Strengtheningfood insecurity andmalnutrition inthe Sahel ... - CILSS

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Strengtheningfood insecurity andmalnutrition inthe Sahel ... - CILSS

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Strengtheningfood insecurity andmalnutritioninthe Sahel and West AfricaOuagadougou, Burkina Faso, 5-7th November2013ORIENTATION NOTE ON BREEDING FOCUSED ON PASTORALISMPastoral breeding plays a key role in West African countries economies in general and intothe Sahel countries in particular where it highly participates to food security as well as thefight against poverty. This sector has a 25 per cent contribution to the Gross DomesticProduct (GDP) in countries such as Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Chad.Breeding represent a source of employment for the largest part of the population despiterepetitive droughts.In the Sahel, the main threat on environment is desertification which determinants aremultiple. Some are natural such as drought, but others are linked to anthropic activities(human pressure and overuse of lands). The growing up of climatic variability whichappeared in the 1970’s and the decrease of normal rainfalls (1971-2000 compared to 1950-1980) brought some upheavals of the vegetal cover and hydric and eolian erosion. We alsoobserve that the restless growth of pastoral activities, agricultural and forestal ones (woodexploitation) has become a determinant cause for that desertification.Following up the herb vegetation or timber one shows out that one, despite its varieties fromone year to another in its quantitative characteristics (coverage, mass, density) and qualitative(floristic composition, lodder value) is likely to be very resilient. Pressure on grasslands isrecognized as a possible cause of the unbalanced dynamics because animal charges are not inadequation with the lodder available resources. The large temporal lack of lodder availabilityin quantity and quality require an information system and hasty alert and efficient one.The availability of such an information and hasty alert will allow to follow the fluctuations ofpastoral potentialities (lodder and hydric ones), transhumance movements , the evolution ofanimals’ prices, animal products, the terms of exchange on the major cattle markets in orderto plan conservatory measures’ (anticipation, follow-up and softening operations) reallysuitable for the cattle, grass places and pastoral population in year of deficit. The fiability ofinformation badly collected, regarding to the pastoral potentialities and the shareholdersimplication/participation in the decision-making are pre-required conditions and necessaryones to the well going of follow-up system and pastoral resources management.Along the last 30 years, in addition to climatic conditions, pastoral breeding has beenconsiderably affected by the serie of socio-economic conditions. Pastoral breeding was highly1


affected by some socio-economical, legislative and institutional factors leading to review therules governing the access rules to water and grasslands for building up a collectivemanagement of pastoral resources, based on a negotiation between users, the access rights’reciprocity, proceedings for conflicts management between same resources users,agriculture/breeding integration.The declaration of the Regional Conference highlighted through the following declaration« land issues management and decentralization in the Sahel » held in Praia Cape-Verde in1994 asserted that, «pastoral production systems have no legitimacy through the prevailinglegislations ; under the demographic presssion the spaces dedicated to agricultural andpastoral activities ; the juridical and institutional gap increases breeders exclusion andconflicts multiplication between breeders and agricultors».This declaration relies on the results of numerous researches and studies on breeding andpastoralism in the Sahel concluding to : (i) the existence of numerous prejudices onpastoralism and the challenges to which pastoral societies are confronted ; (ii) the difficultiesrelated to the application of legislative texts ruling transhumance ; (iii) lack of information onpastoralism in milieux valorization, economic production and social and cultural production ;(iv) the pastoralism related to pastoralism practices in space, transit difficulties at borders,political instability in states and insecurity ; (v) the weak visibility of pastoralism in nationaland regional programs.Different propositions can be organized around the following topics and issues : (i) buildingup an information system on pastoralism(s) ; (ii) some experiences on the settlement ofendogenous information and management tools for integrating agriculture to breeding ; (iii)co-management experiences of transborder transhumance areas and a coherent application oflegislative texts on water, grasslands, mobility, local conventions, etc.; (v) animals ‘foodsupply system management, breeders ‘organization and animal value chains structuration, (vi)grassland rehabilitation, and grasslands related to export roads rehabilitation(vii) foodinsecurity in pastoral and agricultural milieu and resilience in pastoral and agro-pastoralmilieu, and (viii) the place of pastoralism in breeding policies in the Sahel and West Africa,(ix) pastoralism and animals’ trade.2

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