgra~, Also, ~ ~rth is to "" pul bthind his I»ck as u upport I~ he shouldfan on his faaor be overturned on his back. Afterwards. the hole of the gravei$ 10 be cI~ d with bricks and clay 10 hold it togetller, and then earth i. to bepiled up on his grave, using no earth other ! han ! h ~! round h is grave.The top of th e grave is !o bt: of a height equal to a palm of the hand, andto be shaped like a humpback so th at flood water, if any, would flow down .ndd~ J not affe


'"On th~ other hand. it is prohjbit~d to build over graves, plaster them, Orwrite on them. To illustrate. Jabi' 1hn . Abdulllh narrated:"AI/"h:; Messellger (PBUH) forbade that IIle graves sllould be pla.­tered or be used as sitting places (jor the people), or a buildingshould be built over them:- "(lklat .. d by [mam Muslim)Besides. Jabir narrated:'Tht Messenger (PBUH) forbade plastering the graves, writing 011them. building on them, or treading upon them:(A marf;, . (traceable) nadith rd.INI and deemed 1aaib. (authentic)by Al-TirmidhO"The "'ason for this prohibition is that such aClS are means leading topolytheism. as they may make people's hearts attached to graves. On the otherhand, many ignorant people ~com e so attached to the graves when they seethem in a form of well -decorated structures.It is also prohibited to light graves (with lamps, or anything of the kind).The prohibition extends to include establishing mosques over graves andperforming prayer at them or facing them in prayer. In addition, it is proh ibitedfor women 10 visit graves according to the uadith in which the Prophet sai&"May Allah cun;e the women who visit the groves, the people whobuild mosques over them, and those who establish mosques and(light) lamps th erein.~(Related by the Compilers of the Sunan)"It is alS(> stated in a laUib. (authentic) iladit!lthat the Prophet (PBUH) said:"May Allah "me the Jews and Christians, for they built t!le pltlcesof worship at t!le gmws of their prophets."'"This is also ~cause consecrating grav .. by means of building structuresover them and the Iiko is the origin of polytheism.It is pr


"11 is better that OMe af you should sit on live coals which wouldburn his dot/'ing and come in contact with his skin than that heshould sit on I> gmve:(Related by Imam Muslim a. a marf'" (trac~abkj nadUh)"Irn arn Ibllul-Qayyirn (may Allah have mercy On him) said:"If only we (Muslims) reflect 0>1 the (implicaliO>ls of) the Prophetsprohibition of sitting on the graves. lea/ling on them, and treadillgupon them, we would come to kHOW thnt the Prophet (PB UH)instructs us to venemte tlw inhabitant5 of the graves from their head,being trodden on with footwear:Seventhly: Rulings on Condolence and Visiting Graves11, PRAYERIt is an act of the Sunnah to conwle the bereaved person and advise h im tobe pati~nt . and to pray for the deceased, for' Amr Ibn Hazm narrated that theProphet (l'BUH) said,"No believer consoles his (berea\'ed M1151im) brother (by advi5ing him10 show patimce) but Allah, Almightyand Ever-Maje5tic be He, willdreOj himfmm the garment5 of digllity 011 the Day ofResumxlion:(A marf" (traceable) lJad frh . wilh a trustworthy chain oftrammittersrelated by Tbn Majahj'"l'h .. e ar~ also various /!adiths having the same m ~ .ning. When consoling aenc~ is to be: "MayAII~h make YOllrrewardcomfort you with a bettrr compens~tio". ~"d forgive YOllr dece~sed:berea""done. thewordingo fcondo lg ,.~t.It is impermissible to have a silting place for r~c~ iving and dedaringcondolences, as m istakenly done by rome people today. Yet , it is desirableto prepare some food for the family of the dec~ased . for the Prophet(PBUH) said:"Prepare some food for the family of !ajar, for it has happened tothem that which occupied them (i.e. the deClth 0/10 jar):(Related by Imam Ahmad and At· Tirmidhi; th~ latter de em~d it abawn (good) nodi/hi'Some of the family OrlM deceased nowadays specify a place (or people togather for offering their condolenCe


Ch.pto,3O: De,," .nd Bu".1of th ~ Qur'3.n, ~nd speod so much 00 that occasion. Such acts are undoubtedlyprohibited bid'ahs (matters innovated in religion). for Imilm Ahmad narratedwith a trustworthy chain of transmitters that Jarir rbn . Abdullah said:"We (the Companions) used to consider gathering with tile familyDJ the: deceased and the preparation of food (by tile family oJ thedead persan) after lIis burial a kind of (prohibited) wailing""Shaykhu]·\sltm Ibo Taymiyah (may AII.h have mercy on him) said:' Gathering people by the bereaved family, offering them food andreciting the Qur~n to grnnt him (the deceased) the reward oJrecitatioll.were ne""r practiced in the time oJ the Salaf (early Muslim schola rs;'Such ct, were deemed detestable by some groups of scholMS bewII5eoJ many proofo:"A!·Iur:to.shi said:"As ffJr the funernl ceremanies, they are prohibited as unanimouslyagreed upon by scholars; such gatherings on occasions 0/ calamiriesare legally denied bid'ah,_ 'they ha¥e ne..-er been reported to havebeen previously obser..-ed (by the Prophel or his Companions or thei rsuccessors). The same applie, 10 Ihose gatherings on the 5Ccond, third.Jourth and >ellenth day oJthe dealh o//he decl) to visit the groves, but you may visit them now:(Related by Muslim and At· Tirmidhi)According to At -Tirmidhl's narration. the Prophet (PBUH) added:".. .for it (i.e. ¥isiting graves) will ",mind you a/the Herea/ler,''''Yet, it is not d~sirab]e to travel SO as to visit graves, Generally. visiting gravesis desirable on th",~ conditions:


".L1: PRAYERTh~ visitor mUSI ~. mln nOl a woman, fur the Prophd (PBUH) "id:'M~y AlIal, 'ur~ WO," ... " wlro visit tlrt grows,"Gr.v~. should 110t b~ SO distant th.t th ey rNJu i re trlv.:ling or setting out Ona journ Imillgs upon Ih", d=w "lid 10 prgy to AI/


7 AI-BuWri (12(()) and Mu>1im (S061S) [713671 _8 AI-Bukh1r1 (747()) I JJ/S4619 Ch.pt., No. 112 of the Qur '1m.10 Chapte, No. liJ of the Qudn.I1 Chapler No. 11 4 of the Q"r'i.n, i.e. the I.'t Ch.pt., of the Qui.n.12 AI- Bukhl.,1 (2738) 15/4361 .nd Mrnlim (4183) [6177].13 Qud,1 (Divine) lwdlrh: Divine WOfw., other than the Glorio ... Qur'in, re ... ltd tothe Prophet (PSUH) fmm Allah, Unlike th. Qut·l.n, the words of the Qud,j (Divine)badllh are neithet ukd fo, wo.-.hip no, d~med mi,.cul"" ••14 AI·SuWri (7405) 113/46910nd Muslim (6Il87) 19/631 _15 Muslim (2110, 2122) 1314 58. 4591.16 Abfi Nw6d (3tI6) 13/3181.17 Chapt" No, 36 of the Qur'An.18 Ab(! D~Wlld (3121) 131320 I, lbn M1j.h (t448) 12/)95J, . nd Ibn Hil>Wn (3002) 171269].19 Mu.lim (21 27) 131461 ].20 Al-BukMrl (!;814) 110/3401 and Muslim (2180) HID].21 AM NWlld (3159) 13/333].22 A,hmad (9642) [21440 1, At_T,rmidhl (1079) 131389) and [bn M1joh (2413) [3/145].23 Sidr. The utuct of th. lot< tr~ le .. ".H AI_ BukhArl (1265) 1311 74 1 ond Mu,lim (2SA)) [4/3(5),25 Al-Bukhirl (31161]ond M",lim 14151,26 Abu O)w(ld (3141) (313281 .nd Ibn M~j.h ([ Ok to OIhe.-.;.mal., . aW1'ah ;. from the ".",,1 to the k""" wh.", •• in .notoo view it ;... id to b< theext ... nal organs I>f kX and ~.cretion. A, for. r.male', . •"""h, it includ •• I II het body inon. view where •• in onoth.,,- it i .. 1I h ... body with the ."eption of her face and hands.32 Sjd" Th


11: PRAYER4.j T.,hli/, s..yi ng •• Li lliiha ilia/lair" (i.•. lher< i. no deily but AII.h)45 Dhik~ I llm" .. ion, implr ing ",membr.mc. of.nd m.ntio,,;ng An.h.46 AI -BukMrt (3 (3) II/S36 ] . nd Muslim (1 16-1) HIS].47 Ab;, Dt w(;d (321«;) ]3n56J ."d (3215) 131355], md At -Tirmidhi (l717) ]


III:


••[I


CHAPTERZakah: Legality and VirtueD~ar Muslim brothers, a Muslim must know the details of the rulings OnZaJr.dh, its conditions, those fN\uirro to pay il, thme for whom it is to he paid,and the pro~rlil'S from which it is to be paid. This is because ZakJh is one ofthe pillars of I. lam and its g~at basis as clearly indicated by the Noble Qur'~nand the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition). Allah, Exalted ~ He, has joined il withperforming Prayer in His Book in eighty.two positions, which signifies it.great status and the perfe


""Allah, Exalted be He, says:~And establish prayu '!Hd givt Llk


oroaiooi the ;uoounl of Zd.l;dh according 10 the dfon uertro in the property(rom which it is paid,so Heenjoined 0",,-(;(111 on riMz (buried wnlth). However,Allah clljo; ned one-tenth to be paid as l


an act of showing obedience, and the disbeliever is not amongst those peopledooe and obedient to Allah. It also needs intention. which is impossible toarise from a disbeliever.Whether it is to be imposed on the disbeliever or not and whether he is10 be puni, htd part icularly in the He"after for not paying it or not, it is stilla controveni.1 i"ue among schobrs. Furthenno~, in the badlth narrated byMu' ;\dh (may Allah be pleased with him) in wh ich the Prophet (PBUH) saidto him:• ... In~itt Iht people 10 Itslify IhM there;s nO deity but Allah and IOIm tht M~ngtr of AllaIr."Then the Propt.et (PBUH) added after he had mentioned perfonningPrayn:.... Ifthty o/)ey you to do 50, IIltn tdl them ,Ital AII~h has made ilobliglllOry for them to PIlr lfJJ;,lh from their proptrlr and 11 is 10 btlaken from the wealthy among thtm and given /0 tlte poor.~(Related by Al_Bul.:hlirl and Muslim)'Thus, the Prophet (PBU H) made thtconversion 10 Islam a pre~uisite forthe obligation of Zokdh.Having the n i~" b ' : The third condition is the po~ssion of the nitdb:thus, no L>k41t is due upon what is ifloS than the "i~b , [t dotS not make anydifference whether the pos.sessor of the nit


C~,pr


Ill: ZAKAHEndnotes1 AI-Bukh.ld (1399) 13/331 J . nd Muslim (12.) [11501.2 AI·B ukh~ri (8) 11/69] and Mwlim (Ill) [1/128].3 Ahmad (J7':I54) 14123 1] ."d ,


CHAPTERZakclh: Grazing Animalsand LivestockAmong the properties upon which Anah has imposed Z~ k "h, H~ thegrazing animals and livestock, namely camels, cows and sheep. Moreove r, it isforemast among the properties diCIMing the payment of Zakllh. Many reeurrent~ alJrb. (authentic) b.adith~ of the Prophet (PBUH) indicate paying Zakilh withreSpIX\ to the grazing animals and livesTock. His messages concerning it aswell as the messages of his caliphs . ... well-known and famous in illustratingits enjoined rules. The Prophet (PIlUH) also sroduclion, nol for loil, be-cauS( in the former cose thdr be-neflts multiply


'"111: ZAIG4Hand Ihey Ihri~ by growing big and giving offspring. SO thq G n providesustenance 10 olhen.The seoond t ondition: They musl b.. grazing livestock (i.e. feed onherbage in a fidd or on pastureland), on account of the tJadith of Allah'sMessenger (PBUH) in which he says:·Concernjng Ihl (grozing) Ij~ r ocl a tlt'O- ~ar·old Jh,,-cnmtl is /0~ paid (


Ch' p«r l , z"Mh: Grazing An im.l, .nd IJ I'


having mare ~h and will gore him widttheirhoms and tmmple onhim with their hw"",:··Ma~v er,Mu';\dh (may Allah M pleased with him) narrated:"Whm the Prophet (PBUH) senl me 10 YemeJ1, he ordered me totalee a one-rear-old male or a female mlffor every Ihirtycows, and(also 10 lake) a Iwo year-olli cow far every forty."(Related by Ahmad and At -Tirmidthi)'Hl:2AKAHSo. if the number of the cows reaches thirty, a male or female one-year-oldcalf is 10 M given as Zak


Chap""2: MJh: G,uing Anim.l, and uve>o


111: ZAKAH• ... A.s regards lhe (flock of) sheep. for every forty sheep up to onehundred and twenty, one sheep is due (~s Zakllh). If the (numberof) sheep is over that up to two hundred, two sheep are due. But ifthey are over two hundred by only One sheep. three sheep are dueup to three hundred. If they surpass three hundred, MO Zaktm is tobe paid until they reach four hundred). If Ihe number of sheep isover that (four hundred), then one sheep is to be given as Zakllh forevery hundred sheep."(Related by the Five Compilers (If Hadith except An-Nasj"i) "Furth ~ rmo,.." an old sheep is nOll0 be accepted as Zakllh, nor a dtfe notdemand from ,.OU the best of your animals, nor does He commandyou to give tile animals of worst quality.""Th, be>t animal, which is Ihe mOSI pr('Cious to its owner, is n0110 be lakenas Za k~h . Also, Ihe animal that ~ ats much. which is either fal and is pr ~parodfor eating, or the on ... marked by gluttony and grows fat be.;ause of it, is nOI to~ taken as ZakAh. Allah's Messengn (P6UH) said to Mu'~dh Ibn Jabal (mayAllah ~ pleased with him) whe" he sent him to Yemen:•... Avoid takins the best of their properti"."(RoJated by AI-6ukh1ri and Muslim)In cha rities, wha, is 10 be taken is the property of medium quality as ,tatedbylhe Prophet (PBUH),


• ... But One should give animals af medium q~~ljty:Thus, (l sick animal is to be taken from among a ni~o1b " that is all sick,b ~ cause ZakJh is ordained 10 provide 5ustcnance to others, and obligingone to give a sound one out of the sick group is unfair 10 Ihe one givingZakilh. In addition, a youngster is to be taken from among a nj101b that isall young, especially from the sheep. Yd. if th ~ proprietor desi...,s to givebetter thall that enjoined upon him, it will certainly be bener and greaterin reward for him.If th e property is a mixtu..., of grown-up and young, sound and defective.or mal e and female animals, a sound grown·up female is to be taken basedon estimating the value of the superior and inferior divisions of the property.Firstly, the superior pari of lhe propert y is to be estimated to know whatshould be taken as Zakilh and the same is to be done with r ~ gard to theinferior part. After that. the due ZakAh is to be taken justly on an averagebasis from among the whole property. The Same is to be applied with r~


mIItV.KAHThe second condition: The two partners arc from th~ peop l ~ uponwhomZakah is rightfully enjoined. If oneoflhem is not from amongstthose people (3 dish~li~vn for example), then the partnership will beirrelev~nt and each share will be subject to it. own rules.The third condition : The two properties share the &a me shelter orlodging, and share the same rani where they are gathered 10 go 10 thepasturage. Moreover, they must sha .. the same place of milking. Ifooe of the partners milks his livestock in a place and the other milkshis own in another place. t hen the partnership wit! be irrelevant withregard \0 Z"k~h_ In addition, the two-shared properties must sharethe same male animal which fertilizes them all Also, both propertiesmusl graze in the Same pasturage. If the pasturage differs and onepartner •• hare graus in. place other than the place where his partnerherds his own livestock, then the partnership will k irrelevant withregard to ZIlkJh .If these condition. are fulfilled, the two-shared properties are d eemed asone. This is based on the l1~dilh of the Prophet (PBUH) in which he said,"Neither tile property of different people may be takfn together northe joint property moy be split for fear of (giYing more, or receiYingless) Z"k


will be unrelated to th e other part of th~ property. If one part is equal to th eniotlb, Zaktlh is to be giv"" from it If it is less than the nj!~b, nothing is to begiven as Zakdh. Thus, no part is to be joined to the other, as stated by ImamAh mad. However, th e majority of Muslim scholars are of the opinion thatdivision does not intluence the property of a single person. Onc part is to beadded to the other in judgment, even if divided. This;'; the soundest opinion;and Allah knows best.EndnotesI Ahmad (19901) [SI21. (1 9921) 15141, AM DJw(\J (1575) [211 $91 .nd An·N ... 1 (2+U) 13117].2 AM D ~ "'Gd (t 5(7) 121146] and AI· Bukhlrl (1448) 1313931.3 AI · Bukh ~ rl (1 4\.4) [31399].4 Al· aukh~rI (1454) [313991·5 AI · BukMrl (t 454) [JIJ9'JI.6 MLUJim (2293) 14172 ]. Al·ltukhlrl (1402) [31338) a nd Muslim (2287) [41671·7 At· Tirmi dhl (622) 13/20] and An·N.51' (2449) [2126].SAt· T irmidht (622) [3120 ] a nd An·N.>1·1 (1449) 12126 1.9 Ab" DJwftd (1576) ]21160 ], At · T innidhl (622) (3120), An· Nasi'! (245-0) ]21261 . nd IbnMlj.h (1803) ]2/382].10 Ab" Di.wUd (1581) ]21 163]. s-« .Iso · N


CHAPTERZakt1h: Grains, Fruits, Honey,Minerals and Rikt1zAllah, Exah~ ~ He, says:"0 )'CHI wIIo MYC bdiewd, spood from 'he fOOd 'hillgs whjehyou IrOIlt< Mnofd "lid from 11 ... , ... hic" "e have prodllud for )'Vufrom flu ~Qr1" ... - (Qurl n: AI-Baqarah: 267)UlkAh can be called spending (e~pcndi t u~). as Allah, the Exalted. ~ys:-""d 'hose who hoard gold "",d sllwr Qnd s/Hlld i/ ,"', in IlrtWill)' 0/ AI/oh -give thtm tidings of a po/nfu' pUl1lslrmtlll.W(Qur'dn: At-Tawbah: 34)The verse means Ihal they do nOI give iu due ZlI.I:.!J.,The SUI111ah (Prophc~ic Trndilionj has mentioned daoor:udy tht commandto g~ ZnJulh on grains and fruits. and clarified il$ due lmount n.., MrnJims


'"Ill: ZAKAHhave also unanimously agre«! upon the duelle


C~.p'.irul, Frui", Honey, Mino" .. t, .oo Ril"",·On a land irrigated by rninwater or by naturnl water channels Orif the land;s wet due to a nearby spring, one-tenth ;s 10 be gi~en(as ZakJh)."Moreov·er, Imarn Muslim relates on the authority of Jab ir that th e Prophet(PBUH) says:·One-tenth is p~y~ble (~s Z~kdh) cm the l~nd irrigated by ,Iwr"or rain.~ 'In case of what is irrigatM by exerti ng eITor! to bring water from wellsor other sources, one-twentidh (5%) is 10 be given as Zokah. This is basedon what the Prophet (PBUH) said in the had;lh narrated by Ibn ' Umar (mayAllah be pleased with him):• ... And on the land irrigated by the well, one-twentieth (5%) is 10be paid (os ZakJh on the yield of the land)."(Related by AI - Bukh~r!)Watering by the hell' of camels entails givi ng one-twentieth, as Im ~mMuslim related on the authority of fabir (may Allah b. pleased with him) thatthe Prophet (PBUH) said:•... And 0 one-twentieth ;s to be paid (os Zllktih) On what is irrigatedby camels."The du ... time of giving ZilkJh on grains is when they become ri~ and hard,and with regard to fru its, the due time is when they show signs of r i~ne .... Yet,if the owner sells it afterwards, Zakah will still be due upon him, not upon thebuyer. In addition, the grains are to be given as ZaMh after sifting; that is, theymys! be deaned from ha), and ~traw,The fruits given as Z"kJh should be dried because the Prophet(PBUH) commanded estimating the g~apes (fo~ collecting Zak&h) whendried into raisins,' thus Zak


Ill: ZAKl.HZakdh is to be given from minerals, according to th~ Qur'anic verS ~which Allah, Exalt~d b ~ H ~ , says:~. _ . Spend from the good thlng$, ",hich y()U haW' earntd, "ndfrom that which Wt have pruduc~dfo r youfrum the earth .. _»(Qur'an: AI -Baqarah; 267)IIIA mine is a pla.( ~ from where p~cious stones are extracted. 11 is a profitfrom th e earth. thus it entails giving Zakdh just as gra in s and fruits. If themineral is gold or \ i lv~r. the due amount of Zakdh is one-fortieth (1.5%), whenit ~aches the "i~clb or exceeds il. Regarding other miMrals as kohl, ars~nic,sulfur, salt and petroleum, 2.5% of their value is 10 he given as l


AUthrse kinds fan under w h ~t An.h. Euhw be He, says;M, • • SfU"d from th e good t/';"g$ wh kh you hll>'l ellrned ,md fromthat which We have producedfM youfro'" the earth ... »And the vene:(Q ur'~ n : A' · Baqarah: 267)M". A .. d t i..., its due (ZJlk4h) 0" ,ht dRy of iI~ horw", .. •(Quran: AI· An' am: 14 1)ZaHh is only obligatory on what is weighed and stored of grains andfruits. A5 for what is not w~ ighed and s tor~d. it d"". not cnt ail giving z"kJh.like wal nut. apple. peach. quince. and pomegranate, The same applies 10 Ih ~resl of vegetables and legumes.. like radish. garlic. onion. carrot. watermdon." ,cumber. eggplants and lhe like. This i. ba.std on lhe ","rfo · (t raceable)hlldlth of · AU (may Allah be pleased with Itim) who narraled that lhe Prophet(PBUH) said:"No Zakdh is dut o,., wgtrabla:(Related by Ad.D.baqu!nl)'Mcret)ver. Allah·. M "I$~ n gc r (PBUH) said:"No ZIl kdll i. to be {Mid 0,., (a quantity) [tU 'Ir"nfi'~ "",,Sql ,'Thus. measuring is (onsidered in what entails givi ng Llhlh, whichin.dicates that Llkdlr is not to be given from what is neither measured OOrStom!. (n addition. the faCl lhat the Prophet (PBUH) alld his Cal iphs usednot to collect z"kdh for such ki ndsofpl.nlS. Ihough they "~ rec ultivated nearthem, s.erV(S as evidenc ~ th at Z"kd/, is nOl to be taken from these plants. Th;.mea ns th.t abstaining from taki ng Z"kM, from such plants is lhe follow. dSuml"h. Im ~m Ahmad said:· Wh~t rrsnnb/""


JII:ZAKAHEndnolesI 11;"": A mnd .. d ........... In" equ ... IlOllOsrams.2 Mwllm U2601 ) I~/SSI. Se< .1


CHAPTERZaktlh: Gold and SilverThe rulings on lnhlh of gold and $ilvt'r a~ also applied with ~rd 10whl is d~rived fn)m Ih~m such as money. ~",,·ds. ingots and the lik".The proof of the legality of liIkllh on gold and silver is the Qur'an. theS,,,,nah. and the con~nsus of Muslim schola rs. Allah, Exalted be He. says:•... Thole who hoard gold ""d silver IInd 'IHnd it no/ / .. tltt W .. yof All .. " - ,iw 'hem liding. of .. (HJ;nful pu"i.hm.",' ••••(Quran: At-Tawbah: 34)In this Noble Qur'ank verse the~ is a hard warning of painfuilorture 10tho&e who refrain from givi ng Z"/


IlIoZAKAHAll Muslim scholars hav~ unanimously ag,..,~d that what is meant by"hoarding" in the Nobl ~ Qur'an and the uad1th is things piled up togdh~r whethe~buried on th~ fau of the earth or not. These thinss ~ntail giving ZakJh but itwaS not given. If the due Zakdh is paid. then it is not conside,..,d hoarding.ZakJh is to be given in gold when it ," a(h~. s twenty mithqJls'. Thus, thenj;;:"b of gold is 85 grams. With regard to silver. the nil"b of silver is 200 dirhamswhich equals 595 grams of silver: whether these dimams a"" coined or nOI,The due amount of Zakcih in gold and ~ilv~r is ondortkth (2.5%). Thi~ isbased on the mar] .. ' (traceable) uadith oflbn 'Umar and' A'ishah (may Allahbe pleased with them) who said:"The Prophet (PBUH) used to take haif a dinar' as Zaktlh from theproperty that rcached twenty di"ars and upward:(Related by Ibn M5.jah)'In addition, Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that theProphet (PIlUH) said:·One·fortieth (i.e. 2.SS) is to bf taken from pure si/Ye, (as l


0...>< .. 4: z,,*'ib: Gold ..... SilvaWhat is Permitted for Women to Wear of Gold and SilverWom ~ n a", allowtd 10 "",ar gold and s il~r in whalever way they ar~,,«ustomNi 10, as the Lawg i ~ r ptnniunl"dornmenl to them absolutely. Th~Prophd (PBUH) said:·Q,ld aMd ~ilk Jlrt made lawful /0 rl,e f~ mal(:l of my nalion whiltmade ,m/awful la Ihe males."(Related by Ahmad. Abil D~wUd, AI· Ti rmidthi and An - Na s~'I )"This badith indicates that it is prrmissibk (or wom~n to adorn Ihemselveswith gold and silver. Mornwrr, Mudim scholars have unanimously agreedupon thi ..No Mdh is to be given from the golden and silver jt welry of women if used(or ornaments or lending. This is 3(mrding to what the Prophet (PIIUH) said:·Na Zak.lh ;$ dut on jcwds used far ",nament.-"(RelatNi by Al' I abar.lnl, on the authority ofJ~ bir, wit h a weak chainoftransmittm)However, what supports Ihis i:J.adith is the facl that it was adoplcd andMuslims have acted ."ording to it, and was also adopted by a group of thtProphet's Companions, among whom were: Anas, J~bir, . A'ishah, and Asml"(" A:ishah's sister) (may Allah be pleaKd with them all). Imlm Abmad said,•... ThiJ opinion i. ad/)/lfed by five from anwngsl fhe CompanionJ of the Proplrd(PBUH)."" Mormver. I,Ising gold for adornment i. not an act o( in~ membl,lt a lowful act that r ts(" mbl ~ wnringl suit, having servants., Ind possessinghouses for dwelling.If the jewflryiJ set 10 be used for the purposes of renting, sprnding(in caseof netd), poOst$Sing. savi ng. or is meant (or any pu~ other than tJw:uc,of using and lending, then it is 5Ilbjecl 10 the l)1"iginal "-'ling of giYing 7~hI nd ZabJh i. 10 be observed in it. This Is becau.se gold and silver (nl.il givingZabJh. ZaWh is not due on them only when they are used for ornamen1S Indlending. Other than Ihat, the original sum is sl,Ibjectlo paying the due Zakdhwhen it rtach~ the "i~db" separately, or by adding it to anolher part of Iheproperty. In case Ihe jewdry does nOl reach Ihe nit.lb, and it is nOI possible toadd it to anothn- property, then it does not enlail giving LAk4h except when itis set for trading; in this cue, il$ , .. Jilt is Sl,Ibject to paying Zak.lh.


The Ruling on Plating Walh and Other Stuff with Gold orSilver and Using Utensils Made of Any of Them11 i. prohibited 10 pl~l e. c~iling or a wIll with sliver or gold, or to plat e• v~hid~ or its keys wllh th~m. All this is prohibited for • Muslim. It is alsoprohibiled 10 plate a p


'"10 Abit Diw(id (4232 ) [4/2791. At· Tirmidni (1774) [4/240] .nd An· N . ... i (5176) [415431_11 Abit Vl.wQd (of057 ) 141214 ]. An · N . ... i (5159) 14/540].".1 Ibn M~j.h (3595) 1411571.Su u>o An· No,.·! (5163) 14/540] a nd At · Tirmidhl (1720) [41217].12 Ad ·D1raqU!nt (1937) 12192 ); ... . Iso "Ndjbu,.Rdyal,"1 21374 .375] _JJ 'AWur· lh,>.lq in hi. "M"I""""r 14/81 · 86], Ibn AbO Sh.yb.h in hi' "MulJlnnaf[2138)·3841 a nd Al · R')'haq; in hi, ·S"mm" 141232. 234).14 Ni1: n. minimum .nwu,,{ up"" which Z"lJh i. due,Ch.:oP!


CHAPTERZakah: Trade GoodsTrade goods I'!:{er 10 anything aIl0


111: Z1KAHMoreovt'r, it is related by Abii Dawiid on the authority ofSamurahwho said:"The Prophel (PfJUH) used 10 order liS /0 pay Zaklih on whM weprepare for lrade: 'In general, be


'"How.v~" if the owner buys trade goods against a monetary currency equal10 the ni~


Dgy .md consider ,,'hgt they spe"d g. means of nMrness to AI/ghand 0ffobu.iningf invowtions of/he Meutngcr. U"'luatio"ably,it i. g mellns of "ellme .. for them. AI/llh will rulmit them /0 Hi.mercy. Indeed, Allah is ForgMng lIf1d Merciful. n(Qur";'in: At -Tawbah: 98-99)HI: ZAKAIIEach of the two parties mentioned in th~ afo",mentioned Qur'ank versegives Zakclh , Yet, they are t",ated differently by Allah. accordingto the intentionof each group. The first group includes those who give Zakdh considering it aloss and taking it a s


CHAPTERZakatul-Fitr(Fast-Breaking Zakah)Zakdrul·Filr;s an obligatory charity 10 I>t paid by The end of Ramadln.Hence, the term is • C~ us.a l ive ont, as HI' (hreaking the fUI) Is the cause forZslHh 10 be, given. Zakdlll!·Fi,r is obligatory according to the Qur'ln, theSu"nah and the consensus of Muslim scholars.AIhh. £xalt(d be He. lays:~H" 1141 urtal"'y uu:u~"d ",Ira purifies hjmu tj. •. ~(Qur'''n: .o.I·""U: 14)Some nfthe scholars of the $ala/(t.rly Muslim scholars) view that the word'purifies' in this verse refers to giving z"k


tM'" are many b.adiths and narrations stating the obligation of ZakJtul·Filr. There is a hadlth rdated in the Two S.ab.lhs' and other books of Hadrthstating:"Allahs Messenger (PBUH) enjoined ZakJtu/·Filr to be paid withone ~'of date> or one 1d' of barley on every Muslim,free or slave,mill" or femille, young or old:'III addition, many Muslim schol~rs have confirmed the unanimousagreement on the obligation of Zakiitul·Pilr.As for the wisdom lying behind the obligation of Zakatul·Fijr, it purifies theMuslim who has performed fasting from any traces ofill speech or obscenity;it plXlvides sustenance for the poor; and it acts as an upression of gratitude toAllah for enabling the Muslim 10 complete the fast ofRama4\n.ZAkJrul·Filr is obligatory Up


Hence. the Muslim woo postpones giving z"kdtul-Filr has committw asin (Of violating the Prophet's order.A Muslim is to give Zak~rl" · Fi:r un behalf of himself as well as on behalfof ewry perron he .upports including wives and relatives. This is what ambe understood from the general meaning of the /:Jadirh in which the Prophet(PBUH) said:-Ciw ZAk4tul-FiJr on "'half of whom ........ you JI'ppor .. "It is ~ desirable to give ZaUtu]·Filr on behalf of the felus, as done by'Uthndn Ibn 'Amn (may Allah be pleased with him)'.Furthermore. if the person who is being supported by another One givesZak~lul-Fj:r for himsdfwithoul the permission of hi s sust_iner, this i. sufficient{Of" his par t, since one is to give it in the first place and one'$ sustainer is notorigillllly responsible for it. On the other hand , if someone givn blhttul_FiJr on bellilf of another pel"$On whom he does nol support, this becomes,uffKient for that person·s part when it is with his permission; otherwise, itberomes insufficient. In addition, if the2l' is a penon who sustains another, itis permi»ible for the former to give Zt.}ullu/·Filr on behalf of the latte r alongwith his own Zt.kMu/.Fitr in th e pl~c e whe .. he lives. even if the laner live. inanother place.Concerning the type of food that is to be given as Zt.k4rul·Fitr, Ibnul­Qayylm, after referring to the five types of food incl uded in the: above ­mfntioneci fJaJith (namely, wheat, barley, dales, rai,ins and ch~).said :.... Th~ (the fiw: food type) USffl ta '" Ihe uaplefood$ in Mtdi .....Thu.s, p£aple living in a villa~ '" Cily where staple food difftrS fromrh. above, are 10 pay an. ~a " oJrheir own 'I~plt food (a. Zt.k.!tul-Fit,). Thus, if Iheir slaple Jood is something other rha n grain, suchM milk, meal ar fish. Ihty 11 .... la give Zt./utlu!.Filr thtrrof, whal"verit may be. Thi. i. the opinion oJ t lr' mtljority af Kho/tlTS whi~h i.rtgflrtkJ (IS Ihe CM",' one in this ~arrl, and the .... should"" naolh...- controry apinions 10 ".. joJlotffil. This is bc.;tluS


in Iht aadilh of rht Prop/let (PlJUH) in Ihi. rtgard. Though brtadand c()(l/ct"tl food can ~ u.eJut for the nwJy and COlI IIwn litrlt 10prepart for taring. grains art likel)' 10 be mOrt us-tful 10 tht "ud)'si"ft grains ",n /(Is! for" 10llger timt.·-W ith regard to tht aforem e ntioned issue, Shlyk hul-I5Um IboTaymlyah said:"..• "Muslim is" 10 giVle ZALltul·Fitr from tM .taplejood uthi. am:!such as ,iu and tht likt. tvt'1I ifltt is obIt to gil'f' it from the killd, offood .Iat~d ill/h, afonmtl1fiorled UmJirh. Till. opinion i. reported tobe Ollt of Ihe opiniom adopted by Im~m ,l,hmad. orld It /s Ihe opillionadoptt"tl by the mojorilyof Mholal"J, Ilnd it i. Ihe w .. ndnl vi"", in thi.rrgard. Thu is II«lluse Iht urigilUll juristic ruling of givi"g drarilies;.10 support Ih, poor.""It is not sufficient (or a Musli m 10 give money (tha t equal. the value of theI~JJy prt$Cribc.d amount of staple fOd) as Zakillul-Fit,. ror this is consideredcontradictory to the SII""oh. Moreover, it is not narrated that tM PropMt(PBU H) 0. any of his Companions ga'~ ZakA'u/·FiLr in tht form of money;n.te~d of the staple food.Imlm Ahmad said, "..4. Muslim i, Mol 10 pay the poor monlY instead of Iheprmribed allWllMl ofth, 'l"pIt food for lokAtul·Fitr." II was said 10 h im, _. UmorI/m ·"Mul. '''ziz used 10 ocrtpl mon.,.. for loLl/IIl-Filr." He (Indm A.b,1IUod)~ied, "How ", .. Id Iht)' adhm' to Ih, Jilyi"gs of SO ond SO "nd ignore th, &odlth.of th e Prophtt (PBUH) ltalcd in this rrganlrt" Ibn . Umar laId, -"I/a"" MtlJCIlgt.(PBUH) tIljoined Zakdlu/·Filr to be paid will. ont ~ ....•.Zakdru/'Fitr must be given II its due lime to the due recipient tnlitltd tom:civc lnIalh or to his rcp,""ntatj~. If t~ gi"'" finds n~it h~ the m:ipknlnor his agent. be mull give it to anotbtr r«;p;~ot atth~ due tilm of Zahltul·Fitr. Concerning this issue, many a Muslim mah. a mistake wht" t n' ru~tingZakdllll-Hlr wi th someone not "PJXlinted by the due f«ipient of ZAkdh. forthi,,; is nol considered. legal way of giving ZAlultlll-Fitr. So. Mus[ilJl5 mu$! payattenlion 10 this matte •.


Endnotes! Tht Two ~fllfls: The Two Authentic Books of Al - B"kh ~ rl. n d Muslim.2 AI·Jlu kh~rl (1503) [31463 J and Muslim (2275) [41


CHAPTERIGiving ZaktlhOne of the most important rulings on Zakiih is to know its legal channelsin order to give ;110 those entitle


l!I: z.1KAHduty, and pl ~ ases Allah, Exalted be He. For the aforementione


'"J(t~ =ip ; ~nt of Zak.lh is in bad n~ and h ~ ; s one of tho~ who usuallytake Zakdh, the giver should give il 10 him without ~in t ;n8 oul that it i. ofZakdh, in order 1'101 \0 embarnlj.5 him. Howevu, if the one receiving Zak~h isin bad new and he is not of Iho5


CHAPTEREntitled Recipients of ZakiihA Muslim should know that it is not sufficient 10 gi~ Zilkdh aapt to thecat~oriesappoinlrd by Allah in the Nobk Qura n. Allah, wheel be He says:-z".i:4h ~"dil .. "" d~ (",1, for the poor and for thr .. u dy andfor those emplo~d 10 c"lItcf [Z"ko'l"] (md for hrlnging htll-rl$together [for l./Dm / {md!or fruing cDpti_ {or . Iaw.} andJor"IOU in debt a"d/or Ihe Cause of AI/ .. h ,md for Ihe ,stranded]ITa W/"" - Q 11 obli gM;on f I mpostd J by A /lllh. And Allah; I Kllawing"nd Wise,» (Qur '~n: At-Tawbah: (0)Thus. the people mtnlloned In this noble verse I~ I h~ Allah appointM10 be filti lled 10 receive Z4kdh, and Muslim scholars hallf' unani momly agrttdthat it is impcnnis


-Allah. ExAlled be He, did nOf III~ drt judgment of If prophet Orany other person conctrning Zakdh but Ht jud~d according 10it and diYided it (Zako1h) into eight kinds (of prople who deserwn eeiving it)."'In addition, the Prophet (PBUH) said to the one who asked him in theprMool b


KZ"kol/, vcpendUIlre. are only for the poor "nd for the nudy "Oldfor thou rmployed to co/lec' rZakAh] , ... d /IJT bring;ng h""Tbloge/htr (jor Islam J and f'" fruing c"ptive. [or .I"ve./ ""d f'"those in de'" , ... dlor the Cau", of Allah "lid for the {s, .. ",dedjtrawler-an ob/; g" tian rim pruedJ by A I/,,/t. A "d A 11 alt i. Know;" g,,,,d Wise." (Qur'an: At· Tawbah: 60)In this nobl ~ verse, Allah mentions all the categories of people entitled tolaM Zakdh. and illustrates that Zakdl, is not to be given 10 other than them.These categories are eight.The first category is the poor who need Zakdh more than the needy,as Allah mentions them first, and He starts with the most importantcategories respectively. The poor are those who do not have what isenough for their living and are not able to earn their living. or thosewho have only some oflheir needs to maintain life. So, Iheyare to lakefrom ZakJh what suffices all their needs when they have nothing orwhal salisfies the re.,t of th eir needs if they have only some of whatsatisfies theS


Ill: ZAKAHpeople are to be given only when ne


aup. .. 8: Entitled R«ipi."". cl ZM.IhGcn~rally. t h~ ph~ "'he Cain#: of IIIk1h" n:fers 10 the war against them~mies of Muslinu. U Allah. Exahtd ~ He. says:HIndu d, Allah l,wtJ ,hoJt who fight in HiJ CaUSt ... ~Arid He also says:(Ql,lr'dn: AI-Saff: 4 )HF,,'" in IM W"l'" Allah ... ~ (Qur'in: Al-Baqanh: 190)T M eighth category is the Itrandtd trav


lIIo ZAKAHil is p"rmisl;ibk 10 give the whol~ amount of ZakAh to only onc of the eightc.Ugori~ •.It i. sufficient for th e giver of Za k ~! , 10 give it to only one p"rson entitledto take it, for Ihe Prophel {PBUH} ordered Banil {Ihe fa mily 00 Zurayq to SiveZaicdh due upon them to Salamah Ibo liakhr, according 10 Ihe aadilh relaledby Imlm Ahmad'. Morrover, Ih ~ Prophet (PBUH) u id 10Qablsah:· Wa;tll .. li/ .... rtUiw Zalcdh. so that .... amcr to give J"'II from il.~TMsc two fl.withs indicale the p"rmi$$ibiliIY of giving onc', lAlkdh to onlyone of th~ eight calqJorie. enW It"


10 Ihe child""n of her brother, as they we"" orphans whom she maintain~d. TheProphet (PBUH) said to her. ·Yes. (g;ve them)."1J However, it is impermissiblefor the giver of Zakllh to give it to his parents and his agnale anctstors ordescendants (~hildren and grandchildren). It is impermissible also for Ihegiver of ZakAh to give it to his wife. for he is 10 maintain her and she is notentitled to lake Zakdh.The Musl im must make sure he give!; his Zakdh to those legally entitledto take it. Ifhe is deceived and gives his Zakllh to whomever is not entitled toit, and then he discovers the truth, what he has given is legally not sufficientfor him; thus. he must giv~ the same amount to someone entitled to Zak~h.Nevertheless, ifhe does nol discover the truth, his giving Zak~h to Ihose nOIenlilled 10 it is legally sufficienl for him. This is be.::ause two men Came 10 theProphet (PBUH) asking 10 lake from Zakdlr. '0 he looked al them and saw thatthey were strong. Thereupon. he said to them:'If you wish. I shall give you from it (i.e. Zakah), but it ;s not tobegiven ta a r;,h person nar to one who is strong and able to carna living:"Endnotes1 AbeI Dlw6d (1630) [2M2].2 AbUDblud.3 w Aj ·Hifi. A" Siyiili in hi •• ["&ab An.Nuqi


CHAPTERDesirable CharityBesides the obligatory Zak


""Furthermore. the Prophet (PBUH) said:"(Giving) charity apperues the Wrath oflhe Lord and averts an eYildeath:'(Related by AI-Tirmidht who de


'"It iul.a highly rcromm.,nd~d to givecharilit. during the month ofRam.!I;l.n,as lbn . AbbAs said:"Allahs Messenger (PBUH) was the mos/ generous of all the people andhe used 10 reach the peak in generosity in the month of IWmadlln whenfibril (Gabriel) met him. JibrU Ujed to meet him ,,>'ery .,ight of Ra madi m(to teach him the Quran). Allah, Messenger (PBUH) W


372It is obligatory to feed the hungry, entertain the gue~t. dot h ~ thos. whohave nothing to clothe themsel ves, and give drink to tb~ thirsty propie,M0reov~r, Imaln Malik (may Allah have mercy on him) maintains that it isobligatory upon th ~ Muslim, to ransom the Musl im captives eve n if thi' CQ.'ltsthem all their prop. rties.Wh~n a Muslim gets money in the presenc ~ of th ~ poor or t h~ n..,dy. iti~ d",irabl~ for him to giv~ (hariti~s to th . m from this money, for Allah. th .Exalted, s.lYs:And:" ... And giv~ its due /Zaktlh) on the dllY of its harvest ... "(Qor'an: AI -An 'am: 14l)"And when r otller! ",,'atives and arphan sand the "udy art preun tnt Ihe {time of} divisi,m, Iht" providt jor them [wmetiling/ outoj it {i.e. the e.lare} a"d speak /0 them word. oj appropriatekindne ... " (Qur'an: An· Nis~': 8)Giving charities is one of th ~ m,rnerous m. rits of Islam, for it is the religionof consolation, mercy. coo~ ration, and brotherhood for the Sake of Allah.Whm a beautiful religion Islam is! How wi ~ the Shari'~h (Islamic Law) is' Weask Allah to grant us disc~rnrn . nt in our religion, and help uS adhere to HisShad 'ah, for He is Hearing and Responsi"e (to supplications).EndnotesI At_ Ti'nlklh1(663) P1521 .2 Al- Bukhari (660) 1211861 .nd Mud im (2377) 14/1221_] Al· BuUl!rf (1419) [3/3591 aoo Mm lim (HI'J) 14/124 1.4 A 1-Bukharl (611902) [1141 [ .nd Muslim (2308).S At_Ru k h~r! (! 466) [3/413) . nd Mu.lim (n IS) (4187[.


,~' ,'I:,•I,


CHAPTERFasting Ramadan: Obligationand TimingFasling thoe month of RamaQ;ln is one of the F~ Pitlan of Islam and istaken for granted to be one orllle obligations ordained by Anah. The obligationo(fu tins J4mad~n ill proved in the Qur'ln, the Sunn~J. (Prophetic Tradition)and the co ns..nsus of Muslim scholars. Allah. Exalted be He, says:·0 YOII who hll\lf! klievt'd, d«rud 1Ij/(J1f )'(lll I. flllring III it wasdecrud upon '''KM/on "........ (Qur'1n: Al -Baqar;lh: 183)AIl~h. Exalted be He, th.en says:-The month of R.lm4fI" n (is that} in whjch """ nvNlnl IlKQu,lIn, " l llidllnu /or the JHOPIe , ... d clu. proof. of p id,mu,md criterion. So whoever sights (the new moon (1/1 the mont h,Id him/ast it ... • (Qur'l,,: A! -Baqar.lh, 185)


'"IV:F~NGThus, fasting Ramad,tn is ·d~rttd ,· i.t'. enjoined by Allah upon Musl im$.The obligation of faJling Rama..dAn iJ; also i1Iu s t "'~ led in the imr


o,.p,or I: r .. "ing R.m>.


IV: FASTINGto Islam during the month of Ramadan, h ~ is to fast th ~ ""st of th ~ monthwithout b..ing obliged to ma~ up for the days he has missed as a disbeliever.Moreover. fasting Ramadan is not obligatory upon child""n. yet it is valid ifobserved by a discriminating child and it will be regarded as a supererogatoryact (of worship) for him/her. Furthermore, fasting Ramadan is not obligatoryupon the insane. and if a person observes it whil e king in the state of insanity,it will k void due to the lack of intention. In addition, fasling RamadAn atits p""scribed time is neither obligalory upon One afflicted wilh an illnesspreventing him from observing it nor IIpon the one on a journ ~y. Bolh areto make up for it when the legal excuse, illn ~ ss or traveling, is over, for Allah,Exalted be He. says:u ... So wh""ver among you i. ill or 0" (l journey [during th~m]• then on e'lu,d number ofdayt {are to be mlldt up) ••."(Qur'an: AI·Baqarah: UM)The obligation of fasting is directed to both residents and travelers,healthy and ill people. ritually pure or impure people (such as menstruatingWOmen and wOm en in postanatal bleeding period), and those in a state ofunconsciousness; all of them are accountable for the obligation of fasting.They a"" commande


379EndnotesI AI-BuKhlrl (190\1) .nd M", lim (10811 19).2 Ab':' D~wUd (2342) [2/524J. Ibn tlibNn (3447) [SIBI[. AI -Jj.kim (1541) [11585[ . ndAd-D1raqUlnl (2127)131137).l Aj· Bukh.:\rl (1907) 1411 53[ . nd Musl im (2499).4 AI-BukMrl (190\1 ) [41154[ and Muslim (25 16) [4{l93[.


CHAPTERBeginning and End ofa Fasting DayAllah, Exalted be He, says:"/r has lue/J mild" permissible jur you l/oe nigh' p receding/as/jnKto go tu ),ou. W;VC$ /for s""",,,,1 rcl",;", .. J. Tlrey "re "ol/,;ng/or)'


IV, FASTlNGM uslimsso as to reU eve them from the rest rjet i 0>1$ t h er were b u rd en edwith at Ihe beginning of Islam. To illustrate, al the early slage ofIslam, when Ihe fasting day wO! over and Muslims broke rhe!r fast,a Muslim was aI/owed to enjoy eating, drinking, and h~ving sexualintercourse with llis wife on ly unt,1 the time of the ·/JM' (Night)Pray.r was due. or unril he Jlepr before Ih


OuP'''' 1, lkginning.OO End of. Fming D.y"So woe to those who pray - {b~t/ who ~ .... heedless of thtlr prQyer,~(Qurln: AI·M~· (In: 4.5)A Mu~liln must have the intention of observing the obligatory fastingfrom the night of the day before. However, if a Muslim intends fastingbefore he sleeps, then he wakes up after daybreak, he is to continuefasting from the moment he wakes up, and it will be valid and complete,Allah willing.It is desirable to hasten fast breaking if sunsct is verified whether by sight,being informed by a trustworthy ~rson, or by hearing the prayer call, Oranything of the kind. Sahl Ibn Sa 'd (may Allah be pleased with him) narratedthat the Prophet (PBUH) said:"The people will remain on the 'ight path as long m they hastenb .... aking of tile fast."'The Prophet (PBUH) also said in a Qudsl (Divine) hadith. quoting theWords of his Lord, Almighty and Ever-Majestic be He:"The most beloved of My servants to Me are those 11'1'0 hasten tobreak fmting (as soon as they are sure of tile sunset)."'(Related by AJ·BukMri and Muslim)It is an act of the Sunnah to break one's fast with eating some ripe dates.If the fasting person does not find any. One may eat dry dates, and if One doesnot find any, one may break one's fasting with some water. Anas (may Allah bepleased with him) narrated:"AII",h's Messenger (PBUH) used to break his fast beforeperforming the (Sunset) Prayer with some ripe d",tes; but ifthere were no fresl, dates, he would eat a few d~y d


fast breaking meal, missing pnforming the Maghrib (Sunset) Pray~r incongregation at the mosque. They thus commit a grave sin, for theyabandon performing an obligatory prayer in congregation, miss a greatreward, and expose themselves to Divine punishment. A Muslim shouldrather break his fast first, then h ~ ad for the mosque to perform theMaglrrib Prayer in congregation. and then he may hav ~ his fast br~a kingm ~a l wh~n h~ corn~s back.,I is desirable for Ihe fasting person when breaking his fa.st 10 invokeAllah supplicating Him for whalever he likes. The Prophet (PBUH) said:'Verily, a fasting person ha5 all illvocation w/rell breaking his fastthat is not rejected (by Allah).'"Among the invocations narrated to have l>e.:n observed by the Prophet(PBUH) upon fast breaking is:'0 AII~h! For You I have fasted, and with Your provision 1 havebroken my fa'I."'Moreover, when~ver he (PBUH) broke his fast he used to say:' Thirsl has gO/re. the arteries /,ave become moist, and Ihe rewardhas become certaiM, if AII"h wiils."'In fact, a Ml.lslim should know about the rulings related to f.sting and fastbrea"king in terms of both the correct tim e and manner of performance, so asto observe it in the proper, legal way that agrees with the SUM.rah of the Prophet(PBUHj. In this way - by following in the Prophet's footsteps when ob~rvingfasting - one's fasting is likely to be valid and ones good d,""d, during fastingare likely to be accepted if Allah wills; this is a very important issue. Allah,E~alted be He, says;"There has (trIll/lily bemfor you in the Me .. ellger of AI/ohon txuilelll pall~rn for ""yol1e whose hope is ill Allah al1dthe lost doy Ilnd [,.·ho J reme",ln:rs Allah oftel1."(Qur'atl: AI·Ahz~b: 21)


a.ap. ... 2: II


CHAPTERThings Nullifying FastingTh~re are things which nullify fasting that a Muslim should know so as 10avoid and beware of, for they invalidate fasting and make it void. Among thesethings ar ~ :1- Having Sexual IntercourseIf a fasting person ha s sexual intercourse with his wife. his fasting willbe nullified, and he will he obliged to make up for that day. on whi~h hehad such a sexual intercourse. Moreover, one is nOl only obliged to makeup for such a day, but also to expiate for il. The expiation for slIch an act isemancipating a slave,' and if one does not find a slave to emancipate. oneis to fast for two months consecutively. and the one unable to fast them dueto a legal ucuse should then feed sixty poor persons with half a ~J ' of thecountry's staple food for each,


'"2- EjaculationIV, FASllNGEjaculation 111,111; foes fasting wh~n it ,..,suhs from ki ssi ng, touching. masturbating,or lustful ga~ing . J( any of , u~h cases occurs, f~sti "g is nu lli fied, yt·[ ul1cis just obliged 10 make up for il witoou[ expi~tion, fur upiati on of nullifiedfa5ting i. rnlrkt..d IQ havi ng~xual int~KOIJ rw. Ho~ r. if a skq'ing personhas had a wet d",am, there will be. no blam~ On him and his fasting ..,m~in5v;llid, for 3 wet d",am h~~n s inV'Olumarily. Slill, OI1t in this case is to pt"r­(orm ritual bathing 10 purify on~lf from the state ftllI6buh (Le. major ritualimpurity rdated 10 ~xual discharge).3- Deliberate Eating or DrinkingAllah, Exalted be He, say':~ ... And ~'" .md drink until the ... hi t~ 1I'r'f" d ,,' daw" bUO"'tJdisli,," to 10" f rom l/ot bl4Ct tlrm.d '''' "iSM}. The" compld~ Ih ~fi>Sl "nli/ lit, "igM /I.t .• u"u'J ... ~ (Qur'An: Al- Baqarah: 187)As for ~ mting person who forgnfutty nts or drinks, tile valid ity of his{uting is by no mUllS afflXlN. Th~ Pmphn (PBV H) said:· Whoever eats or rlrinkJ something forgetflllly while ht ;s ftUt;ng •• holl/rl ,omp/ele his fa$t.for ",hnr he has '(I/cn or rlrllnk has bcc"gi""" 10 him br Allah,"'Among the things nullifying (~ $ t i ng is whtn water or the lik ~ gds intoo ne'~ body (the .hroat and t!>en the abdomen) through the nostrils.. which, inArabic. is generally referred loas5nU«. Mo~r. having nUlritioo through Ihtveins.. blood lransrusion. and Ihe like. a~ among the Ihings nullifying fluting.u they provide the body with nuuimenl. In addition. nUlrien! inj«tion of afnling ~rson nulliftes hi~ fuling, as it is consideml a substitute for food./lJfo r the non-nutrient inj«Iions. Iher have to ~ avoided as well during fasling\0 preserve its va tidity; the Prophet (PBUH) said:"Avoid that ",hie" mak~)'OII doubt and adhert 10 Ihal which doesnot m


the co ming OUI of a little blood, such as a sample for a blood test, does notaffect the validity of one's fasting, Similarly, the involuntary coming out ofblood, such as th.t resulting from nosebleed, a wound, or pulling out a tooth,does nOI affect fa~ting.5- VomitingInlentional disgorging of what is in one's stomach, such as vomited foodsand drink:., through the mouth nullifies one's fasting. Yet, if one vomitsunintentionally, thi.1 d~ not affect one's fasting, for the Prophet (PBUH) said:"if anyone cannot help vamiling, lie does nol ha"e /0 make up fOT(Ihat day of fasting), and whocI't'r inunli,mally vomits, shouldmake up for it,-'A fasting person should avoid using eyeliners, eye drops, or the like, topreserve the validity of his/her fasting, Furthermore, a fasting ~rson shouldnot exceedingly Tin .. out one's mouth and nose with water (during ablutionfor example), a5 water may enter one', throat. The Prophet (PBUH) said,"Take waler into your nostrils well (during ablution) except wilenyou are fasting." 'As for using the siwJk (tooth·stick), it does not affect th e validity of one'sfasting. Rath .., using the siw~k is desirable and advisable, whether one isfasting Or not, at the beginning and end of the day, according to th e soundO!'itopinion in this regard, In addition, if dusI or a fly enters the mouth of a fasting~rson, it does not affect the validity of his fasting.There are certain matters that a fasting person should avoid, such as lying,backbiting, and insulting, and if anyone insults him, his reply should be, "[am in a stale of fasting)." Unfortunately, there are some ~ople for whomab,laining from food and beverage i.1 much easier than refraining from theevil words and deeds they are accustomed to. That was why one of the Salaf(early Muslim scholars) said, "Thuasics/ part of fasling is ~bs/(lini>lgfrom foodand drink. ~S


IV: FASI1NG· WhOfi't'rdoa: nOlgillf' up~v il


CHAPTERMaking np for Missed Daysof RamadanOne may break o!le>~ fasting during the month of Ramadoi.n due to a legalexcu"", and may do so for an illegal excuse such as having sexual intercoulUduring fasting or the like. I,.. both case~, it is qbligatory for one to make up forthe mi~d day(s) of fasting, for Allah, Exalted [,., He, says:~ .•• Ilren an "'loo/ !lumber of dllyJ [art to be made up} ...'"(Qur'an: Al-Baqarah: 184)It is desirable for one to hasten 10 make up for the misse


IV, FASTINGdemaM a specific time is ~rmitled to be dela~ but with the intention ofmaking up for it. In addition. it is permissible to make up for it separately, i.e.to mal


on him. But, if the person delays making up for the mi"",d fasting daY" for nolegal excu~ t~n d in. there must ~ expiation for those da)'$ to ~ fulfIlledfrom his in heritan«, namely feeding (on his ~h a l f) a poor person for eachfasting day he had missed.Regarding one who dies before performing due expiatory fasllng. such osupiatory fasting for 1.1/uJr ' or for nol sacrificing a sacrificial animal duringperformingl1ajj (Pilgrima~) as lama",, ',' t~rc must be a feeding of a poorperson for each day of un perfonned fasling. I1 is imrermissibk as ... ...,11 10make up for Iho~ unperformed fasting days by proxy. In this rcS~I. feedingIhe p


394 IV, FASTINGIn addition. Sh"ykhuI-Islam Ib n Taymi)'ah (may Allah have mtrey onhim) said,"For thefastingofbreakinga vowduefrom a person who has died,a poor person i.< to befedfor each day in expiation. This opinion isalso maintained by fmilm Ahmad. fs/1.dq. and others. It is also theopinion based on legal esrimMion and tradition


CHAPTERBreaking the Fast: Illnessor Old AgeAllah, Glorified and Exalted be He, h as dKTffii the: obligation of fa ~tinBof Ramad.~n on Muslims. It is to Ix perfo rmed when there is no legal excu..,.YCI, un~rformed fasling days of Ramad.~n are to be m ad~ up (or on otherdays with regard to those having legal excu~. There is a third type here.namely thou who can neitile. perform fast ing 'IOr make up (or it, such as'hOK advancw. in )"ean and lOOse who are hopdruly sid,. With rq;ard 10such ptl'$Oll.l., Allah rdicvn tlu:m from futing. enjoining lilem 10 fM:! a poorperson {oream unpnfonncd fast ing day instnd; they arc 10 provide half aid'offood for each day. Allah. Exalted be He, .... ys:·All"h does "of chn.ge " 'DU/ except t wit" 110 .. , 14';'11;"1 i/srtlp" c/ty ..• " (Qur'~n: AI · Bnqarah: 286)


3% IV, FASTINGAllah also says:~ .•. A"d upo" those who ~r~ able {to fast. but with hD rdship) - /I.,m .om {OJ . ubslilutej of juding a /",or person {e


Oup ..' " B .... king rh . 1;"" tll,,,,,, or Otd AS


39~ lV, FASTtNGIt is also reported on th. authority of . ),'ishah. as a m~rf{j ' (traceable)b.~dlrh. that the Prophet (PBUH) ",id,·Wlle» one dots nor illlmd jtming before dtlwn. his fasling is i~VIllid'"T hus. the Muslim must make the intention of performing the obligatoryfasting from the night until before dawn. So, whoever intendsfasting in the daytime, such as the one who gelS up in the morning,abstains from eating and drinking. and intends fasting, his fa .• ting isinsufficient and unacceptable u nles, it is a supererogatory fasting. notan obligatory one.Obligatory fasting mmt be intended beforehand, not during the daytime;the whole daytime is included in the time offastingand intention cannot referto something in the past. On the other hand, it is permissible for a Muslim tointend performing supererogatory fasting in the daytime, for ' )"ishah (mayAllah be pleased with her), narrated,'One d~y the Prophet (PIlUH) mme 10 me and said. 'Do you haveanything (to bf taten)?' I repfied. 'No: Thereupon. he (PBUH) mid.'Then I will observe fasling (Iooay).'··(Related by the Group orComp;le .. of Uadilh except Al -Bukhari)This shows that he (PBUH) WaS not fasting then. as he asked for food,but intended fasting wh~n he found nothing to eat. Thus, the aforesaidi1adflh involves a proof of the I'''flllissibilily of del~ying the intention offasting, only in the case of super.rogatory fasting. However. there is acondition on the validity of the supererogatory fasting intended duringlhe daytime; n,me of the things nullifying fastitJg should h~ve occurredbefore the moment of intending that supererogatory fasting. su ch as eating,drinking. and the like. In other word •. if one ha. d()n ~ any of .uch thing.that nullify fasting before intending supererogatory fasting during thedaytime, one's fasting is indisputably invalid.Endnotes1 AI· llukhlrl (4505) [81225 1.2 Al· lIukhlrl 05-60) [61692J . nd Muslim (5999) [8182[.3 AI· lIukhlrl (t9~6) [412331 ,nd Mudin, (2607) [ ~ 123J I.


'"4 FM_ A kpl opinion i.oot>od by a mufti [I MuoIim """'., opKialiud in i .... illBl


~ ---


V:HAJJ


CHAPTERThe Obligation of Hajj(Pilgrimage)Hajj (Pilgrimage) is considered onc of the pillars and major acts of Islam;Allah. Exalted be He, says:" ... And {duel to Allah from the prople i. a pilgrimog


v, llAJJAll this confirms that Ha)) is an obligatory act of worship and whoeverdoes not believe in it is uniformly agreed to be a disbeliever.Allah, Exalted be He. commanded Hi, Intimate, Prophet Ibrahlm(Abraham), saying:" ..• And proclaim to th JUople the Hajj (pilgrimag«/ ... •(Qurln: AI -liajj: 27)Moreover, . AI; Ibn Ab" rillib (may Allah be pleased with him) narratedthat the Prophet (PBUH) said:"Whoever has the provision and the riding animal (or th~ means)thM can cnrry him 10 the House oj Allah (i.e. the Ka 'bah) and hedoes not perjorm Iiaj), rilell it does 110 maller ifhe dies as a few ora Christian."'(A marfu' (traceable) iJ.adill, reluted by At· Ti rmidhi and other compilersof Hadirh, and d""med ",Ilia (anthentic) al50 by At·"J"irmidhijThe Prophet (PBUH) also said:"Isklm is based 011 five (pillars): (i) lestifying tirat there jj no deitybllt AI/ah and that Mub.mmnad is the Messenger oj Allah: (ii)perjormil1g the (compulsory congregational) prayers dutifully andperjectly; (W) I'ayi'lg Zak~h; (iv) observingfasting dur;'Ig th e monthojRm",l!!.dl1; (v) perjorming Ua)) (i,e. Pilgrimage)jor those who canafford it."The phrase "who ((In afford it" implies a condition On whom ~rformingUajj is obligatory; that one must have enough provisions and means oftransportation to travel to Mecca and return back to one', folk ..The reason why Allah decreed Hajj is shown in the following ver"","That Ih~y m"y wUn" .. , i.e. aI/end} Mnefiu for Ihemut""s andmention Ihe N"me of AI/"h 0" k"own [i.e. specific! da)" 0...,'whal Ht has provided for Ihem of {sacrificial/ animals ... nAllah continues:{Qur'1n: Al-Hajj: 28}nTh." Id tll.", end their untidin" .. and fulfill th"'r vow. "nd/'trform tawtlf' arou"d the Andenl House. n(Qur'in: AI-Hajj: 29)


0uf"


V: /iAj)nor n'en travel" Upon that, tht Prophet (PBUH) said le him:'Perform li.jj ~nd 'Ummh 011 beh~if of your falhe~·'(Related by the Fi," Compile",of Hadith and deemed~aliili (authentic)by At· Tirmidhl)According to the aoove, it is obligatory for a Muslim 10 p"rform Hajj and. Urnrah once in a lifetime; th e Prophet (PBUH) said:'Perform Jiajj only once, and whOt'ver performs it more than thOl,it is a voluntary act for him."'In ~b.ih Muslim (Muslims Authentic Book ofHadith), il is narrated on theauthority of Ab" HlIrayrah thal the Prophtt (PBUH) $.id:·0 people! Allah has made JJpjj obligatory for you, so puform Hajj."VpOH Ihat, a man asked, "(Is it to be performed) every year?" TheProphet (PBUH) answered, "If I were to say 'Yes: it would becomeobligatory (for you to perform it every year) and you would not beable to do it:'A Mmlim, male Or fe male, must p"rforrn tht obligatory Hajj as SOOn asone is able 10, and whoever def.", il without a legal excuse is deemed sinful,for the Prophet (PBUH) said:"Make lume to (perform the obligation of) Hajj,for the o"e of youdoes nol know what mighl ajj!ict him:"(Related by Imam Ahmad)There a re five co n dit ions that must be f u I flU ed as prcrcq u i sites of performing11ajj: 10 be a Musl im, to be sane, to have reached puberty, to be fr e


Clupl


"A womall fTfJm (11,e lriw of) Khalh 'am SQid, "0 Messellger ofAllah! The obligalion of Hajj tlljoillM by Allah Iuu !>«ome due011 my farher tllld he iJ old alld weak, and he call1lOf si! firm on IhemOllnl (la Ira vel); may 1 ~rform Hajj 011 his Whalp.' The Prophd(PBUH) ""plied, 'Y"-,)'Vu may.'·nV'iJJ4UThe ~rson who performsH~jj on h(ohalf of another must have ~rformedHajj on his own ~half first, according to the following hlldith ~ported by Tbn'Abbb (may Allah ~ plra~d with him):"The PrDphtt (PBUH) heard a man saying talbiyah in Ihis way,'Hut 1 nm nl Your ser~ict 0 Allah, on behalf of Shubrum"h:He (Ihe Prophet) asked, 'HaW!)'Vu performed Hnjj on )'Ou, OWnbehnlp.' The mnll said, 'No.' The Prophel (PBUH) said. 'PerformHnj} 011 your own bmnlf firsl, then ptrform il all ,"h"lf ofShubrum"h: - "(Related through a good chain oft .... nsminers and;s d~med ~hili(.utIle-IItic) by AI-Bayha'1i)The one who performs Hajj on behalf of 3nothcr should be gi",n enoughmoney to cover the costs of the journey back al'd forth. However, he shouldby no means get (us in return for this ~rvice, and should neWr use it as amuns of earning money. H. who ~rforms Hajj on behalf of another shouldbe doing this with the int.ntion of helping I Muslim brother or sister and alsoviliting Ihe House of Allah (the """bah) and the ncrt'd pr«incls. Thu .. one'sperf"onnance of Hnjj on behalf of another should be intended for the Sake ofAllah, root for any worldly purpose. On Ihe other hand, if Hajj is performed inthl$ Wily in mum for money, thm it will be invalid.EndnotesI At· Tirmidht (R 11) 13/176).2 I"""f Cir


Chap«r 1: lh< ObIi&, rion of lJ.ajj (l'il 5ri mag


CHAPTERWomen's Hajj and Rulings onPerforming It on Someone's Behalfl:ifljj is pl"C'scribed for every Muslim, male or female, yet there are someadditional conditions for f:J.ajj Ihal are obligatory for women. A wOman mustbe accompanied by a maUr ... " ' during/:iajj. I! is impermissible in religion fora woman to travel for l:iajj or anythingdse without a mauram, for the Proph~(PBUH) said:i\. woman should not trove! except with a maJ-.lTllm, and ,.,,, manmay visit her except in the preswCl of a mabram:'(Related by Imlm Ahmad with an authentic chain of transmitters)I! is aloo narrated in the Two Sahihs that a man said to the Prophet (PBUH):'0 Messenger of Allah! My wife is proceeding/or Hajj and I haveenlisted in the army for such·and-such a battle.~ Thereupon, IheProphet (PBUH) said 1o him, "&1, and perfonn liajj with your wife.·l


V HAjjMOre


I perform liajj on her behaift' He replied, 'Yes, perform liajj on herbehalf Had there been a debt on your mother. would you haw paidit or not? (If ye,) ,0 pay Allahs debt as He has more right to fu!fillHis debt (j.e. the obligation of Hojj): "Th~ aforesaid badill' proves that anyone who dies befo,", p~rforming theobligation of Hajj, then his SOn or guardian should do it on hi. behalf or theyshould find someone to do il on his behalf. provided that the expenses oflhel:J.ajj journey is taken from his inheritance. Moreover, the guardian should alsopay the debts of the dead person; schola rs uniformly agr~e that the debt of aman should be taken OUl of his money. and sO should be any other f,nancialob li gation~ (such as tbe expen"'s of performing Hajj for him and the like).According to another hadith, the I'rophet (PBUH) enjoined a womanwhose sister vowed 10 ~rform Ha)) and died before fu lfilling it, to perform,Hojj on her behalf . Similarly, il was related in the Sunan of Ad -Daraqulni thathe (PBUH) enjoined a man whos~ father died before performing the obligationof liajj. to p erform il on behalf of his father ' , That i. 10 say, th.re is not muchlegal diff~r~nce between the obligation of a legislative origin and that whichon~ vows tlpon himself; bolh have to be fulfilled, whelher il is enjoined by Ih ede


".EndnotesV: li;l}J1 Manram, A wom,n" husband or .ny u"m.rriage.bl. kin "fh,,..2 Al-Bukh1ri (1862) .nd (1086, 1087), .nd Mwlim (1)41) and (1338).3 Al_Bukh1r1 (3006) [61 172 ] .nd Mwlim (3259) [S/llll.4 Al· BukhM (1088) [2/7J(l[.nd Mu. lim (3255) [51111 ],5 Mu>!im (3257) 151112).6 Al·BukhM (1852) ]4/84)7 A l- ~ukhll1 (6699) [Ilm 1].8 Ad.D1''''lu!nl (25S6) 1112291_


CHAPTERVirtues of Hajj and ItsPreparationsHajj has a magnificent vinue and a great reward. At-Tirmidhl narrated amarf(j ' {tmceable} aad/rh, which he deemed lab.ia (authentic), on the authorityof' Abdun.,h [bp Mas'iJd stating that the Proph..t (PBUH) said:·Perfon" Hajj and 'Umrah (UsseT Pilgrimage) making them followeach olller,for they remove poverty and sins as a blacksmiths bellowsremo",", impurities from iron, gcld, ""d sjlve~ And an acceptedp"jornlance c/Hajj gets no reWl>rd I",s than Paradise."'Mo=~..,r, it waS narrated in Sab.ib.AI-BukMri (AI-BukMrfs Authentic Bookof I:ituiirh) that' A:ishah (the Prophet's wif e) asked the Prophet (PBUH) saying:"We see that jiMd' ;s the best of (good) deeds, ,(} should "'" no/ (aswomen) participate in jihlld?" He (PBUH) replied, "The best and themost lUpe,ior jihdd for women is the auepted perjDrmaMce (}jHajr'


416 Y'iiAJJIt is important to point out that an accepted performance of Iiojj is that whichis perfe


CHAPTERMiqats' of Hajj~.., a"" ~r t a i n times for lilljj. and certain siles for entering ~ slateofihnlm.The Fixed Times or HajjThe tima specified for liajj arc mentioned by Allah, Exalted be He, whenHe s.ap:~t1ajj is {during} ~II - kn"w " months, JO 1I'1r~V('~ 'flU made Hajjob/lgM",." "po" him"" Ilr t ~j n [by tnUrlng the stalt of Ibr4m}.lite", i. r ID k for him) n" 1U".,j relatio,,' and " " disobMitnu(QUI'!n: AI-Baqarah: L 9 7),,uI "" "Upllling ""ring HQjj.....These months a~ ShawmJ, DhIll·Qa· dab. and the first ten days of DM1-l:Iijjah. Themort, anyone woo enleTS the stale of ibnlm in tiles


·"The Sites for Entering the State of lhrlimThey all' th e specific places which a pilgrim must not exc~d and headfor Mecca without entering the state of ibnlm (a slate of ritual consecrationduring Ha» Or • Umrtlh) , declaring hi. intention to perform tilljj. Thes


tho~ who dwell in places that are nnnr to Mecca than t~ aforementionedplic", theya~ume lar.l", for Hujj or ' U",mh from thei r places. A$ memiontdabove. the residem. of Mecca. however. enter litr.l", for l:iajj from their ownnsidnlce. i.e. from place, at M...:ca itself; they do not h~ye to get out of Me


v, JJltJJor th~ host~ of Iht plan~, or trying to find it out independently through!nv~ligalion and estimallon, Thus, On~ would have done on~'s utmo$t in thisr


CHAPTERHow to Assume IhramIbrdm (~ ~at~ of ritual cQnse


v, lJ;1}}First: It is desirable to have a bath - washing the whole body - before ihnlm>for th~ Prophet (PBUH) used to do SO before assuming ihram'. This isalso ~uSl: bathing is a bener and more compreMnsiw way of cleaningand ridding oneself of ~ny undesired smd l. MOl"eOV


with any other color provided it is traditionally ~fitting men. The idtabehind this is to withdraw on .. df from luxury and to have the feelingof asubmissive servant of Allah through wearing such humbledothing.Morem",r, such clothing always reminds one oft>eing in a state of ib.nlm.and thus one keeps alert and avoids committi ng the acts prohibitedduring ib.rnm. The clothing of iarnm reminds one of death, the shroudof dead people, and the Day of Resurrection, and so On and so forth. Inaddition. taking off sewn clothes before intending to assume ihrdm isan act of the SUllllah, but it is obligatory ait« assuming ibnlm. So, if apilgrim intends assuming ib.mm while ,till wearing his ordinary sewndothes. his ihrdm is considered valid, bUI he is then obliged to take suchdoth .. off and put on the dothes of ihnlm.By fulfilling the aforesaid prerequisites, a pilgrim is thus prep.red to be ina state of ihrJm, but such acts Ihemsdvrs a", not called i/lrdm as many peoplemistakenly believe; ib.mm meanS the intention of starting performing Ihe ritesof Hajj or ·Umrah. Accordingly. a pilgrim is not conside",d in a slate of j/lrdmonce he takes off his sewn clothes and wears the afo",menlioned clothing ofihrdm without having the intention of starting performing the rites of l;1ajj or. Ummh. This is b~aus e the Prophet (PBUH) said:"Indeed, (the correClrless and rewards of) deeds depend uponintentions .. . bAs for praying befo", assuming ib.rnm, the more valid opinion is that thereis not a sp~ia\ kind of prayer to be offered before ihrdm. However, if the timeof ihrdm coincides with an obligatory prayN, then a pilgrim is to performthe obligatory prayer first then assume i/Jrdm. To illustrate, it was narratedthat the Prophet (PBUH) assumed i/Jr


V'lJ.AJJfrom there. They may also change their clothes the..., and wear the clothing ofib.rJm, while in fact nl! such issues are, by all means, baseless. Rather, Muslimsare just re


Endnotes1 See; Majm" . ul-Paldw.l 12t>1n. 10111.2 AI-Tirmidh! (830) 131192].3 Muolim (2900) 1413711 ond (2941) 14140414 Mu,lim (2929) 141 3921.5 AI ·Buxhlrt (1539) 1)149'1 J and Mrnlim (2818) [4133716 See: MajrnO ' ul-fuldwd [2(1107).7 At· TirmidhJ (830) 131 1931 .8 At· Tirmidhi (819) [31181] ond An -Nw ' (2753) 131176 1.9 Ab~ D.lw(td (1774) 12/25>11 and An·Nod'l (2661 ) 13/1361_10 See: ZM"I-Ma'dd.


CHAPTERActs Prohibited during IhramThere are specific forbidden .cls that a pilgrim "hould avoid while being ina ,late of iurJm (a state of rit ual conse.:ralion during Hajj or 'Umrah) , Theseprohibited acts are nine:First: It is prohibited dunng inarm 10 cut, ,have, pluck out, or remove any kindof ha if from one", body without a legal excuse, for Allah, Exalled be He. sa)":"••. And


".v, tuojjany ~xpia ti on. This is because it is nor" normal place for hair to grow, and byremoving il on~ spares onesdfharm or pain.Second: A mu/uim ' is prohibited to dip one, fingernails Or toenails withoutany legal excUse. Yd, if a nail is broken and one has 10 clip it or to remove itwith part of its skin. it is permissible for one !O do so without any expiation forthat. This is because it is removed as a consequence ofbting brohn; as for theskin, it is related to the nail and thus the same ruling is applicable. In addition,it is permissible to remove the hair of the head if it CauSeS any harm such as liceor headache. for Allah. halted be He, say,:~ ... A"d whoever .. mong you is ill Or has ,,,, ai/ment oftl'~ /,,,ad{making .having neaun.y mllst "!fer] a rallsam offluting {11,re"day.JorcharjtyorsQCrifict ... ~ (Qur'an: Al -Raqarah: 196)Also, Ka'b Jbn ' Ujrah reported:"There was 111,


Ch_pt.,6, Nu I'roh ibitro dming f/znl", 429Third: A male mubrim is prohibited to cover his head, as the Prophet (PBUH)prohibMd wearing a turban, hood, or anything of t h ~ kind while being in astat~ of ihnlm. In this regard, the great Muslim scholar Ibnul-Qayyim (mayAllah have m ~ r(y on him) said:"Then is COnSeJ15U5 that everything that touches the he~d with thepurpose of coveriMg it, sllch as ~ turban, a cap, a hat. or anythingelse. is prohibited (durhlg ibram)."This is appli'able to all $ort, of head covers, be it somethi ng usual such a$ aturban or u nusual such as a paper, mu d, h~nna, or a headband. A mub"im canseek th~ shelter of a tent, a tree. or a house, for it was narrat. d that a tent waSpitched for the Prophet (PBVH) to take shelter therein while being in a stateof ihr~m ' . O n the other hand, it is permissible for a mubrim 10 use an umbrellafor shading. only when necessary. Likewise, it i$ permissible for a mullrim toride a car with a roof or carry his baggage abov~ hi$ head. provided not for thepurpose of co,,",ring the head.Fourth: It is also proh i bi t ~ d for a male muhrim 10 wear sewn dothes to coverall or parts of the body. such as a shirt, a turban, or a pair oftrousers. Similarl)'.it i, prohi b i t ~d for a male mubrim to wear anything made exactly to fit ac ~r t ain part of the body, such as shoes, glov~$, or socks. It is narrated in theTwo ,s~bil1s that when the Prophet (PBV H) was ask~d what a mub,;m shouldwcar, he (PBUH) r~plied :"A m uIJrim should 'lOt wear a shirt, or a tllrban, or a hooded doa k,or a pair of trousers, or U dllth touched with 'wars' (a yellow goodsmelledplant usedfor dyeing) or with saffron. nor (should he wear)khuffs (leather socks or shoes)."Shaykhul-lsUm Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy On him) said:"The Prophet (PBUH) prohibited mubrims to wear shirts, hoodedcloaks. trousers. kJiuffs, ' or tu,bam. He (PIlUH) also forbade thunto cover t/,e head of a male mubrim in cas< he died, ~nd ordered theman who assumed ihrclm while weari Mg a jubbah ro take it off. So,wearing anylhing similar 10 a jubbah (on the pretext that it is not ajubbah) ;s regarded a.s a dishonest irlterpretation of what the Prophet(PBUH) forbade, A mu/trim is also prohibited to wear somethirlgsimilar 10 a sh irt, be il with or without sleeyes. or neW or torn, Thesame prohibition applies 10 wearing a jubbah or a dook in who sesfeev€s one passes OMts hands ... •


HOv, IJ.AJJIbn Taymiyah th~1l continu~d:• This is the juristic me~Mj"g of not wearillg 'sewn' dothlng whilebeing in ~ state of Il.!rdm; Sew" dothing is any garment made to fit acerllli" parr of the body_ Therejore, a "'''brim is lIot to we~r allY thingsimilar to trousers, such III .il(Jr/s and the like."'However, if a mullri", doe. not find a ,uitable pair of slippers, he may wearkuffs (leather socks or shoe,), Jnd jfh. does not find a suitable loindoth, hemay we.r a pair of trousers until he fmds a suitable one. Once the muhr;mfinds a proper loincloth, he must take off the trousers and wear it, as th~Prophet (PBUH) gave permission for mal ~ muhr!",. ov~r Mount' Arafat towear trousers ;fthey do not find a loincloth' ,As for a fem.le mubrim, she may wear whatever doth~ .he li~s whikbeing in a state of ;lI.ram, for she must be covered well. Still, she is not allowedto wear a burqu' (Le" a veil covering the face and has two holes for the eyes topermit vision). $0, a female mutJrim is not to wear a burq~ " but she is to coverher face with ot her thing.! such as • kloimJ, (a shawl-like doth covering thehead and shoulders) and a gown. Moreover, a female mull.rim should not weargloves to cover her hands, for the I'rophet (PBUH) said in the !radith rrlaledby A I -Buk h~rl and other compilers of Hadilh :11. female mullrim must /lot wear a /I;qJb (a face-coveri,tg veil),I, _co"or must' ,e wear g Oyes,In this connection, Im~m Ibnul-Qayyim (may Allah ha,-c mercy On him) said:"The Propllets prohibition (for female pilgrims) of covering their facesor wruri'lg gloves i"dicMes thm a womans fact is treated as a ma"sbody, not heild. A male mullrim is Mot to COW' his body with seWndoth .. m~de specifically for certain parts of the body. Similarly, "fem~lf muilrirn is Mot to coI"r her f"ce with a lpecifk face-cwer suchas a "iqfJb (a face-covering veil) or a burq" '. Howevtr, slleshould COverherself with ~ veil (wlllch sloolI" only her face) and a gow" according'0 Ihe ",ore ""lid of ti,e two i"dsric opinions j" ti,i, regard:"The gloves m' specifically l1I~de for the hands 10 protecllhem from cold.A female m,,/I,;m is primarily obliged to hid. her fa~ from the eyes ofmen, and this is not through wcariog a b"'q" '. To illustrate, 'A';shah (mayAllah be pleased with her) narrated:"Men would palS by,,, ",hm we accompanied Allah's Messenser(PRVH) wlii/e wc were i" tire stme of iardm (a state of ri'~al come·


Chap«r 6: Am Pwnib itcd during Ihrilmcration during tlajj or 'Umrah). Wllen they Came by us, everyone ofus would let down her gown over her face. and when they had passed011, we would uncover Our fau,.""'"(Rd.te


" .•. But forbidden to you i. game from the land oS long.u you anill lire staft of ib,"m ... " (Qur'an: Al -Ma'idah: 96)y,H.A]JThat is to say. thos~ in a state of Iur,)m are forbidden to hunt Or kill gameanimals, or help in hunting or slaug ht~ ring th~m. LihwiS(:, it is prohibited fora munrim to ~at a gam~ ani",al which he hunted, which waS hu n t~ d for him,or which he helped in hunting, as it wit! ~ rega rd~d as a dead animal in thiscase, which is unlawful to ~at. Stilt it is not prohibilw for. mubrim to ~at fishor animals from the sea, whether he hunts it or anyone ds~ does it for him, asAllah, Exalt~d be He, says:"l ~wful to you is gamef.om the ua and itsfood ... "(Qur'an: Al -Ma'idah: 96)On th e other hand, it is permissible for a mubrim 10 slaught", a domesticanimal such as chic ken. sheep. and call1e, as they ar~ not ga",e animals. Amubdm isalso I"'rmilled to kill wil d inedible animals, such as lions and tigers.for such cr~atures Ihrealen people' .• lives.Generally, if a mull,im has to do any of the acts prohibited during ib.rdmfor a legal e~cu~e. he/she is permitw:l to do it. provided h ~ /sh e i~ to slaughtera sacrificial animal in expiation, for Allah, Exalted ~ He, says:" ..• ""d whotw. amo"g you is ill 0. h.u all ailment of the heod[maki"g mavi"g Ilece .. a.y mu.t offer) a ralltom offastlng [threedoys] orcharityo •• acrifrce ... H (Qur'an: AI·Baqarah: 196)Seventh: A m~ brlrn is prohibited to marry ( .... hil ~ being in a slate of Ibrdm) orarrange th~ marriage of a nolh~r by guardianship, as Im~m Muslim related ontht authority of 'Uthm~n Tb n . Aff"n that the Prophet (PBUH) said:"A mub.rim mU51 neither m""y himself. nor ",range Ih~ marriageof another one.""Eighth: A mullr;m is prohibitw to have sexual intercourse, for Allah, E •• ltedbe He. says:~ ... So wh""wr has made Hajj ablig"'ary u/XJn himself therein[by entering the slale of ihM"'), tlleu is [10 be for him I "a .exual..."atio ...... » (Qur'an: Al -Baqanh: 197)A~,ording 10 Ihn 'Abbis. it refers 10 the activity of engagi ng in ""malint~rcou ",, " . To clarify, if a man in a stale of ihram (i.e. a muhrimj has """ualint~rcourS(: with his wife btfore the first release from Ibrdm, it will i nvali dal~


hit Hajj. Vtt. ;1 ;s obIigatcwy for him to continue performing the ra! of Ihe ritcsof Uajj, for Allah, Exalted be He, says:HAnd complde Ih~ Ha)}


He (PBUH) also said in a mar/fr (traceabie) uadllh,"A sign of ones goo


Endnotes'"I Mub.dm: On~ in a "ate of , i'ual


CHAPTERRites of Tarwiyah and, Arafah DaysUpon reaching th" sile for ibram (a state of ritual consecration during Hajjor ' Umroh), a pilgrim dedares his intention to perform one of thru \yp


Vc liJIjjramattu ': It means that a pilgrim assumes ib.rclm for perfonning 'Ummhonly, keeping in such state of iilrclm until he finishes the rites of 'Umrah, suchas I"waf. sa 'y, and shortening or shaving thf hair. Aft~ r that, a pilgrim may getout of the state of illnim until he aSSumeS .nother illram for ~rforming Ha».The best of the thr"" forms is ramallu'. It is desirable for a pilgrimp"rforming ifrad or qircin .nd has not got a sacrificial animal to change hisintention and ~rform /amaItU' instead. carrying out all its rites.It is also desirable for the one performing tammtu' (even if it has bunifnld or qircln that converted to tamattl' '), as well as the residents of Me cc. andthe surrounding places. to assume ib,rtlm for Ha» on the Day of Tarwiyah (theeighth day of Dhul·Hijjah). This is 't>«ause I~blr (may Allah be pleased withhim) narrated, in his description of Ihe Prophet's performance of Hajj:... ..... 11 the pilgrims dissolved the state of illram ~xcept the Prophet(PBUH) and whoe"cr had a sacrificial animal with him. When ilwas tile Day of Tarwiyah, they proceeded to Mincl and assumediholmfor Hajj."'A pilgrim performing tanmUu' may assume ilIrdm from the place where hestays, whether in Mecca, Min~, or any pla~ outside Mecca. but he should not~rform lawaf after assuming ih"'m for Hajj (as it has been already p"rfonnedduring 'Umrah). Shaykhul·lsUm rbn Taymlyah (may Allah have mercy onhim) said:"On the Day of Tarwiyall, a pilgrim performing tamattu ' assumesillrcim for Ha» and does the same as he did when h~ has assumedihram for ' Ummhfrom rhe miqdt. The right opinion is th"t such apilgrim can assume illrdm from Mecca or from outside Mecca, Jorthe Prophet, Compa" io"s used to aSSume ilird", for Hajj from theplace enjoined for them by tile Prophet (PBUH). "amdy AI·Ba.!h.a'(in Mecca). nws, il is an act of the $unnah (Prophetic TradirionJfora pilgrim to assume ili,-,lm (for Haj)) from the place where he stay!.Likewise, the people of Mecca CaM assume ihram from Mecca. as rheProphet (PBfJH) said. 1\lId whoever is IiviMg within these bo undariescan Il.


Iheir ib.r


., v,WJ]only shortened at MinJ, i.e. performing each prayer at its due time for there isno need for combining them at Mina.After a pilgrim performs th e Z"hr and the "AIr Prayers. shortening andcombining them (for he is a1 . Arafah), he should spend the reSi of the dayremembering. invoking. glorifying, and praising Allah, seeking His forgiveness.and so On and sO forth . This is to b. done while a pilgrim is st icking to hisplace at . ATafah. In other words. a pilgrim does not have to go to the Mountof Ar-Rahmah. or to watch it, or even 10 face it, whil e performing suchsupplications: standing anywhere;)1 ' Arafah while facing the direction (If theKa 'bah is mfficien!.A pilgrim should spa,e no effort supplicating Allah and turning to Himin repemance on such a glorious cla)', whether he is walking, sitting. riding.standing, or even lying down. He should also choose the mo,t comprehensive,upplications that were reported to have been observed by the Prophet (PBUH).for he (PBUH) said:"The best supplication is tile 0I1e on the Day of 'Arafa/t. and thebest thing which I and th prophets before me haye said is: 'Thereis no deity but Allah Alone, Who has no partner. To Him belongsdominion, and to Him belong, (all) praise. and He is oyer aI/thingsOmnipotent: ...A pilgrim keeps supplicating All ah at 'Arafah until sunse!. It is irnp"rmissibleto leave bt:fore sunset. and if a pilgrim does, he mu~t go back soonbefore sunset, to witne~s it th ere. However. if a pilgrim leaves' Arafah beforesunset and does nO! go back, he is th en obliged to slaughter a sh«p of Hajj(or 10 get one seventh of a camel or a cow) and divide it among the poorresidents of the Sanctuary of Mecca in expiation for missing an obligatoryritual of Hajj.T he Day of . Arafah starts from the noon of the ninth of Dhul·fijjjahuntil the dawn oflhe tenth of Dhul' Hijjah (the Day of the feast of Sacrifice)according 10 Ihe sound opinion in Ihi' regard. As for a pilgrim who is presentat' Arafah at daytime. he i, obliged to stay there until sunset as we previouslysaid. But if someone arrives at 'Arafah at night. it is sufficient for him to staythere for any length of time. even if for only one moment, as the Prophet(PBUH) said,"If anyone gets (i.e. stays at) 'Arafah befort: the dawn (of the tentho/Dhul·Hijjah) breaks, then he has performed Hajj."'


Slaying at 'Arafah is ()Il~ of th ~ obligatory fundamental rituals of /:iaJj,and il is the most important and the greatest one as welJ, for Ihe Prophet(PBUH) said:"Hajj is 'Arofah (i, e. slaying at 'Arafah is the most impartant ritualof HaJj."'As for the place of ,tayi ng at . Arafah, a pilgrim may stand anywh~r~ withinth~ boundaries of ' Arafah, and this ritual is d remed invalid if one standsoutside them.May Allah guide us all to the dreds and words He likes and pleases. Verily.He is the Hearing and the R~sponsive.Endnotes1 Mculim (294 1) 141402 ].2 Al -hukhlrt (1,26) 1314881 and Mu, lim (2795) 141321].~ :>«:. Majma ' .1.F.:!,


CHAPTERActs on Muzdalifah and MinaWhen the sun sdson the Day of' Arafah (the ninth ofDhu]-liijjah), pilgrimsleave' Arafah s..tting out for Muzdalifah calmly and tranquilly, for J1bi r (mayAllah ~ pleased with him) narraled:·Ht (the Prophet) kept standing there (al 'Arafilh) until sUl1.Iet,when rhe yellow light had somew/mr gone, and rhe di,. of lire ,unhad dioappeared. Ht (PBUH) then mounted Usllmalr behind /rim,and pulled Ihe reins of AI-Oa.!wll' (tire name of Iris she-camel) soforcefully That iTS head touched rhe saddle (in order 10 keep it under/ull control), and he (PBUH) pointed to the people with his righthand saying, '0 peopk! Be moderate (in 'peed)! Be moderate.!"Thus. pilgrims must be in a state of tranquility and serenity while leaving'ATafah and heading for Mumalifah, avoiding jostling against thtir fdlowpilgrims, pushing them, or disturbing them with their CarS, A pilgrim shouldalso have mercy on the walking weak and old people al such. crowd. 11 is


V: liI1JJ


It is . n ~ct of the Su",oah (Prophetic Tr.dition) to spend the night atMuzdalifah .nd offer (he Fajr Prayer al its due time. After th.t, while slandingat MU1dalifah, a pilgrim keeps on supplicating Allah until the daylight spreads.Then, before sunrise, a pilgrim proceeds to Mina. As regards feeble I,ilgrims,such as old people, women, children and the like, "' well as those who takecar~ of them, they are allowed to head for Mina after midnight or when themoon disappears, instead of waiting (It Muzd.lifah until dawn. However,healthy pilgrims who do nO! have any weak people with them should notleave Mu?dalifah before offering the Flljr Prayer, and they should !tay untilthe daylight !prc3ds.Spending the night at Muroalifah is one of the duties of Hajj. A pilgrimwho entns Muzdalifah before midnight must not leave before dawn. As for apilgrim who arrives there after midnight, it is sufficient for him to spend anylength of time there. Stili, it is much be11er in the latter case to stay unt il dawn,offering the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer and following il with supplicating Allah. IbnQudamah stated in his book entitled 'AI-M"gh";' (the S"fficient);"There i, no I,arm m, tl,e one Wl10 arrivf5 at Muzdalifah in thesecond I'aif of rile "ighr, a"d rhe previOI'S n,ling ",IlW performiag them)."'So, leaving Muzdalifah (and heading for Mina) afler midnight is permissibleonly for those who have legal excuses, as indicated in h~diths .Afterwards, a pilgrim heads for Min. shortly before sunrise (of the tenthofDhul·Hijjah, i.e. the Day of Sac rifice), as 'Umar Ibnul·Khanab (may Allahbe pleasm with him) said,"The polytheists did not "se to depMt (from lam', i.e. M"zdalifah)u"fiI the 5un had rise", and they wed to say, 'Let rhe sun shine OIl


, .. v, llAJIyou, 0 n.tlbir(a mountain ill M«C(l which Q\If'rlooksMuvlaliftlh),SO DJ 1o ~I us tkpart: Therifort. the Prophet (PBUN) , ,,nlTrildidMthem and departi'J (from Muulaliftlh) ht/OTt: lunriM.··Pilgrims sllould lea~ in a state of tranqui! j,y and almn~. bul wh ~ nthey J»ss \hroogh ! h~ valley called Baln Muhnsir, they should go faster, I! isprefer.lble ror a pilgrim to pick up the pebbles, with whi ch he intends 10 dothe rit ual of stoning. whil e h. is 011 hiS way to Min~ , Still, it i. permissible ror apilgrim 10 pick them up from MUldal ifa h, Mind or dsewhere. as lbn . Abbb,(may Allah bf, p lea~d with him) namled,"In lilt morning of lhe Dlly of Jr.1- 'Aqabah (the day of throwingtire pd1b1~ ,,/ Jamralu/· 'Aqabah). AlIahj MtJSengo (PBUH ) said10 me, 'Pidc up pebbles for me.' 1 picknJ up SlWt'n pWbles for himDS klrgt ILl ~a".. H e (PBUH) lhen slllrUJ shabng Ihem. whilesllyi"g. 'You should throw pcbbln IlJ 11l~ t (""lio"s) ht/Ort )'Ou .. ~re ru;"td b«"u~ ofact$Siwntss in religion: ~, .TI1US, pebhles should be as large as beans. i.~. ~Iig htly bigger than chickpeas.It should be noted th.t it is insufficient to USt ~ n yl hing other than small pebblesor to use stones fo r this purpose, for Ihe Prophet (I'BUH) used .mail pebbles(u large as bea ns) for stoning. So. we haw to follow in the Prophe!'s footsteps,as he (PBUH) said:·U"rn )'Our ritu"lsfrom me (by~ting me ptr/orming /hem)."Upon Inching Mini, which is bdwun the vall..,. called Batn Muhassi rand IWttTTllul. 'AqoUr .her midnight. It is also permissible


for healthy pilgrims to delay stoning until midnight, yet it is not d ~sirabl ~for them.It is an acl of the SUrlnah to start throwing pebbles at Jamratul· 'Aqabahas soon as a pilgrim arrives at Min~ and before doing anything dse, for it isregarded as. sign of greeting to Minl. On the other hand. it is desirable for apilgrim to utter takbir" upon throwing each pebbk saying:·0 Alial,! Make il an accepted Hajj of OurS that serves


'"Y'lUojja fingertip of each hair braid (or of the tips of her hair). This is because it wasnarrated by Ibn . Abbls that the Prophet {PBUH} said:"Shaving (the hair) is nO/ a July laid on (pi/grim) women; (mlydipping their hair i5 incumbent on them ....(Related by AhiJ DawOd, Al-Iabar.l.ni and Ad - D~raqulnj)Another reason is that shaving a woman's head is in fact a sort of di,figu""­ment for her. It is worth mentioning that if a female pilgrim does not ha"" herhair braidM. she may gather it and clip a part equivalent to a fing ... tip.It is also an act of the Sunnah for a pilgrim who shaves or cuts his hair ,hortto dip his fingernail., shorten his m ostache, shave his pubic hair and pluck outthe hairofthe armpits. However. it is forbidden for a pilgrim (or (lny Muslim)to shave his beard or cut it short," as the Prophet (PBUH) enjoin~d growingth~ beard and forbade shaving it off or cutting it short, and Muslims shouldobey the Prophet's commands and avoid what he forbade, especially pilgrims,who ar ~ undergoing such a glorious act of worship. In the case of a bald manwho has litt l ~ or no hair at all, it ii deiirable IQ pas'} a razor over his head a.s ifhe is shaving his head. for the Prophet (PBUH) said:"If I command YOII to do somethillg. then do (of) it as much asyou ,a,.,:After stoning jamratul· ·Aq~bah and shaving or cutting the hair short, apilgrim b«omes in a state of semi · con~crat i on, namdy the first (partial)release of illrllm. That is to say. a pilgrim at this stage is partially released fromthe state of ihrllm. and e""rything b«omes lawful for him, such as wearingsewn clothes, w~aring ~rfume, etc., except for having sexual inte .. cours~ withhis w i f~. To illustrate, . A·ishah (the Prophet's wife, may Allah be pl~as~d withher) said:'When olle of you throws pebbles at JamrMul- ·Aqabah, everythingbecomes lawful for him except women (i.~. sexual illtercollrse).~ "She also said,"r applied perfume consisting of musk toAllah"s Musellger (PBUH)(mee before he assumed illr~m. and onu 011 the Day of Saerifictbefore circumambulating the House (i.e. the Ka ·bah;:"(Related by AI·BukMrl and Muslim)


Chap!


"Our wm, give u. iN ,"is "",rid {'''Q' w"'dt 1,1 fOOd 4IU/;" t"tHen


'"Mosque Of Al -Haram (the Sanctuary). It is an act of the Sunnan to recite tneSUf3 of AI-Kdfir(m (the Disbelievers)" in the first ",k'ah, and the Sura of AI­Ikhlils. (Sincerily of F~ilh) " in the second, and each to ~ ,",cited followingAI-FJ/juan (0," Opening Cllopler of the QuranJ. Afterwards, a pilgrim headstowards As-Safi! to perform S/l 'y (going between A~ - Safii and A]·Marwah).When a pilgrim first reaches As·Safl he ascends it, says, ~ Allahu-Akbcl1'" (i.e.Allah is the Greatest) thrice, and then ~Y""Then: is no deity bul Allah A/o,.,c Who Ila$ 110 partner. To Himbelonss dominion, mid 10 Him bdongs (all) pmise; He gives lifeand causes death, and Ht is the Ever-Living Who never djCj; in HisHand is (all) good, and He is over all things Omnipotenl.~After that, a pilgrim descends the hill of A~ - Saf~ and heads for Al -Marwahstarting the first round. While so doing, a pilgrim is to wal k at a normal pacebut to jog when being between the two green marked posts, and then a pilgrimcontinues walking normally towards the hill of AI-Marwah. When a pilgrimreaches AI-Marwah, he ascends it and re peats what he has said on ~ - S.af~; byso doing, the first round is complcted. Then, he de",ends Al -Marwah headingfor A.I.-Saf:l., ensuring wal king where walking is designated and jogging wherejogging is designated. The pilgrim continues this procedure unt il he completesseven rounds ending at AI-Marwah; goi ng from A~ - Saf~ to AI-Marwah is around and returning is another.Whileperforming'Q 'y (going between As-Safa andAI-Marwah), it isdesirablefor a pilgrim to be occupied with making supplications, rNO iting the Quril.n, andmentioning and remembering Allah. There is no particular supplication to bemad e duringsa 'y, so one may make any supplication h. likos.As for the conditions of the validity of sa 'y, they are as follows:I- Having the intention of performing sa "y2- Completing seven full rounds beginning from Ai-SaB and ending atAI-Marwah3- Having performed lawcljbefore sa"y


v; /iAJ/Endnotes1 ..../·MUJI"d [mll.2 Muslim.l Mw/im.4 801" Mu,hl";r. A .... 1"'y bm.=n Mu«4lif.h and Mini.S AbO DlwlId (I'XI?) [m IS]. An·Nasl·t (~S) [JI292I.nd too Mljah (3048) [3148ll.6 AI.MughNI [51286[ .? Ab\) [)lwlld (I ~7S) [2134 11. AI· Tirmidh t (~ S6) [3/2891. An·Na.n (3069) [3130 1]. andIhn M1Jm (30J7) [31479].8 M ullim (JI24) 151491 ond An·NasI·! (3062) 1312981.9 AI· llukhlr1 (16S4) 1310;711 and tbn MIja" (:lO21) [314721 .10 An· NaJAl (:lO57) 1311961 and ''''' Mlpb (JOl9) U/4761.11 T .... blr: Sayin" • Alldhll·AkbGr" (i.~. Al." ~ lilt Gmt ... ).12 AJ·Bukhl.1 (4410) 181137) and Muslim (lUll) [515'1.U AJ ·llukhlr1 (1727) 1.JI708) ond Muslim (lll1) Is/S51.14 1'J>(1 OIwOd (19114) 12Il«1, Ad·D1raqUlllI (2040) (ZIll9I.lnd "".1»rim1 (1 882) [1/49J).IS Al· lluWrt (S391) 11 0/4281 and M .... irn (601) (21 1421.16 Sa'1d too Mo~ . in h~' A.-s."" .. ~ AbO Olwild (I 978) [2I.l4l[. and Ad·l)li,..lnl(2660) 12/W(.I i AI· l\ukMrt ( 1539) (314991 ond Mu>lim (ZaJl) ("':HO),IS AI·Bukl1i rt (8J) [lIB7] .nd Mu.lim 1'143) [5159].I~ Mu.Hm (JlJ9) [5157 ].20 '1 .. Y, m1nl (th. Y. m, ni) Corn." 11,. soulll0 .. c~ion " her f.a« and 1I&nds.22 U;p lunI' U (lsh"",er. Pm:inct}. Th .... mi -circulor sho


CHAPTERDays of Tashriq'and Farewell TawiifAft ~ rthe completion oftheljddah (Going-Forth) Tawdf it is obligatory fora pilgrim to return W Min~ on the Feast Day' and to spend lhe night there. asIbn ' Abbl\s (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated,il.llahs Messenger (PBUH) did no/ granr anyone (of Ihe pilgrims)permission to spend the night at Mecca (during the nights of Mina)ucept for AI- 'AbM., as he used to provide ",Mer Jor the pilgrim.(10 driMk).~ 'Thus, a pilgrim is 10 spend the night of that day at Mina, remaining therefor three night.< if he is not in a hurry. Otherwise, if a pilgrim is in a hurry,he may stay there only for two nights: the d~enth and the twdfth of Dhul­Hi;jah. At that time, a pilgrim is to shorten all the prayers without combiningthem: each prayer is to bf, performed at its du ~ tirn ~ .


.,. v, li/IJ!A pilgrim has to throw pebbles at each of the three Jamrahs of Mirul oneach of the DaY' of Tashriq. Throwing pt:bbles is to be performed when thesun declines (i.e. at noon), as j~bir (may Allah M pleased with him) narrated:"AlIahs MfSsenger (PBUH) threw pebbles on the Day of Sacrificea/ mid·maming, and after that (i.t. On the deventh, twelfth, andthirteenth ofDhul-Hijjah) (he used to throw pebbles) when Ihe sunhad declined."'(Related by the Group of Compilers of Hadlth)Moreovtr, Ibn 'Urnar (may Allah k plea",d with him) said,'We used /0 wail unlilthe sun dee/ined and then we would throwthe pebbles:'(Related by Al ·Bukhliri and Abii D1wi1d)This shows that the Prophet and his Companions used to observe theappropriate time for throwing pebbles. 50 pilgrims should follow in theProphet's footsteps. as he (PBUH) said:MLearn your rituals from me (by seeing me paforming thtm):Thus. the appropriate time for throwing pebbles on the thue Days ofTashriq (the eleventh. twelfth. and thirteenth of Dhul-Hijjah) is after the Sundeclines; it is insufficient to throw the pebbles before that time; rather. weshould follow th e example of the Prophet (PBUH) who said:~Learn your rituals from me (by 5ee;"g me performing them)."All acts of worship must be performed at the time specified by the Prophet(PBUH) in his Sutltwh . For example. prayer has specific times at which it is tobe performed; otherwise, it is impermissible. Likew i ~ , throwing the pebbleshas to be performed at the times specified by the Prophet (PBUH).The gre.t Muslim scholar, Im ~ '" Ibnul-Qayyim (may Allah have mercyon him). in his description of the Prophet's (PBUH) way of throwing pebblesas stated in the honorable Sunnah. said:'The Prophet (PBUH) rrturned tQ Mincl after performing the IfcldahIawJf, and spem the nigl,t tl,ere. In the morning. he (PBUH) waiteduntil the sun declined ond then he took his camel, without ridingit. ond heoded/or the First lamrah which is nexl to Ihe Mosque ofA/·Khayf, and began to ,lone it. He (PBUH) stoned it with Sevenconsecutive pebbles, saying. "AJllhu-Akbar· (i.e. Allah is Ihe Grealtsl)


upon throwing eMh pebble. Afler Ihat, he (PBUH) approoched il(the First /amrah) until he became so near, and then he faced liteqiblah, mised his hands and kept supplicating AUah for quite a longtime approximately equivalent to the time taken 10 recile the Suraof AI-Baqarnh (the Cow/. Aflerwards, he (PBUH) moved towardsIhe Middle /amrah and sloned il in Ihe same way, Then, he movedleftwards near the "aUo/,faced Ihe qiblah, raised his hands, slayingalthe bol/om of the "alley and standing so that Ihe House (i,e, the/(a 'bah) was on hislFft and Minll on his right, and stoned the wstlamroh (JamralUl- 'Aqabah) with seven pebbles as well .. • 'Ibnul-Qayyim continu ~d :~ . ,After he (PBUH) had finished sloning (Ihe Last lamrah; lamratul­'Aqabah), he hurried back without stopping there to supplicate, Itwas said Ihal he did not stop there because of the huge throng ofpilgrirm, 11 wus also said, and this is the most valid opinion, Iha!the Prophet (PBUH) used to stop to make suppUcation during theaCI of worship itself (as he did a/ rhe First lamrah and the MiddleJamt'(lh), So, whell he finished staffing the Last lammh (/amra/u/.'Aqabah), he thus finuhed performing Ihe ac/ of worship, namelythrowing the pebbles (so he did no/ stop there /0 suppllUlte Allah),bea ring in mind that makingsupplication during an act of worship isbetter than doing after finishing it, 1'his is just like the case of maki:ngsupplications during prayers; the Prophet (PBUH) used to makesuppliUltions during prayer itself. not after finishing it,-'Thus, throwing the pebbl ~s has to be p" rform ~ d in the following ord~r: Apilgrim should staM with the Firstlamrah which is the nearest to Min~ andAl-Khayf Mosque, th~n the one that follows it namely the Middk Jamrah,and finally the Last }amrah (famrallll· . Aqabah, which is also called 'the Great}amrah' ), th ~ last of the three }amrahs nearest to Mecca, A pilgrim shouldthrow sev"n consecutive pdIbles at ~ach I~mrah, raising his hands upon eachthrow and saying, - AlMhu-Akbar" (i.e, Allah is the Greatest)_ In addition, eachpebble should be thrown into the throwing place (the fenced area surroundingthe pillar) whether it settles or not after falling inside; it is insufficient if apebble falls outside it, and another p"bbl ~ has to be thrown in compensation.As for pilgrims who cannOt throw the pebbles themselves du~ to sicknessor old age. as well as pregnant women and those women who might be harmedby the throng of pilgrims, it is permissible for them to ask somrone else to


V: flAJJIhrow Ih~ p ~bbl~s OIl Iheir behalf. The one who performs sloning on behalfof another can throw Ihe pebbles for himsdf and for the other pilgrim at theSame place. In olh ~ r words, he is not obligated \0 stone all !amarhs firstly forhimself then return 10 the First !ammh to start stoning on behalf of the otherpilgrim. as this will ~ very difficult and exhausting du ~ to th ~ huge throngs;and Allah Knows best. If the One performing stoning by proxy is performingthe obligation of Ha]) for the first time, then, at each !amrah. h. has to throwhis own p"bbles before throwing those of the other pilgrim.Having finished stoning on the twelfth of Dbul-Hijjah, a pilgrim is frueither to return to Mecca before suns.1 or to spend the night (of the twelfth ofDhul· Hijjah) in Min~, and throw p"bbl ~s at the three !nmrahs on the followingday, th ~ thirteenth, after the ,un declines (at noon). Yet, the latt ~ r choice isbetter, as Allah, Exal ted be He, says:" ..• Then whot...,r ha.tell. (his dtpartur~J ill two days · thn-e I.110 .ill UpOIl him; a"d whoever delays /untll the third]· there i."0 .i" upo" him -far him who fta .. AIIDh ..• "(Qur'an; Al-Baqarah: 203)On the twdfth of Dhul-Hijjah. if the sun sets while a pilgrim is still inMin;\., Ihen h. must spend the night I h ~ ,.., and do Ih. p


Chap'


v, tJ,AJJEndnotes1 Th .. DaY' of AI· ra.shriq: n.. d, tll< twelfth , and th. lhirtt.nlh of Dhul_Hijjah,i .•. th. Ih"", daY' following the Day of Sacrifice.2 The Day of Sacrifice ( '/dul-AJ/pl); Ih .. [tnlh ofDhul·Hijjah)3 Ibn M10j ah (J.069) P/492).4 Muslim (3128) [5/52]. Abti Dlwiid ( 1971) [21340], A,·Tirmidhl (894) [3/241]. An.Nasi; (J06J) [3/29S]. and Ibn Mlojah (313(l5) (31485),5 AI · Bukhlrt (1746) [3173 I1 and Abti D1wnd (19n) [213401 .6 The I«ond Ch~l'ler of !he Qur'i.n.7 Su: "Zlodul-Ma'U' I2I285j.8 Sa: "Zldul-Ma'dd" 12/2861.9 Al- BuU,irI (1755) [3/7381 and Mu,lim (3107) [ S/8~),10 Ahmad 1193


CHAPTERSacrificial Animals (Hadyand Udhiyah)Hady refers 10 a legally edible animal (such as a camel, a cow or a sheep)brought to the $. cl"


We h"vt "ppai"ted a rite {of stlcrificeJ that they may mmlio" IlKNameof AII"h over ... hal He has providtdfor Ihem of {socrifid


AI -Barii' Ibn 'Azib (may Allah be plea=:! with him) narratM that the Pruph ~ t(PBUH) said:"Four (lypes of animals) are impermissible to be offered assacrifice: a one-eyed animal which lIas obviously lost the sightof "lie eye, a siCK allimal which i5 obviously sicK, a lame animalwllich obviously limps, and an allimal with a brokell leg and110 marrow. -'(Related by Ahii Oiiwiid and An·Na&a'!)According 10 th ~ most valid opinion, the optimum time for slaughteringa sacrificial animal, whether it is udiJiyah or hady offered by one ~rfa rmi ngHa» as tammaW', is during the ~riod frum after the Feast ('ld) Prayeruntil th e last of the Days of Tasllrlq. It is preferable for one to eat from thesacrificial animal one offers as uJib.iyah, Or hady in CaSe of performing Hajjas tammatu ' or qir~'1; its meat is divided as follow", one third for the owner.one third to be given as gifts, and one third to be given in charity, as Allah,Exalted be He, says:"", S" eat of them ilnd !red the miscmble and po"r. H{Qur'an: AI -Hajj: 2S}As for a pilgrim who is offering e~piatory hady (in npiatian for missingany of the ""s


."V: tJAJJEndnotes1 Mu.lim D in) ISm ].2 AI· TI rmid ht (1509) [4191[ ond Ibn Mijah D 14 7) [31s.! 1[.) AM lliwoo (2802) iJ/161 I. At · Tirmidhl (lSO I) i4/!SI. An· N ... n (4381) [4 /2-«1. andloo Mtj.h 1314-4 ) 131539).4 MliSIim (508'iI) 1111»1.


CHAPTER'Aqiqah (Sacrificial Animalfor the Newborn)'Aqiqah is on ~ oftbe duties of a father toward his newborn child. It is theslaughtering of a sacrificial animal as a sign of gratefulness to AlJah , Glorifiedand Exalted be He, for granting one a child. Offering 'aqlqah is considered aconfirmed act of the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition), 3$ the Prophet (PBUH)offered sacrificial animals as 'aqiqah when his grandsons AI'Has"n and Al­Husayn were born, as related by Ahi! D;\w(td and other compilers of Hadith',Also. the Prophet's honor"ble Companions and their followers used to offersacrificial animals as 'aqlqah for their newborn children.Some scholars are of the view that 'aqiqah is obligatory. for A'·Hasannarrated on Ihe authority ofSamurah that Allahs Messenger (PBUH) said:"Evrry (newborn) boy is pawntd by the '~qlq"h offered for him."'Imlm Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, in nplaining this h~d1th, said, ·P~wned herem€an$ that (ifht dits as a baby) ht (an interadt with Allah in fawr cfltis partHts


v, liAJJwho offered 'aqlqah On the occasion of his birth: Imam Ibnul-Qayyim said,"A child grows up good-natured and well-mannered if ''''liqah is offered on theoccasion of hi:;/her birth:According to the most valid opinion in this connection, 'aqlqah is aconfirmed act of the Sunna!.. Mor ~ over, ~aCTificingan animal as 'aqlqahis much better than giving its value in charity,'Aqiqah is a sign of the parents' gratitude to Allah for blessing themwith a newborn baby, It is also a means of drawing oneself near toAlmighty Allah, being charitable to the poor, and spiritually ransomingthe newborn child,Two equal ewes, with nearly the same age and shape, are to be sacrificedas 'aqlqah for a newborn boy, whereas onc ewe is to be sacrificed for anewborn girl. Umm Korz AI -Ka' biyyah narrated that she had heard theProphet (PBUH) saying:"Two equal ewes are 10 be sacrificed for the (newborn) boy and oneewe iJ 10 be sacrificedfor a (ne wborn) girl: '(Related by lm~m Ahmad and At-Tirmidh! who d~med it ~bib(authentic) according to a baditll narrated by 'A'ishah)The difference in the number of the sacrificial an imals offered as ' aqiqahfor males and females is due to the fact that a male's portion of inheritancein tslam is equal to that of two females, Moreover, the happine~s of a fatherwhom Allah grants a boy is usually much greater than the CaSe of beinggranted a girl; this is why 'oqiqali , which is offered as a sign of gratitude toAllah, is double ia case of a newborn hoy,Regarding the time of offering 'aqlqa/r, it is preferable to be on theseventh day after the child's birth, However, it is permissible to offer itbefore Or after that day, [t i. also more preferable to name the child onthat day, as it is stated in the Sut/an and other books of HadUh that theProphet (PBUH) said:~Sacrifice is made for him (tIl e newborn baby) on Ihe seventh dayand he is to be named as well (on thal day)."'Jt is permissible, however, to name the child on the day of hi 51 her birth,for some scholars maintain that this is more preponderant than naming thechild on th ~ seventh day of his/her birth,


a..f«' 11 : .~ ( ~f..:ial Ani ..... fOr m. Nrwbom) ..,On tit( Ql:her hand, it is an act oftheSunMn to give Ihe child a good n~,for the Prop het (PBUH) !.aid:"(On the Day of Resurrection,) you will be called by your nam&'land I>y your fathers names, so give yourselves good lIames."'(RelatM by Ab\! OdwM)The Prophet (PBUH) liked good rwnes.· and foriNde giving c h ild~n names$Uggesting wor.ili.ipping Ol Mr than Allah,' such as calli ng a child ". Abdul­Ka · ~· (servant of the Ka 'bah), •. Abdun-Nabl" (servant of the Prophet),W' Abdul.Masih" (s


V:HAJIcharity, just [i~ utllJiyah. Unlike udhiyllh, it is insufficient for people to shartin buying an animal and sac rifIce it a. 'aqiq~h. They cannot, for amnple .• hare in onc ,ame! or one cow and sacrifice it like the cue with uJlhiyah. Thilis be.:aus.e ' ~qjqah is "crifieed for a soul. so it cannot ~ shared. Moreover.Mither the Prophet (PBUH) nor his Companions were reported to have sharedin the ~ crifirial animals offerrd "" . "'Iiqah.It i5 the duty of p,arents to bring up thei r children on moral nluesand noble manners so as to grow up as virtuous men and women; anArab poet said:The infam sums IOgroW upIn the way he was brought up,When the children grow up. it is 50 difficult to change their charactersor natures. Many Ind ividuals are corru pt because of the way they werebrought up and the lack of moral guidance in Iheir childhood_ Therefore.children should be kepI away from b~ d gatherings and corrup t associates.Horn" should be a righteous, rel igious atmosphere for a child, for it is thefirst s-c hool in a child's life. Thus, parents should Spare their homes allmeans of corruption and viciousness, eS!",cial1y toda y, when the meanSof corruption are prevalent everywhere and fi ll up home$, except forthose safeguarded by Allah's mercy_ So, parents should beware of suchcorrupti"" means. and bring up their children On worshipping andobeying Allah, hono.ing their religion. appreciating the Qur':ln andlovi ng it; the..., art the Irue means of achi",,;ng fel icity in bolh Ih is worldand the Hereafter.In short, pan:nts or guardiaru Mou[d n:prcsent good ideal! for their childrenthrough their good manners, morals. habits. and et hics. May Allah gu ideul dlto what He likes and pica'.,.EndnotesI AbO DlwOd (184 1) 11Itn[, An· Nas&1 (4lJO) [41 11161, and AI, TLtmidht (1=) [4199).2 Abol DiwOd (2837) 1),1175), AI' r,nnidhJ (1526) WtO I I. A,,· Nas&' (4231) [41186), andlbn Ml}ah (l (65) 1),1551.) Ahmod (23910) [6131). AbO DlwiId (283S) llm41. At-llrmklh! (l517) 141961. An­N . ~1 (4227) [~IU5J. . nd lbn Mlojah (~ 16 2) 1 "~91.


ClIapkf 11 : .~ (Saoifi


VI:JIHAlD


CHAPTERJihad (Fighting in theCause of Allah)Allah has ordainedjiMd(fighting in the Cause of Allah) in order 10 renderHis Word the highest, His Religion the victorious, His enemies the defeated,and 10 test the faith of His true servants. Allah, Exalted be He, says:ff • •• That (i. the commandJ. And if AI/,," had willed, He aJuJdhaw taun vengeonu upon them /HimJel/J, but [He orderedarmed stTugglt) to les/ some of Y


V tof/HADjlhM the sixth pillar of Islam. JIJr.ld is ordained according to the Qurln, theS"nnah (Prophetic Tradition) and consensus (of Muslim scholars). Allah,Exalted be He, says:"Fighting has bet." t njoinrd upon 'jOu ••• ~(Qur'ln: AI-Baqarah: 21 6)The Prophet {PBUH) .lso fought in the Cause of Allah and used to enjoinjillfld'; he (PBUH) $aid:-Wh,,",,"," din ",ithou' fighting in the Cause of Allah, nOr does heuprns IIny desire (or tUlermina,ion) fo r it, would die ",i,h a ,har_acteriltic of hypocrisy.'"Linguistically, jill~d mea ns fighting th e enemy vigorously and jurisprudentially.It involves figh ti ng th e disbelievers ond it also indudes much moreactivities showing ~tri vi ng in the Cause of Allah, not only mere fight ing.Ibnul-Qayylm said:-,Ihiid is a liUk ... hich is 10 be fulfilkd by nWlns of /mirt. 10ngllL'.money, or hand. Evrry Muslim must .rrive I" tht Cause of A//ahrhrough any of these meam:'JihM. in addition , Includesstriving for th e purificati on of lhe soul throughself·control, striving aSainst Satan and against dissolute, di~d i e nt , andstrayi ng pN ple. So, self·rutraint is a sort of jih~d that a Muslim Can achi evethrough see king religious knowledge, acting in accordance with the knowledgehe "'ams. aod then leaching such knowledge rn others. Onc can strive again.


Chapr


'"if a Muslim ;s unable to join his Id/oWl in the batrlefield for a legalexcuse, he has then, being at home, /0 support and tah


o..p,cr J: fih.iJ (Figll!ing in ,I>< C:m« of AI!.h)in th£ir {i.e. Ih£ belie"" ... '} h""rls. And AI/"h tUTns in /()rgive1lU&to wh()m He wills; "nd AII/lh is Kn()wing /lnd Wiu,"(Qur'an: At -Tawbah: 14- (5)Fighting the enemies mUSI be pm:eded by calling Ihem 10 Islam. TheProphel (PBVH) used to call the enemi es to Islam, if th ey did not know aboutit, before fighting them' . He (PBVH) also sent messages to kings calling themto Islam' and used to advise the commanders of th e Muslim army to call thedisbelievers to Islam before fighting them, and not to fight whomever wouldaccept 1,lam. This is because Ihe main objeclive of fighling in Islam is to elimi·nale disbelief and polytheism, and 10 help people enter the Rd igion of Allah(Islam). Thus, if Ihis noble objeclive is fulfilled without fighting. Muslims arenot anowed to fight others; • and Allah knows besl.Jihdd has so many rulings mentioned in detail in volumes on Shari'ah(Islamic Law) among which are the following:o If a Muslim's parents (or one of them) are free Muslims. a Muslim is notpermitted to volunteer to fight in the Cause of Allah unless they permithim to. To illustrate, when a man, whose parents were alive, wa nted tojoin the Muslim army injiMd, Ihe Prophet (PBUH) said to him:"... Then go and exert yourself i,. Iheir 5ervice (i.e, hi' parents)."'This is because filial piety is an individual duty in Islam wh ereasjihddis n collective duty, and an individual duty is considered worthier offulfillment than a collective one.o The ruler (or the one in authority) must appoint the commanders oflhearmy and he is permitted to give anyone he selects from the spoils ifthis ..,rves the CauSe of jihtld. Then, he is to divide the rest of th e bootyamong all the soldiers.o It is impermissible to kill a child, a woman" monk, an old man, a maninfected with a chronic disca.." or a blind man, as long as they do notfight against Muslims nor incite others 10 do so. When captured, thosepeople b,;come slaves to Muslims; the Prophet (PBUH) used to havesuch people as slaves when he captured them ".o Muslims are permitted to take th e spoils of battles including all themoney and property taken forcefuHy through fighling the non·Muslim enemies, as well as any ransom (taken from them). Spoils areto be divided among wh""vcr witnessed the battle, whether they have


." VtJlHADfought or nol. for th~ a~ oonsideml supponcrs of all the Muslimfightm< as they ha,-r bttn ~y 10 fight al anytimr. Sum pfflple all'legally considered liM fight«$. as . Umu lbnul ·Kh al[ab (may Allah ~plcastd with him) said;·Spoils are for thore .... ho Wil"e5Sed the battle:"• As for how the booty should b.. divided. the ruler (or the one in authority)is to dedic"t~ one-fifth of the booty to Allah and His Messenger(PBUH), Le. 10 he allocated 10 the relati~5 of Ihe Messenger (PIlUH),the orphans, the poor, the nn:dr. and th e wayf.rus. Then the ruler isto divide the remaining {our·fifths among the MmJim fighle1O; oneshare among the inbntry and IM remai ning ' ]"H shares among thecavalry; each cavalry soIdi~ T«tivu I $har(' for him",lf a nd two moreshares (or having 3 hOf'SC'. It \>';IS mated by AJ·BukMri and Muslimthat when Albhs fo,~ngtr (PBUH) divided th. booty of the BanleofKhaybar, he gr.>ntro each c;valry JOIdie. thlU share


• It is ~nnissible for th~ ruler to ~gree to a truce with the disbelievers tostop fighting for a specific period if this serves the intere.t. of Muslim"and only when it is p"rmissibl e to delay jil,dd due to th e weaknessof Muslims. The Proph~t (PBUH) agreed to 3 peace treaty with thedisb.!ievers (of Mecca) at Al-Hudaybiyah Peace Treaty,'" and made apeau treaty with the Jews in Medina. However, it i, impermissible forthe ruler to agree 10" truce with the di.,believers when Muslims arestrong and able to fight.• If the ruler fears that the disbeliewrs may breach the truce, he is permittedto terminate the truce, provided that he informs them thereof beforefighting. Allah, Exalted be He, says:«if you {hav£ reason tal fellr frm., .. people lutrayal, throw (Iheirtreaty] back to them, {puttingyo u/ on equal term •. Indeed, Allahd.,.,. nallike tralton." (Qur'an: AI-A nml: 58)Thus, Allah commanded the Prophet (PBUH) to inform the disbeliev.er, of his termination of the truce.• It is permissible for the ruler to agr~ to a covenant of protectionwith the People of the Scriptme (i ,e. the Christian, and the Jews)and the Magi, granting them freedom of religion. provided thatthey give the jizyall" and adhue to the Islamic laws. Allah, Exaltedbe He, says:"Fight Ih()$e who do not lulitw in AI/air or in t/,e La.t Oay andwho do not consider unlawful what Allah "nd His Messengerhav~ made unl"wful and who do no/ adopl the religion oftrllth(i.e, Islam/ from those who were given tht Scrip/lire· [fig"t/nlI/IJ Ihey give the jizyah willingly while they are humbled."(Qur'an: AFfawbah: ,9)The money taken from the O";II1111;S " onCe a year as jizyalr, whilethey are humbled. is to allow them to stay in an Islamic state (withoutfighting them).• The jizyah is not to be taken from a child, a woman, or an insane person,noris it to be taken from a man infected with a chronic disease, a blindman, an old man, or a needy who cannot afford it.• So long as the Dhl",mi, gi"" the jizyah, it is obligatory for the rulerto accept it. not to fight them, and to defend them against allackers.Allah, Exalted be He, says,


V1:JIHADThus. Allah has mad ~ tm,ir paymenl ofjizYfJh a reason for nOI fighlingIh~m . TIw: Prophet (PRUH) also said:"A.1'k thtm for jjzyah ond if thty tlg~, rlltn acctpt it from tht m and510p fighting them:"Allah knows bes!.• It i$ permissible for the ruler to grant a disbtlieving indiviuual protKlionev~n from Muslims as long as h~ cau$eS no harm to Muslims, forAllah, Exalt«l b)'l':Endnotes·And If teclion 10 disb.d itve .. living in. neighboring di..oh (33057) 161480).75H Mu. lim (4585) [61)29[.8 s..: Mu, tim (4497) [6126S [.9 "'l-Bukhlrl (:1004) j6J 169 1. Mu,lim (MS I) 18/320[ •• nd "'·Ti rmidht (1675) 14119] J.10 ... t·BukMrl (2307) 14/60111.11 • ... bdu r.R .. Uq in his "Mul4nna!' (\1639) 15/3021. Al.flayh.a.ql (1790;.1) [9/861 and(9/86-87) •• nd ... 1. Bukhlrt[6Ili Oj.


12 AI - Bukh~rl (2863) W8ll .nd Mwlim (4506 1) [6/llHJ.I J AI -Bukhlt1 (2698) [513731 ""cl Mu,lim (41105) ]613481 .H J;:yah: A triootr or. I .. rt


•,


APPENDICES


• f ~l


GLOSSARYNOTE: For .. sl ..... rOn Ihei' .rri .... l.t Ih. Medin •.AY" t~I. Ku ... ' V« .. No. 2SS of lh. Sura of AI-Baqamh (Ih, Cow), Ch.pt" No. 2(th. Verse of theThrone)' ,twrI/JrBa.",alahIlU"lU'Coll..:!iv. dutyTheO_yof' AnfahThe DayofTarwiy


0111",,,,1 A r-...,..·Muslim l;,.q in.,.j WIder .... ~ 01. MPSlim .....01... An old An b coin lhat .qual! 1.975 IV"msof gold.DirUm (of.....)If. dirbarn of si"", ~ 2.975 g ... ms of .ilw,.F"..,1" A KhoIa, of [,bmic )u,ilf>r\'lk'...:t,Fl t_A Irg,al opini"" ;....,cd by. muftl)1 Mu slim scholar . peeialim ini"uing legal rul ing.) in I'ffI'OM" to I q ....'ion on a point m theIslamic Law,The Flw Com. 'J'My ~rt ImJml Ahmlhort .... 11Ka 'Nh Ind comidtred part of~ ,Icued • few "",I ... ..,1 of lheII. moamlhata piJvim ~ G "'" bp


~8~ ASUmm.ry"O .... mi


M~ ..... I (Incom_pl'61 WOrn by Muslim W


487·Th.Sh~fAsh -ShAmSldrTah4jjudTaMllTal""ldTab:mld (inprayer)r"kbfrTalbiyahTanulI!u'Ta""l .. (inproyer)TQr~ ... 11l ProynrlUbill (inpnoyerjA Summ~ry of lmm;.; Ju,;'prud


Gk.:w.ryTosJumhudT ... II",Reciting: ·(... m complimem .. 1''")'0'' and good thing •• rt dueto Allah: poaco I>< upon you, 0 Prophet, .nd the Mercy of AII.haoo Hi, bl ... ing> (I>< upon YOu), Peace I>< upon u' .nd upon th.pious .e,vanlO of ... lI.h, I t .. tify that the ... i. no deity (worthyof wo"hip) but Allah, "'Ione, with no partner, . nd I te>tify thatMuhammad i. Hi . ~rv.nt and His M .... nger. 0 "'lIahl ('"",fe rYGU, bl .... ing. upon Muh. mm. d . nd the family Gf Muhommod.. You conf" ... d Your blessings upon Ibrlhim ("'braham)and the family of Jbtihlm, Verily, You are Praiseworthy andH"norable, ... nd ble .. Muh.mm.d and the family of Muh. mmad.. You bl . ... d Jbtihim and the fam ily oflbr1hlm, Verily, YOu.r


A Summa')' .,.loIamie JUI~yThV.minl(llIe Vemenl)Cotne,ZDkdlul·f;lt(F.... breaklng"'~ )~ "",Iill',." rot"'" of IM Ko "b. h th. t foe", V.men.z7 .... Uh it .n annual exprnditur< fOf th. bonefit oIth. Muslimcommunity. primarily 10 h


NAME INDEX-A-Abnharn .... ___ ...... __ ..•.•........ 30, 60,IJ2. lO2,307.4Q4, 434,450AbO Ayyllb .............. , ......... 151 , 460Abd BU.r. ___......_........... 198, 204,2ll, 2.040, 269. 300, 301, 319,326. 328, 329, noAbO DtwCld ............. " ........... 23, 38.43, SI. 540,61. 62. 79, 81. 89, 102,103. 104, [4D.ISI , IS9, 170, 17.,In. 185. 196, 2


."Ana. . ...................... ...... 16,174,223,228,268,300, )26,)28,)42,34), 382,383,390,423An •• Ibn M ~ lik .......... , .................. 16An-Nad'i ................................ 20.62,79, 106,151,152,235.244.310.326, 330, 343, 461An·Nawaw!... ......... 16, 48, 198, 260Anpr ................................... 268, 359Ar.Rawdul_Murbr fi SharhZAdul-Mustaqni' ................................... 2Ash .. Shafi·L. ........................ 78, Ill,155,241,248, 268, 273AI-Safd ............................... ,40S. 407.424,434,437,449, 451As-Sayl ...................... ................. .4 18AI-Ia bara ni... ............. 1S2, 343, 448AI-Tinnidhi... ........................ 22, 50,6L n M, SL 89. 100, 101, 103,104, HJ6, 108, 140, 146, 151, liO,186,224,237,239,140,254,261,270,288,289,294,199,309,310,lll, 31 2, 313, 322, 366, 370, 383,404, 406. 4 1 5, 46(J, 464AI·l\Jrt(lshL ...Az·Zuhrl. ....... 313..... 274Banl 'Abdud· Dk... . ..... ..... ,465Banll' Arnr Ibn' Awf ................ 198Banu Salamah ......... " ................. 197Billl .. ,., ................. ,.,., ...... ,.,.,., 94, 273Dh~lu·'[rq ............................... .418Dhul·Hijj .. h .. ,., ................ , .. 27S, 276,277,434 ,437. 438, 439, 440. 443,445.447,453, 454.456.461Filt imah Bi n t Abo H ubaysh...... . 54,76,79Harnnah Bint Jahsh, ........... 80, 240HanJ,a lah,. ,.,.,.,., ................ ,., ... , . ..465Hariln,.................. . .... , .. 205, 206Hazan .................. ..465Hlldhayfah ....................... .. 27 1, 274-B--D--F--H--1-Ibn ·Abbb ................... 78.140, 141,192. 270, 274, 288, 289, 352,365,371,393, 396, 397, 406,407. 408. 412, 418, 432, 446,448,453,457Ibn' Abdul· Barr __ ................ 20, 101Ihn'Urnar ..... ....................... 29, 168,169. 175, 176, 177, 243, 251. 258.260, 269, 272. 275, 336, 337, 342,352, 354. 377, 447, 454Ibn Abo Awf~ . ............. __ ... 230, 358Ibn AhO Shaybah ...................... 276lbn H ajar ... ,.,.,., ................ ,.,.,.,.,., ... ,2IbnHlbb~n .......................... 79, 151,I%, 294, 298, 328, 377Ibn Hllbayrah ... """, .............. 12, 20Ibn Khllzayrnah ............... .. .. 23. 269Ibn M~jah ....................... " ...... 37. 44,51,81, 103,104, 136, 140. 151.176, 195, 222, 26(J, 273. 298, 3 12,322,332,342,457,460


" Summ"y of 1,l.mk J"ri'p'ucl


,...N.jd ...................................... 418.419-N--Q-Q.rnul·ManblL. .. _ .......... 418. 41 9-R-Rl fi.da/l ... ___ .......•.•. ___ .• _. 117. 22]Kl bigh .... _ .................................. A 18-s-Safwln Ibn . "'1&11... ..................... 49SabJ.b. AJ·Bukhirl... ........... 175. 282,295,327, )29.330,>66, 415Sahib Ibn Khuzaym.h .............. 269~hlhM uslim ......... _ .•...•.•.• ISO, 151.I 52, 168. 170. ISO. 192. 198, 20-t21 1, 2l&, 251, 272. 213. 295, 336,J.64,406,41 2Salll Ibn Ahli Hathmah AI·Antlrt.................._............................. 242Salamah ___ ........................... 100,UB,15 1, 161,236,29$,366S.mul'llh ...................... 272, 348, 4(1)Muhammad Ibn ' A!>dul_Wahhl b ..... ................................. 3Sh~ikh-T-Thawbtn ....•.•. _ .................. __ ...... 1 SO-u-UbIl'Y Ibn KI' b ___ ..... __ ........... I64Umm ' Aliyyal'l ............. _ ...... n.267.275.309UmmU·btb.h ...........•.•..•............ 79Umm '''nl·.................................. 17.Umm QIYS Bint MIbian._ .......... 7t-y-Yalaml. m ..... _ ............... _ .• ___ .• _4 18yemen ......•..... _ .........•... ........ 20.328.3.>0.365.418-z-Zldul· Ma· . d ............... _ ............. 2SO


SUBJECf INDEX'Aq!,,"" (Sacrificial Animal forth~ Newborn) 463CondirionsofConflrmtdoctoillwSunnoh 464Naming rh< "MdTIme of offering ...A(U 0" Muulalifah and. MIni 44)Hu ding for MiniLuvlng . AwallPnfoooming IfodoIr'"'"'"l'\I, foo 1IW1S "" ':I'"SluvinC or rutting hatr ",Spendi ng ,h. night at MuW. lifah..St.,. of .. ",;·"",,>« .. ,10" (I~ .. f,ro,por!ial , ...... of ifirdm) 448Tht olIIiz>torr" oocriforial .nimal 447The ritual 01 'mCongl'e8alional Pn~r 189Lat«nmen and 103-207~Iir y ol 189Nun.bcr InObliption of'"190-192Rul in8 on On. Wh o Dots NotO bllC,n 193·[95w""' ..... ndDays of Tashr'., andItlwdf'",~Farewell'"Fo",,..1I rlwtfRuli ng>'"~ ),kn$lru.tion ..,1'


A Summuy f bbmi~ Juri.prude"",Pollowing Sunn.h in RemomberingAllah 150SuppliDltion. to Be Said R>llowingP"'Y"'r 153· 154Du&~ (Porenoon) PrayerLql.lityofNumber f Rak' oh.T ime ofEclip'" PrayerDue Timeofonm'"'"m'"Legalityof 28 1-283Way of Perform ing 283 ·285Etiq uette of Heading for M"'qucLegalized Standard, of Beh.vior '"Prior to P"'yer I 13Sa nding in the Fi"t RowlISStraightening Row. 116Wailing for P",yrr in M""l .... lISFasting RamaJ.!lln:a nd TimingDivine WisdomMoon'ightingOblig>tionInrdmObligationm'"mm'"Act. Prohibited during'"Clipping flngem. il>! 1


Subject I""'"Lopl Condition. of 157·259Mon~rof""rforminH 261 .261Rulings on !umu 'ahSpecial Act. of WnrV,ip '0 R~ot....rved on 1~. 2 5 1Spocial mlu,,", In 11< Obsrrvedor. Friday 248.250W"000m lIrhindMaking "l' for M~d Days o fRamad' n 391Brnkin,g FoOl Du~ to olrgol F.xc_Dy;ng ~ Maki1l& up (or 392 '"Dyi,,& be,.". Pmwmlng Dueupiarory FHti", 393Dyi"3 wilhoul Obsrmn,gElpial"'l' ""01ing (or Notfulr.l ling.Vow 39)MlqdtJofllajj 41 7Fixtd Tim .. of lJ.ajjSit .. k>r F""ering tht Stotc of Iblllm."Non·n IJIII... Su~ r. t"Q g' l oryP rlre' 179DninbiJity of 181)..... liry of Performing ,~Night Vigil ,~litljj (Pilg rimage) ~ ,'u.~ 0.Obligation of 0...I'nforming li.i>.b' by. BoyP.,form ing li.4jj Im B. h.1f orAnoth.. .011Prtrrqulsil .. of."Vinll


'"Whot Does 1'n)'O'l' ),kan! 87Prayu Call (Adl"ln) and Imn' ~·di.,e P .... yer Call (fq6m~h)Immediate 1''''1'"' Ca ll"Formul.%PnY"" Con Formula 94·9~PrtscripIion of9JThe Buic a-.c, .. iotic of IPrayer Calkr \104Tt.. G"a' Virtues of 94What. Mu.lim H. s to Do upllH .. ring ,I>< PraY" N:'"'"'"onSu,... ofQur'!.n l i 6Thost Who Should Pmi:wm ".R. in PnyermDu. Tt""'nfLegality ofRuling£oo287·288'",USermon of "ski", fo< IWn 2"-2\10Rites of r",wlyall and ' A .... fahDays 431....... mi"ll Ih"m fo< lbIjj on ,,,,"Doy of Tarwi)aII 4.l8Chanting T.u!>;)'O", 439A Sum ... ..,. ofl.wnK )urisprudrnaOor of' Arar.h4.j()Pmc.~;n8 to ' "",fah 419Shor'enlng Ev


lWo FeaSll (' Id$) Prayer~i ... ring Ih< SermonDue TirncLtjalilyof""" '"R ~lin8'onVoluntary PrayerNon· R



QUR'ANIC VERSE INDEXS"ra I: A1-Fatihah pp.1: [. ...........__ 22l:2 ............. 221 ~7._. __._ 3,41:7. ___....... 224SlIn 2: AI·&qanb2:41... .............. 88,320,351.1S72:60......... ... 2872:78 .. ..........2:)14 ........., ", '"2: 136 .. ........ 141. 1702:144._ ..._.. 108.2372:148._. __..OS2:1n ...._._.1:18). _____'"'"Z:HH ..__.... )78,391.3%2:185 ....... ... 150,2)3,27S.377,3962:187, ......... 376,38 1,3882:190 ..........2:196. ......... 427,428 ,432,433 '"...2:197 ...._._. 417,432,4332:199 .._..._. 2:200 .....__.''''2:201... ..... ...'"2:203. .. ....... 2S6.2762: 216 .......... ."2:222 ... ....... S6,6 1,762:238 .......... 98.99.1372:239 ....._. _. ,..2:24!L __...2:264 .•._..._ ". '"2:26L ...__ 220,335.338.3)9.41 62:271.. 365,3702:280 .... , .....'"2: 282 .......•.• ",2:286.......... 2.H.235,39SS1,l11l 3: Alu ' lmrin3:64 ......__•• 14 13:85............ 2113:97 .. _ ....... .


Q"",nic V< .... Ind"" >02'"8:)9Sura 21: AJ-Anbiyi'8:45 .......... ..21:83 ..........8:58 ............ '" m Sura 22: A1-Hajj '"Sura 9, At-Tawbah 22:27. .........9:5 .............. ;" 22:28 ......... 370,440 '"'9:6 ..............22:29 ..........'"..,9:18 ............ 22:34 ..........'"9:29 ....... 4n,478 22:39.40 ..... ,,.9:34 ...... ...... 335,341 22:77. ......... 121.1229:38 ............22:78 .......... m9:60 ............ 3-61,363 '" Sura 24, An-Nilr9:84 ............24:31 ..........9:98,99 .... ""24:36,)7 ..... 96,194""'"9:99S .. ra 2S: Al-Furqln9:103 .......... 88,320,347 '"25:48 ..........9:108 ........ 27,19725:74 .......... 219,228 "9: 111 ..........Sura 30: A .... R(tm9:14,15 ....... m 22:32 .......... ..'"9:113 ... 30' 30:17.18 ..... ..'"'"Sura 10: WlnusSura 32: A.-Sajdah10:5 ............ 28' 32:16,17 .....10:88 ..........Sura 33: Al-AhUb'"'"'10:89 ......... WO33:21 .......... 133,155,171,259,Sura 14, Ibnlhim14:31..33:41... ......." """'"Sura 16: An- Nahl'"16:16 .......... 3353'0'>33:59 '"'16:97 ..........Sura 39: A:t-Zumar '"'16:125 ........'"39:9 ............'" ,Sura 17: AI-lsr"S .. ra 41 , Fuuilat17:26.41 :33..17:59 ........ '" m 41 :37.__ m '"17:78 .......... 98,99 Sura 47: MuhammadSura 19: Maryam 47:4 ............19:59,6(l... '01 47:33. 200.285 '"Sura 20: DhlISura 48: AI-Fath20: 14 ..........48:27 ..........20:114 ........ "' 2 48:28. ......... '",


'"Sura~ 9: AI-Hujnrflt49:6 .... ........ 22249:16 ..........Sun 51: Adh.DhltlyJ.1 '"..51:16.18 .. ... ,51:19 ..........Sura S6:: Al-W,,!i"." '"56:10,11..._56:79 .._...__"'"Sura 58; A1-MujlodllahSS:I I ....... .. 558:22....Sura 59: AI-Hash.59:7 ............'''''Sura 60: AI.Mumlahlnah60:4_ ... ____ 30260:13. __ ... __Sura 61: AI-saff61:4 ............Sura 62: Al-/umu' lIh62:9.62:10 ......... .62:1 1... .......Sun 6-1.: AI-Taghlbun'"'"94,248lSO,20S""6H6. .•. _.... 42.65-,67,9(1,109,2J.4 ,1.35.2)6.2311Sura 65, A.I-Ialiq65:1............ 1165:2.. .... " .. " 344Sur. 70: AI . Ma ·~ rij70:24,25..... 347Sur.73: AI·Muuamlllil73:6............ 18 17HO.......... 142,350$un74; i\]·Mudlbththir74:4 .. __ .. _.. 69.105Su ra 77: AI-Mursal.ll77:25.26 ..." 308Sura SO, . Aba"80:21 .......,.. Sura 81, AI·A"Lt."'.81:1 4 ,I~L.. 266.269Sun 90: AI-Balad9O:IL....... 371Sura 98: AI_Bayyinah98:S............ 88Sur. 107, AI_M4'6n107:4.......... 100.383Sun 108: AI-KaWlhar108:2.-.... _. 266


No.I2,•5678HADITH INDEXHadilh'/fAllah w"nI5t{}dogooJfw"~rstm_ ............................ .'M~n of knowkdp arr the inhtritors of prophel$. -.............."_ ,n' , _., . or. '.~T 0 pray« ,s pun,'(aINJII .... _..................................."D


21 'Purify yourselvr:s from uri~ •.•.•..•.•...•.••....•..•..................... 27,10522 ·Tht Qurilll lucol'MS dubiow 10 us.. .................................. 2723 ·Wt .. u watn afUr using stonJili(lft: tirrumcision. ,... 2926 "C.. tlh. ma .. slach~s sharl and Itaw Iht btard (IU il is)."... 2927 "8 ul for my fear Ihal It wo,dd "" hard fer my Jcllewm..... 3028 ".. . washed his ha"tU (during ablutian) unlil h. rtachtd liltuppcarms .............................,..,............................................ 3729 "Th• • an art lrUlltd IU part 0flh. hMd............................. 37Xl "Thil il an ablulion wilhoul which Allah rIofl IIDI aat plany pmytr .•..._.......................................•. ~.... ........... . .. .. .. ... 3831 "No_1c«ps bring in a stalt afabl ..,ion UUf'lIM~· 3932 "If I comffUlnJ you 10 do S()mtlhing, I,,"n do (0[1 il IU mwchtu)'l1ll ron."............................................................................ 42,67)) "1ltllify that Ihtrt is liD d. ity but Allah. Alont. with noparlllfr .............................. ..................,........,.. ,..................... 4334 "Gc back and fMrform abluliall wrU.".. .............. .................. 4335 · W.,.,. la tht heds (if nal Muhed during abl ../ian)jrom the36Firt!· ............,.... ....,..,.......................................•,........,......,.... 43"Tht praytr of any uf you i. nal complett until h. pcformsabl,rlion fMrftclly.............. .................................................... «37 'Whyart you waslingalllhis WIII. r ~............. . .. .. .. .... .. ......... . 443a · Thtft ;, " dnnan of


47 "When anyone sits amidst four parts (of the woman)........ 6048 "So, when your memtruQ/ion period beg/MS... ................... 6149 "The" is janabah und,revery single hair........................... 61SO "Verily, Alklh is Modest and He likes modesty and veiling.... 6251 •... And its clean earth has been made (by Allah) as apurifying means for us ..:...................................................... 6452 'When a dog licks a utensil belonging to anyone of you. .... 7053 ~ .. Thechild Ijri1Ulted on the g


75 "Whe" "ighl frills from Ihl. o,de and /lte day wmlshes fro'"Ihat side and the SI'" $tu ................................. ................... .76 "If any/me Jorgcls 11 praytr or m'.0,>0,>0,H"H"106, 107>0.,,"'"'"'""4, .., ..",",'"


A Sumn .. ,), of h l.mi


Hodith In


,.. ASumn .. ry of Iol.mk Juri'prud.""145 · Whoev~r recites dy


166 "I cannot cormt (the number of timts) l heard AllahsMessenger (PBUH) reciting.................................................. 170167 "If anyone oversleep, and mi51les the Wi!r or forgets it. ...... 170168 "Whm sleep or pain overpowered the Prophet (PBUH). .... 170169 "My f riend (i.e. the Prophet) advised me to do threethings...................... .................................................. 173170 "The Prophet (PBUH) used to ~rform the DuM Prayer... 173171 "... thetwo rak·ahsoftheDuna Prayer .. ". ................... 173172 'lj anyone sils in his placeojprayerafler finishing Ihe Subh(Morning) Prayer.................................................................. 174173 ~ .. the Prophet (PBUH) performed eight rak·ah. as theDuM Prayer.". ..................................................................... 174174 "The Prophet (PBUH) used to perform the DuM Prayerwithfourrak·ahs. ................................................................ 174175 "The prayer of those who are peniltnt. ................. .............. \74176 'When the Prophet (PBVH) recited a sura of Ihe Qurilnthat contains the prostration... .............. ............. .............. 175177 'When ,he son of cldarrr (Adarrr) recites a vase oJprostration ............................ ................................. 176178 •... but ·UthmJn did notperJorm proslration andSllid... 176179 'Allah, Me


'"'"'" '95'"'"'"'00 '"'" 20220320


J::1.adlcli Ind«220 'Whe" Ihe prayercommenctJ ................ ...................".......221 ~ .. No prayer(u 10 be perfomwd) bullhal which hasbegun.~.222 "If anyone wtches up (the people in prayer when they are)bowing ................................... .........." ..................................223 'If you come to pray" while we ~re prrutrating ..................224 •... And complete whatever you have mi"'.d: ..........225 •... And make up for whatever you have missed" .....226 "I, he who raises his head before the im,1m ...........227 "The ill/Jm is appoiMled to hi! fol/owed... ....... ............228 'You neither performed the prayer alone Mar did you followyour im,1m: ..................... ....................................................229 "Do MOt preude me in bowing and prostration ~nd endingof prayer.·.................... ...............................................230 'Do not prevent the female servanls of Allah (women).....231 'If your women ask permi",ion to go 10 the mosq"e at night,allow them:.... ................. ............ ...............................232 •... Yet their "ouses (womeM!) are hl!ItU for them (top"jorm prayer thereiM): ............................ ...................... ...233 •. .. Bullhey should go while Ihey ~re nOI perfumed .............234 "W/,cnver WOman perfumes herself. ...................................235 "Afler me. 1 haw not left anyajjlicfioM more harmful to menthan women.' ................................. ........................................236 •... Yd their houses are better for Ihem (10 perform prayerthere/M) ............................................................ .....................237 'Had AI/ahs M wenger (PBUH) witnessed whO/llle womenwere doing .. ..................... .....................................................238 ' Three persOMS will be on the hillock of musk on the Day ofRe5um"tian.... ......................................................239 "The reward afhim (the im~m in prayer) ...................240 "Appoint me to lead my people in pray"': ...............241 "The oMe who is most versed in the Book of Allah242 'If people are equal in recitmion (of tloe Quran) ..243 "Letlhe oldesr OMe amongst you lead the pmyer ..................244 "The one who is most versed in AI/ahs Book (the Qur~n),hould act Ol the ;mdm for Ille people .................245 "No man shGuM lead allother in prayer where (the latter) isin his ha"se ..................................................... ...."...............19919920


A Sun",,.'Y of 101, ,,, ,,, JU';' prudon«246 ·No wo",an should lrad a man in pmyer, nor .hould a lJedoui"lead~n immigranl. ....................................... ............ 218247 •... Nor should a wickrd man I~ad" bdi •...,r in pray.r.·..... . 222248 ·The Prophet (PBUH) performed prayer in hi. house whilesilling.................................................................................... 223249 •... Then perform prayer si((!ng all tog.lher.·.................. ...... 223250 "If the one in a .Iale of ja"Jb~hI31Ieads the people inpray"'-............ ............................... ......•.......•..................... 223251 ·(There are) th ree pmonl WhOle prayer does 1101 rise overth.i~eal"$.. . .. ....... .. .. ...... . ....... . ..... . .. . ... . .. ...... . .. ....................... 224252 ·(There are) Ihree persons whose prayer does not rise overthdr "~r.s . . . . ........ . .... . ...... . .................. .................................. 225253 "If anyon", of you leads people in pr~y"r, he shouldlighten it.................................. ........................... .... 228254 "a people! Some of you m~k" people dislike good deeds. .... 228255 "I never performed a light and perfect prayer as I performedbehind the Prophet.. ............................................................. 228256 ·The Prophet (PBUH) used to prolong thefirst rak·ah."..... 230257 'He (the Prophet) used to .Iand;" the first rak 'ah of theZuhr................................................................... .................. 230258 ·If r order you to do somethin8> then do of it as much '"you can.".......................................... ........... ... ....•.. ................ 234259 "I h


l:iodl' h 1 ...... ,,,269 "We went with Ihe PropMI (PBUH) IInlil "'" IM>ChNDhllluT -Riqll '..."................_...._..._...•...•.._........................... 244270 "Then Ihe immNi"'tp .... yt,e,dl(iqllm"h) ....... ""IWUluJ"lid........................................................................................ 244271 "Among rht mosr Mctllrnr o[you,doys;s Friday.".............. 247272 "We (Mus/ims) Me rh.l


'"A Sun'n' ~ 'r of hl.mic Juri'prudeoc


320 • ... After finishing the praye', rh. Prophet (PBUH) wouldsland in front of the people and ... ,...................................... 273321 "A/ter finishing th e Fe"'! Prayer, the Prophet (PBUH) usedIQ. , .•.... , ......•.. , .. , ..•......... ,. 274322 'Pray whatever you gel. and complett whatever youmisud,"..................... ....... .. .. ......................... 274323 "We were comma"ded to make rhe me/ls/ruming women goout 10.. ..... ........................................... 275324 •... They (the menstruating women) would stand behindpeopk ........ ......... ....... ,... ............... .......................... 275325 " .. , They (the menSlruating women) ustd '0 pronouncelakbir along with people: . ........ ,," _.. .................................... 275326 "When the Prophet (PBUH) performed the Subh Pmyer inthe morning of ·Amfah.......................... ............. ............... 276327 "The Prophet (PBUH) u~ed ro pronounce takbirimmediately after................... ......................... 276328 'When he (the Pmphel)finishedSubh Prayer on the Day of'Arafah. ............ ....... ........................................ 276329 "Th. Dayof 'Arafah. and the Day of Sacrifice and the DaY'of Mind................................................. ................................ 2n330 ";',lIah is the Great.,.t.. ............. ................ ............................ 2n331 'There was an eclipse on the day when Ibrdhim. the son ofthe Prophet (PBUH), died. .... .. .................................. 282332 "Invoke AI/ah and perform prtlytr until the eclips. clears". 282333 "Theu signs, which Allah sends, do not OCCl" becl1use of.. 282334 "When you se< the eclipse. ~rform proyer·..... ................... 283335 "When you su any of this (j.•. eclipse), perform proyuuntil it clears:...... ................................................ ..... ............ 283336 "Alloh listens to the one who p rai,e:; Him. .......................... 283337 "In the lifetime of AI/ohs MweMger (PBUH), the suneclipsed............. ........................................................ 284338 "The Prophet (PBUH) came tQ the people, aftlT the sunbewme visible I1gl1in ....... ...........,.... ............................... 284339 •... until the eclipse is clear: .._.. _.................................. ......... 285340 •... until the edipS


'"A Sum


1:io


402 "... If th~ camds a", from sixty.o",", to u;"'mty·fil'f!., ...,..,.... 327403 •... if th~ numbfr is from uventy--$fx to ni"ely.. ................. 327404 •... if lhey are from "iM/y·otle to one hundred and Iwtllry. ... 327405 •... ifthey are oytr On t· lllmdr~d mt d.twellly (came/s)....... 327406 ., htard Allah~ MtS$,ngtr (PBUH) saying, 'No o ... ner ofcllmtls............................................. ...................................... 327407 ·Whtn tM PrrJpMI (PBUH) unt me /a Y~mtn .................. 328408 'W/mr 1l1/ah~ MuunC" (PBUH) """ m~ to Ytmtn (tocolleel Zahllr)................................. ...................................... 328409 ·Th~ are the ordt Tl for Zakdh ... ltkh... ............................. 32841 0 •... MregardsZolkdhfortht (flockaf)sheep....................... 329411 ~ ..'Wt all! ardercd (by liI, Propilet) 10 take from ... Iwt,. ... }29412 "if $omebody ha. iQtltss thllnforty shttp........................... 329413 ~ .. iftht(nurnbtr


jj.dith IrKk>429 "NoZakah is 10 bepaidon (a quantity) Im than five wasqs{ill.·........ .............................................................................. 339430 "If any owner of gold or silver d


451 •.•. Ttllthtm that A.llah ht15 _de I1 obligatory for Ihem 10fHl)' Zak4h from ....•.........................•........•.•..•..•...•.•..•..........452 ' Wail ""/11 ~ nul"" ZlIk4h. so lhat IW order 10 glw]'O"from il.· ....•........ _... __. .. _..............................................45) "Giving charity to the poor;s 10 br recordtd al ~ charily .. .454 "Ch"rily must 110/ ~ giWII to Iht family of MulJprnmtld .• ,4S5 ·Yd. {give Ihem).". .................,.........,..,.....,.............. ..............456 ' If]'Ou wish. I shall give youfrom il {i. e. ZaJulh) .....,......,...457 '(Giving) charily apprasd the Wrath (Jf tilt Lord and


477 tlvoid that which makd ~u doubt and adhtre to thot ...478 'If an~nt canMot help vomiting. ............. ......... ........479 'Take water into your nostrils well. ..................... ....480 ·lmMina stateo//astiMg)."...................... ....................481 'Whoever doel Mot give up evil speec;h and related deeds .. .482 'The fasting person is in a state 0/ worship w longw ht .. .483 "He does Mol observe falting who continuN eating ... ...484 "Ir CQuld happen that I milS some days 0/ Ramadehalf of your /ather....... ....4% "Perform Haff only onee. and whoever performl it morethan that................................................. ................ .....497 ·0 (#'ople! Allah has mad. Hajj obligatory for you, soperform Hajj .............. ..........................................................498 "Make hQJte to (per/orm the obligation of) 11ajj .. ...............499 "A ...·oman lifred up a boy to (show him to) Ih. Prophet "ndsaid.............................. ...... ............................................500 "A woman from (the tribe o/J Kho!h 'am said . ..................SOl -Th. Prophet (PBUH) heard a man snying talbiyah in thi'WIly............. ..............................................................502 11 woman shol4ld n"t tTllvei exr;epl with 11 mahrlim ...........'""'"'"'''' '"'''''''''"'"'"'"'"'"""""""'0;,0;""""""""""'"'OS411,,.


'"" SUm .... 'Y '" l.!ami< J~S03 "0 Ma#ngrr of AUt.h! My wifo is proardingfor liAjj and. ... 4 I ]SO< "/I is iml'"miuibk for" womall 10 'rpwl for Ollf' day Imdnight erupt wilh....................... .......................................... 41 2"/I is "O/ID",!.. I fo rD 14'Oma/1 bdieving;1I AIlIIh 10 'md~rra«"" ajourncy ............................................................"......"......... 412S06 "A woman Sllid /0 Ih e Prophet, 'My motlrer /rad vowed I"perforn, liajj but ... '" ...."._................................."....... ........ 4 12507 "Perform tiajj aMd 'Ummh (Ltsur Pilgrimllge) "",kingthem follow tarh other.. .................. ...................................... 4 15508 "M ut /I'al jiMd{14} is tire ml o{(good) Iktds. so.......... 415509 ")'1I,,1r ~ Muungtr (PBUH) specified Dhu/·J:fulayfoh (tu Q• Siltforihrdm)for........................................ .......................... 418'"'"'"'"~ .. Tht muhall/J6/ of Iht ptOp/t of /'1IlI is Dhol/u· ./rq....... 4 18"Mab )'Our Jittjor ihnlm a p/Dct J; /uatN op('QJilt 10 i/.... 4 19"I u:ud 10 scent A/lnh~ Me='W, (PBUH) w1ttntvv he..-antN to .. ssumt ibnlm...................................................... 422"Indud, (tht rorrtCtnw .. lid rt .. ..,rrI, of) dNdI dt~ndupo'l illl'nl;o"5 ... ·................................................................. 42351. Herr I am at Your service, 0 Allah. MrI' I am at loor KTVict... 42 4515 "Therl' WIU an ailment in my head and 1 WIU carried to theProphet (PRUH). ........... ................................................ ..... 42851' "A muar!m should not Wfllr


527 "if ""Y"M gm (~ .... 5Iny:l .11) ')om/Ill! twforr: IM dawn (ofthe Irn/Ir "f Dlru/-Hijjnh) brrnh .................................. _ .... .528 "H"D is ·Arafoh····································· .. · .. ·•···•··· •..•.••.•...... -.529 "He (rht Prophd) kpi slanding Ilrtrt (m 'Amfah) ,,"rilJunst/ .•• .. ................................... ... .. ......................... _ •...•.......530 .. .. Wht .. ht (PBUH) rt'tlchfii Mutdalifalr ..........................53l •... Allohs Messenger (PBUH) Ih,M lay down until daw"and offered ............................................................................532 "!tll Mutdalifah is a standing plau. bllt btuway from BalnMuhassir.· .................. ....._......................................................533 'Th~ poIylhtists did 1101 uu 10 dtpilTI (from /am'. it.MUMII/ifah) ulllil. ................................................._.............S)4 ~III Iht mbIu 011 IIu /J


1\ Summuy of IsI. mic JUfi' pfud,occ549 "!iPfiYY"h Bint Huyayy menstruated after performing th e/fddah Tawdf. so... ................................... ............................. 457SS(} illleJ of animals) are impennissible 10 be ofJered ossacrifice......... .... .... ............................................................... 461553 "When it is Ihe beginning of Dhkl/'Hijjah and anyone ofyou inlends 10 ofJer............................................................... 461554 "Ewry(newborn) boy is pawned by the 'lU/iqah offeredforhim:............................................................ ........................... 463555 "TIVQ equal cwes are to be sacrificed f ar the (newborn) boyand one ewe is la... .............................................................. 464556 "scrifiu is made fo r him (the newborn baby) on theseventh day............................................................................ 464557 · (On the Day of Resurrection.) you will b. called by yournameS and............................. ................................................ 465558 ·The dearest of your Mm,s M Allah are ··Abdu lldh'.. ......... 465559 "Whoever dies without fighting in the Cause of Allah....... 4 72560 · wt.enever you are called far fighting in the Cause of Allah... 473561 ... . Then go and exert yourself in their service (i.e. hisparents):........ ......................... ...................... ..................... 475562 "Sp


TRANSUTERATlON SYSTEMAm&icClJaracrerm',,~" Exarnpl. ~m" Symbol~""',, b .ad/BUM , q Qunfn.A 0/' s m"v' iJ.d'• f foith/fat ...., taplliUmiyo}o•k tj/J/KA•"•"'h tninkltlmqlj J I qiblah< j I- , DJwM•I loOI'd!, mk'ah'", badflhlb"n"jI• , I unr >- Om await/"awran, gh maghrib,"oyay"'""

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