New Materials for Oil SpillRecoveryMichelle WalkerJuly 2005Victoria Broje / Arturo A. Keller
Why is this research important?• Oil skimmers use theproperty of oil to adhere torotating recovery surfaces.• The materials used on theskimmers were not selectedbased on adhesiveproperties.• Our research is focused onstudying various materialsand selecting the mostefficient ones for oilrecovery.
Experiments• Study properties of different oils to seehow they will behave during an oil spill andduring recovery• Study the affinity of one oil for differentmaterials to see which of the materials hasthe best adhesion properties
The Oils• THE FRESH CRUDES:– Point Mac Crude Oil– Cook’s Inlet Crude Oil• THE WEATHERED CRUDES:– Cook’s Inlet Crude Oil with 15% Weight Loss– Point Mac Crude Oil with 15% Weight Loss• THE REFINED PRODUCTS:– HydroCal 300 (lubricant oil)– IFO 120 (Intermediate Fuel Oil)
Preparation of Weathered Oil SamplesCooling ColumnVapor TrapOil condenserOil Container
The Measurements• OIL PROPERTIES– DENSITY–VISCOSITY– SURFACE TENSION• AFFINITY OF IFO FOR MATERIALS– CONTACT ANGLE
DensityTo measure oil density:1. Find exact volume of flask.2. Take three mass measurements with each of six oils.3. Use the equation D=M/V to calculate density.tubeoilCONTROLLED VOLUME FLASK:A small tube in the stopper allows allexcess liquid to escape ensuring thatthe same volume is always present inthe flask.
Density MeasurementsDensity of OilDensity, kg/m3 .0.980.960.940.920.90.880.860.840 10 20 30TemperatureCook's inletPoint MacweatheredCook's InletweatheredPoint MacHydrocalIFO-120
VISCOMETER:Viscosity•Measures viscosity of liquids by measuring the resistance ofthe oil to the rotation of the spindle.SpindleContainer
Viscosity MeasurementsViscosity of oil1600Viscosity, cP)140012001000800600400200Cook's inletPoint MacCook's inletweatheredPoint Mac weatheredHydroCal00 10 20 30TemperatureIFO
Surface Tension• We use a platinum-iridium ring tomeasure surface tension.•The Dynamic Contact Angle Analyzeruses a very sensitive balance tomeasure the force required to breakthe meniscus attached to the ring.• The surface tension is calculated fromthe measured force and reported inmN/m.Pt-IrRING
Surface Tension MeasurementsSurface tensionSurface tension, mN/m .333231302928272625240 10 20 30Cook's inletPoint MacweatheredCook's InletweatheredPoint MacHydrocalIFO-120Temperature
Oil PropertiesDensity, kg/m3 .0.980.960.940.920.90.880.860.84Density of OilDensity0 10 20 30TemperatureViscosity, cP)1600140012001000800600400200ViscosityViscosity of oilCoPoCowePoHySurface tension, mN/m .33323130292827262524Surface tensionSurface Tension0 10 20 30Temperature00 10 20 30TemperatureCook's inletPoint MacweatheredCook's InletweatheredPoint MacHydrocalIFO-120IF
Contact Angle•Contact angle is derived from the weight of themeniscus attached to the surface of the sampleplate.•The force recorded by the scale is caused by thesurface tension of the oil.
Contact Angle MeasurementsRecovered Mass vs. Contact AngleRecovered Mass (g)504540353025NeopreneHypalonSBREch45 50 55 60 65Contact Angle (degrees)Series1Linear (Series1)• Materials that lie on the upper left side of the graph would bebetter, because they have both a lower contact angle and ahigher recovered mass.
Conclusion• There is a significant effect of temperatureon oil properties.• We can use the more accuratemeasurement of contact angle and knowthat a lower contact angle will yield ahigher recovered mass.• In my experiments, I found that there is adifference between the recovery rate ofthe materials, and neoprene delivered thebest results.