Rosedale Products' Versatile Basket Filters ... - Filtration News

Rosedale Products' Versatile Basket Filters ... - Filtration News

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Editorial Advisory BoardEditorial Board ChairmanEdward C. Gregor,ChairmanE.C. Gregor & Assoc. LLCTel: 1 704 442 1940Fax: 1 704 442 1778ecg@egregor.comM&A, Filtration MediaHaluk Alper, PresidentMyCelx Technologies Corp.Tel: 1 770 534 3118Fax: 1 770 534 3117alper@mycelx.comOil Removal – Water and AirPeter S. Cartwright, PECartwright Consulting Co.Tel: 1 952 854 4911Fax: 1 952 854 6964pscartwright@msn.comMembranes, RO,UltrafiltrationWu ChenThe Dow Chemical CompanyTel: 1 979 238 9943wuchen@dow.comProcess Filtration (liquid/gas)Equipment and MediaPeter R. Johnston, PETel/Fax: 1 919 942 9092ddandp3@aol.comTest proceduresJim JosephJoseph MarketingTel/Fax: 1 757 565 1549josephmarketing@verizon.netCoolant FiltrationDr. Ernest MayerE. Mayer FiltrationConsulting, LLCTel: 1 302 981 8060Fax: 1 302 368 0021emayer6@verizon.netRobert W. McilvaineTel: 1 847 272 0010Fax: 1 847 272 9673mcilvaine@mcilvainecompany.comwww.mcilvainecompany.comMkt. Research & Tech. AnalysisHenry Nowicki, Ph.D. MBATel: 1 724 457 6576Fax: 1 724 457 1214Henry@pacslabs.comwww.pacslabs.comActivated Carbons Testing,R&D, Consulting, TrainingBrandon Ost, CEOFiltration GroupHigh Purity Prod. Div.Tel: 1 630 723 2900bost@filtrationgroup.comAir Filters, Pharmaceuticaland Micro-ElectronicGregg PoppeThe Dow Chemical CompanyTel: 1 952 897 4317Fax: 1 942 835 4996poppeg@dow.comIndustrial Water, Power,and Membrane TechnologyDr. Graham RidealWhitehouse Scientific Ltd.Tel: +44 1244 33 26 26Fax: +44 1244 33 50 98rideal@whitehousescientific.comFilter and Media ValidationAndy RosolGlobal Filtration Products Mgr.FLSmidth Mineralsandy.rosol@flsmidth.comTel: 1800 826 6461/1 801 526 2005Precoat/Bodyfeed Filter AidsClint ScobleFilter Media Services, LLCOffice: 1 513 528 0172Fax: 1 513 624 6993cscoble@filtermediaservices.comFabric Filters , Filter Media,Baghouse MaintenanceTony ShucoskyPall MicroelectronicsTel: 1 410 252 0800Fax: 1 410 252 6027tony_shucosky@pall.comCartridges, Filter Media,MembranesMark VanoverBayer MaterialScience LLCKey Account ManagerTel: 1 314 591 1792Email:mark.vanover@bayer.comPolyurethane SystemsScott P. YaegerFiltration and SeparationTechnology LLCTel/Fax: 1 219 324 3786Mobile: 1 805 377 5082spyaeger@msn.comMembranes, New Techn.Dr. Bob BaumannAdvisory BoardMember Emeritus4 • June 2013 •

Cover Story | Rosedale Products, Inc.Versatile Basket FiltersBy Dan Morosky, Rosedale Products, 5 microns ( 0.0002”). As a rule, wiremesh is manually cleanable in weavescoarser than 75u (200 mesh or0.0003”) and the finer grades requirechemical or ultrasonic cleaning.NEW HIGH GRADE SINTERED MESHThese baskets have multiple layers ofstainless steel wire-woven cloth, diffusionbonded together for increased strength,corrosion resistance, and long life.One-piece construction for ease inhandling, no need for a perforatedbasket for support, no need for a bagfor filtration, the basket becomes thefilter media.Rosedale Products’ line of stainless steel basketsFEATURES• All 316 stainless steel construction• 10-150 micron ratings• TIG welded construction for long lifeIn many applications, stainless steelbaskets are a good alternative to replacefilter bags and other media.Fruit juice pulp straining, coarse filtrationin meat packaging plants, water intakestrainers, and spray nozzleprotection, have all been ideal basketfilter applications. Filter baskets mayseem old fashioned, but there are manydesign innovations to consider. Ultimately,basket selection varies greatly,depending on the application. Considerthe following options:WIRE MESH BASKETSWire clothed lined baskets are thetried and true strainer that all of usknow. They use wire cloth as the filtermedium and can be physically from thesize of a coffee cup to the size of a 55-gallon drum.The wire cloth has a mesh count ormesh size, which is the number ofwires running horizontally and verticallyper square inch. For example, a10-mesh screen means it has 10 wiresper square inch as noted. The resultingopening is the micron rating.Traditionally, basket strainers haveused square weave wire cloth as the filtermedia for coarse filtration down to50u or openings of about 0.002 inches,and twilled weaves are for finer meshWire mesh basket6 • June 2013 • www.filtnews.comFive layers of stainless steel wirewovenclothWEDGE WIRE STRAINER BASKETSWedge wire (WW) or slotted, is verydurable back washable media. They arestrictly limited to .001” slot or 25 micronas the lowest retention rating.Wedge wire media

Wedge wire is particularly suited forcritical low maintenance applications.As a result of their construction, theyare used in many instances where manualcleaning is necessary but mightdamage other types of media.SORBENT MEDIA CONTAINMENTA combination carbon adsorptionand downstream filtering unit can beordered. Available in the larger singlebasketand all multi-basket vessels, itpositions the carbon-holding basket insidea larger filter bag-holding basket.A variety of filter bag media is offered.RS Style ForRecirculating SystemsFlow enters from thetop, into a perforatedcylinder around which ispacked activated carbon.Flow moves radiallythrough the carbon andexits through the sidewall, which is perforatedand lined with 100-meshscreen.SP Style For Single-Pass(1-Time) ProcessingFlow enters from the topthrough a perforated coverand into the activated carbonbed. Flow moves downthrough the carbon and exitsthrough the bottom plate,which is perforated and linedwith 100-mesh screen.BAG TO “STICK” CONVERSIONTurn Bag Housings Into CartridgeFilters. Basket holds cartridges inside abag housing!Rosedale’s bagfilter converter canbe quickly convertedto a cartridgefilter. Simply put,there are applicationsthat call for abag filter and othersthat call for a cartridgefilter. Untilnow, it wasn’t very Bag to stick conversionbasketeasy to change betweenthe two.If it becomes necessary to changefrom bags to cartridges – install theRosedale ConverterBasket.• Remove the originalbasket• Install the newconverter basket• Load the cartridges• Unique designprevents clean sidecontamination byremoving basketfrom housing beforeremoving cartridgesfrom converter. Bag to largeUsers now have a cartridge filterable to utilize any standard cartridge.Baskets fit standard models 4-12, 8-15,and 8-30 housings. Construction materialsare either 304 stainless or 316stainless steel.BAG TO LARGE DIAMETER CARTRIDGEExisting installations can easilyconvert to a single housing by installingthe Rosedale adaptor basket.This is accomplished by replacingthe perforated filter basket with theadaptor. The solid side basket acceptsthe new cartridge and directs the flowthrough the unit.CONE BASKETSCone baskets are valuable when alarge filtering area is needed in asmall space. They are available as abasket within a basket, or a bagwithin a basket.Cone baskets are widely used for filtrationof solid particles in pharmaceutical,chemical, and food industries.INNER BASKETSModel 8 and any of the multi-basketor multi-bag units can be fitted withs m a l l e r ,inner basketstrainers orbag filters,t h r o u g hwhich the incomingfluidflows first,giving twostagecleaningaction.Inner basketsInner basket strainersand or filtersbags are offeredin the same construction materialsand ratings as those of the primaryouter elements.FNFor more information contact:Rosedale Products, Inc.3730 W. Liberty RoadAnn Arbor, MI 48103Tel: 800-821-5373 / 734-665-8201Fax: 734-665-2214Email: filters@rosedaleproducts.comWebsite: • June 2013 • 7

Report | IDEA13Bright IDEA for Media MakersBy Adrian Wilson, International CorrespondentPictured receiving their Innovation Award for NanoWave filter media are Angelika Mayman and Eric Westgate ofHollingsworth & Vose, from Dave Rousse, INDA President, (left) and Rod Zilenziger of Nonwovens Industry (right).INDA’S 2013 nonwovens show was aplatform for advanced filtration conceptsacross a range of industries.Filter manufacturer Donaldson,headquartered in Minneapolis, Minn.,has recently published statistics onthe global filtration market which itestimates now has an annual value of$50 billion.The market for engine protectionwithin this – in which Donaldson hasa leading position – is certainly considerableand worth an annual $8 billion.But it is eclipsed by that of waterfiltration, which is worth $10 billionin 2013, and likely to become veryconsiderable indeed in the comingyears. There are many nonwovenmedia developments currently underwayin this area.Ahlstrom, for example has just enteredinto a collaboration agreementwith Dow Water & Process Solutions(DW&PS), a business unit of DowChemical, to use Disruptor nanoaluminafiltration technology in drinking10 • June 2013 • www.filtnews.comwater applications.DW&PS will incorporate Disruptorfilter media into a new set of drinkingwater purification products, whichprovide excellent pathogen rejectionwhile operating at high flow and lowpressure.“One of the key goals in our productdevelopment is to create products thatpurify air and liquids in a sustainableway,” said Fulvio Capussotti, executivevice president at Ahlstrom AdvancedFiltration.

Xinxiang Tiancheng AviationPurification Equipments Co. Ltd.For airplaneFor special vehicleFor ultrafilterFor coal machineryFor dustcollectorof cementindustryFor fluid cleaning systemOur company specializes in designing & manufacturing and supplying many kinds of filters,complete filtrating equipments and their elements with different materials according to yourdrawings or new & old samples.Xinxiang Tiancheng Aviation Purification Equipments Co. Ltd.No. 1, Chuanye Road, Dvelopment Area, Xinxiang City 453003, HenanP.R. ChinaContact Person in China: Mr. Li MinghaoTel: +86-13673735086 Fax: +86-373-3520026 Website: www.tchkjh.comEmail: • renchenghua@tchkjh.comContact Person in USA: Mr Liu ShengyuanTel: 4015881868 •

Report | IDEA13Ahlstrom Disruptor virtually removesall microorganisms that cancause sickness. Its combination of largepore size and very high electrical attractionpotential enable the efficient removalof virus-sized particles at a highflow rate at very low pressure. It can beutilized in a number of drinking waterapplications, such as under-the-sinkpurification, tap water filters and waterpitcher filters. It can also be used in12 • June 2013 • www.filtnews.comareas with no electricity, requires no useof chemicals and does not generatewastewater.“Global trends such as populationgrowth and urbanization put pressureon already strained water sources,”added Snehal Desai, global business directorfor DW&PS. “We see a real needfor new innovations to expand accessto clean, safe drinking water in an easy,effective and sustainable way. Our collaborationwith Ahlstrom extends ourproduct offering to people who need effectivewater treatment but may nothave access to pumps or electricity.”AUTOMOTIVE POTENTIALSeparately, the automotive air filtrationmarket is worth around a further$3 billion according to Donaldson. Atthis year’s IDEA nonwovens show inMiami in April, Dave Rousse, president

Cyphrex (large photo) successfully combines polyester and cellulose microfibers.The Eastman Cyphrex team in Miami (above, left to right), Eastman’s CTO Greg Nelson, TechnologyDirector Mark Clark and Vice President of Innovation, Marketing and Sales Tim Dell.of INDA – the Association of the NonwovenFabrics industry based in Cary,North Carolina, which organizes theIDEA shows – had some interesting observationsto make about the growingpotential for engineered fabrics in filtermedia for the automotive field.In the U.S., double-digit sales during2012 were reported by Chrysler, GeneralMotors and Ford, coupled witheven stronger North American growthby Toyota and Honda. This follows aresurgence in the USA in 2011, withgrowth of 11.5% achieved in the productionof over 8.6 million vehicles, accordingto OICA – OrganisationInternationale des Constructeurs d’Automobiles– the international organizationof motor vehicles. In 2012, theU.S. produced 10.3 million cars andlight vehicles, having previouslyreached a record in 2007 of 15 • June 2013 • 13such vehicles produced.“The automotive sector is one of thepositive drivers of the North Americaneconomy right now, along with housing,”said Rousse. “Both sectors wereseverely impacted by the downturn, sotheir year-on-year improvements aresteeper than other sectors of the economy,which are more tepid. We are alsoseeing a significant new interest inmanufacturing overall in the U.S. due

Report | IDEA13The structure of H&V’s award-winning NanoWave greatly enhances dust-holding the dramatic impact of low energycosts. The fracking of North Americanshale to get both oil and natural gas hasbeen a game changer. Energy costs inNorth America now are about half ofEurope, so even with labor costs at parity,manufacturing here is going to beon the increase for years. And ourmembers will benefit.”He added that another significantdevelopment was the World HealthOrganization declaring diesel fumescarcinogenic to human health in Junelast year.“This is something all of the regulatorybodies worldwide will have toreact to, sooner, rather than later,” saidMr. Rousse. “It’s a colossal opportunityfor nonwoven filter media suppliers asfar as we can see, because if high performanceis mandated, then the highprice for products will be there too.”CAPTIMAX WITH CYPHREXAn interesting new product in thisarea is Ahlstrom’s Captimax media forfuel filters in passenger and commercialheavy-duty vehicles and off-roadmachinery.Also being evaluated for use in otherapplications such as hydraulic and fuelwater separation, Captimax is based onEastman’s new Cyphrex polyester andcellulose microfibers.“Eastman Cyphrex microfibers providethe potential for a unique, gamechangingfiber tool kit,” said EastmanCyphrex Technology Director MarkClark. “They offer tunable propertiesin respect of the size, shape and materialthat provide wetlaid nonwovenproducers with competitive advantagesthat aren’t currently available.They have demonstrated nearly dropincompatibility with existing wetlaidnonwoven processes and potential initialuses are in air, water or fuel filtration,specialty papers and batteryseparators.”The first result from Ahlstrom is afilter media that allows manufacturersto obtain optimum micron efficiencyratings and dust holding capacitywithout making compromises.Captimax provides a balance of excellentsmall-particle retention and thepotential for longer product life. Themedia also lets fuel filtration systemsuppliers maintain existing capacitylevels but reduce the product size. Inaddition, it can allow for increased efficiencywith better options to filterfine particles to protect fuel injectorsin vehicles and machines.“Captimax media offers both highefficiency and high capacity,” saidGary Blevins, vice president of marketingand commercial for Ahlstrom’sTransportation Filtration business.“We’re giving our customers the abilityto make filters to the specificationsthey need, allowing them to develop14 • June 2013 • www.filtnews.comproducts outside the standard constraintsof the media.”CHINA GROWTHFreudenberg is another key playerin the nonwoven filter media marketand has just announced a new $5.8million production site in Chengdu,Sichuan Province, China, in responseto the growing demand for automotivefilters in that region, with its partnerJapan Vilene.“Together we will deliver state-ofthe-artfiltration technology to thegrowing automotive industry inChengdu with companies like Volkswagenand Geely Volvo,” said Dr. JörgSievert, member of the managementboard of Freudenberg Filtration Technologies,which already has plants inChangchun and Suzhou and firststarted production in China in 1998.Sixty employees will work at thenew site – which will produce bothengine air intake filters and micron-Air cabin air filters – by the end of2013. By establishing the new productionsite in Xindu, Freudenberg isscaling up domestic production capacitysubstantially.Major car manufacturers includingFirst Automotive Works Volkswagenand Geely Volvo have sited their manufacturingplants in the Chengdu areaand vehicle production in the region isexpected to increase substantially, from

Report | IDEA13INDA’s outgoing President RoryHolmes received a Lifetime AchievementAward from the organizationduring the show.1.8 million units in 2011 to 3 millionunits in 2015.NANOWAVE RECOGNITIONIn the field of HVAC – a global marketDonaldson estimates is now worthan annual $5 billion – Hollingsworth &Vose received INDA’s Innovation Awardin the Roll-Goods category for itsNanoWave filter media at IDEA.NanoWave is an extended surfacearea, multi-layer filtration media forHVAC applications. Using nano andcoarse fiber layers, it is said to deliver2.4 times the surface area of normalflat sheet media. The waved nanofiberlayer allows for maximum mechanicalefficiency with very low resistance,while more than doublingdust-holding capacity compared tostandard synthetic media. Describedas a ‘green’ product, NanoWave iscomposed of a single polymer andcan be incinerated to regain energy.NanoWave pocket filters achieve thehighest filtration performance anddeliver superior air quality. Otheruses for NanoWave include residentialfiltration, liquid filtration and gasturbine intake air filtration.“We are especially pleased to receivethe IDEA13 Achievement Award becausethe industry selected NanoWave after aperiod of online voting,” said MikeClark, H&V’s HESF division president.“H&V was founded on a patent and weare honored to be recognized by ourpeers for our most recent innovation.”SAWASCREENAnother Innovation Award winnerwas Germany’s Sandler, for its BioTextile biowipes substrate. Specificallyfor the filtration market, Sandlerprovides media for classes G3 to E11,with synthetic sawascreen pocket filtermedia comprising fibers of lessthan 1µm to achieve high efficienciesTUpdate or list your company in our 2013 Buyers’ Guide.Deadline is May 31.Email: joan@filtnews.comWebsite: • June 2013 •

and high dust holding capacity.The fine fibers create a large filtrationsurface, boosting mechanical efficiencythat does not decrease, evenafter discharge.The progressively structured filtermedia feature a low average pressuredrop, reducing energy consumptionduring operation of the filtration plant.For small installation spaces,pleatable Sandler sawascreen pleat filtermedia feature a uniform, lengthwiseoriented fiber structure for highmechanical stability and they can beeasily manufactured with all commonpleating processes. The stability ofthe pleats is unaffected by pressure orother mechanical influences, as wellas moisture.RECORD BREAKERIDEA13 was held April 22-25,2013, in Miami Beach, Florida, U.S.,featuring 483 exhibiting companiesand drawing close to 7,000 attendeesfrom 72 countries.“IDEA13 was a record-breakingevent and one of the most successfulIDEA shows ever,” said DaveRousse. “The continued strong participationof international exhibitorsand attendees is proof of the show’simportance within the internationalnonwovens/engineered fabrics community.”In addition to attendees and exhibitorson the show floor, manymore were doing business at nearbyhotels and at over 50 on-site meetingrooms utilized by the leading companiesfor their business discussions.The well-attended conference sessionsfocused on regional global markets,trends and forecasts with aninsightful look into the engineeredfabrics markets in North America,South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific,China and India.The IDEA Achievement Awardswere presented to the best new productsduring the last three years, inthe following five categories: Equipment,Raw Materials, Roll Goods,Short-Life End Product and Long-Life End Product.The five winners were:• Machinery/Equipment: ITWDynatec – Surge adhesive applicator• Raw Materials: Sandler AG – BioTextile Bio-wipes Substrate• Roll Goods: Hollingsworth & Vose –NanoWave filtration media• Converted Product: ITW Dymon –Raptor Safe-T Wipe (substanceactivated fast evaluation technology)• Long-Life Converted Product: HunterDouglas – DuoTone Honeycombwindow shadeIn addition, the IDEA13 EntrepreneurAchievement Award was presentedto Suominen Nonwovens andthe Lifetime Achievement Award waspresented to Rory Holmes, past Presidentof INDA.INDA will stage its Filtration InternationalConference and Exposition atNavy Pier in Chicago from November12-14, • June 2013 • 17

Natural Filtration | AlgaeThe Future of Fuel?By Adrian Wilson, International CorrespondentAlgae are a diverse group of organisms considered simple plants since they photosynthesize, and they use carbon dioxide and water alooff oxygen that fish can use to breathe.Industrially cultivated algae may oneday prove the most suitable replacementfor oil. In the nearer-term, anatural filtration system developed forthis burgeoning industry could beequally useful in purifying the waterused in today’s growing oil and gasfracking sectorMuch of the world’s petroleum is actuallymade up of algae that have decomposedover hundreds of millions ofyears. But extracting and burning thatoil as fuel today releases carbon dioxideabsorbed long ago into the atmosphere.18 • June 2013 • www.filtnews.comThis ‘carbon positive’ effect is a keycontributor to global warming.By contrast, industrially-cultivatedalgae is capable of absorbing CO2from the atmosphere, or in more concentratedform, directly from CO2sources such as power plants, factories

ng with sunlight for energy and growth. Like plants, they also giveand refineries. This is because the burning of freshly producedalgae oil releases only what it absorbed in the firstplace. The result is a balanced ‘carbon neutral’ impact.In the right environment, fresh algae cells grow and divideexponentially, doubling every few hours, while absorbingall available nutrients, CO2 and light energy.Instead of waiting hundreds of millions of years for algae

Natural Filtration | AlgaeOriginOil’s Single Step Extraction technology for the algae become oil, industrial processes cantransform algae into oil in a matter ofdays, it’s now believed. And only by industrializingthe manufacture of suchnew oil can the current and future demandsof global industrialization bemet, according to proponents of theburgeoning algae technology.Biofuels derived from crops such ascorn, sugarcane, rapeseed and palm,by contrast, require vast amounts ofresources in terms of water and land,and also a great deal of energy fortheir conversion.NASA OMEGA PROJECTThe closed life support systems usedon the International Space Station thatoptimize the use of resources and minimizewaste were what first got NASAscientists interested in the potential ofalgae as a fuel.The resulting Offshore MembraneEnclosures for Growing Algae(OMEGA) system has subsequentlybeen developed to grow algae, cleanwastewater, capture carbon dioxide andultimately produce biofuel withoutcompeting with agriculture for water,fertilizer or land.The system consists of large flexiblephoto bioreactor containing fast-growingfreshwater algae growing in wastewaterand floating on seawater.The algae draws on energy from thesun, carbon dioxide and nutrients fromthe wastewater to produce biomass thatcan be converted into biofuels as well20 • June 2013 • www.filtnews.comas other useful products such as fertilizerand animal food. The algae cleanthe wastewater by removing nutrientsthat otherwise would contribute to marinedead zone formation.NASA’s project goals were to investigatethe technical feasibility of a uniquefloating algae cultivation system andprepare the way for commercial applications.Research by scientists and engineershas demonstrated that OMEGAis an effective way to grow microalgaeand treat wastewater on a small scale.The system is initially being investigatedas an alternative way to produceaviation fuels, with the implication ofreplacing fossil fuels in the longer term.NASA first installed a small-scaleOMEGA system at the California Fish

and Game laboratory in Santa Cruz,California, and then scaled up to a 450-gallon system at the Southeast WastewaterTreatment facility in SanFrancisco. Potential commercial applicationsare now being explored withvarious companies.“We’ve addressed some of the moredaunting technological problems forimplementing OMEGA,” said projectscientist Jonathan Trent. “Now thehope is that other organizations and industrieswill realize the potential of theOMEGA technology for wastewatertreatment and ultimately to producesustainable biofuels,” he said.CHALLENGESThere are three primary challengesto cost-effective algae production, accordingto technology developer OriginOil,based in Los Angeles:• Algae grow suspended in large volumesof water and using conventionalThe benefits of the Single Step Extraction algae dewatering process.methods, a mature culture must beconcentrated before oil can be extractedfrom each cell. This de-wateringstage is energy-intensive, and typicallyrequires chemical additives and expensivecapital equipment.• Algae are protected by a tough cellwall, which has to be cracked – an energy-intensiveprocess – to extract theoil. The challenge is to maximize oilyield by ‘cracking’ as many of the algaecells as possible with the smallestamount of energy.• The production is energy-intensive.In order to achieve economic viability,it is critical that energy is

Natural Filtration | AlgaeThe principle of NASA’s OMEGA algae cultivation system.recovered in every possible way. In additionto oil and biomass, algae producevaluable gases, including hydrogen.These must be harvested to achieve thebest possible energy balance.OriginOil’s suite of patent-pendingtechnologies and process innovationsintends to address these specific obstacles.The company’s Single Step Extractionprocess is chemical-free,low-energy, high-flow and low-cost anddoes more than dewater – it can rupturetough algae cell walls (via aprocess called ‘lysing’) to free up theoils and other valuable cellular componentsthat downstream processes canseparate out.The process exploits the high sensitivityof algae to electromagneticwaves and generates precisely tunedwave patterns that cause the algae tocome out of solution and to rupture.After pre-conditioning with naturalmetabolites, the algae travelthrough long, specially designedtubes as they gradually come out ofsolution and leave a highly concentratedalgae form that can beprocessed. In comparison, the companypoints out that membrane filtrationtechnology is capital-intensive22 • June 2013 •

Natural Filtration | AlgaeOrganizations like Greenpeace oppose fracking, believing it diverts from real solutions – such as energy efficiency and renewables– and that the full effects on the environment and health have not been fully investigated or addressed. Many concernshave also been raised about its potential to contaminate water supplies. Illustration courtesy of The Checks andBalances Project, a U.S. government and industry watchdog group.and maintenance costs can also behigh. Centrifuges are also very expensivewhen used to dewater completelydiluted algae. Chemical treatmentshave to be replenished and effluentwater must be treated before it can bereused, while mechanical systems arealso both energy and cost-intensive.CLEAN-FRACHaving looked to the future, however,OriginOil has realized there is amuch more immediate opportunityfor its Single Step Extraction technology– the removal of the carbon contaminantsin the dirty frac flowbackwater produced by the oil and gasmining industries.Hydraulic fracturing – fracking –involves the high-pressure pumpingof a mixture of water, sand andchemicals into underground gasbearingbeds of shale rock. The effectis to shatter the shale and allowthe gas to escape, and in the U.S. thetechnology has undergone a dramaticexpansion, which has alreadyled to a substantial fall in gas prices.Under extreme high hydraulicpressure, frac fluids (such as distillate,diesel fuel, crude oil, dilute hydrochloricacid, water, or kerosene)are pumped down through productiontubing or drill pipes and forced24 • June 2013 • www.filtnews.comout again.The pressure causes cracks toopen in the formation and the fluidpenetrates the formation through thecracks. Sand grains, aluminum pellets,walnut shells, or similar materials– propping agents – are carried insuspension by the fluid into thecracks. When the pressure is releasedat the surface, the frac fluid returnsto the well but leaves behind thesepropping agents to keep the formationcracks open. The fluid used forpenetration of the frac must be cleanand cannot contain sand or other organicsthat may be harmful for eitherthe process or the environment. The

used frac fluids also subsequentlyhave to be cleaned.WATER CONSUMPTIONWater is by far the largest componentof fracking fluids. It has been estimatedthat an initial drilling operationitself may consume from 6,000 to600,00 gallons of fracking fluids, butover its lifetime an average well may requireup to an additional five milliongallons of water for full operation.It has been further estimated thatthe amount of water needed to drill andfracture a horizontal shale gas well generallyranges from between two andfour million gallons, depending on thebasin and formation characteristics.The extraction of so much water forfracking has raised concerns about theecological impacts to aquatic resources,as well as the potential dewatering ofdrinking water aquifers. In addition,the transportation of a million gallonsof water, whether fresh or waste water,requires hundreds of truck trips, increasingthe greenhouse gas footprintof oil and gas and contributing to airpollution.CHEMICAL-FREE POTENTIALThis is where OriginOil is sensinghuge potential. Its Clean-Frac system,adapted from its Single Step Extractiontechnology for the algae industry,is a chemical free, continuous processthat employs low-energy technologiesto decontaminate produced or ‘fracflowback’ water. It removes oils, suspendedsolids, insoluble organics andbacteria as the first stage of anymulti-stage water treatment systemdesigned for recycling or purifying todrinking water.The company’s Clean-Frac Model60K is designed to process producedor frac flowback water at a continuousflow rate of one barrel per minuteor 60,000 gallons a day in continuousoperation. It can be designed to bemounted in a container, on a traileror as a fixed configuration.“The U.S. will overtake Saudi Arabiato become the world’s biggest oilproducer before 2020, and could beenergy independent by 2030,” saysOriginOil President and CEO RiggsEckelberry. “And with that, our country’sCO2 emissions have fallen dramatically,to a 20-year low. All this isbeing driven by the fracking revolution.We’re excited by the estimatedindustry numbers that show that treatingwater for reuse typically costs 21to 26 cents per gallon, while even the‘cheap’ option of trucking the wateroffsite costs 11 cents per gallon ormore. By combining our high-speedprocess with other innovations, we believeproducers could see the cost oftreatment go down to just seven centsper gallon. Cheaper than trucking isquite an exciting possibility.”Testing has already proved thatOriginOil’s system reduces total organicsas measured by Chemical OxygenDemand (COD) by over 98% in amatter of minutes, and is ongoing. • June 2013 • 25

Filter | AdditivesExtending Diesel Engine Oil ChangesUsing a Controlled Release AdditiveSystem Integrated in the Oil FilterBy Gary Bilski, Chief Engineer, FRAM Filtration, Perrysburg, OhioFigure 1 - Additive Filter DesignIn most large heavy-duty long haulfleets, oil analysis has been used formany years to determine the optimumoil change interval and also indentifypotential engine maintenance orwear issues. With their steady dutycycle, the factor in long haul trucks thattypically defines the oil change intervalis an increase in the acidity level of theoil, measured by both TAN (Total AcidNumber) and TBN (Total Base Number;this is reserve alkalinity to neutralizeacids) and also increase in oil oxidation.By re-additizing the oil at a very controlledrelease rate, utilizing both overbaseddetergents and antioxidants, it ispossible to neutralize the acid productionand reduce oxidation, significantlyextending the oil change interval.26 • June 2013 • www.filtnews.comThe cause of oil degradation is dependentupon a number of factors, includingengine design, lubricant quality,and severity of duty cycle and fuel sulfurlevels. The design of the diesel enginehas undergone significant changes overthe past couple of decades in order tomeet ever-increasing emissions regulations.Particularly in 2007, some of thecombustion strategies have used highamounts of EGR to control NOx emissions.This had increased soot, oxidation,and acid levels in the oil. The CJ-4oil category was tied to these engine designchanges in order to help reducesome of the effects. More recently withthe 2010 emissions requirements, SCR(Selective Catalytic Reduction) exhaustafter-treatment, which utilized an ammoniabased catalyst agent, is beingused to control NOx along with lowerpercentages of EGR.The EGR’s resulting impact on the oilcan have various detrimental effects onthe engine. Specifically, the increased levelsof soot in the oil will both increase theviscosity of the oil and can cause increasedengine wear, especially at boundarylubrication areas such as the valvetrain. The soot may also agglomerate andcause premature filter plugging. Secondly,higher lubricant sump temperatures canincrease the rate of oxidation, creatingweak acids, carbon deposits and sludgethat can lead to bearing corrosion. Additionally,the acidic blow-by gases increasethe acidity of the oil and can cause corrosionof engine components such as cylin-

der liners, bearings, and piston rings.There are several engine dynamometertests that oil formulators use to evaluatethe lubricants for these conditions. TheMack T11, Cummins ISM, and Mack T12are the most common tests used.While the formulation of the CJ-4Lubricant has addressed these effects,oil analysis did indicate that some engineswith higher EGR levels still requiredreduced oil change intervalsbased on the TAN, TBN, and Oxidationlevels. While simply increasing theoverbased detergent and antioxidantlevel in the blended oil would seem thesimplest solution, constraints exist dueto specified maximum initial ash levelscaused by the overbased detergents. Additionally,high initial levels of antioxidantsmay not provide linear benefits.Therefore, a filter was developed thatwould slowly release these two criticaladditives in the oil at a controlled rateto achieve the optimum benefits.CONTROLLED RELEASE RATE DESIGNThe first mode of attaining effective additizationwas to use a concentrated blendof overbased detergents and antioxidantsin fluid form. A method was then requiredthat would both inject the additives intothe oil stream and precisely control the extremelylow additive injection rate. Twobasic fluid dynamic principals were usedto develop this system.For the power source, Bernoulli’sTheorem was utilized. Stagnation pressurecreated by oil flowing over an opentube creates pressure in the tube. This isthe same principal as seen in a pitot tube;however in a pitot tube the pressure isusually measured to calculate velocity, asapplied to measure speed in aircraft. Thispressure will now be used to producepower and create flow.Through the use of a simplified versionof Bernoulli’s equation, pressure inthe tube can be calculated knowing thevelocity and density of fluid flowingpast the tube:Where:SP = Stagnation Pressurer = density of fluidV = Velocity of FluidThe second fluid principal is utilizedto control the release rate of additive.The dimensions of a small meteringtube, used to provide the desired flowrate of additive, can be derived usingDarcy’s formula:Where:Q = rate of flow (additive releaserate desired)= Pressure differential across thetube (Stagnation Pressure)d = internal diameter of themetering tubeµ = absolute (dynamic) viscosityof the additiveL = Length of metering tubeFILTER DESIGNUtilizing these basic fluid flowprincipals, a design was created inwhich a basket containing the additivepackage was integrated into astandard lube filter. As shown in Figure1, the stagnation tube is • June 2013 • 27

Filter | AdditivesFigure 2 - Oxidation Measurements during Mack T11 test Figure 5Figure 3 - Lead wear levels during Mack T-11 testFigure 6Figure 4 - ASTM D4739 TBN and D664 TAN measurementsduring Mack T-12 testFigure 7on the side of the basket pointing upwardtoward the inlet of oil flow. Theclearance between the basket OD andfilter body wall is determined, and byknowing the flow rate of oil throughthe filter, the velocity of the oil overthe stagnation tube can be calculated.This can then be used to calculatethe pressure created in the basketusing Bernoulli’s equation.Shown in Figure 1 is a long narrowmetering tube with one endopen near the bottom of the basketand the other end protrudingthrough the basket wall and shieldedby a small molded cover. The pressurecreated in the basket by the stagnationtube pushes the additivethrough the metering tube and out ofthe basket, back into the oil flow atthe desired additive flow rate. Thelength and ID of the tube are derived28 • June 2013 • www.filtnews.comusing Darcy’s equation as discussedabove.The engine oil flow rate is controlledby the rpm of the engine andthus is not constant. Therefore, thestagnation pressure will likewisechange, affecting the additive flowrate. Depending on the duty cycle ofthe vehicle, this range of engine conditionscan be averaged to determinethe necessary release rate over time.

LAB TEST VALIDATIONTo prove the effectiveness of thecontrolled release of additives, bothlaboratory and field-testing wereconducted.The laboratory testing involvedstandard engine dynamometer tests,used to certify that oils meet enginemanufacturers and API requirements.The Mack T11 and T12 tests wereused, and measurements of oxidation,soot generation, TAN, TBN,bearing weight loss, and engine wearmetals were recorded. First, baselinetests using standard CJ-4 oil werecarried out. The same tests were thenrun utilizing the re-additization filterwith the identical CJ-4 oil. Figures 2– 4 show the comparison betweenbaseline and re-additization tests foroxidation, lead wear rates, andTBN/TAN levels. In all cases the readditizedfilter showed significantlevels of improvement.shifted from 22,000 miles to about34,000 miles. Additionally, the wearlevels of iron and lead were lower invehicles using the additized filter, ascompared to those with the standardfilter, throughout the mileage range.These filters are commerciallyavailable and sold under the FRAM®and Luberfiner® Heavy Duty TRTFilter brands. They are currentlybeing successfully used on a largecommercial fleet.REFERENCE SAE paper 2008-01-2644.Read International Filtration News onlineat www.filtnews.comFNFIELD TEST VALIDATIONTo validate the functionality of there-additization system during actualvehicle operating conditions, a commercialfleet of long haultractor/trailers using 2005 – 2006Volvo D-12 engines was used. Approximatelyhalf of the fleet usedstandard filters with either CI-4 orCJ-4 oil, while the other half of thefleet used additized filters. The vehicleswith standard filters ran to an oildrain interval of 40,000 miles, comparedto the vehicles with the additizedfilters, which were run to50,000 miles. Figure 5 shows the resultsof the TBN/TAN measurementsat various mileage intervals duringthe runs for the CJ-4 oil. Figure 6and Figure 7 display the iron andlead contents in the oil for CJ-4 oil.CONCLUSIONThe lab and field-testing demonstratedthat the oil drain intervals incertain duty cycle diesel enginescould be extended, with the use ofthis controlled release rate additivefilter design. In vehicles using the additizedoil filter the TBN/TABcrossover point (often used as referencepoint for end of oil useful life) • June 2013 • 29

Air | FiltrationThe Evolution of Air Filtration TestMethods Employed in QA/QC ProgramsBy Christina Clark, Jeff Smith, Terry Williamson and John McKenna, ETS, Inc.ETS team reviewing bag specifications and QA/QC Plan.The first time ETS was commissionedto conduct a comprehensive,in depth, QualityAssurance/Quality Control (QA/QC)program on air filtration media andbags was in the 1970s. A very largeelectric utility facility elected to employa reverse air baghouse using wovenfiberglass bags. The test program includedmeasuring permeability andstrength. Ironically, filtration performancewas not included. While there existedASTM International (formerlyknown as the American Society forTesting and Materials) test methods for30 • June 2013 • www.filtnews.compermeability and strength, no generallyaccepted method had been publishedfor filtration performance testing at thattime and it would be decades beforeone evolved. The utility baghouse wasthe largest baghouse system built up tothat time and therefore there was agreat deal at stake for both the utilityand the baghouse vendor. Given thelarge number of bags involved and theamount of fabric required, the fabricwas produced and coated in separatebatches. The QA/QC program identifieda bad coating batch in the middleof production. This batch was then rejectedand replaced. The cost of theQA/QC program was a only a few percentof the bag set cost, thus the baghousevendor and the utility found thisprogram well worth including.The tightening of the air emissioncodes and the focus on fine particleshave driven the need for inclusion offiltration performance testing as an essentialpart of any fabric filter QA/QCprogram. In the 1990s the USA EPA developeda filtration test method basedon a test method developed in Germany.1 Subsequently, ASTM and theInternational Organization for Stan-

dardization (ISO) also published similartest methods. The internationalexpansion of fabric and bag suppliershas highlighted the need for testmethods which can determine thechemical content and purity of importedand domestic fabrics.The value of a fabric and bag QA/QCprogram, bag installation oversight,and bag monitoring program increasesas the code requirements become morestringent. The intrinsic value of theQA/QC program is driven by the factthat the failure of even one bag cancause dust contamination of the cleanside of the baghouse. This in turn leadsto widespread premature bag failureand/or pressure drop increases. Recentnew fabric and bag QA/QC programshave detected membrane failures, outof spec strength and permeability, fabricshrinkage concerns, bag puncturesand significant dimensional and constructionissues.TEST METHODS AND THEIR EVOLUTIONThe following contains a brief descriptionof test methods currently employed.Air PermeabilityThe air permeability test is used todetermine the amount of air that canflow through a given cloth area. Permeabilityis defined in ASTM StandardD737 2 as the rate of air flow passingperpendicularly through a known areaof fabric which is adjusted to obtain aprescribed air pressure differential betweenthe two fabric surfaces.Mullen BurstThe Mullen burst strength test, describedin ASTM Standard D3786 3 , isdesigned to show the relative totalstrength of fabrics to withstand severepulsing or pressure. Fabric strength isdetermined by measuring the pressurerequired to rupture the specimen frominflation of an expandable diaphragm.Tensile StrengthThe tensile strength test providesdata on fabric strength and elongation.The ASTM Standard D5035 4 providesraveled strip (woven fabrics) and cutstrip test procedures (nonwoven andfelted fabrics) for determining thebreaking force and elongation of mosttextile fabrics.M.I.T. Flex Endurance TestThe M.I.T. flex endurance test primarilymeasures the relative value offabric to withstand self-abrasion fromflexing by measuring the number offlex cycles necessary to break a fabricsample. The test method is described inASTM Standard D2176 5 , which is thestandard method for testing the foldingendurance of paper. The fabric samplesare tested in both the warp and fill directions.The M.I.T. flex test has traditionallybeen used to help determine the rate ofdeterioration of woven fiberglass bags

Air | FiltrationETS engineer utilizing the filtration performance test apparatus.used in coal-fired utility boilers due tothe inherent abrasiveness of glassfibers. ETS has also found the M.I.T.flex test to be very useful in the evaluationof many felts and their ability towithstand flexing against a wire cageduring pulse cleaning cycles. For nearlyall filter bag fabric types, this test canbe a leading indicator that the fabric isnearing the end of its useful service life.Filtration PerformanceThe filtration efficiency media analyzer(FEMA) test apparatus at ETS, developedin Germany and currentlysupplied by Fil T Eq GmbH, measuresfilter media performance under definedconditions with regard to filtration velocity,particle size distribution andcleaning requirements, simulating actualbaghouse conditions.ASTM InternationalIn 2002, ASTM Internationaladopted the EPA’s Environmental TechnologyVerification (ETV) baghouse filtrationtesting protocol 6 as its standard(ASTM D6830-02 7 ), promoting standardizationand consistency in performanceevaluation of these technologies.ISOIn 2011, the ISO, a worldwide voluntarystandards organization, adoptedISO 11057:2011. 8 The main purpose ofthe ISO Method is to gain informationabout both the operational performanceand the particle emission of cleanablefilter media.Fourier Transform InfraredSpectroscopy (FTIR)FTIR is a technique that uses infraredlight to observe properties of asolid, liquid, or gas. In infrared spectroscopy,IR radiation is passed througha sample. Some of the infrared radiationis absorbed by the sample and some of32 • June 2013 • www.filtnews.comit is passed through (transmitted). Theresulting spectrum represents the molecularabsorption and transmission,creating a molecular fingerprint of thesample. FTIR analysis results are generallyutilized for identification of materialsof construction (e.g., fiber type,thread type) of filter bags and /or evaluationof contaminants.Comprehensive Monitoring ProgramsLong-term monitoring programscompliment QA/QC Programs. All ofthe strength and flow tests should bedone in conjunction with each otherperiodically in order to develop the lossof strength and flow trend lines overtime. The testing program can identifywhen the bags are approaching end oflife and higher risk of failure, but cannotpredict the exact timing of the endof life of the bag set. Permeability measurementsof used bags can, by varyingthe amount of vacuuming, help to de-

termine if the bags are gradually blinding(losing permeability). Used bagtest values are compared with originalclean fabric test values to show rate andlevel of deterioration.CONCLUSIONToday, the primary reasons for conductingfabric and bag QA/QC include:1. Minimize baghouse andproduction downtime by insuringthat the specification is met andrelated bag failure precluded.2. Protect the user in the event ofwarranty issues by providingbaseline data.3. Provide an unbiased third partyassessment of fabric and bags.Current results of QA/QC testinghave shown differences in the qualityof products from various fabric andbag suppliers. Issues have includedfiltration performance, permeabilityand strength. In some cases once ETShas worked with a given supplier,their product has achieved a consistenthigh quality with few failed results.Going forward, as the emissioncodes increase and become morestringent, the role of QA/QC testingwill continue to increase in value. Additionaltest methods addressingadded speciation and condensationproducts will evolve. New innovationsin multi-component felted media 9may require additional test methoddevelopment as well. The cost of suchprograms will be additive, thus makingthe trade-off between reducingcost by reducing the sampling frequencyvs. increasing the risk of missingfaulty product locations moredifficult. The challenge will be to keepthe cost of a QA/QC program under5% of the bag set costs.FNREFERENCES1. Trenholm, A.; Mycock, J.; McKenna, J.; Kosusko, M.The Evolution of Improved Baghouse Filter Media as Observedin the Environmental Technology Verification Program,Paper # 176. Proceedings of the 101st A&WMAAnnual Conference & Exhibition, Portland, OR, June 24-27, 2008.2. ASTM Method D737-04 (2012): Standard Test Methodfor Air Permeability of Textile Fabrics (originally approved in1943). Available online ASTM Method D3786/D3786M-13: Standard TestMethod for Bursting Strength of Textile Fabrics-DiaphragmBursting Strength Tester Method (originally approvedin 1979). Available online ASTM Method D5035-11: Standard Test Method forBreaking Force and Elongation of Textile Fabrics (StripMethod) (originally approved in 1990). Available online ASTM Method D2176-97a (2007): Standard TestMethod for Folding Endurance of Paper by the M.I.T.Tester (originally approved in 1963). Available online U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EnvironmentalTechnology Verification Program, ETV ASTM Method D6830-02 (2008): Standard TestMethod for Characterizing the Pressure Drop and FiltrationPerformance of Cleanable Filter Media (originally approvedin 2002). Available online ISO Method 11057:2011: Air quality –Test method forfiltration characterization of cleanable filter media. Availableonline Williams, D. (2013, April 04). GE introduces next generationclean coal technology. Power Engineering International.Retrieved from

Air | FiltrationSpecialized Filtration Requiredfor Preservation EnvironmentsBy Christopher O. Muller, Technical Director, Purafil, Inc.When one thinks of indoorair quality (IAQ), thehealth and well-being ofpeople most often comes to mind.However, IAQ is not only a peopleissue, it is also a materials issue. Just aspeople can suffer due to poor air qualityin a building, many different typesof materials can suffer as well.Many industrial environments containcorrosive gaseous contaminantsthat can destroy expensive computerizedprocess control equipment.These contaminants, if not properlycontrolled, can bring production to astandstill, resulting in downtime costingtens, if not hundreds of thousandsof dollars an hour. However, computerscan be replaced. This cannot besaid for the materials and objectsbeing housed in museums, librariesand archives.In museums and other “preservationenvironments” there are a numberof factors, which can cause the degradationof materials and artifacts.Among these are temperature, humidity,particulates, and gaseous contaminants.Of these, gaseous contaminantsare the most destructive.GASEOUS CONTAMINANTSWhile automotive and/or industrialemissions are considered as the largestcontributors of the three main contaminantgases found throughout theindustrialized world - sulfur dioxide(SO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ), and nitrogen dioxide(NO 2 ) - there are also many significantsources of internally generatedcontaminants. Materials and activitiesassociated with restoration and conservationlaboratories, many artifactsand archival materials, and employeesand patrons themselves can contributeto the overall contaminant load inpreservation environments.Although gaseous contaminantsare a major worldwide environmentalconcern, sources of gaseous contaminants,their introduction and migrationthrough museums, and theirinteractions with artifacts are the leaststudied and least understood area ofconcern within preservation environments.General reviews of contaminantsources and object vulnerabilitiesand information and guidelines forgaseous contaminants were scarceuntil the 1990s.CONTROL SPECIFICATIONSThe most commonly cited controllevels for gaseous contaminants areshown in Table 1. Background concentrationsand the peak urban levels forthese contaminants are also listed forcomparison. As can be seen, the recommendedlevels for several contami-34 • June 2013 •

nants are below the normal background levels and allare below contaminant levels one would expect to encounterin urban environments.The biggest problem today is not whether specifiedlevels of air quality can be reached, but whether they canbe accurately measured to assure compliance with anystandards or control criteria. The qualitative identificationand the quantitative determination of gaseous contaminantsand their concentrations often make stringent demandson monitoring instrumentation andmethodologies. Because of this, a number of institutionshave turned to environmental classification via reactivity,or corrosion, monitoring.ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORINGReactivity monitoring can characterize the destructivepotential of an environment. The growth of various corrosionfilms on specially prepared copper, silver, and/orgold (-plated) sensors (Figure 1) provides an indicationof the type(s) and level(s) of essentially all corrosivechemical species present in the local environment. Bothpassive and real-time reactivity monitors are currentlyavailable and each can be used to gather important informationon gaseous contaminants and their levels in theenvironment.Based on joint research performed by Purafil, Inc. 2,3,4the government of the Netherlands 5 , and the ComitatoTermotechnical Italiano (C.T.I.) 6 , reactivity monitoringFigure 1. Environmental reactivity coupons (ERC, left) and environmentalreactivity monitors (ERM, right). Photo courtesy ofPurafil, • June 2013 • 35

Air | Filtrationhas been accepted as the preferred airmonitoring method in preservationenvironments. It has become the standardfor air quality monitoring in governmentarchives in the Netherlands 7and is being proposed as a Europeanstandard. These control specificationsare shown in Table 2.Reactivity monitoring makes it possibleto easily identify and quantifythose contaminants most dangerous topreservation environments, however,there has been little research done todeter mine what levels actual ly causedeterioration of historical artifacts andarchival materials. In general, guidelinescall for interior concentrations ofgaseous contaminants to be maintainedas low as attainable bygas-phase air filtration. This can be accomplishedby the processes of physicaladsorption and/or chemisorption,through the use of various dry-scrubbingair filtration media. 8FILTRATION SYSTEMSThe research referenced above hasnot only looked at gaseous contaminantsand their effects and evaluatedenvironmental monitoring methods; ithas also looked at determining the bestcontaminant control strategies.In terms of gaseous contaminants, ithas been determined that (at least) twodifferent dry-scrubbing media will be required5 . One should be a sodium permanganate-impregnated alumina, suchas Purafil SP media for the removal of nitricoxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, hydrogensulfide and formaldehyde (amongothers). The other should be a causticimpregnatedactivated carbon/activatedalumina such as Puracarb media for theremoval of nitrogen dioxide, organicacids, and nitrogen and sulfur oxides(among others). Both types of mediashould be a requirement and anythingless should not be considered.It was mentioned above that particulatesare one of the main factors,which can cause the degradation ofarchival materials and historical artifacts.This is particularly true wheretemperature and humidity are notproperly controlled. Therefore, particulatefiltration must also be part of anycontaminant control system for preservationenvironments.The optimum filtration system formuseums will address as many of thepotentially offending materials as possible- gaseous and particulate. The recommendedsystem would consist of (1)a MERV 6-8 ASHRAE-rated prefilter(G4, F5); (2) a bed of Purafil SP media;(3) a bed of Puracarb media; and (4) aMERV 13-15 ASHRAE-rated final filter(F6-F8).STANDING THE TEST OF TIMEConservationists and preservationistsare expected to provide and maintainenvironments sufficiently wellcontrolled as to minimize the decay of36 • June 2013 • www.filtnews.comartifacts and materials. Thus the totalenvironment, external and inter nal,must be considered to accurately assessthe potential for damage from environmentalfactors and adequate controlmeasures must be employed for all.Anything less in a control strategycould result in the damage ordestructio n of materials that can neverbe replaced or restored.The specialized air quality needs ofmuseumsand other preservation environmentsare being acknowledged andacted upon at sites all around theworld. This includes both the air monitoringand contaminant mitigation aspects.Continuous monitoring of gaseouscontaminants has become a requirementin order to provide accurate environmentalassessments. 9 The installation of a filtrationsystem for the removal of bothgaseous and particulate contaminants isprobably even more important. Some successfulexamples of this are listed below.•The filtration system describedabove as well as reactivitymonitoring is required in allgovernment archive buildings in theNetherlands, including the GeneralGovernment Archives at The Hague.•The Italian government required theinstallation gas-phase air filtrationand reactivity monitors as part of therestoration and renovation of theLeonardo da Vinci’s Last Supper.

Reactivity monitors are also installedin the Sistine Chapel.•The use of specialized gas-phase airfiltration and reactivity monitoringare requirements for the Jewel Houseand Crown room in the Tower ofLondon.•The Shrine of the Book at the IsraelMuseum in Jerusalem is usingreactivity monitoring to help protectthe Dead Sea Scrolls.•National archive facilities inAustralia, New Zealand, andSingapore have all made gas-phaseair filtration and reactivitymonitoring part of theirenvironmental control strategies.•Gas-phase air filtration is currentlyin use in the U.S. National Archives,Archives II, and the state archives ofArizona, California, Georgia,Minnesota, Missouri, andWashington. The National Archives,Archives II, and the Georgia andMinnesota State Archives are usingreactivity monitoring as well.FNREFERENCES1.Muller, C.O. 1996. “Airborne Contaminant Guidelines forPreservation Environments,” Proceedings of the 24th AnnualMeeting, American Institute for Conservation of Historicand Artistic Works, Washington, D.C.2. Muller, C. 1997. “Reactivity Monitoring: A New Tool inPreservation Environments,” INvironment Professional.3. Muller, C. and Sacchi, E. 2005. “Air Quality Monitoringat Historic Sites,” ASHRAE Journal, 47(8): 40-46.4. Muller, C. 2011. “Air-Quality Standards for PreservationEnvironments: Considerations for Monitoring and Classificationof Gaseous Pollutants,” Papyrus, 11(3): 45-50.5. Vosteen, R. and Bakker, R.W. 1992. Delta Plan for CulturalPreservation - Air Purification Pilot Project: ResearchMethods for Air Purification in the General GovernmentArchives (ARA). Government Building Service, Planning &Techniques Board, Department of Climate Techniques,The Hague, the Netherlands.6. “Microclima, Qualità Dell=Aria E Impianti Negli AmbientiMuseali,” Giornata Seminariale, Associazione ItalianaCondizionamento dell=Aria Rescaldamento, Refrigerazione,Firenze, Italy, pp 39-66, February 1997.7. Vosteen, R. 1994. “Advisory Guide-Line Air QualityArchives,” Delta Plan for Culture Preservation, Ministry ofHousing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, GovernmentBuildings Agency, The Hague, The Netherlands.8. Muller, C.O. and England, W.G. 1995. “Achieving YourIndoor Air Quality Goals - Which Filtration System WorksBest?” ASHRAE Journal, 37:2, pp. 24-31.9. Colman, G., Fish, P., Muller, C., and Thickett, D. 2012.“Is it Time for a Reactivity Monitoring Standard for Museums?”Proceedings of IAQ 2012 – the 10th InternationalConference on Indoor Air Quality in Heritage and HistoricEnvironments, June 17-20, 2012, London, England.Visit us onlinewhere you can download a copy of the latest issues,read industry news, and find suppliers in our buyers’ • June 2013 • 37

Specialty Fibers | FiltrationConductive and Heat-ResistantR.STAT stainless steel fiber range38 • June 2013 •

Fibers for Performance MarketsBy Philippe Sannejan, R.STATR.STAT, a specialty high-temperatureresistant and conductivefibers manufacturingcompany, has its roots based on theoriginal developments by RhonePoulenc in the 1970s. For the last 40years Rhone Poulenc, located inFrance, and known as R.STAT since1997, is an independent company andindustry leader that has created andperfected two state-of-the-art conductivetextile grade fibers and yarnsfrom both stainless steel and silvercoated nylon.Both fiber types are widely used in ahost of specialty technical textile, apparel,home and office furnishing marketsplus a variety of specialty textileconstructions for industrial markets.Weavers, knitters, braiders, wetlaid andnonwoven fabric companies incorporatestainless steel and silver coatednylon fibers in numerous end markets,often unrecognized by the ultimate textileuser, yet critical to the end-use application.For example, the positiveeffect of these conductive fibers presencesilently guard office employees,guests of hotels, passengers on commercialaircraft, wood or paper pulp industryworkmen, firemen and soldiersagainst electrical and/or triboelectricgenerated spark and electrical shocksituations capable of causing a fire orexplosion resulting from electrical discharge.Other applications include agrowing dependence for protectionagainst electromagnetic sources to applicationsin a host of industrial applicationsinvolving heating elements andapplications where high-temperaturetolerance is required, such as in heatsinks, burners, sophisticated baghousefiltration and use in harsh and corrosionresistance • June 2013 • 39BROAD MARKET AND APPLICATION USESThe positive contribution of bothmetal and silver coated nylon fibersoffer broader opportunities that mostexperienced professionals, even in thebroad textile industry, do not readilyrecognize or have personal experiencein. Examples of applications includeuses where anti-static properties are important,such as in the contract fabricindustry, including upholstery textilesin offices, hotels, casinos, cruise shipsand hospitals, as well as broadloom carpetand carpet tile. In these applications,R.STAT/S (metal fibers) and SilverSTAT(silver coated nylon) antistaticproperties silently stand guard in eliminatingelectrostatic discharge (such asseizing a knob, moving with castorchair) to prevent disruption of computersor electronic devices.Clean room fabrics, protective appareland work-wear clothing, as wellas security shoes use conductive fibersto avoid the dangerous accumulation ofelectrical charges. In a microelectronicsclean room, even the smallest of dischargescan have a negative and even

Specialty Fibers | FiltrationChart of R.STAT’s applicationscatastrophic effect on wafer and chipyield as well as the reduction of potentialdanger of fire in a space containinghazardous processing chemicals. Electricallinemen, natural gas, petroleumand mine workers are other specificfields of use where the danger of explosionis always present. Acknowledgingsafety, insurance companies now offerlower rates to employers who provideengineered protective workmen clothingto employees.Filtration media containing a lowpercentageblend of metal or silvercoated nylon fiber in combinationwith synthetic fibers provide staticprotection in baghouse filters safeguardingagainst the risk of explosionwhere fine powders are present. Conductivefibers are also used as a woven40 • June 2013 • www.filtnews.comSilverstat continous filamentsconductive scrim within the structureof a needlefelt baghouse nonwovenfabric, providing greater fabric stabilityas well as mechanism to dischargestatic build-up. Examples of such usesinclude baghouses found in foundries,granaries, abrasive production factories,in addition to flour and sugar processingfacilities.

Silverstat 30 denier staple fiberSILVER COATED NYLON FIBER AND YARNR.STAT has designed performance solutions for manycommon and advanced applications for its SilverSTAT -pure silver coated polyamide fibers and filaments. Silvermetal is historically known for its numerous benefits;namely conductive (silver being the most conductive naturalelement on earth), as well as for its highly anti-bacterial,anti-fungi and anti-odor properties in addition to itsthermo-reflecting properties. Thermo reflecting propertieshelp reduce heat penetration from an outside source or aidin containing the loss of heat from an emitting source.The industrial manufacturing process of SilverSTATis a unique enabling technology allowing for a permanentbond of the company’s 99.9 % metallic thin silverlayer onto polyamide (nylon) fibers. SilverSTAT is availableas cut flexible staple fiber from 1.5 - 30 denier, consistingof flexible pure silver sheath and is oftenpre-blended with other fibers, such as polyester, nylonor aramid fibers. Continuous filaments range from 20 to220 denier in size with various dpf.shielding applications known as EMI shielding havingthe ability to provide Faraday cageSTAINLESS STEEL FIBER AND YARNOther end-uses and customers require thermo-resistantconductive fibers and R.STAT developed a range ofR.STAT/S consisting of fine diameter, highly flexiblestainless steel (alloy 316L), with other alloys availableupon request. Like the silver coated nylon describedabove, stainless steel fiber and filament are available asstaple fiber, filament yarn and tow.Stainless steel fibers are used in a wide range of applications,including:• High electrical conductivity in • June 2013 • 41

FiltrationMergers, Acquisitionsand DivesturesGL Capital, LLCSpecialty Fibers | FiltrationWe understand the nuances ofthe domestic and internationalfiltration industry and bringover 70 years of combinedbusiness, technical and financialexpertise. The current economicclimate is an ideal timefor sellers to locate buyersseeking to diversify and forbuyers to identify growth opportunitiesthrough acquisition.For a confidential conversation contact:Silverstat product rangeEdward C. Gregor704-442-1940ecg@egregor.comP. John Lovell719-375-1564glcapital@comcast.netinsulation common in mobiletelephones.• Thermo-resistant properties (600°C - 1100° F) inindustrial oven insulation and asheat sink blankets used inautomotive glass forming andspecialty glassware businesses.42 • June 2013 •• Dust and baghouses routinelyutilize the combination ofconductive and thermo resistantproperties of stainless steel fibers inhot gas/air filtration.• Composite applications make use offine metal fibers referred to as fibermetal felt, in combination with wire

cloth for use in polymer filtration inthe production of fine syntheticstaple and filament yarns as well asthe manufacture of thin plastic films.• Metals fibers and yarns are found inautomotive heated seating as well asflexible braided electrical cablewrap as electromagnetic EMIshielding in military andcommercial aircraft.• Metal, as well as silver coated nylonfibers and yarns, provide easilydetectable protection againstcounterfeiting when embedded inhigh-end consumer brandedmerchandise.To meet the requirements of specialtyperformance applications R.STAT is ableto provide its stainless steel fiber in a widerange of stretch-broken staple fibers (puresteel or blends with synthetic fibers),stretch-broken slivers (for spinning mills)and/or pure steel spun yarns. Fibers diametersrange from 6 to 22 microns (equivalent1.5 to 27 denier). Also, available, asa standard available item, are flexiblewires, similar to monofilament syntheticyarn, in diameters of 35 and 50 microns.R.STAT’s philosophy and historicalperspective is to work in close partnershipwith its customers to supporttheir designs and tailor-made solutions,enabling customers to differentiatetheir products from competition.R.STAT further seeks to offer solutionsand benefits beyond a standard fiber.The company is open to modifying itsexisting materials based on customerneeds, including joint developmentsfor advanced constructions availablenowhere else in the market. R.STAT ispragmatic and will not hesitate to provideadvice to use another technologyif there is a better solution for a specificapplication.Equipped with sophisticated R&Dand testing laboratories, R.STAT providesits worldwide customer base extensivesupport, including checking andverification of electrostatic or otherproperties of textiles designed withR.STAT fibers in its own laboratory inorder optimize products with customersbefore final certification by an independentlaboratory.Above all, lot-to-lot product repeatabilityand quality of R.STAT fibers leadthe parade and remains unmatched inthe industry. The company takes considerablepride in the reliability of its productsknowing the critical nature andresponsibility that its fibers play in engineeredapplications as well as customers’highest expectations of adependable world-class supplier.R.STAT will exhibit at Techtextil inFrankfurt am Main, Germany, June 11–FN13, 2013, Hall 4.1 Stand G 14.For more information contact:Pascal Peninon (France)Tel: +33 477 013 744Email: ppeninon@r-stat.comEd Gregor (North America)Tel: 1-704-442-1940Email: ecg@egregor.comWebsite: • June 2013 • 43

Solids | RecoveryTips on Recovering Solidsin Liquid FiltrationBy Peter R. Johnston, ConsultantWith slurry to be filteredcomes the followingquestions: What filtermedium might do the job to recover thesolids? Is the filter cake permeable, oris it a compact mass?Logical plots of batch-filtration resultsvs. time reveal the quality of thecollected solids. Following those guidesenables us to decide if slurry must bespecially treated before designing thecommercial-size filtration step, or a differentfilter medium must be employed.A. FLUID-FLOW RATEA general rule of thumb for fluid-approachvelocity is one gal/min/sq ft.The important measurement is residencetime. Filter media are not sieves.Small particles are captured by beingdrawn to the surfaces of the pores or bysimple random encounters with thesurfaces, to stick, sometimes only withthe glue of van der Waals forces.However, in the present case, particlesin the feed stream are the items tobe recovered, not the fluid.In these cases, slurry-approach velocitiesmay be higher, but stay in theviscous-flow range. That is, in a log/logplot of velocity (vertical scale) vs. fluiddriving pressure (horizontal scale), staywithin the range where the slope is 1.0.If the slope is lower (will not be lowerthan 0.5), inertia flow has diluted viscousflow and the fluid-driving costsare higher because of the greater drivingpressure to obtain higher flow rates.B. THE CHOICE OF A FILTER MEDIUMThis is usually a cloth, woven ornonwoven, composed of a certain material,or materials, with a specific, laminar-flow-averagedpore diameter.That diameter is measured fromthe permeability, B, m 2 , and the porosity,ratio of void volume to bulk volume.Deduce the laminar-flow-averagedpore diameter, d av , via, from permeabiliry,B, and, porosity, ε.Some sellers of filter media assignpore-size ratings on the basis of a “standard”filtration test. Ignore that rating andask for the results of Equations 1 and 2.C. LIFE/CAPACITY OF A FILTER MEDIUMThis measure is the time for themedium to loose permeability, havingcaptured particles from the feed stream.Obviously, that capacity is a functionof both the liquid and the particles in theliquid, as well as the nature of the filtermedium. Make these measurements viaFigure 1. Math-model plots of curves inconstant-flow filtration. P = fluid-driving-pressureunits, t = time units44 • June 2013 • www.filtnews.comone of three different kinds of operations.1. In constant-flow filtration, using apositive-dis-placement pump, make aplot, on log/log paper, of increasing drivingpressure vs. time. Such a plot describesa curve that can usually besuperimposed over one of the curves inFigure 1.Stop filtration when the drivingpressure reaches, say, ten times thestarting value. The ideal curve is, obviously,Curve A. The only decrease inpermeability owes to the increasingthickness of a porous bed of particles.In some type-A curves the filter cakeunder increasing pressure, will compressand Curve A will bend up, instead ofcontinuing as a straight line of slope 1.0.Sometimes a type-D curve can bemade like one of the others by using amedium with smaller pores.Perhaps a change in the pH mayFigure 2. Math-model plots in constantpressure filtration. V = volume filtered,t = time units

make the separation easier.Perhaps, the solids in the slurrymight be made less compactable bymodifying the process that producedthe solids.2. In constant-pressure filtration,employing a constant head of liquid,make a plot, on log/log paper, of cumulativevolume filtered vs. time and seethat the curve can be superimposedover one of the math curves of Figure 2.–tThe desired Cake filtration curve isalso seen as a straight line in alinear/linear plot of t/V vs. V.Figure 3. Curves seen when a centrifugalpump drives the feed stream. Combinationsof the curves of Figures 1 and 2.3. In employing a centrifugal pumpto do the job, make a plot, on log/logpaper, of the ratio: V/P, volume filtered/pumppressure vs. time as illustratedin Figure 3.D. BACKWASHING FILTER MEDIAAfter a medium loses permeability,such as the above curves B, C, and Dand the large particles are scraped off,many times a backwash restores mostof the original permeability. Sometimesthe backwash is a portion of the filtrate.Sometimes the backwash is not a portionof the filtrate, but is a cleaning solution,which then must be washed out.Performing one of the above batchoperations provides the information todesign a continuous operation, such asa moving-belt filter medium.FNFor more information contact:Peter R. Johnston, Consultant302 Morningside Dr.Carrboro, North Carolina 27510 USAEmail: ddandp3@aol.comREFERENCEJohnston, Peter R., 1998, Fundamentals ofFluid Filtration, a Technical Primer, 2d Edition,Tall Oaks • June 2013 • 45

Industry | EventsRecord Number of ExhibitorRegistrations for FILTECH 2013More than 300 companies from close to 30 nations willbe exhibting at FILTECH 2013With FILTECH 2013 taking place October 22-24this year in Germany, the city of Wiesbadenwill turn into the world’s top meeting-placefor all those involved with Filtration & Separation and adjacentsectors.Some 300 companies from 27 countries will presenttheir cutting-edge products and innovations to an internationalaudience of buyers, sellers, users, designers, R&D experts, andthe academic world. The coming FILTECH is also distinguishedby an increase in the number of exhibitors from outsideGermany, e.g. India, China and the USA. TheINTERNATIONAL CONGRESS is the globally acknowledgedplatform for the scientific exchange of the latest research resultsand the knowledge transfer between theory and practice, andwill feature 200 technical papers from 37 countries.All relevant subject areas and techniques for the separationof particles from liquids and gases are covered. An exciting programwith over 200 lectures from 37 countries gives a representativecross-section of the different procedures and appliancesof separation technology as well as across the industry aboutthe applications, from the preparation of mineral raw materials,the chemistry, environmental technology and water purificationdown to the pharmacy and biotechnology.The latest results from basic research, innovative equipmentbasedsolutions and procedures will also be presented. In additionto separation appliances and machines, this also includesfilter-testing equipment, measuring devices for particle, liquidand boundary surface properties and for porometry.FN46 • June 2013 • www.filtnews.comFor more information visit:

Industry | EventsAFS Returned to Minneapolis in 20132012 Award winners with AFS Officers, left to right: 2013 AFS Chairman Mathias Stolarski, DuPont; Ruijun Chen, Kaydon Filtration;Jackie Gallagher, Parker Hannifin Co.; David Raider, Clarcor, Inc.; Barry Verdegan, Cummins Filtration; Shagufta Patel,PECO Facet; Wilson Poon, W.L. Gore & Associates; and AFS Second Vice Chairman Chris Wallace, Filtration Technology Corp.The American Filtration & SeparationsSociety returned toMinneapolis after a four-yearabsence for its annual spring conferenceMay 6-9. The conference co-chairswere Saru Dewar of Cummins Filtrationand Martin J. Lehmann from Mann+ Hummel. The focus of the conferencewas on the topics of filtration and separationsin global markets, includingrecent technology advancements, withspecific emphasis on engine and waterfiltration.Held at the Minneapolis/St. PaulHilton Hotel, the conference beganMonday with both 4- and 8-hour shortcourses on the topics of Basics inSolid/Liquid and Basics in Solid/Air, FiltrationMedia Markets and Use, MicrofiltrationMembranes, Filter MediaDesign for Liquid Applications, ReverseOsmosis System Design and UltrafiltrationFiltration Membranes. The mainconference – Tuesday through Thursday– consisted of three concurrenttracks broadly covering the topics ofengine and water filtration with 20 sessions,80 presentations, 5 conferencesponsors and numerous exhibitors participating.The benefits for attendees atAFS conferences include the diversityof topics, in-depth short courses and48 • June 2013 • www.filtnews.cominsightful individual presentationsfrom the who’s who of the industry.Also, professional growth and networkingopportunities are always centercourt at AFS events for both newcomersand journeymen alike.Plenary speakers were: Tuesday – Dr.Behnam Pourdeyhimi from The NonwovensInstitute in Raleigh, N.C.;Wednesday – Ben Mullins from CurtinUniversity, Perth, Australia; Thursday –M. Matti Maricq from Ford MotorCompany, Dearborn, Mich.The corporate sponsors met as agroup prior to an AFS networking reception.The AFS corporate sponsorscommittee reviewed the many newbenefits for corporate sponsors includingnew Webinars and Market LandscapeReports available exclusively tocorporate sponsors under a pendingAFS UniversityTM banner and an On-Line Campus concept; a recently installedproprietary, sponsors only, AFSwebsite Buyer’s Guide, along with anew AFS Point of View initiative, allwith a focus to provide corporate sponsorvisibility and to drive buyers to AFScorporate sponsors.At the Tuesday Awards luncheon,AFS Product of the Year Awards for newproducts introduced in 2012 were presentedto Clarcor, Inc., for the company’sPoroplate® MaxPoreTM; as theleading Liquid Filter Element Award,Cummins Filtration won; in the FilterMedia category for its FleetguardNanoNet® media, Parker Hannifin Co.won; Hiross Zander Div. was the recipientin the Filter System Category withits Anteras Tandem Technology ATTproduct; and W.L. Gore & Associates,Inc. won for its Gore® V – Panel Filtersas the best Air Filter Element. Dr. BarryVerdegan was the recipient of the TillerAward. The Senior Scientist Award waspresented to Ruijun Chen; Dr. ShaguftaPatel received the Young ScientistAward. The Student Poster Awardswent to – First Place: AbdulwahabAljuhani, and Runner-up KitchaportNartetamrongsutt, both from the Universityof Akron, and Runner-up VincentKandagor from the University ofTennessee.The next AFS conference is October14-16, 2013, in Cincinnati on the topicof Innovations in Fiber Media.The AFS is the largest Filtration Societyin the world and the principal educatorof the industry. For additionalinformation, visit orcall Lyn Sholl, AFS Executive ManagerFNat 615- 250-7784.

Purolator Advanced FiltrationAwarded AFS New Product of the YearAt its annual spring conferencein Bloomington, MN, in May,the American Filtration andSeparation Society (AFS) awarded PurolatorAdvanced Filtration its New Productof the Year award for the Poroplate®MaxPore extended area filters.Poroplate MaxPore filter baskets areconstructed from stainless steel (or higheralloys) sintered wire cloth laminatedmedia (Figure 1). This media has a 40+year proven service record in a variety ofhigh temperature, high pressure, and corrosiveapplications, and is available in ratingsas low as 2µ nominal. The mediaconsists of multiple layers of woven wirecloth which are diffusion bonded (sintered)in a furnace to create a highly permeablefilter laminate with a permanentlyfixed pore size. The media can be configuredas a surface media, or as a progressivepore size media which yields up to 4xhigher dirt holding capacity. Both configurationscan be backwashed/back-pulsedto regenerate the media.Poroplate MaxPore baskets are constructedas a series of concentricallyoriented cylinders. Each of these cylindersconsists of an inner and outercylinder, open on one end and joinedtogether by a solid ring at the other. Aflow channel is created between theinner and outer walls of each cylinder,similar to the flow path of a wall flowfilter. This dual- sided arrangement furtherincreases filter surface area. In itsfinal form, the Poroplate MaxPore extendedarea basket has up to 23 ft. 2 offilter area and fits into a basket housingthat would normally hold a single filterFigure 1- Poroplate sintered wire clothmediabasket with only 4 ft. 2 . This advantagein effective filter area can be used inseveral ways to reduce the number offilter housings/valves/piping needed innew installations, to increase filter life,to reduce pressure drop, and to increaseFNthe flow rate through the filter.Need a Filter Supplier?...Locate Leading Component Parts, Filter, Coalescing & Equipment Suppliers • June 2013 • 49

Filter Vessel Rentals:1-24 Bag Filter Vessels • 6-85 Element Cartridge Filter VesselsAvailable in Carbon and Stainless SteelDuplex Units available • Huge Inventory!Wanted:We buy new and used filter vessels bag and cartridgetype for liquids. Stainless steel and carbon steel.Email: Byron@rbmosherco.comMini Mart AdsTo place a Mini Mart AdEmail: joan@filtnews.com50 • June 2013 •

Mergers & AcquisitionsGL Capital, LLCSpecialists in Mergers, Divestituresand Acquisitions of filtrationindustry companies with sales ofbetween $10 and $300 million.For a confidential discussion contact:Edward C. Gregor704-442-1940ecg@egregor.comMini Mart • June 2013 • 51

Advertiser IndexPage WebsiteA2Z Filtration Specialities 15 www.a2zfiltration.comAFS Buyers' Guide 49 Conference Inside Back Cover www.afssociety.orgAhlstrom Inside Front Cover www.ahlstrom.comAir Filter, Inc. 3 www.airfilterusa.comAnbao Qinhuangdao Wire & Mesh Co. 43 www.anbao.comAshby Cross Co. 39 www.ashbycross.comBlucher GmbH 31 www.bluecher.comClack Corporation 37 www.clackcorp.comContract Pleating Services 22 www.solentech.comDexmet Corporation 25 www.dexmetfilter.comDurr Ecoclean, Inc. 19 www.durr-ecoclean.comEastman Chemical Company 8 www.eastmancyphrex.comFerguson Perforating 25 www.fn.perfnow.comFILTECH 23 www.filtech.deGusmer Enterprises 33 www.gusmerenterprises.comIndustrial Netting 46 www.industrialnetting.comJCEM-USA 5 www.jcem.chMagnetool Inc. 45 www.magnetoolinc.comMetalex 45 www.metlx.comMetcom Inc. 43 www.metcomusa.comOrival Inc. 17 www.orival.comPerCor Mfg. 17 www.percormfg.comPerforated Tubes 21 www.perftubes.comR.STAT 41 www.r-stat.frRosedale Products, Inc. Back Cover www.rosedaleproducts.comSealant Equipment 27 www.sealantequipment.comSINCE 13 47 www.since13.comSolent Technology Inc. 35 www.solentech.comSonobond Utrasonics 29 www.sonobondultrasonics.comSpinTek Filtration 1 www.spintek.comXinxiang Tiancheng Aviation 11 www.tchkjh.comAUSTRIA, GERMANY,SWITZERLANDMartina KohlerFrank StollIFF Media AGEmmersbergstrasse 1CH-8200 Schaffhausen,SwitzerlandTel: 41 52 633 08 88Fax: 41 52 633 08 99Email: m.kohler@iff-media.chEmail: f.stoll@iff-media.chBENELUX, FRANCESabine DusseyINTERNATIONAL JOURNALSDuppelstr. 7D-42781 Haan, GermanyTel: 49 2129 348390Fax: 49 2129 3483910Email: Sabine.Dussey@dussey.deCHINAMr. Zhang XiaohuaBeijing, ChinaMobile: 0086 13522898423Mr. Han JiweiMobil: 0086 13810778772Email: JogBRIDGE MEDIAD-302, Shiromani ComplexNr Nehrunagar – Satellite RoadOpp Ocean Park, Satellite,Ahmedabad – 380015.Tel: 91 79 26752628Telefax: 91 79 26762628Mobile: 98242 31895Email: media.bridge@gmail.comITALYFerruccio SilveraSilvera PubblicitáViale Monza 24, I-20127 Milano, ItalyTel: 39 02 284 6716Fax: 39 02 289 3849Email: ferruccio@silvera.itJAPANKenji Kanai3-9-25, Wakamatsudai, SakaiOsaka 590-0116, JapanTel: 81 6 6343 4513Fax: 81 722 93 5361Email: ChinnJES MEDIA Inc.2nd Fl.,ANA Building257-1, Myungil-DongKangdong-Gu,Seoul 134-070, KoreaTel: 82 2 481 3411/3Fax: 82 2 481 3414Email: • June 2013 • www.filtnews.comTAIWANBuildwell Intl. Enterprise Co. Ltd.No. 120, Huludun 2nd St., Fongyuan CityTaichung County 42086, TaiwanTel: 886 4 2512 3015Fax: 886 4 2512 2372Email: buildwel@ms23.hinet.netUNITED KINGDOMJudy HollandTextile Media Services Ltd.Homerton House, 74 Cawston RoadReepham, Norfolk NR10 4LT, UKTel: +44 1603 308158Fax: +44 8700 940868Email: jholland@textilemedia.comUSA, CANADABob MooreRAMCOP.O. Box 4032Cave Creek, AZ 85327Tel: 1 480 595 0349Fax: 1 480 595 1749Email: ramco4032@gmail.comALL OTHER COUNTRIESKen NorbergEditor, International Filtration NewsPO Box 265Winchester, TN 37398 USATel: 1 202 681 2022Email:

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