Greeks in America -

Greeks in America -




:INTRODUCTIONThe New American Series consists of studies ofthe following racial groups, together with a studyof the Eastern Orthodox ChurchesAlbanian and Bulgarian, Armenian and Assyrian-Chaldean, Czecho-Slovak, Greek, Italian, Jewish,Jugo-Slav (Croatian, Servian, Slovenian), Magyar,Polish, Kussian and Euthenian, or Ukrainian, Spanish(Spaniards) and Portuguese, Syrian.Those studies, made under the auspices of theInterchurch World Movement, were undertaken toshow, in brief outline, the social, economic and religiousbackground, European or Asiatic, of eachgroup and to present the experience—social, economicand religious—of the particular group inAmerica, with special reference to the contact ofthe given people with religious institutions inAmerica.It was designed that the studies should be sympatheticbut critical.It is confidently believed that this series will helpAmerica to appreciate and appropriate the spiritualwealth represented by the vast body of New Americans,each group having its own peculiar heritageand potentialities ; and will lead Christian America,so far as she will read them, to become a better loverof mankind.The writer, in each case, is a kinsman or has haddirect and intimate relationship with the people, orgroup of peoples, presented. First hand knowledgeand the ability to study and write from a deeply

TiINTRODUCTIONsympathetic and broadly Christian viewpoint wereprimary conditions in the selection of the authors.The author of this volume, Eev. J. P. Xenides, wasborn of Greek parents in CsBsarea, Asia Minor. Hispreparatory education was obtained in Asia Minorand Greece, his college course in Marsovan and histheological training at New College, Edinburgh. Hetaught for 20 years in Anatolia College and MarsovanTheological Seminary. He has traveled extensivelyin Greece and Asia Minor. He is secretaryof the Greek Eelief Committee in New York.Hisnationality, education and work peculiarly fit himto write this book.These manuscripts were published through thecourtesy of the Interchurch World Movement withthe cooperative aid of various denominationalboards, through the Home Missions Council of America,and the Council of Women for Home Missions.At this writing arrangements have been made forthe publication of only six of the Series, namely:Czecho-Slovak, Greek, Italian, Magyar, Polish andKussian, but other manuscripts will be published assoon as funds or advance orders are secured.A patient review of all manuscripts, together witha checking up of facts and figures, has been madeby the Associate Editor, Dr. Frederic A. Gould, towhom we are largely indebted for statistical andverbal accuracy. The editor is responsible for thegeneral plan and scope of the studies and for questionsof policy in the execution of this work.Charles Hatch Seaes.

PREFACEThe subject of the present study isone dear tothe writer's heart, and on which he has been broodingfor years. Many statements express the outcomeof his long experience as an educator andworker in the Greek Field in Asia Minor, Greece andthe United States.Valuable information was obtained from personalinterviews and discussion of the topics treated herewith prominent clergymen and laymen in the Greekcommunities in the United States. Among them,he would mention Archbishop Meletis of Athens;Bishop Alexander Kodostolou of New York ; Rev. J.Alexopoulos of Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Prof. Carrol Brownof the College of the City of New York; Prof.Theodore Ion, attorney and member of the HellenicAmerican Society, New York City; Mr. Frank W.Jackson, attorney and chairman of the Relief Committeefor Greeks of Asia Minor ; Rev. Thos. Laceyof Brooklyn, N. Y.; Prof. A. E. Phoutrides of HarvardUniversity; Rev. D. Callimahos of Brooklyn,N. Y.; M. Geo. Caranicholas, New York City; Dr.R. Demos of Harvard; Dr. S. I. Paul, Springfield,Mass.; representatives of the prominent Greekpapers, especially Atlantis and National Herald, andmany other friends and acquaintances.As a speaker of the Near East Relief, the writervisited several of the outstanding Greek communitiesof the country, such as Boston, Lowell, Haverhill,Springfield, Holyoke, and Pittsfield, Mass.;Newark, Trenton, and Orange, N. J.; Albany, Troy,vii

viuPREFACESchenectady, Utica, Syracuse, Rochester, and Buffalo,K Y.; Erie, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, and S.Bethlehem, Pa. ; Washington, D. 0. ; Canton, Cleveland,Toledo, and Youngstown, Ohio; Detroit andAnn Arbor, Mich. ; and Chicago, HI. Local matterswere observed and leaders interviewed at each place.Questionnaires were sent out in the spring of 1920to all the Priests, Greek Protestant pastors andother prominent orthodox leaders in different partsof America. Those who responded to the requestsupplied valuable, suggestive and informing material.Among the various books and articles consulted,the following should be mentioned with grateful acknowledgment: Hellenism, or Greeks m America, byS. G. Canoutas, New York; Greek Immigration, byProf. H. P. Fairchild, of N. Y. University; Greeks inAmerica, by Rev. Thomas Burgess. Much valuableinformation was derived from the Atlantis andNational Herald, as both give daily important andinteresting news about the Greeks in America.The writer would take this opportunity to thankwarmly all the friends who gave time and attentionto answering his questions and giving valuable help.He begs specially to thank Rev. Thos. Burgess ofNew York, who kindly read the manuscript andmade many helpful and valuable suggestions. Thepresent work was prepared in the spring of 1920for the Literchurch World Movement. Owing to thediscontinuance of that organization, its printing wasdelayed. Meanwhile—between the summer of 1920and the end of 1921—such significant events tookplace in Greece and the JSTear East as to affectgreatly conditions in the Greek conmiunities inAmerica. Under the pressure of other duties thewriter revised a number of paragraphs and addedsome new material to meet and explain the new conditionsand changes.

PREFACEThe work is incomplete and sketchy, as there wasno time to make a complete survey of the entire fieldand all did not answer the questionnaire. Still theground covered is representative of the whole fieldand throws light on the entire subject under discussion.J. P. X.ix

CHAPTERCONTENTSI EUROPEAN BACKGROUND: .PAGE. ,, . 15History and Racial Relationship ... 15Present Political Situation .... 23Political Conditions in the Near East asAffecting Emigration from America . 30Political Conditions as Inviting Unrest inAmerica 30Economic Conditions 31Social Conditions 41Recreation 46Moral Standards 47Leadership 53Religious Conditions 54... 7311 THE GREEKS IN AMERICA: .Immigration 73Return Movement to Greece .... 77Economic Conditions 80Standard of Living and Wages ... 84Unrest 8788Social Conditions 88Recreation 88Family Life 91Relation to Other Racial Groups ... 94Relation to American People, Ideals, Institutions,etc. 96Social Organizations and Forces . . .102Educational Forces 107Forces of Assimilation 112Results as Reflected in War Service . .115III THE GREEKS IN AMERICA: . ...xi

xiiCHAPTERCONTENTSIV THE GREEKS IN AMERICA: . ...PAQB118Greek Churches 118Forms of Religious Approach . . . 132Evangelical "Work Among the Greeks byProtestant Churches 133Literature 136V GREEKS IN AMERICA: 139Special Problems 139Recommendations 145APPENDICES-— I Greek Newspapers in the United States 153II Bibliography 154INDEX 159II


THE GREEKS IN AMERICACliapter IEUROPEAN BACKGEOUNDHISTORY AND RACIAL RELATIONSHIPGreeks and greater Greece.—The Greeks callthemselves Hellenes and their country Hellas. Theybelong to the Aryan or Indo-European group ofnations and have inhabited more than 3000 years theGrecian Peninsula and the islands surrounding it.Hellas was wherever Greeks lived. So there wasand is to-day a greater Greece extending to Macedonia,Thrace and Western Asia Minor, characteristicallyGreek, from time immemorial, in language,customs, manners, religion and folklore.Greek colonies.—The Greeks, like the Phoeniciansof old, and the British in modern times, were a seafaring,trading and colonizing people. Since thesixth century B. C, there have been Greek coloniesall along the coasts of the Bosphorus and the ^gean,Marmora and Black Seas, which regions continueto be Greek in character, speech and influence.Spread of Greek Influence.—Greek influence andcolonization were further spread through the ex^pedition of Alexander the Great (334-323 B. C.) intoAsia Minor and the further East, comprising thewhole Persian Empire. Alexander's policy to bringthe East into relationship with the West was effectivelycontinued by his successors, especially the15

16 THE GREEKS IN AMERICASeleucidse in Syria and the Ptolemies in Egypt.Thus wider areas came under the spell of Hellenismin Asia and many different races and people wereHellenized.Connections between the ancient and modernGreece.—There has been much valuable time andspace wasted with discussions as to the physicaldescent of the modem, from the ancient Greeks, orthe connection between them. The Greek racehas never ceased to exist in history, so thatthere must at least be some descendants ofthe ancient, among the modern Greeks. And itis equally true that many races and people inAsia Minor and elsewhere have been thoroughlyassimilated and Hellenized. All the people bearingthe name of Greek at present are imbued with thesame national consciousness, and cherish the samenational ideals. They are Hellenic in speech, manners,customs, religion, folklore, and temperament.The modern Greeks present the same traits andcharacters, intellectual and moral, as characterizedthe ancient.^' There can be no doubt that spirituallythe modern Greeks are the direct inheritors of theancients. A familiarity with the modern peoplebrings countless illustrations of the similarity ofthought and character between the old and the new'*(Professor H. P. Fairchild).^^In the Greeks whoseek our shores and those of whom Homer sangor whom Aristophanes caricatured, there is the samealertness of mind, inventiveness and plausibility, thesame liveliness of disposition, the same courtesy andhospitality to strangers, the same capacity for selfsacrifice,the same love of adventure and readinessto take a chance, the same delight in haggling overa bargain, and the same proneness to disputationoften running into dissension'' (Professor WilliamCole, Immigrant Races in Massachusetts: TheGreeks),

EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 17Romans spread Hellenism.—As students of historyknow, though Eome conquered Greece physically,she was conquered by her captive intellectually—'^the captured took captives of their captors."The Eomans spread Greek ideas, language and civilizationfar and wide as missionaries of Greek cul-It is indeed remarkable how the Eastern, or Byzantine, Empire was thoroughly Hellenized,became Greek in reality, though continuingEoman in name. Its long rule of 1,000 years constitutesone of the most significant periods of Grecianhistory. In order to understand the modernGreek in his church and theology, customs and superstition,we must study the Byzantine history.The modem Greek church is a fine picture of Byzantinetimes—especially in architecture, painting, ritualand religious ideas and usages.Fall of Constantinople.—During the Dark AgesConstantinople was the main center of learning, education,and Hellenic civilization. It is needless toremind the reader of the connection between theFall of Constantinople (1453 A. D.) and the Eenaissanceor the revival of learning in Europe.Turkish conquest and oppression.—Through theTurkish invasion into Greek Territories, especiallythe conquest of Constantinople (1453 A.D.) therebegins the real Dark Ages of Hellenism. For fourcenturies, or more, the Greeks were subjected tountold oppression and persecution. The Turkishrule in Greek territories—in fact, wherever theTurk set his foot—^meant age-long slavery, tortureand martyrdom. Still in the midst of all the oppressionand tyranny the Greeks kept the torchof Hellenic culture and Christian civilization burning,even though dimly, thus keeping alive the mtnessfor truth. It is indeed a matter of real wonderthat Hellenism and Christianity were not wiped outentirely under Moslem tyranny. Though weakened,

18 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAcrippled, and even amputated in many parts, thechurch continued in life steadfastly and perseveringly,and through the church there survived the Hellenicpeople and ideas also.War of Greek Independence.—As it was in theark of the church that the Greek nation was preservedand kept alive, so it was through the representativesof the church that the banner of freedomwas unfurled and the War of Greek Independencestarted, March 25 (O. S.), 1821 A.D.* For sevenyears (1821-27) the Greek people were engaged inan unequal struggle against the unscrupulous hordesof Turks (in Turkey) who were still quite able toinflict vengeance and death on the adventurousGreeks who dared to rise against the Sultan. TheGreek Patriarch, as the head of the Greek people,was hanged at one of the gates of the Patriarchateat Phanar, Constantinople, which gate continuesclosed to the present day, and will be opened onlywhen the Greek race is emancipated from the foreignyoke. Many bishops and other clergymen wereexecuted also.A fit parallel to the modern Armenian massacres,—Greeks were massacred in many places, includingwomen and children. The massacres on the islandof Chios (1822) were among the darkest of suchoutrages. Almost all the Greeks on the island wereeither killed or sold into slavery. Comparativelyfew escaped. The Greeks fought valiantly throughoutthe revolutionary period of seven years. In thefirst three years it seemed as if Greece had won. Inthree months the Turk was driven out of Peloponnesusand a provisional government established.The great fleet swept clean the seas, and everywherebrilliant deeds of Greek valor were recorded. Butthe weakened Sultan called in the aid of his vassal,* On the Day of Annunciation. This day continued to be theGreek Independence Day.

EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 19IbraMin Pasha of Egypt, who boasted he would reducethe whole of Peloponnesus into an Arabian desert,which he almost succeeded in doing. But Greecewas destined to live. Her day of deliverance cameat last. The admirals of Britain, France, and Eussiaburned the Turkish fleet at Navarino, 1827 A.D.,and proclaimed Greece free and independent. Thiswas formally confirmed by the Treaty of Adrianoplein 1828, after Turkish defeat by Eussia.Small size of Greece handicapped progress.—Unfortunatelyonly a small portion of Greek Territorywas set free, consisting of Peloponnesus and themainland of Greece to the south of Thessaly. Althoughthe Greeks kept under the Turkish yoke, tooka prominent part in the revolution, they were excludedfrom joining the new State owing to the selfishintrigues of certain European Powers, especiallybecause of the opposition of Austria and the HolyAlliance, Greece was kept within impossibly narrowboundaries, thus being condemned from the verystart to economic struggles and hardships, even forebodingfailure. After the assassination of Capod'Istrias, the first President of Greece, PrinceOtho, the son of the King of Bavaria, was put atthe head of the kingdom. It had a population ofbut 650,000. A monarchy was established with allthe consequent expenses of a royal court, a host ofofficials at home, and ambassadors and ministersabroad. The resources of the country were limited.The portions constituting the new state, especiallyPeloponnesus, consists of isolated mountains whichdivide the country as it was in its ancient history,into small separate city states. To add furtherhandicaps there were no means of communicationand transportation in the country.National aspiration continued.—Such difficulties,however, did not discourage the Greek people. Thenational aspiration for the ultimate emancipation

20 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAof the Greek race continued to inspire the Greekseverywhere. Thus we have a chronic state of restlessnessand a series of uprisings among the Greeks,kept under Turkish rule—especially in Crete andMacedonia. Every such movement drove hosts ofrefugees into Greece. The care and sheltering ofthese refugees added greatly to the burdens and expensesof the treasury, creating at the same timefeelings of indignation and protest among the people,thus threatening all the time the outbreak ofwar.Change of dynasty.—The autocratic rule of Othocaused another Revolution in 1862 and he was forcedto abdicate. He was replaced by the second son ofthe King of Denmark, who became George I. England,which since 1815, had kept possession of theIonian Islands (Corfu, Leukas, Cephalonia, Ithaca,and Zante), returned them to Greece in 1863. Thenew constitution of 1864 had established a parliamentaryregime with a single assembly elected byuniversal suffrage.Union of Thessaly.—Thessaly was united withGreece in 1882, although promised along with Epirusat the Berlin Conference, in 1878, at the end of theRusso-Turkish War. Epirus, however, was keptunder the Turkish yoke and was delivered at last inpart at the Balkan War, in 1913, the fate of NorthernEpirus still remaining unsettled even after theGreat War.Greco-Turkish war.—As a result of an uprisingin Crete there took place the War of 1897 betweenGreece and Turkey in which the former was defeated,and compelled to pay a war indemnity. Stillit ultimately led to the gradual deliverance of Cretefrom Turkish tyranny and its union with Greece.The Great Powers compelled Turkey to withdrawits troops from Crete which was made autonomous,with Prince George of Greece as high commissioner.

EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 21Balkan wars.—The emancipation of wider areasfrom Turkish oppression was achieved as a result ofthe Balkan War (1912-13). Thus Epirus with Yanina,southern and a part of eastern Macedonia,including" Salonica, with the Islands of Mytilene,Chios, Samos, Lemnos, Imbros, and Crete were allunited with the Kingdom of Greece. Thus Greecewas doubled in population.Great idea.— Still the *^ Great idea/' (Megaliidea), cherished by all the Greeks—the emancipationof all Greeks from the Turkish yoke, and theUnion of the Grecian territories with the mothercountry—^was far from realization.The World War.—The Great War broke thechains of many races, and people enslaved for centuriesto autocratic rule. This it seems will effectthe deliverance of further numbers of Greeks fromTurkish oppression and their union with their belovedHellas.Treaty of Sevres.—^According to the terms of thetreaty of Sevres, that ended the war between Greeceand Turkey, the greater part of the Greeks subjectto Turkey were to be freed and join with Greece.Such important centers of Greek life and influenceas western and eatern Thrace, thus became parts ofGreece at once, and the Smyrna region will ultimatelydo the same. According to special arrangementsVenizelos concluded with Italy, NorthernEpirus and the Dodecanese would in due time jointhe mother country.* But the unfortunate NearEast was not to enjoy peace and settled conditionsin this way. While the Sultan's government in Constantinoplesanctioned the treaty of Sevres (Aug.9, 1920) the nationalist Turks under MustaphaKemal Pasha started a rebellion in the interior of* See speech of Venizelos at the Greek Parliament, New YorJfiTimes, June 13, 1920.

22 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAAsia Minor with Angora as their capital, organizeda so-called National Assembly claiming to representthe Turkish Empire, repudiated the Treaty ofSevres, and declared they would fight to a finish forthe integrity of Turkey, asserting that Thrace andSmyrna were integral parts of the Empire. Greecehad to fight to defend her cause, which is not imperialisticas some mistakenly assert, but a war ofemancipation. Both sides are determined to fightto the end. The outcome is problematical. Thewar against Kemal was started by Venizelos withthe approval of the Entente Powers, but since thereturn of King Constantine, the Entente declaredneutrality and Greece fought single-handed during1921.The Nationalist program of extermination.—TheNationalists, taking advantage of the war withGreece, have been carrying out their program of exterminationof the non-Turkish elements in AsiaMinor. They have deported almost all the maleGreeks and Armenians from Pontus (modern Trebizond),the towns and villages along the southernshore of the Black Sea and plundered their possessions.Many regions in the interior of Asia Minorhave been scenes of deportation, massacre, imprisonmentand execution of innocent people after mocktrial. The deportees wander in inhospitable Turkishand Kurdish regions in the interior. The Armeniandeportations of 1915-1919 had already demonstratedwhat an effective means of exterminationdeportation is in the hands of the Turk. If Greeceachieves the union of the greater part of her childrenunder her rule, 75 to 80 percent of the ten millionGreeks in the world will be united. The restare scattered mostly in what remains as Turkey,Caucasus, Egypt, U. S. A., England, France, etc.The rights and security of those remaining in Turkeyare guaranteed by treaty amendments.

EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 23PEESENT POLITICAL. SITUATIONMilitary revolution.—To understand the presentpolitical situation in Greece we must review themain events leading to, and following the militaryrevolution or uprising there in 1909, and the appearancein affairs of Eleutherios Venizelos of Crete.The defeat in the Turkish War of 1897 aroused theindignation of the leaders in the army and createdwide discontent against the royal family, particularlyagainst the Crown Prince, later, King Constantine,who was field marshal. The prevalence offavoritism and the want of proper discipline in thearmy and in fact in all the other departments of thelittle state, the political corruption and rank partizanshipthroughout the country gave ground tomuch complaint and stirred up the indignation ofpatriotic and ardent army men, which at last burstinto the rebellion of Ghoudi in 1909, a military uprisingthat aimed at clearing the army of corruption,restoring order and discipline, and thus givingthe country a military force worthy of its nationalaims and aspirations. Constantine had to leave thecountry, and the patriotic officers took charge of thesituation.Greece had long been suffering through lack ofgood leadership. There were too many leaders andpetty politicians hunting offices. Greece needed aman, a leader, and he was found in the person ofEleutherios Venizelos of Crete. He was called fromCrete to come over and help the country in her workof regeneration, and preparation for the fulfillmentof her national program.Eleutherios Venizelos.— ** Venizelos, a chivalrouscharacter and a true patriot, had taken a leadingpart in the affairs of Crete in her uprising as well asin time of peace. His father was one of the heroes

24 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAof the Greek War of Independence (1821-27) andhad left him as his only legacy, an ardent patriotism.He was for order and discipline in the army, andthroughout the state. He believed in the rule ofprinciple, rather than the personal whims of theformer political leaders.'' He recalled the crownprince from exile and Constantine was reinstated inthe army. Thus the two principal factors in therecent events and the present political situation inGreece appear on the stage, and Venizelos beganwith Constantine to cooperate first, unanimously forthe good of Greece.''The arrival on the scene of a single man, of anupright, unselfish and decided character, was enoughto coordinate all the active and capable men of thecountry, and to give Greece an exceptional forwardmovement. By appealing to France for a militarymission in order to reorganize the army, and toEngland for a naval mission to do the same for thenavy he put his country in shape^ to participategloriously in the Balkan War against Turkey in1912-13, and victoriously to counter the treachery ofBulgaria in June, 1913.''Balkan league.—Mr. Venizelos as a true and farsightedstatesman was for friendship with Bulgariaand other Balkan states and thought a league amongthem would be the best means for the pacificationand prosperity of the Balkans and Europe at large.Turkish revolution.—He saw that the so calledTurkish Revolution of 1908 with its motto of *' Liberty,Equality, Fraternity and Justice" was a mereartifice intended to deceive Europe and the world,whereas the Young Turks aimed in reality at theTurkification of the non-Turkish and non-Moslemelements in Turkey, in accordance with their openprogram ''Turkey for the Turks." The YoungTurks' program was detrimental to the best interestsof all the Balkan nations as well as of the Arme-

EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 25nians, Arabs, Jews and other non-Turkish elements.It aimed at the ultimate assimilation and absorptionof these superior elements in Turkey by the inferiorTuranian Turks.Balkan wars.—The Balkan League gave a fatalblow to the Young Turks. The first Balkan Wardemonstrated the weakness and rottenness of theTurkish State on the one hand, the vitality and thestrength of the Union and cooperation of the Balkannations on the other. Had the league continued inharmony, or rather had the intrigues of the CentralPowers allowed it, the Balkan allies could easilyhave marched on Constantinople and driven theTurks, bag and baggage out of Europe.Unfortunately the intrigues of Germany and Austriacombined with the treachery and insatiablegreed of Bulgaria, led to the second Balkan War(June, 1913) ending with the defeat of Bulgaria.The Treaty of Bucharest gave a decided superiorityto Eumania, Serbia and Greece in the Balkans.World War.—This upset subtle and long plannedschemes of Germany and Austria, as well as Bulgariaand Turkey, and thus served as a precursorof the terrible World War, 1914-18.Constantine and Venizelos differ.—So far Constantineand Venizelos as well as all the leaders inGreece worked harmoniously. But when the matterof Greece joining the Great War was taken up,opinion was divided. Venizelos was from the verystart for joining the Entente Allies ; the very interestsof Greece, he thought, required it; her geographicposition, the historical, traditional friendshipof the Entente to Greece, as well as economicreasons demanded it; besides, by the terms of atreaty with Serbia, Greece was in honor bound tojoin the conflict. Not so thought King Constantineand the General Military Staff. They regardedPrussian militarism invincible, and repudiated or

26 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAexplained away the Serbian Treaty. They thoughtthe best interests of Greece required her remainingneutral. To join the war, Constantine asserted,would mean entire ruin for Greece, and he wantedto save her from the fate of Serbia and Rumania.Besides, if Greece joined the Entente, he furtherasserted, the hatred of the Turks would be arousedand millions of Greeks residing in Turkey would bein danger of massacre and outrage.Venizelists and Royalists.—Thus developed thetwo groups or parties of Venizelists and Royalists.The latter claim to have been for neutrality, but theVenizelists charge them with pro-Germanism.Venizelos ousted.—As Constantine did not approvethe policy of Venizelos, he dismissed himfrom office, February, 1915, though he was electedby the people by a great majority. Venizelos wasreelected in May, 1915, but contrary to the constitution,Constantine ousted him again, October, 1915.Revolutionary government at Salonica.—Failingto persuade the king to follow the majority of theGrecian people and thus save Greece and his dynasty,Venizelos, along with General Danglis andAdmiral Coundouriotis, left Athens, June, 1917, andwent to Crete and then to Salonica, and started therevolutionary movement which resulted in the dethronementof King Constantine by the Allies at therequest of the revolutionary government of Venizelos.Alexander, the second, son of Constantine,ascended the throne.Services of the Greek army.—The Greek armyrendered a great service to the Entente cause inMacedonia. The first shaft was driven into the Bulgarianfront by the Greeks, and the yielding ofBulgaria was the precursor of the total break of theCentral Powers. Venizelos was hailed by prominentstatesmen as one of the foremost leaders atthe Peace Conference in Paris and San Remo. He

EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 27secured for Greece the main points she fought for.While Greece was rejoicing over the success of thetreaties Venizelos secured, there happened an untowardaccident that caused upheavals in the politicalhistory of Greece. King Alexander wasbitten by a monkey in Tatoi, the royal summer resortnear Athens, as the result of which he died. AdmiralCoundouriotis was made regent and thecrown was offered to Prince Paul, the youngest sonof Constantine. He refused on the ground that itbelonged first to his father and his elder brotherGeorge, the Crown Prince. It was then electiontime. Venizelos made it clear in his appeal to thepeople that itwas a contest between himself andConstantine. They must choose one or the other.November 14, 1920, was a signal day in Greek history.In spite of all the diplomatic victories and unprecedentedadvantages he had secured for Greece,Venizelos was defeated. He at once left Greece.In his farewell to his party followers he asked themto respect the vote of the people and support theparty in power. The aged statesman, DemetriusEhallis, headed the new government, and thedowager Queen Olga took the regency as AdmiralCoundouriotis resigned. Although the vote of November14 was at the same time a plebiscite on thequestion of the return of Constantine, still a separateplebiscite was taken on December 5th in whicha vast majority voted for the return of King Constantineto the throne. According to newspaper reportsthe Venizelists took little part in the plebiscite.On December 19, 1920, the king and queenreturned to Athens, after living in Switzerland sinceJune, 1917. Their family had preceded them. Themain causes for the defeat of Venizelos were (1) Thewar weariness of the Greek people.Causes for Venizelos* defeat.—Venizelos, himself,gave this reason, during his visit to New York.

28 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAHe said that though by nature peace-loving, it sohappened that there was war whenever he was inpower. So the people thought there would be nopeace as long as he was in power. His opponentspromised the disbanding of the troops and a proclamationof peace. (2) Absorbed in diplomatic fightsin the interest of Greece, he was often absent fromhome and internal affairs were left to his followers.Abuses ascribed to some of them embittered thepeople and spoiled the internal policy of Venizelos.He is assailed by his opponents as arrogant, overbearing,tyrannous and dictatorial. (3) Constantinowas viewed by many under the glamor of the halogiven him as a result of the victories in the Balkan,Wars. They could not believe their great field marshalcould have ever been unpatriotic. Consequentlythey thought a great injustice was done himwhen he was removed by the Allies. Many alsoresented it as an interference in the internal affairsof Greece. (4) The long delays by the powers inthe settlement of Greek affairs caused much tensionand strain on the nerves of the people. After thearmistice they were left to their own resources inthe fight against the Turks. There seemed no endof fighting and no peace in sight, while the powersshifted from place to place the discussions of Greco-Turkish affairs. The long pent-up feelings burst atthe election, as Venizelos was a3Sociated and identifiedin the minds of the Greek people with theEntente Powers. (5) Old party leaders, while differingamong themselves, worked together to overthrowhim. Venizelists assert that graft, andmanipulation at the polls occurred. Endless discussioncontinues all the time on this and manyother political points, between the Venizelists andConstantinists. Soon after the Venizelist defeat,the Entente Powers expressed their disapproval andannounced definitely that they would withdraw all

EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 29economic support from Greece if Constantine returned.In February, 1921, representatives of theEntente met in conference in London, the representativesof Greece, headed by Premier Kalogeropoulos,and the two Turkish delegations,—one of theSultan's government headed by Twefik Pasha, theother of the Nationalist at Angora headed by BekirSami Bey. The powers offered to mediate betweenthe Greeks and Turks and settle their differences,sending special commissioners to Smyrna andThrace to determine the relative strength of thevarious elements there. Neither party would acceptthe offer and fighting started early in the spring of1921 and continued all summer. Premier Gounarisof Greece visited the entente capitals to find loans,and to discuss and prepare grounds for possiblepeace terms with Turkey. The results of his visitare not known. If no terms can be found for a definitepeace, war will continue, and the unfortunateNear East people have to face further devastation,bloodshed and suffering. France has recognized theNationalist government under Kemal and evacuatedCilicia, for v/hich France had a mandate from theLeague of Nations. She has also received favorableeconomic and other concessions from the Kemalists.The French evacuation has exposed the Christiansthere again to massacre and outrage. The Armenianshave taken refuge in Syria, Greek territory,Constantinople and other places of safety. ManyGreeks have left Cilicia. The withdrawal of Frenchtroops set free numerous Turkish troops, so thatGreece has stronger forces to face if the war continues.But the morale and equipment of the Greekforces is excellent. Both sides have economic difficulties,but Kemal is in the worst plight. Thus far,he has to a great extent, depended upon plunderingand confiscating the properties of the Christiansand others he executes, massacres or deports.

soTHE GREEKS IN AMERICAPOLITICAL. CONDITIONS IN THE NEAE EAST AS AFFECTINGEMIGKATION FEOM AMERICAQuestions of emigration as affected by the politicalsituation in Greece and Turkey depend on thesolution of the Eastern Question. If conditions inthe Near East are pacified and settled, if Greecerealizes her national aspirations by gathering togetherunder her fold her children scattered inWestern Asia Minor, Thrace and the islands underItalian occupation and a strong, righteous governmentis established in what remains as Turkey,there will be wider openings and many new fieldsfor enterprise in the Near East, and many Greeksin America will go back, especially those who hadcome to America to escape Turkish oppression ormilitary enslavement. Others will return for relatives.The percentage, however, of those who returnwill not be great. Inquiries in many cities andof various individuals indicate that those settled inAmerica, and prospering, will not easily give up certaintyfor uncertainty. Besides those accustomed toAmerican ways, ideas and custom.s are disappointedon setting foot in the old country and finding theirdreams of ease and comfort there far from reality,and take the first steamer back to the United States.Soon after the declaration of the Armistice, therewas a rush to return of those who had been waitingfor years to see their relatives and friends, especiallythose who had not heard from them, and wereanxious to learn their whereabouts.POLITICAL CONDITIONS AS INVITING ITNEEST IN AMERICAPolitical conditions in the Near East and unrestin America.—Ordinarily conditions in Greece orTurkey would scarcely affect any situation in Amer-

EUROPEAN BACKGROUNDSIica. But these are extraordinary times and there isa great deal of speculation as to possible combinationsbetween the Young Turks, the Bolsheviki andthe Tartars. They first dream of a Pan-TuranianAlliance between the Turks in Asia Minor and theTartars of Caucasus and Turkestan; they furtherdream and scheme of Pan Islamism, uniting the Moslemsall over the world under the leadership of theTurks. Enver and Djemal Pashas are representedas scheming with the Bolsheviki in carrying* outsuch plans.The Balkans still constitute a danger spot andthe Eastern Question has always been a cause ofunrest in Europe and even in the world at large.Should the Bolsheviki form alliances with Pan-Islamic and Pan-Turanian elements and succeed increating chaos in the Near and Far East, the effectsmay be far-reaching in Europe and even America.ECONOMIC CONDITIONSThe East unchangeable.—The East is unchangeableor moves slowly, consequently customs, arts,trades, continue pretty much in the same way forages. The fields are plowed with the same kind ofplow used in patriarchal times. Sheep and goatsare tended by shepherds to-day as in classical orBiblical times.Trader's banks.—Greeks are commercial and seafaringpeople. So they are the principal traders,bankers, and merchants in the Levant. The NationalBank of Greece, the Bank of Athens, theIonian Bank, the Bank of Mytilene, the Bank ofOrient are the principal houses, and have branchesin many important cities both in Greece and Turkey.Export and import.—There is a great deal of importand export business between Greece and Turkeyon the one hand, Europe and America on the

32 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAother. Articles of luxury, manufactured goods,woolen and cotton are imported; English goodsstood very high both in price and quality. Frenchgoods competed with them, but the German andAustrian goods flooded the Levant before the war,and at cheaper prices and usually of lower quality.Eeady-made clothes from Austria filled the marketsin Constantinople, Smyrna, etc. Italy graduallygained ground and competed with other Europeannations successfully both in the price and qualityof the goods.The principal exports from Greece and Turkey areraw material, wool, cotton, silk, flax, tobacco, currants,raisins, olive oil, dry figs, sponges, silver,lead, zinc, manganese, and iron. (The imports in1901 were $27,733,010; in 1914 they were $35,026,-905, and the exports $23,425,375.) The imports atthe beginning of the war had decreased enormouslyin spite of their apparent increase owing to thedoubling of the prices. Commerce between theUnited States and Greece has greatly increasedsince the armistice, November, 1918. In 1916, 1,718,-500 pounds of figs were exported to the UnitedStates, but not a pound was shipped in 1917 owingto lack of shipping facilities. The export of tobaccoto the United States grew. In 1915 the valueof the tobacco export to the United States was$2,914,627 and in 1917 $14,422,703. Eepresentativesof the American Tobacco Co. are in Kavalla, Macedonia,and in Samsoun, Asia Minor. The importsfrom the United States to Greece during the elevenmonths ending November 30, 1921, were $28,826,853as compared with $35,761,896 in the same months of1920. The exports from Greece to the United Statesduring the months ending November 30, 1921, were$20,713,044 as compared with $19,278,039 of the sameperiod in 1920. (Atlantic Monthly, January 7,1922.)

EUROPEAN BACKGROUNDS3Navigation.—Greek ships and sailing boats visitthe principal ports along the Black, Marmora,^gean and the Mediterranean seas. They evenvisit England and America. The Greek NationalSteamship Company, with headquarters in Piraeus,Greece, has regular steamer service betweenPiraeus and New York.Greek ships commandeered by the Allies duringthe war rendered a great service to the cause ofthe Entente, although the Greek owners had toforego much of the profit they would otherwise havereaped. Still many shipowners accumulated immensewealth. The number of steamships that enteredthe port of Piraeus during 1916 was 2,658 of2,329,919 tons and of these 2,494 steamships of1,898,059 tons carried the Greek flag.Industries.—Greece, and Turkey are not indus^trial countries. Industry is yet in a primitive state.Masons, carpenters, tailors, shoemakers and allother artisans in Thrace and Asia Minor, and^ ofcourse in Greece are Greeks. But factories are limitedto certain centers as Piraeus, Salonica, andSmyrna. Still there has been remarkable progressin industry during the last ten or fifteen years, andif peace and settled conditions prevail soon, therewill be rapid strides taken in many lines.The following notes on the industrial census recentlytaken in Greece were published by the UnitedStates Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce,in 1918, and show remarkable progress in allbranches of industry during the last ten or fifteenyears.^^According to the details given, there are inGreece 2,213 large or small factories employing atotal of 36,124 hands. Of these 1,188 are small concernsemploying a total of 3,579 hands ; 743 are moderateconcerns employing a total of 23,700 hands.Among the 232 businesses which represent princi-

;S4- THE GREEKS IN AMERICApally the large industries, spinning and weaving factorieswhich represent 28 in all, with 10,004 hands,are most prominent. Next come 72 factories ormills for the preparation of various kinds of provisionswith 3,665 hands ; 28 engineering works with2,003 employees ; 23 chemical works with 1,890 hands16 tanneries and leather working factories with 776hands ; and other smaller factories engaged in variousindustries. The total value of the 2,213 factoriesamounts to 260,363,647 drachmas ($50,250,-184), and their total annual returns are estimatedat 372,274,308 drachmas ($71,851,801). Of the lattertotal the small factories are responsible for 106,-550,025 drachmas ($20,564,155); larger factoriesfor 250,794,810 drachmas ($48,403,378) , and thelarge factories for 314,940,473 drachmas ($60,783,-511). Almost one-half of the value of the annualproducts of the 282 large factories is derived fromthe 12 large flour mills. With regard to the motivepower, 570 of the factories are driven by steampower, 583 by electricity, 326 by hydraulic power,308 by gas, and 235 by petroleum (oil engines)."Agriculture.—Greece is a mountainous country,and although peasants are occupied mainly withagriculture, it is in a backward state. Great progress,however, has been made in recent years, andthe government is exerting every effort to promoteit. English and American agricultural implementsare being introduced. The prospect for the future isvery bright. The government has agriculturalschools and model farms for encouraging agriculture.Agricultural expositions are held from timeto time to promote and stimulate it.Chief crops.—Only one-half of the soil in oldGreece is arable. The chief crops are currants,olives, tobacco, grapes, cereals, fruits, and figs. Theyield of currants in 1917 was 140,000 tons, and in1919, 145,000 tons. Olives are the next important

;EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 35The yield of tobacco in 1917 was placed atcrop.102,275,710 pounds. The estimated yield of winefor 1918 was 10,566,800 gallons or nearly doublethat of the year before.American Machines.—Thessaly is rich and fertilein agriculture, and the Kavalla region in Macedoniafor tobacco. Tobacco is being cultivated with goodsuccess in Peloponnesus. American machines are beingintroduced into Smyrna and many parts of Turkey.The American Mission and the Near East Reliefrepresentatives are rendering a great service inintroducing modern methods and instruments intoagricultural work in the Levant.Cows and dairies.—In Greece, people had someprejudice against cows' milk, so goats and sheeppredominate for milking. The number of cows isgrowing. Mr. J. E. Chrysakis, of Athens has rendereda great service in promoting dairy-farmingand his tea-rooms, in Constitution Square, Athens,with all the farm products, are well known to Americansand Europeans visiting Athens. His farmsare near Phaleron. He has been instrumental inintroducing cows from Switzerland.Minerals.—The chief mineral products are magnesite,marble, and emery. In 1914 there were produced117,430 tons of magnesite ; in 1919, 133,858in 1916, 176,363; and in 1917, 99,518. Transportationdifficulties caused a great decrease in mining,and almost stopped marble production.Roads.—The greatest need of Greece is the goodroads. Now there are over 3,000 miles of roads. Itis to the credit of the Greek government that in themidst of all the distractions of war that among otherpublic works which have engaged their energies arethe construction and restoration of harbors, the erectionof lighthouses, the construction of drainageworks, etc.In 1883 there were only 58 miles of railway, but

36 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAin 1914 about 1,365 were open and 100 more wereunder construction. A ship-canal across the Isthmusof Corinth (four miles) was opened in 1893. Greeceis now connected by rail with the rest of Europe.Athens expresses are running regularly to Paris.Wages and prices.—Greeks in general are extremelytemperate in living and wages are proportionateto that standard. Of course there are greatdifferences according to localities, in country andtown, in Greece or Turkey. The pre-war priceswere very low everywhere. But since then the pricesjumped up as elsewhere in the world, money lostits purchasing power and things got dearer anddearer, and the rate of exchange changed from dayto day.Simple life.—In the interior of Turkey andGreece, Greeks live in primitive fashion, with veryplain diet. Bread—wholesome, wholewheat breadis the staff of life. Onions, cheese, milk, and souror curdled milk, yopJiourd, are in daily use in thevillages. Fruits are abundant and cheap. Olives,olive oil, and fish are very popular. Meat is used inthe villages sparingly, and is almost exclusivelylamb and kid.The unit of value in Greece is the dracluna, whichis equivalent to a franc, 19.3 cents; the exchangeIn 1921 itvalue in dollars in 1918 w^as 19.4 cents.varied between 4 and 5 cents.In Turkey, the Turkish lira is nominally 100 piastres,gold, but the paper lira is greatly deteriorated.$1 before the war was worth 24 piastres. In 1921it brought 200 and more piastres.Prices of commodities were doubled, tripled andmultiplied manifoldly both in Greece and Turkey.Students paid in Marsovan before the war $78.In 1920 they paid $200. Conditions in Turkey areentirely abnormal. Some have accumulated more—

-EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 37wealth, while many suffer in ntter destitution andmisery.Greece prosperous.—In Greece, people oij thewhole are prosperous. Some persons, such as sh]owners, merchants, real-estate and property owners,grocers and farmers made large fortunesduring the war. There was no lack of profiteers,but many made money honestly. Besides, the AlliedArmies in Macedonia spent large sums of moneywhich added much to the prosperity of the country.The workers could find ample employment and highwages in ammunition works and otherwise under theAllies.As British, French and Italian money fell off, notto say anything about German, Austrian, Eumanianor Turkish money, the Greek drachma couldnot remain an exception. The economic ban of theEntente towards Greece since February, 1921,greatly lowered the exchange.The law of supply and demand regulates internationaland commercial relation, and as long as Greececontinues importing from America more than shecan export to it, the drachma will fetch less.Another reason for such deterioration as given byGreek statesmen in 1920 was that Greece served asthe medium of commercial transactions betweenAmerica and certain Balkan and other states. TheGreek merchants paid gold to America, whereas theyreceived in turn deteriorated currency from theother nations and the effect was the deterioration ofthe drachma.Revenue and expenditure.—The revenue for 1916was reported at 86,183,924 drachmas. The followingfigures taken from an English source are given inpounds: revenue and expenditure for 1917 respectively£8,200,000 and £17,280,000, and for 1918,£12,000,000, and £36,400,000. The enormous ex-

S8THE GREEKS IN AMERICApenses of the army are constantly adding to the nationaldebt.Still there is great hope that when settled conditionscome, Greece will have such resources of wealthin the newly acquired territories, that she will prosper,and will be able gradually to pay her debt.Immigration from Greek lands.—Greeks began tocome to the United States in great numbers in1891. Before that only a few had come, either representingcommercial houses, like the Ralli Bros., orfor study in Colleges and Universities, but after1891 there followed a growing stream of new comers,at first from Peloponnesus, especially from Tripolis,and gradually the fever of immigration spread notonly to all parts of Peloponnesus, but to Attica,Thessaly, Epirus, and Euboea, to Macedonia, Thraceand Asia Minor and the islands. Indeed no part ofGreece proper and the Greek regions in Turkey andelsewhere was unaffected by it.Causes of emigration: 1. Natural tendency toadventure.—As causes of the emigration of theGreeks may be mentioned: The inborn tendencyin the Greek people for trading, seafaring and adventure.The impulse of enterprise and daring thatsent out the Argonauts and various colonies fromancient Greece to distant lands drove the modernGreek to America and the uttermost parts of theworld.2. Economic.—The Argonauts went to fetch thegolden fleece from Colchis in Caucasus. So theGreek immigrants came to America in search ofgold. Economic condition constitutes the main causeof Greek emigration, both from Greece and Turkey.Greece was poor and limited in opportunities forwider enterprises. The failure in crops and currantsin 1891 drove many to America in search of workand opportunities for improvement in living. Thenaturally enterprising Greek finds better outlets for

EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 39his love of adventure and enterprise in the UnitedStates and generally he succeeds.3. Success of the immigrants in America.—^Furthercause of emigration is the effect of the letterswritten and the money sent by the immigrants inAmerica to their homes in Greece and Turkey. Thereports of their success spread in exaggerated form,as if people could sweep up gold in the streets orpick it up anywhere, and the reports drew others,relatives, friends, enemies and all. Gradually it becamea fashion to go to America. Besides peoplemade comparison of wages and value. Sums ofmoney comparatively insignificant in the UnitedStates seemed very substantial in Greece. Theycould not take into consideration the relative valuesand the difference of the circumstances in Greeceand America.4. Military service in Turkey.—As to Greek emigrationfrom Turkey, we might mention as a furthercause the Turkish military service. Up to thedeclaration of the Turkish revolution in 1908, Christiansand Jews were exempted from military service.Every male paid a tax of $1.60 a year from birth todeath. With the declaration of so-called equalitybetween the Moslems and non-Moslems, Christianswere admitted into the army. But experienceshowed that it meant really the enslavement andmoral and physical ruin of Christian youth. Thewhole Turkish constitution was a camouflage to enforcethe Turkish Nationalist program to Turkify thenon-Turkish elements by assimilating them throughIslam, or eliminating them through military enslavement,hardships and purposeful neglect of thehealth of the soldiers. To escape such treatment,many Christian youths left Turkey. Young menfrom the shores of the Black Sea, Trebizond, Ordu,Fatsa, Kerasunde, Samsun, as well as the hinterland,Karahissar, Sivas, Kaisseri, Angora, Konia,

40 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAfrom Smyrna and its hinterland, from Thrace, Adrianople,Kirkkilissa, Constantinople and all overTurkey, left the country usually secretly withoutpassports.Another cause of the emigration from Turkey wasreligious, due to the conflict between Christianityand Islam. To accept Islam, would end the troublesand persecutions of Christians. Like the persecutedPuritans of England, the Huguenots of France, thevictims of oppression in Germany and other lands,the Greek Christian young men sought shelter,refuge, and liberty in the ^^Land of the Free and theHome of the Brave."Peasant and poor emigrants.—At first the emigrantsfrom Greece were from the peasant class,mostly illiterate, and poor. Many were of the classthat had failed at home and wanted to try their fortunesin new lands. They were mostly young men,single, or if married, who had left their families inthe home land.Later came better classes.—Gradually more culturedand educated classes began to go to America.Merchants with capital, physicians and lawyers withdiplomas, capable young men, anxious to enter thenumerous educational institutions in America,rushed to the New World to seek their fortunes.Future depends on political conditions.—Thefuture of the emigration from Greece and Turkeydepends on the outcome of the political situation.The establishment of a just and liberal governmentwill open up the sources of wealth in the countryand the enterprising will find ample fields at hometo utilize their energies.Still as long as the impulse to adventure and thelove of enterprise continue living in the bosom ofthe Greeks and while the economic and commercialopportunities here continue there will keep comingstreams of Greek emigrants to the United States.

EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 41The mimber will depend largely on the political conditionsin the Near East.Legislation about emigration from Greece.—Therapid growth of emigration from Greece occupiedthe attention of the Greek government for a longtime.Whole villages were being emptied of theirmanhood and young manhood, women alone remainingbehind. The Greek government planned to restrictthough not to forbid the emigration. Certainrestrictive measures and cautions were consideredwith a view to protect the emigrants from the snareof grasping agents, and also to keep the young forwork in the homeland. See National Herald, March1920.American three percent immigration law.—Afterthe adoption of the immigration law in March, 1921,by the American Congress, according to which, thenumber of immigrants to the United States betweenJune 3, 1921 and June 30, 1922 should not exceedthree percent of the people from any given countryas shown by the census of 1910, only 3,283 could comefrom Greece. The restrictions include those fromThrace, Smyrna and Turkey. The application ofthe law presents many difficulties and works greathardship on those fleeing from persecution and oppression,and seeking shelter in the United States,as a refuge for the oppressed and downtrodden.There should be a special provision for Greek andArmenian refugees from the Near East, as a humanitarianfeature of the law.SOCIAL CONDITIONSGreeks' love of wisdom: Education.—Greeks havealways been fond of wisdom and knowledge, andeducation has taken a prominent place throughouttheir history. Even during the Dark Ages of Greeceunder Turkish rule and oppression, while illiteracy

42 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAprevailed among the people, the monasteries werecenters of learning, and patriotic and godly prieststaught the children elements of learning at night withthe light of the torch or the candle.With the Independence of Greece, conditionschanged both in Greece and Turkey. Since the middleof the 19th century, there has been great progressin education. The educational system of Greece isvery complete. There are three grades of schools,the demotic or primary national schools, the Hellenicor secondary grammar schools, and the gymnasia inwhich the range and the level of teaching are muchthe same as in a German gymnasium or in the uppergrades of the American public schools. In all threegrades education is gratuitous and in the primaryschools is compulsory on children between ^ve andtwelve. Every village has its demotic or primaryschool, and all the prominent cities their gymnasia.The university at Athens is attended by nearly 3,500students many of whom came before the World Warfrom Turkey. The medical and law students predominatewith the result that the number of politiciansand office-hunters grows whereas the countryneeds more men in practical and scientific lines ofwork. There are also the Polytechnic Institute, twoagricultural schools, a military academy, severalnaval schools, besides many private schools for businesstraining. There is also a Normal school (Didascaleion)to train teachers for primary schools.Education of girls.—The girls take the samecourses of study in the girls' schools. The highestinstitution of learning for girls in Greece is Arsakeion,a girls' college or high school with normaltraining courses. The university is now open towomen, and a good many are taking courses in medicine,science, and arts.Education among the Greeks in Turkey.—One ofthe privileges granted by the Sultan to the Greek

EUROPEAN BACKGROUNDPatriarchate regarded the matter of schools andeducation. The Greeks kept their schools undertheir own control with programs of their own making.They contributed liberally for schools and theirupkeep. The Turkish government supplied schoolsfor the Turks and Moslems, taxing the Christiansalso with an education tax. The most prominentbuilding in many villages and towns is the Greekschool built by private contribution or by some patrioticGreek, as a tribute of love to his native place.System of instruction.—The system of instructionis similar to those in Greece. Prominence is givenboth in Greece and Turkey to languages—especiallyto Greek. Mathematics, history, and geography receiveproper attention. Instruction in scientific subjectsneeds much improvement. Memorizing is veryprominent at the expense of originality of thought.The following table show^s the number of Greeks,schools and pupils in Thrace and Asia Minor:4SGREEKSVilayet of Adrianople 366,363" " Constantinople 364,459" " Brusa 278,421" " Sivas 99,376" " Koniah 87,021" " Angora 45,873" " Kastamuni i24,919" " Trebizond 353,533" " Adana 70,000" " Smyrna 622,810Independent Governments 105,964Dodecanese 102,727Imbros, Tenedos and KastelorizoIslands 21,877SCHOOLS

44. THE GREEKS IN AMERICAOld and New Testaments in graded courses for lowerand higher classes, the Catechism in elementary andadvanced courses, including an exposition of theNicene Creed, the Decalogue, the Beatitudes, and theSacraments. Symbolics is given usually as a separatecourse. The text of Scripture is not studiedmuch, excepting the quotations in history and catechismbooks. Whole passages are given in readersas part of the language study. The New Testamentis studied as part of the religious course in gymnasia,iAdvanced schools.—Constantinople, and Smyrna,'have advanced schools in academic courses, both forboys and girls. Gymnasia exist in many prominentcities in Thrace, Asia Minor, and the islands, e.g.Adrianople, Trebizond, and Samsun. Even inZindji Dere, near Caesarea, Cappadocia, in the heartof Asiatic Turkey, there is a Greek gymnasium.Zappeion is the highest school for girls in Constantinople,erected through the munificence of Zappas,a rich Greek from Epirus.American schools.—Greeks have lately taken advantageof the American schools in the Near East,although at first they were very reticent and suspiciousabout them. The majority of students inEobert College, Constantinople, and InternationalCollege, Smyrna, are Greeks. The same was true ofAnatolia College, Marsovan, until the deportationsof 1915 overthrew it. It started after the armistice,operating only the preparatory department, but itwas closed again, March, 1921 by the NationalistTurks.French schools.—Large numbers of Greeks attendedthe French schools in Turkey conducted bythe Jesuits, Franciscans, and other orders of theRoman Catholic Church. The French schools gavea practical knowledge of the French language, withan outward polish of manners, but without really

EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 45training the mind. The American institutions aimedin developing true manhood and womanhood, teachingthe students to think and judge for themselves.Housing in towns.—There are great differencesas to housing, both in Greece and Turkey. In largecities there are houses with dining, sitting and sleepingrooms, modern kitchens, and sanitary arrangements.At present, certain cities, especially Constantinople,Smyrna, Athens, Salonica, etc., are extremelyovercrowded, so that it is a serious questionto find accommodations in them, for newcomers. Innormal times, people are properly housed. Bedsteadsare in common use in Greece and in manyparts of Turkey.In the interior.—^In the interior of Turkey intowns as well as villages, the same room often servesas dining, sitting and sleeping room. The floor iscovered with carpets or rugs. There are divans orsofas with cushions, and chairs are being introducedmore and more. At meals the table-cloth is spreadfirst, then the wooden table upon it, or a large coppertray on a framework. People sit on the groundwith the edge of the table cloth on their laps, andordinarily all dip their spoons or forks in the samedish. At night beds are spread on the divans or thefloor, and in the daytime they are kept piled up inwardrobes. In some villages the home is simply ahut consisting of one or two rooms; the fire placeserving for the kitchen as well. Of course palatialbuildings are not rare even in small places.^Sanitation.—Sanitary arrangements are in needof great improvement. Throughout the East, thestreets are narrow and crooked and the houses toomuch crowded, with no parks or public squares.Still people in general live outdoors, and have plentyof fresh air and sunlight. The climate, too, is veryfavorable and conducive to health. Stagnant waterscause malaria in many places.

46 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAEECREATIONRecreation neglected.—^People do not think muchof recreation in the Near East. They take lifeeasily, working with leisure. Men are busy withtheir work in stores and offices, and women withhousehold work, knitting and sewing. The mostprevalent mode of recreation in Greece and Turkeyis sitting in groups in houses or at the coffee housestalking, discussing politics and sipping Turkishcoffee.Games.—Gossip is a great source of pleasure. OnSundays and holidays people make calls, and talk.Card playing and other games like dominoes, chess,and trictrac are inseparable from the coffee houses.Billiards and pool-rooms are common in large cities.Cards and other games are frequently played infamily circles. Gambling is very common, thoughoften played for moderate and trifling sums. Thelaw forbids gambling but ways are easily found toevade it.Athletics.—Athletics in the open air or gymnasticsare not prevalent. Children have their gamesand plays, especially those with balls. But thegrown-up people think games are for children. Theyoung are very fond of athletics and many of thembelong to athletic societies in Athens, Constantinople,and Smyrna, doing excellent work in promotingathletics. Unfortunately such work is limitedto a few centers only. Athens has a large marblestadium seating 75,000 where Olympic, Pan-Hellenic and school games are held, all of which tendto promote love of sports and athletics. Tennis isbeing introduced in centers like Athens, Smyrna andConstantinople. Greeks everywhere need to learnthe Anglo-Saxon and American love of games andexercise in the open air.Societies.—^Literary and musical societies play an

EUROPEAN BACKGROUNDimportant part in Greek communities in promotingculture among the people. Thus the Society Parnassos,Athens, the Greek Literary Society in Constantinople,and other similar organizations in othercities, conduct courses of lectures and public meetingsthat are very instructive and beneficial.Newspapers.—Newspapers play a very importantrole in Greek life. Athens alone has 33 dailies, besidesmany weeklies and monthlies, and other periodicals.Almost every town in Greece has its localpaper. A great number of Greek dailies and periodicalsare issued in Constantinople, Smyrna, andother important centers in Turkey. Greeks are fondof news and devour the newspapers. Coifee-housesare almost all the time full of people sipping coffee,reading newspapers and discussing the news enthusiastically.Theaters.—There are numerous theaters inAthens, Smyrna and Constantinople, and Greekspatronize the plays very much. In many other centersboth in Greece and Turkey dramatic performancesare presented, even when there is no propertheater. Amateurs and students make such presentations.Moving pictures are very prevalent andare spreading rapidly. Every village and town inGreece has its karagenze— a show similar to Punch,and Judy.MOEAL STANDARDSGreeks temperate.—Greeks are generally temperateand sober. Wine is commonly used at mealsin families and restaurants, and is offered at all socialand family gatherings, and coffee houses, in additionto tea, coffee and pastry, can provide liquors.Even small groceries have tables where people canhave drink and refreshments. But everywhere moderationis the rule. Though some may go to excess^7

48 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAsometimes, still it is remarkable that there isso littledrunkenness.Moral life.—The moral life of the people is ingeneral pure, though there is much difference betweenthe sea-coast and the interior, or the largecities and the country places. The populous centersare more lax than the interior.Family life is everywhere respected, kept pure,and blessed with children. Only in places where westernways are introduced, the number of childrendiminishes. The so-called European or a-la-Francacustoms are often corrupting influences in the NearEast.Outside of large centers divorce is almost unknown,and everywhere is looked down upon and discouraged.Unfortunately the double standard prevails amongthe Greeks as to sex morality. Women are closelyguarded and strict morality is required of them. Asto young men, it is taken for granted that they willsow their wild oats and cannot be expected to bevery strict.Influence of the war.—The morals of the peoplewere greatly undermined during the World War,especially in large cities and army centers. All goodpeople bemoan the prevailing immorality in societyin Constantinople, Athens, Salonica, etc.There is much work for the moral refoimers inlarge cities. In most of them, there are houses ofill-fame under legal control and protection, but alwayscondemned in respectable circles, as places ofevil and corruption, but regarded by public opinionas a necessary evil.Dowries.—Unfortunately the custom of dowriesprevails in Greek Society. Brothers often remainsingle, or postpone their marriage in order to providedowry for their sisters. In fact it is customaryfor brothers not to marry while the sisters remain

EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 49unmarried. Young women spend most of their timein preparing their trousseaus. It is only in recentyears that young women began to help in office workand feel somewhat independent.Laxity in truthfulness.—In general, people believethat honesty is the best policy, but lies andequivocations are very common. While in the matterof sex relations the Greeks stand pretty high, incomparison with many other nations, they are morelax in the matter of truthfulness.How developed.—Centuries of oppression andpersecution developed in Greeks as also in otherNear East people, a tendency to cover the truth, andto resort to disguises and subterfuges and even directlico as a means of self-defense and protection.Often pursued by the enemy and hunted down by theTurks, their tyrants. Christians have saved theirlives or the honor of their families through craft,tricks or even deceptions. It is not strange thatpeople brought up under such circumstances do notfeel the same conscientious scruples against falsehoodas those who are brought up under the influencesof Christian principles and free institutions.Attachment to relatives.—Greeks are strongly attachedto their families and relatives. Family lifein many parts, especially in Turkish sections, is ofthe patriarchal type. It comprises father, motherand the children, and as the sons grow up they bringtheir brides to the paternal home, where the motherrules and all daughters-in-law obey her. But it is aigrowing custom for married couples to open theirown homes separately, especially in cities.In certain sections, especially the Peloponnesus,there is clannishness, and quarrels are not rareamong different clans. The effect of this is oftenseen in politics. The various parties consist of thefollowers of certain heads of prominent families orclans.

50 THE GREEKS IN AMERICA—Greeks are very neighborly and helpful to eachother, especially in small places. Neighbors visitand help one another. ^'A good neighbor is closerthan a brother," says a Greek proverb. *'In selectinga house consider first the neighbors,'' says another.Are democratic.—Greeks are very democratic.There is no aristocracy or rank or class distinctionamong them. As industries are not developedthere is no capitalist and labor question. Everyonecan, and prefers, to have his own trade and holdproperty. Thus there are small traders and merchantseverywhere. Individualism, that characterizesthe race, hinders the formation of trusts or largeorganizations, and also of Communism. The Greeksare never Bolshevists.Socialists.—There is a small Socialist party discussingquestions of capital and labor, but it is confinedalmost wholly to Athens and Piraeus. Thereare also clubs and other organizations of clerks andvarious tradesmen.All patriotic.—Greeks are nationalists. The loveof country and nation outranks every other feeling.Indeed, it is more than religion to them. The wordsthat Plato makes Socrates say in Crito—^^Patris,the fatherland, is dearer than father and mother,"are believed in and practiced, even to-day. The consciousnessof national unity of the whole Greekrace unites all Greeks together. Wherever they live,they all cherish love and devotion to Hellas, themother country.Help old country.—Greeks in the United Stateshelp their home folks in every way, especially financially.They help their village or town, providingfor their needs in church and school matters; theybuild and repair the bridge in the village ;open up anew well, or build a water course and reservoir. TheGreek society, *'Kozani," in New York iscollecting

EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 61funds to build public baths in their native townKozani, Macedonia. The Icarian Society has plansfor a gymnasium or high school in their nativeisland, Icaria ; others raise funds for a belfry or anew bell to their church at home.Athens is the capital of Hellenism. Greeks whoamass wealth in Egypt, Africa, India, England,France, or Rumania, remember in their wills thevarious national, educational and philanthropic institutionsof Athens. Thus Averof, Arsakes, Sinas,Varvakis, Syngros, Zappas are a few out of the hostof patriots who have contributed munificently forthe adornment of Athens with public buildings.Greeks have never been strong in internationalism,though not lacking in idealism. The ancient Greekshad the Amphictyonic Council, Plato had his visionof the World Republic, Venizelos believed in theBalkan League and endeavored to preserve it evenwith the sacrifice of Greek interests. He alsostrongly supported the League of Nations at theParis Peace Conference.Though strongly nationalistic, the Greeks desireto live amicably with other nations and would gladlydo their part in promoting the welfare of the worldand cultivating peace and good will among the nations.Language question.—The Greek language continuesas a living memorial. It was never dead, norceased being spoken. It underwent many changesin modification, accretions, growth and development.Greek language living.—There are stages in theprocess of these changes, and we have the Homeric,Attic, Alexandrian, Byzantine and modern periods.In the course of time there crept in many foreignwords and expressions, especially from the Italian,French and Turkish, which have become part of thelanguage as spoken by the people to-day. Besidesthere are many local differences in Athens, Crete,

52 THE GREEKS IN AMERICACyprus, Pontus, etc., wliich may be regarded asdialects.There is, however, uniformity or a commonstandard in the written style or language, which isrespected by literary Greeks everywhere.Two schools.—There are two schools at presentin regard to literary form in modern Greek. 1. Thepurists who aim at purging the modern Greek of allforeign accretions in words and phrases and desireto conform it as much as possible to the ancient orAttic Dialect, as represented by Xenophon or theChurch Fathers. The grammar is the same as theAttic, only simplified, and many words and phrasesare to be added to meet modern needs and ideas.2. The demotists, who advocate that the spokenGreek, should be the medium of expression in all literarystyle, in society, courts, schools, church andeverywhere. People, they hold, should write as theyspeak. A strong conflict is going on between thetwo schools. It is not simply a dispute about diction;grammatical forms also, are involved in thediscussion. The purist condemns the demotic asbarbaric. The supporters of the demotic regard thepurist style as artificial, crude and doomed to die.The spoken style has already won the field in fiction,poetry and stories, whereas history, science,philosophy, law and theology cling to the puriststyle. The newspapers are divided, but almost alluse both styles according to the subject matter. Theeditorials are usually in the purist style.Strangely most of the newspapers in America preferthe purist.Language has a great bearing on the education,training and development of the young. The childrenuse the demotic at home, as do the parents, howevercultured and educated they may be. But assoon as a child goes to school the purist comes inwith the big words and phrases, even in the primary.

EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 53The government of Venizelos made the great reformthat the demotic is to be the medium of instructionin primary education. Higher courses are tobe given in the purist style.The matter of dual language is a great hindranceand handicap in the mental growth and developmentof the people of Greece. The conflict has importantbearing, too, on church and religious matters.LEADERSHIPNeed of leaders.—Leadership is the greatest needamong the Greeks. Unfortunately there are toomany leaders. All aspire to leadership, none wantto be led. Factiousness, division and disputationshave been among the chief weaknesses of the Greek**people. Where there are four Greeks, there are^ve captains or leaders,'' says a proverb.Sources of leadership.—^Happily there has beenno lack of good leaders at all the stages of Greekhistory. At present the University of Athens suppliesthe principal leaders. Graduates from its variousdepartments, especially the law school, are themain leaders. Greece is a land of lawyers and fromamong them have come her chief politicians. Thusthe latest great leader of Greece, Venizelos himself,is a graduate of the law school, and was a lawyer inCrete.Members of Parliament have great influence andplay an important role in the national life. EveryBouleutis (M. P.) was at times a dictator in hisown sphere of influence. The press is an immensepower, as Greeks are great readers, consequentlythey are led and misled through the press.Leaders in Turkey.—Among the Greeks in Turkeythe clergy play a far greater part, as the Patriarchsand the Bishops, or Metropolitans, are national aswell as religious leaders. Teachers also are of great

54 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAinfluence. In many villages the only man able toHe mayread and address the people is the of greater force than the priest. Physicians playan important role as leaders in all community affairsbecause they are educated and far in advanceof the people among whom they practice.Merchants and prominent business men are potentforces in all communities, both in Grreece andTurkey.RELIGIOUS CONDITIONSThe Greeks almost all belong to the Greek Church,called also Greek Orthodox or Eastern OrthodoxChurch. It is often mistakenly called by AmericansGreek Catholic. The church of this name or*^Uniate'' is a wholly different denomination, comprisingno Greeks, but Kuthenians, Slovaks, Eumanians,Syrians, and a few others, who keep theEastern Orthodox rites and customs, but have comeunder the authority of the Pope of Eome.Greek Church.—The Greek or Eastern OrthodoxChurch is the church of Eussia, Serbia, Eumania,Montenegro, Bulgaria (though considered schismatic),as well as of Greece, and the Greeks in thewhole of Turkey, including Egypt, and those scatteredin other countries and part of the Syrians andAlbanians.All the various national churches have the samedoctrine, practice and liturgy. Each national churchis autocephalus, i. e., independent and self-governing,administered by a Holy Synod consisting ofbishops, the president being called Metropolitan, insome cases patriarch. Thus the church in Greeceis governed by a synod of bishops with the Metropolitanor Archbishop of Athens as its president.Patriarchates.—There are four historic patriarchatesof the Eastern Orthodox Church, compris-

EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 55ing tlie territories in what was once Turkey i. e.Macedonia, Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt.They are of Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem andAlexandria. The Patriarchate of Constantinople isalso called ecumenical and is the highest authorityin the entire Greek Church comprising all the variousnational churches. It was and is still the greatrival of papacy. Yet the patriarch makes no suchpretentious claims as the Pope.State church in Greece.—The Greek Church is thestate church in Greece and though independent indoctrinal matters, it is practically under the Ministryof Ecclesiastical affairs and Education, and arepresentative of the King sits at the sessions of theHoly Synod.Greeks in the early church.—The history of theGreek Church is really the story of Christianity inthe Near East. The Greeks were among the veryfirst to accept the Christian religion. Churches wereorganized among them by Paul and other apostles.The preachers, missionaries, and theologians in theearly church were largely Greeks. The New Testamentwas written in Greek. The Greek Fathers werethe leaders of thought, administrators of thechurches and formulators of Christian doctrine.Doctrinal standards.—The leading personalitiesin the early councils that formulated the doctrinesof God as the Holy Trinity, and of the person ofJesus Christ, were Greeks, as Athanasius, Origen,Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus,Chrysostom and many others. In fact, evento-day the Greek Church is based upon the doctrinesformulated by the early ecumenical councils. Thefirst six, 325-687 A.D., dealt with the dogmas of theTrinity and the Person of Christ, and the seventhwith the image controversy. The Nicene Creed, formulatedat the First Ecumenical Council, 325 A.D.,and completed at the second, A.D. 381, is the basis

56 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAof its theology, and is recited daily at the Liturgyor Eucharist and other services. The candidate forbaptism or the godfather recites it before baptism.St. John Chrysostom is even to-day the main authorityin the exegesis or interpretation of Scriptureand John of Damascus in Systematic Theology.The Greek Church claims to be *^holy, catholic,and apostolic.'' But the characteristic adjectiveshe particularly and emphatically appropriates forherself is ^'Orthodox." She claims to have preservedthe teaching of Christ and the Apostles asin the early church in all its purity and integrity.In all the essentials of Christian doctrine the GreekChurch, in its official teaching, is Orthodox and conservativecompared with many another denomination.Thus, in regard to the doctrines of God, theTrinity, the Divinity of Jesus Christ, redemption,and eternal life, she holds the most orthodox position.There is no Pope, no papal supremacy, nor infallibility,no doctrine of the Immaculate Conception.Tradition is regarded as a source of revelationalong with the Scriptures and the work of the HolySpirit in the church.There is no doctrine of purgatory, but prayers aresaid for the dead. There is no doctrine of penancesnor indulgences, though pilgrims to Jerusalem canbuy papers of absolution from their sins. Thereare three orders of ministry, bishop, presbyter orpriest, and deacon. The bishops of the prominentcities are called archbishops or metropolitans. TheArchbishops of Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalemand Alexandria are called patriarchs. Archimandriteis the title of the monastic clergy of the rankof presbyter. Bishops and monks alone must becelibate; the rest of the clergy can marry.Sacraments.—The Greek Church is strongly ritualisticand great prominence is given to ceremonial-

;EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 57ism. There are seven sacraments: baptism, confirmationor anointing with sacred oil or chrism, eucharist,confession, orders, marriage, and unction.There is infant baptism by immersion and infantconfirmation and communion. Communion is partakenin both elements by the laity. (The churchteaches transubstantiation.) Marriage is a sacramentand is dissolved only through infidelity:though the canon law allows certain other groundsfor divorce. Unction is not confined to the deathbedit can be had before every communion ; and in time ofsickness or at any other time.Separated churches.—Partly for political reasonsand partly as a result of doctrinal controversies particularlyon the person of Christ there split off aboutthe 5th century some of the old historical orientalchurches. Thus the Nestorian controversy, 431 A.D.,concerning the relation of the human and the divinein Christ, resulted in the separation of the NestorianChurch which doctrine tended to split the personof Jesus in two.The opposite view, called Monophysitism,taught the fusion of the human and Divineinto one nature. As a result of the controversyon this doctrine the Armenian, called the Gregorianchurch, the Coptic Church in Egypt and the Jacobitein Syria were separated. Though these churchestheoretically cling to certain old formulae, essentiallyand in reality they hold the same Christology as therest of the Orthodox Churches. The Monothelitecontroversy concerning the nature of the will inChrist as human and divine was settled in the SixthEcumenical Council, A.D. 680. It only lingered onamong the Maronites of Lebanon till they came underthe sway of the papacy.Filioque.—The controversy regarding the relationof the Holy Spirit to the Father and the Son in theHoly Trinity is known as the filioque controversyfrom the addition of filioque (''and from the Son"),

58 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAinto the Nicene Creed by the Latin or the WesternChurch. It is a most difficult, mysterious, metaphysicaltopic involving the study and investigation ofthe divine psychology and the interrelation of thepowers and faculties constituting the divine nature,or Deity. And yet the students in Greek highschools and gymnasia are taught them in their catecheticalor religious lessons, and Greeks in generaldiscuss the flioque controversy with interest. It isdoubtful if many cultured Europeans or Americanswould pay any attention to it nowadays. The controversyultimately resulted in the split of thechurch into two (A.D. 1054), the Eastern, or Byzantine,and the Western or Koman. An importantcontributing cause of the great schism was the rejectionof the pretensions of the papacy over theEastern Church. Catholicity is also claimed by theGreek Church.Image controversy.—The Seventh EcumenicalCouncil (787 A.D.) dealt with the Image Controversywhich shook the church severely for more thana century. When the persecutions in the early RomanEmpire ceased (313 A.D.) and Constantine theGreat established Christianity as a state religion,the doors were widely opened to all, and many conformedto the rites and ceremonies of the church,outwardly, without a real conversion. Again whenemperors like Theodosius the Great persecuted theheathen, a great many joined the church formallywhile retaining their old practices and superstitions.Thus the world entered the church.Greek ideas and rites.—Besides the Greek ideas,philosophy, rhetoric, drama, the old mysteries andother rites of the ancient Hellenic religion greatlyinfluenced the Christian religion in the formulationand development of its doctrines and practice. (SeeHatch.)Archbishop Meletios Metaxakis, late Metropolitan

EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 59of Athens, while on a visit to the United States in1918, at the dinner given in his honor by the ClergyClub of New York, said, ^^What was best in the oldGreek mysteries and theater was assimilated andretained by the Greek Church."Greek Puritans.—Thus under various influencessuch elements and practices entered the church thata section in^he seventh century objected and remonstrated.We might say the Puritans in the GreekChurch started the fight against ritualism and ceremonialismas well as the icons and such practicesas the mediation of the saints and worship of VirginMary and angels. These were doubtless the forerunnersof the Reformation in the 16th century as ProfessorPaparregopoulas of Athens University explainedin his History of Greece.Their later influence.—Under the influence ofwomen and monks, the reform movement waschecked and the Greeks were prevented from doingwhat was later accomplished by the Reformation.It did not, however, die out entirely, as its tracescontinued among the Catharists in Armenia, theBogomeles, in Bulgaria, and its doctrines and influenceswere carried through merchants to France,which resulted in the movement of the Albigenses.In spite of the suppression of the Reform Party,Constantinople continued to be the seat of learning,and Greek literature, philosophy and theology wereexpounded there throughout the medieval perioduntil the fall of Constantinople (1453). Though nogreat men of the rank of the ancient writers, philosophersor theologians appeared during this period,still there were prominent men able to teach andexpound all the Greek authors. Upon the fall ofConstantinople, the leading, learned Greeks escapedto Europe and carried the knowledge of the Greekart and language, thus starting the Renaissance.Turkish conquests.—^When the Reformation be-

60 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAgan in Germany (1517) the Greek Church had beenplunged into its era of slavery.Cyril Lucaris.—^Attempts were made in the 16tlicentury to bring about an understanding betweenthe Greek church or patriarchate at Constantinople,and the reformers. Cyril Lucaris, Patriarch of Constantinople,is the leading personage in this matter.He studied in Switzerland and was taught CalvinisticTheology and was in sympathy with the Reformation.He presented the Alexandrian manuscriptof the New Testament to Charles I of England, andit is now in the British Museum and is known asM.S. A. He was elected to the patriarchate eighttimes between 1612 and 1638. He was not allowed,however, to carry out any comprehensive reformmovement, as through the machinations of theJesuits, he was strangled and his body was draggedthrough the streets by the Jews. There is a creedwith the name of Cyril, although some without sufficientground doubted its genuineness. His attitudeto all the Reformation doctrines was sympathetic.The attitude of the Greek Church towards the reformor Protestant positions was discussed andformulated in a Council of the Patriarchs at Jerusalem,1672 A.D., and was given summarily in its decisions.The same can be seen in the Confessionof Faith by Dositheos, Patriarch of Jerusalem. SeeSchaff's Creeds and Confessions of Christendom.Greek and Anglican Churches.—The AnglicanChurch has approached, more than once, the patriarchateat Constantinople for the union of the twochurches. The Greeks have always been friendlyand sympathetic to the Anglicans, but they wouldnot make any doctrinal concessions for the sake ofunion. They would simply welcome the Anglicans,if they wanted to unite with the Greek Church. Theutmost cordiality and a feeling of mutual appreciationprevails between the Church of England and

EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 61the Protestant Episcopal Church of the UnitedStates on the one hand, and the Greek OrthodoxChurch on the other.Dark Ages of Greece.—The Dark Ages of theGreeks and the Greek Church began with Turkishrule and oppression. Many regard this period, fromthe 15th century to the 19th, as that of decadence,and they blame the Greek Church for lack of vitality,activity, and spirituality. It is true there were greatdefects and want of spirituality among many of theleaders. There was no aggressive missionary work;the clergy were uneducated and the people illiterate.The church had been losing ground or at the utmostit endeavored to hold its own. When, however, weconsider the unparalleled trials which the churchpassed through during these long centuries of oppressionand persecution, it is really to be wonderedat that the Christian name survived at all. Thewhole Christian Church might have been wiped outthroughout the Turkish Empire as it was in NorthAfrica. The Greek and Armenian horrors during1915-1921 at the hands of the Young Turks demonstratethat the Turks might have annihilated all theChristians, but happily they have not succeeded.Privileges of the patriarchate.—Certain arrangementshave helped the preservation and continuanceMohammed II,of the Christian name and religion.the conqueror of Constantinople, A.D. 1453, gave theGreek patriarch certain privileges that enhanced theauthority of the church and helped preserve the integrityand safety of the Greeks and all the othernon-Moslem races, the same privileges were laterextended to Armenians, Jews, and others. Throughsuch privileges, the patriarchate has authority andcontrol over the clergy, in questions of wills, marriage,divorce and education. Thus there was establisheda state within the state.This gave a status of double dignity and authority

62 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAto tlie patriarcli as the liead of the Greek race aswell as the church. He held a position similar tothat of the Jewish high priest under the Romans.This helped the Greeks to keep their language,customs, rites and traditions as a race in the midstof trying circumstances. They feel they owe it tothe influence of their church. Church and race beingidentified, the Greek Church has become the symbolof nationality in the estimation of the Greekpeople. The threads of religion and nationality areso woven that it becomes difficult, if not impossible,to separate them. The one cannot be touched withoutaffecting the other. Many religious observances,customs, festivals, usages are rather national affairs.The bishop and the priests, like the patriarch, arenational, as well as religious leaders. In spite ofthe ignorance of many priests at present, the peopleesteem them as they see in them the priest whotaught the children in cellars at night the Greeklanguage, and kept the torch of patriotism burningin the darkness of Turkish tyranny.Protestant missions to the Greeks.—^We see theabove points illustrated in the Protestant missionarywork among the Greeks. Protestant missionarieswere sent to the East early in the 19th centuryby Presbyterians and Congregationalists mainly toevangelize the Mohammedans and the Jews. Thedoors were closed to the Moslems. No Moslem wasallowed to profess Christianity openly. Thus themissionaries turned their attention to the variousChristian races or churches, as Greeks, Armenians,Syrians, etc., who had all been oppressed under theTurk and left in ignorance and darkness throughwant of education. Although they had kept theChristian name and customs, they often lacked itsspiritual and moral influence in their daily life.Educational work.—Thus missionaries went to

EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 63Greece, soon after independence was established,and opened schools, published text-books and otherliterature, and were welcomed everywhere. The HillSchool for girls, founded by Dr. Hill, sent out by theProtestant Episcopal Church, continues to the presentday to be held in highest esteem as an educationalcenter. Eeligious instruction is given by representativesof the Greek Church.Controversies.—But other missionaries alongwith the work of education and enlightenmentstarted controversies by discussing points of differencebetween Protestants and Orthodox, and a bitteropposition was aroused which prejudiced the peopleagainst the missionaries, except those of the ProtestantEpiscopal Church, who never attempted to makeproselytes.Jonas King.—Mr. Jonas King, the AmericanBoard missionary in Greece, took a leading part inthe controversies both by publication and oral teachingand discussions. The opposition against himwas so bitter that he was anathematized by theGreek Church and condemned by the government toleave Greece.M. D. Kalopothakes.—Protestant work in Greecewas continued by Dr. M. D. Kalopothakes, whoworked for a time under the Southern PresbyterianBoard and after 1887 independently. He was afighter and controversialist. He was instrumentalin organizing the Greek Evangelical Church inAthens in 1874, where he preached and taught thegospel regularly till his death in 1912. He wasagent of the British and Foreign Bible Society andwas instrumental in distributing the Scripturesthroughout Greece. He founded in 1859 The Starof the East, a religious weekly, the oldest paper inGreece. Its publication ceased during the war.It has been started again recently. He edited the

64, THE GREEKS IN AMERICAChildren's Paper, sl most useful illustrated montlilythat continued for more than a quarter of a century,and stopped for lack of funds, though it had a widecirculation. He published many tracts and leaflets,mostly translations from English adapted to Greekneeds, including some important books, such as Outlinesof Christian Theology, by A. Hodge; Pilgrim'sProgress, Catechism, etc. Dr. Kalopothakes conductedwith great success an excellent girls'schoolin Athens, attended by the children of the mostprominent Greek families. But as the directorswould not comply with the demand of the Greekgovernment under Deliyannis that religious instructionin the school be entrusted to a priest of theOrthodox Church and the icon of the Virgin Marybe put up in the auditorium or chapel, the schoolwas closed!The Evangelical Church in Greece.—The EvangelicalChurch of Greece has now churches or preachingcenters in Athens, Piraeus, Volo (Thessaly),Yanina (Epirus), Salonica, Drama, and Serres(Macedonia). Owing to lack of workers and funds,some of the churches or centers are without settledpastors. Systematic work is being done under pastorsin Athens and Salonica, with preaching, Sundayschool and other services. The Presbyterian systemof church government is followed by thechurches and they constitute the Synod of the EvangelicalChurch of Greece. There is a day nurseryin Salonica for orphans and other poor children,under the Evangelical Church, open to all irrespectiveof creed or race.Plymouth Brethren.—The Plymouth Brethrenhave a mission in Athens and hold Sunday and weekdaymeetings. Similarly there is some work inPatras. Bible colporteurs visit many centersthroughout Greece and do very successful work.Crete has various centers, especially Canea,

EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 65where Evangelicals hold meetings. The main leaderis under Eussellite influence and endeavors to spreadEussellite literature and teachings.The number of all the Evangelicals or Protestantsin Greece is only several hundred, and there are buta few more Eoman Catholics. Church services ofthe Evangelical or Protestant Greeks are conductedin modem Greek, those of the Greek Orthodox, exceptthe sermon, in ancient Greek. The Protestanthymn book has a few original hymns, but most ofthem are translations from the English. One of thegreatest hymn writers and translators was Dr. EliasEiggs of the American Board. He knew 18 languages,and Greek was second nature.Protestantism in Turkey.—The Protestant workin Turkey, mainly among the Greeks and Armenians,is under the American Board. A number of GreekEvangelical Churches have been established withregular Sunday and weekday services, includingSunday schools, and in the interior, day schools.As the education of the children is left to the religiouscommunities, every denomination has to providefor the education of the children of its members.But through war and other ravages the wholework has been interrupted and in many places destroyed.There were Greek Evangelical churchesor preaching centers in Constantinople, Smyrna,Manisa, Baindir, Ak-Hissar, in the Smyrnaregion; Ordu, Fatsa, Samsun, Alacham, and anumber of villages in the Black Sea region;Derekioy, Iskili in the Marsovan region; and a fewother places in the interior of Asia Minor.Greek Evangelical Alliance: Dr. George Constantine.—Manyof these churches are members of theGreek Evangelical Alliance in Smyrna founded byDr. George Constantine, an eloquent preacher andauthor of a number of standard theological worksin Greek, a Commentary on the Four Gospels, and

66 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAa Dictionary of the Bible. The work is now incharge of Dr. Xenophon Moschou, who is also theauthor of a Commentary on Galatians, a catechismand a number of tracts, hymns and addresses orsermons. He has also translated Liddel and Scott'sGreek Lexicon into modern Greek.The number of all the evangelical Greeks in whatwas Turkey was probably several thousand. Manyyoung men escaped to the United States owing tomilitary oppression and deportation, thus a greatblow was given to all the newly starting congregations.Results.—^ The number of the Evangelical Greeks^in the world is insignificant and the direct resultof the whole movement to organize a separate Protestantbody is rather small and discouraging. Theindirect results, however, have been very great andsignificant. There is a vast number of men andwomen within the Greek Church who are sympathizerswith Evangelical principles and who wish tomake their church a more up-to-date institution, agreater power for spiritual and moral influence inthe life of the people, but who do not want to becalled Protestants, or leave their church connectionand join a separate new denomination. Thus thereisa strong reform party within the Greek Church,and the main or best work of the evangelical Greekshas been to stimulate and strengthen it." Thereare leading bishops and other clergymen as well aslaymen who are planning for reform in the churches.Archbishop Meletios Metaxakis, Metropolitan ofAthens; Bishop Chrysostom of Smyrna; BishopChrysostom of Philadelphia, and many others areof the reform school.Among other reasons for the preference of manyevangelically inclined to remain with the church oftheir fathers is the fear of Greek leaders that toweaken the Greek church would mean a blow to

EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 67Greek nationalism and might endanger the causeof Greece, the aspiration to emancipate the Greekrace from the Turkish yoke. Of course this fear isnot well founded, as Greek nationality is not coextensivewith Eastern Greek Orthodoxy. There areover a hundred million of the Orthodox Church whoare not Greeks, as Kussians, Serbs, Eumanians, etc.,and the Protestant Greeks demonstrated repeatedlythat they are as patriotic and truly Greek as theirOrthodox brethren and compatriots.Religious classification in Turkey.—Still therewas some ground for this fear in the fact that theTurkish Government ignored race distinction andclassified the people by their denominational or religiousconnections; thus there were Moslems, comprisingTurks, Kurds, Circassians, Arabs, Albanians,etc., and non-Moslems, comprising the Christiansand the Jews. The Christians were classified as (1)Greeks, comprising all the adherents of the GreekChurch, Albanian, Bulgarian, Syrian, etc., as wellas those of the Greek race and speech; (2) Armenians,race and church membership coinciding; (3)Catholics, mostly Armenians, some Greeks, Syrians,and Levantines, and (4) Protestants, some Armenians,some Greeks and Syrians. Now all thesegroups were regarded as distinct nationalities withseparate patriarchs, as the head of each. The Protestantchancery was regarded as equivalent toother patriarchates and had the same privileges andfunctions. When any one, Armenian, Greek, Syrian,becomes Protestant he has to cut off his connectionfrom his church and nationality and join the Protestantnationality. It was something more radicaland significant than changing denominations inAmerica.The missionary work in the Near East has beenin late years mainly educational. Though at firstthe Greeks were averse to missionary institutions.

68 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAthey now form the majority of the student bodyin Robert College, the International College,Smyrna, and Anatolia College, Marsovan. They attendin large numbers the Constantinople Collegefor Girls ; St. Paul Institute, Tarsus ; American AgriculturalSchool, Salonica; and other Americanschools in the Near East. Many are studying inthe American University, Beirut, Syria. Similarlythe American hospitals are much patronized byGreeks in the Near East.These institutions are rendering a great servicein building up the character of those who come undertheir influence, thus strengthening the reformparty's wish that the Church may become a moreefficient spiritual power in the life of the people.Reform not doctrinal.—By ** reform, '' however,almost all mean certain practical improvementsrather than any doctrinal changes. As regards doctrinethey hold the Greek Church to be Orthodox.They want an Erasmian type of reform, such as,better educated clergy, shortening of the services,better and more edifying preaching, marriage ofthe bishops, diminution of fast days, etc.Joakim III, one of the most distinguished Patriarchsof Constantinople in recent years, was of thereform party. There are various organizationswhose purpose is to enlighten and educate the peoplein things spiritual and in orthodoxy. Such areAnaplasis in Athens, with a periodical of the samename; Eusevia (piety) in Smyrna; Anorthosis inConstantinople (the young Turks closed it duringthe war), and others in other places, whose programis almost the same.Apart from Protestant influence, there had beencertain separatist movements, from the OrthodoxChurch in the 19th century in Greece. Such wasthe Theosophist movement of Kaires, the Societyof Makrakis and his followers, but they have not

EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 69bad any lasting effect. Neither at present is thereany organized separatist movement among theGreeks.Greeks religious.—No Greek wishes to be regardedas irreligious, whatever be his personal feelingsor convictions al30ut religion. There are manyeducated Greeks who lean to materialism or agnosticism.Inquirers.—The cultured, thinking Greek youngmen are occupied with the same metaphysical andphilosophical problems and questions as the intelligent,cultured minds in the American colleges anduniversities.Influence of the church.—But there is no formalbreaking away from the church. All Greeks exceptingEoman Catholics and Protestants are supposedto be adherents of the Greek Church. Church connectionwith the Greeks is like citizenship in theUnited States. The church takes hold of the individualfrom his birth until his death, and meetshim at every step. Birth, marriage, burial andmany other circumstances bring the individual manto the church. To be beyond the pale of the churchis like being outlawed in a civilized country.Although the Greek Church is the state religionin Greece, other denominations and religions enjoyperfect freedom and tolerance though legal standingis denied Greek Protestants.Eoman Catholics, Moslems, and Jews have everyprotection and freedom to observe their religiouscustoms and rites. The Mohammedan imam ormuezzin calls the people to prayer from the minaretsin Thessaly, Salonica, etc., as in the days of Turkishrule. In fact the government pays the salaries ofthe non-Orthodox clergy as that of the Orthodoxclergy.Greek Protestants restricted.—^With Protestantsthe situation is somewhat different. The European

70 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAand American Protestants, e.g., the Lutheran andAnglicans, had perfect freedom. But the G-re'ekProtestants are looked down upon as unpatrioticand sneered at if not openly persecuted. In Piraeusa mob attacked the Protestant church and burnedit in 1888, and Dr. Kalopothakes and others escapedlynching or stoning with great difficulty.The Greek Protestants have really no legal standing.Their marriages are not regarded as legalunless performed by a priest of the OrthodoxChurch. It was hoped that the enlightened policyof the Liberal government under Venizelos wouldrectify all these inequalities. In fact steps were beingtaken to remedy them before its fall.The pastor of the Protestant church at Salonica,Eev. A. Mihitsopoulos, and the missionary, Eev.Jas. A. Brewster, are authorized to celebrate marriagesby the Greek government as they were underthe Turkish government.The Liberal government invited the Americanmissionaries to continue their educational and othermissionary work in Smyrna and promised to givethem every facility. The same attitude is keptby the present government. In 1918, Venizelos invitedthe Trustees of Eobert College to open a similarAmerican College in Athens, the Greek governmentpromising to grant free land to the institution.Translation of the N. T. into modern Greek.—There is a topic that drew much attention andcaused much adverse criticism in missionary andevangelical circles, i.e.,the question of the translationof the New Testament into modern Greek. Byan act of the Holy Synod of Greece, 1901 A.D., thetranslation of the New Testament from the originalinto modern Greek was forbidden. It was the publicationof a translation of the gospels into demoticGreek or ^* slang*' in the Aeropolis, a prominentAthenian daily, that aroused the student body in

EUROPEAN BACKGROUND 71the University of Athens with the result that therewas a riot in the streets with bloodshed. Corruptpoliticians made political capital out of it. Thecabinet fell and the Synod put the ban on all translationsof the N. T. into modern Greek. But thewhole thing was a linguistic and political questionrather than religious. The purists feared theymight lose ground and the sacred language of theoriginal New Testament might be desecrated bytranslation. The Synod held that the original NewTestament Greek was as clear and intelligible to thepeople as any translation, which is not the case.Under the Venizelist government the Scriptureswere circulated in translations in spite of the banstill in force. Both the government and the Synodwere planning to abolish the ban with the first opportunity.The present government is enforcing theban, but there is reason to hope a more liberal policywill prevail in the end. Besides the ban is forthe old kingdom of Greece, and does not apply toregions that were once Turkey.When Archbishop Meletios Metaxakis visited theUnited States in 1918 he told me he would have noobjection to the circulation of the Scriptures, butwelcomed it, and would do the same to transktions.He said he would prefer that the Bible societies inBritain or America should cooperate with the HolySynod of Greece, helping it to print and circulatethem with its sanction. He thought the Synod wouldgladly undertake the translation. At the headquartersof the American Bible Society he reiterated hisviews and wishes in bidding farewell to Dr. W. I.Haven, one of the secretaries of the society, beforehe sailed for Constantinople when he was electedpatriarch.There is no doubt the Greek Church does not barthe Scriptures or any part of them, as such.The Greeks were lukewarm at first, if not actively

72 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAopposed, even to the Y. M. C. A., associating it with.Protestant propaganda work.But since they came into touch with its goodwork at the Macedonian front, especially at Salonica,the Greek government and the church invited theInternational Committee of the Y. M. C. A. to startwork among the Greek soldiers, and now there isthe Greek Y. M. C. A., not only for soldiers but alsofor civilians. The work will grow and extend itselfin many directions.The Y. M. C. A. men are welcomedeverywhere and held in great esteem and theirwork is much appreciated. King Constantino hasdecorated some of the Y. M. C. A. workers in Greece,as Venizelos also had done.Y. W. C. A.—There has been some Y. W. C. in Athens in a limited sphere for years.The leaders are anxious that the American or BritishY. W. C. A. take up the work and develop it. Thereis no doubt the same welcome awaits the Y. W. C. that accorded to the Y. M. C. A. in Greece.

—Chapter IITHE GEEEKS IN AMERICAIMMIGRATION"Greek immigrants.—Greek immigrants firstsettledin the eastern states, especially New York andMassachusetts. Gradually they spread to otherstates and now there is scarcely a town in whichGreeks are not represented.Number of Greeks in United States.—^The estimateof their number varies between 300,000 and500,000. The Massachusetts Bureau of Immigrationputs the number as 350,000, though Greek estimatesput it at least as 400,000 and often as many as 500,-000. Of these they estimate 45,000 to 50,000 to be inMassachusetts. This would make the Greek populationof the entire state not far from one-seventh ofthat of the entire country. It has been estimated tobe also about two-thirds of that in all New England.The census of 1920 gives 175,972 foreign-bomGreeks in the United States. Adding 20 percenta generous estimate—for children of those bomhere, gives 211,166 of w^hat the census classifies as* ^foreign white stock.'' Of these 38,574 are foundin New England and 24,122 in Massachusetts.Grandchildren of foreign-born are classified as native-bornAmericans. Later reports will verify orincrease these figures.Greek communities.—As soon as a sufficient numberof Greeks gather in a city, they form a community—Greekor Hellenic Orthodox community.Each community has its president, vice-president,secretary, treasurer and other councillors and all,73

74 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAlaymen, thus showing the democratic character ofthe organization. They secure a priest through theoffice of the bishop in New York. With the first opportunitythey buy or build a church, usually ofByzantine style. If unable to do this, they hire ahall or a church.According to the list supplied by the office ofBishop Alexander Rodostolou, delegate of the HolySynod of Greece in America, there were 134 communitiesin the United States and Canada. TheGreeks have penetrated into the South, and MiddleWest with prominent communities in Ohio, Illinois,Indiana, and Missouri. They have gone still furtherinto California and Washington with flourishingchurches in San Francisco, Los Angeles, and Seattle.Usually all Greeks are regarded as members or adherentsof the church where they reside. But asthe directors of the church are elected by the contributors,the members given in any list do not coverall the Greeks residing in a particular place.Greeks scattered in United States.—The Bishops'list gave only the places where the Greeks have organizedcommunities ; but they are scattered, far andwide, in varying numbers into many other places.At Christmas, 1919, I sent out some 50,000 appealsto the Greek communities, subscribers of certainGreek papers, and the customers of a number ofwholesale Greek merchants in New York, on behalfof Greek Relief Work. The answers that came wereextremely interesting and surprising. In EastRapids, Mich., there were only two Greeks and bothcontributed. In other places there were 10, 20, ormore Greeks. Often an individual or a number ofthem forming a committee collected contributionsfrom others, thus there came a list with 50 or more,sometimes rising to several hundreds of names. Thelargest communities are in New York City with 25,-000, including Brooklyn. They are scattered all over

;THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 75the city and even in the suburbs.Chicago, HI., has13,000; Lowell, Mass., 4,500; San Francisco, Cal.,3,800; St. Louis, 2,500; Boston, Mass., 3,500; Manchester,N. H., 3,500; Akron, 0., 2,300; PhiladelphiaPa., 2,000; Milwaukee, "Wis., 2,000; WashingtonD. C, 2,000; Seattle, Wash., 1,550; Canton, 0., 2,000Pittsburgh, Pa., 1,500; Lynn, Mass., 1,900; ClevelandO., 1,800; Gary, Ind., 1,550; Monessen, Pa., 2,000Haverhill, Mass., 1,400; Youngstown, 0., 1,500Weirton, W. Va., 1,200; Peabody, Mass., 1,450Bridgeport, Conn., 1,000; Los Angeles, Cal., 1,150Nashua, K H., 1,200; Toledo, 0., 750; SpringfieldMass., 1,050; Worcester, Mass., 800; Newark, N. J.1,150, Oakland, Cal., 1,000; Baltimore, Md., 800Portland, Ore., 1,000; Tarpon Springs, Fla., 1,000Denver, Col., 850; Buffalo, N. Y., 650; Norfolk,Va., 750; cities with 600-700—Eeading, Pa.; SaltLake City, Utah; New Bedford, Mass.; Indianapolis,Ind.; Sioux City, la.; with 400-600—E. Chicago,Ind.; Omaha, Neb.; Wheeling, W. Va.;North Platte, Neb. ; New Brunswick, N. J. ; Syracuse,N. Y.; Eochester, N. Y.; Jersey City, N. J.; Ft.Wayne, Ind.; New Orleans, La.; Columbus, 0.; MasonCity, la.; Providence, E. I.; Bethlehem, Pa.;with 250-400—New Haven, Conn. ; Hartford, Conn.Tacoma, Wash.; Pawtucket, E. I.; Dayton, 0.; Lorain,0. ; W^arren, 0. ; Kansas City, Kas. ; Stamford,Conn.Addresses change frequently.—One of the maindifficulties in finding the number of Greeks in agiven place is the fact that those working in millsand factories move about from place to place accordingto the work and wages they find. Addresseschange very frequently. Letters of acknowledgmentsent to the address of the contributor immediatelyupon the receipt of his contribution comeback with the stamp *^ Unknown. A '* contributorfrom Philadelphia goes to Cleveland, Ohio, and is

76 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAnext heard from in Albany or it may be Akron, orCanton, Ohio. Even in the same city, especiallyin New York, addresses are changed so frequentlythat it is discouraging to attempt to make a cardfile, with the exception of certain prominent merchants,professional men and traders, who have permanentaddresses. The case of the priests is alsodiscouraging, as many are shifted from one chargeto another or go back to Greece.Family groups and men with families.—The earlyimmigrants were almost all men, single or married,who had left their families behind in their homeland. But gradually women began to join them, andtheir number has been growing from year to year.From 1882 to 1886 503 men and but 45 women enteredand settled in New York. From the annualreports of the Commissioner General of Immigrationfor the year ending June 30, 1910-1919, welearn that the number of unmarried Greek maleimmigrants from 14 to 44 years of age was 144,827,married 71,970, and widowers 403. From 45 yearsand older the numbers were single, 410, married6,887, widowers 230. In the same period the numberof married women 14 to 44 years was 14,126,married 10,168, widows 653. From 45 years andolder the numbers were single 30, married 1,056 andwidows 881. The single women from 14 to 21 yearsnumbered 8,577, 22 to 29 years 4,735, 30 to 37 years561, and 38 to 44 years 89.It is not far from the truth to say that 20 percent of the Greeks in America have their familieswith them; the rest are either unmarried or haveleft their families in the homeland. The numberof families has been growing lately, both by marriagesin United States and married men bringingover their families from Greece or Turkey.Men came alone for economic reasons, as sums ofmoney insignificant in the United States were of

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 77great value and service on the other side. Theyworked in the United States and sent money home.BETURN MOVEMENT TO GREECERush to return.—As soon as the armistice wassigned (Nov. 11, 1918) there was a rush to returnto Greece. Many Greeks went back to the Smyrnaregion, Constantinople and even to some parts ofThrace and Asia Minor. Many more are waitinganxiously for the settlement of conditions in Turkeyin order to return to their home lands.Reasons.—This rush was mainly due to the factthat people were barred from visiting their relativesand friends during the war, as they used todo in normal times. This desire to return, however,was not in many cases coupled with the intentionto leave the United States permanently. In factmany of those who went back are already returning.According to the Greek press, 10 to 20 percent ofthe Greeks in various localities are planning to returnas soon as conditions in the Near East are,settled.Some of the estimates sent me from variousregions are as follows: From Haverhill, Mass., 25percent, for family ties; Dayton, Ohio, 5 percent;Peabody, Mass., 50 percent, for improved conditionsin Europe; Washington, D. C, 10 percent to visitrelatives; Springfield, Mass., 20 per cent; Ansonia,Conn., 50 percent, mostly refugees ; Syracuse, N. Y.,25 percent, mostly for a visit. Eventually most ofthem will come back, bringing others.Similar estimates were given by many leaderswhom I interviewed. Here are one or two typicalexpressions of opinion on this subject: Dr. P. P.Nicholas of New York said, ^^All Greeks come toAmerica with the intention of returning. They wantto make money and return as soon as they can man-

78 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAage it. But they soon get so entangled in businessand prosper that they cannot leave America evenifthey wished.''By Dr. Theodore Ion: '^The Greek people whoemigrated to the United States either from free orenslaved Greece did not come with the intention ofmaking it their permanent home. They come hereas they go to other parts of the world like Egypt,South Africa, South America, Europe, etc. Theonly difference between the Greek immigrants hereand those in other countries is that they come tothis country in very large numbers, while Greekimmigration elsewhere is sparse. Their wish andhope is always to return some day to their homes,but many of them naturally cannot, and after a visitwill return and make this country their permanenthome. They do not come in family groups, andsometimes, after years of residence here, send fortheir families, if they have any. Others return toGreece, contract marriages there and return toAmerica with their wives."Dr. S. I. Paul of Springfield, Mass., writes: **Gohalfway with the Greeks and they will go halfw^aywith you. The Americanization of the Greeks, untilrecently, had been superficial, as they had come tothe United States generally with the idea of makingmoney and then returning to their native land. Butthis is no reason for despair, as the very names ofBoston, New England, New York, etc., indicate thatthe early English in America w^ere reluctant to separatethemselves from their mother country. Sincethe war, due perhaps to the drafting of many Greeksin the service of the United States, there has beena marked change in their attitude toward this country,coming more and more to regard it ^as their own.Proof of this is demonstrated by the fact that manyGreeks are now buying American realty.The prosperous will stay.—Those who are accus-

'THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 79tomed to American ways and ideas with all the rushand hustle of life here, with ever-widening fields ofenterprise and efficiency, cannot rest satisfied withthe quieter and less active life in the Near East.Besides many o^vn houses and other property.Some are engaged in real estate enterprises or otherlines of business. Such will never return. OneGreek now in real estate business in AVilmington,Del., ovms property worth more than $1,000,000 andhe is only one of a class of prosperous Greeks, someof whom started from the very bottom and haverisen gradually to prosperity.Working Greeks will return.—^It is different withw^orkers in mills and factories and those who cannotfeel at home in America. I asked in 1918 scores ofGreeks in Syracuse, N. Y., who were from Broosa andits villages in Asia Minor, if any planned to returnhome. **A11 of us," they replied. ^^Who would notgo back to his home and his own? "We are strangersin a strange land; we do not know the languageof the country; neither can we learn it; we areworking hard like slaves and then our earnings flyaway from us, everything is so dear. At home wehave our houses, fields, vineyards, and our relativesand friends are all there."In general, however, Greeks are well satisfied withAmerica. They love and adore it. They intend tostay here permanently. They call it *^ Their secondfatherland. 'One (in Philadelphia, Pa.) said, ** Every one canfind what he wants or can do here ; if a man cannotfind work in this country he can find it nowhere ; thisis the best country to live in." He came from Turkeya poor, ignorant man. Now he owns a wellfurnished, fine home. His two sons are earning goodwages. They are all happy and well. His littledaughter was proud that she was born in Americaand was an American.

80 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAUnited States full of comfort.—^Another—a stu-(lent—spoke of the comfort of life, facilities, conveniences,enjoyment land opportunities to grow, andthen compared them with the monotony, hardships,and difficulties on the other side. Steam heat, electricity,*gas, etc.,'we cannot have over there,'* heemphasized. Another added, **Let us take thesegood things from here over there.'' Eev. ThomasJ. Lacey of Brooklyn, N. Y., sums up the main pointsregarding the Greek immigrants in a letter thus^'The important things about the Greek immigrantto my mind are :1—He comes with a great historical,literary heritage of which he himself has an appreciation.The humblest Greek is thrilled with thegreat past of the Hellenic people. 2—He comes insearch of economic betterment, hence will be thriftyand hard working. He has not known political oppressionin his homeland and has never felt antagonismto government; is not prone to foment unrest.3—By natural temper and long racial training indemocracy, the Greek is adapted to American idealsand institutions."ECONOMIC CONDITIONSWith the exception of the few merchants and students,the early comers were poor and illiterate.Almost all settled at first in New York. They startedselling candies, fruits, and flowers from a baskethanging around their necks, and wandering throughthe streets. Others went to the interior as workmenin railroad building.Then came the push-cart, candy-store, and confectionery.Then retail and wholesale fruit merchants,florists, etc.Enterprising.—The Greeks are thrifty and enterprising.As soon as a Greek saves money enoughhe starts business for himseK. This fact is set forth

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 81successfully and pointedly in the Eeport of the MassachusettsBureau of Immigration.^*Although many thousands of Greeks in Americaare employed as mill and factory hands and manymore thousands in railroad construction, in diggingsewers, and as farm laborers, there is a strong tendencyamong the Greeks here, as Prof. Eoss says,to take to certain lines of business such as candykitchensand confectionery-stores, ice-cream parlors,fruit-carts, stands, land stores, florist-shops and bootblackestablishments."^^This is due to the fact,'' Prof. Eoss continues,**that catering to the minor wants of the publicadmits of being started on the curb with little capitaland no experience. Once his foot on the first step,the saving land commercial minded Greek climbs.From curb to stand, from stand to store, from littlestore to big store, to the chain of stores, to branchstores in other cities. Such are the stages in hisupward path."They work hard and render satisfactory serviceto the public. There might be given many instancesof Greeks prospering and making good in these lines,in different parts of the United States. I mentiononly one, a prominent fruit dealer in the state ofNew York, who started with a push-cart and nowowns a chain of stores and is prosperous.Restaurants.—Eestaurants and lunch rooms areanother line of work that Greeks engage in withgreat success. There are two classes. 1—Thosewhich furnish Greek dishes. 2—Those which followthe American kitchen. The latter class is gettingmore numerous and doing very successful work.There is scarcely a city where Greeks are found,and have not opened a restaurant or lunch room.It has almost become a proverb, When ^* Greek meetsGreek he opens a restaurant." They were amongthe first to open first class restaurants in the south.

82 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAThose wMch follow the Greek kitchen are reproductionsof the home institution, with the samedishes, style and manner of serving as in the oldcountry. A number of them are of better grade,and Americans, especially those who have been inGreece or Turkey, like to visit them.Waiters.—A great many Greek young men serveas waiters in .^erican and Greek hotels and restaurants.Some of them rise quickly into higherThe tipping system in Amer-positions in this line.ica is highly remunerative. So many use the hotelor restaurant service as a stepping stone to somethinghigher. Many a student has worked his waythrough college or other studies in this way. Othersopen restaurants of their own. Greeks own andoperate a number of prominent hotels in Brooklyn,Manhattan and other cities, with almost exclusiveAmerican constituency. Hotels for Greeks are numerousin all the Greek centers.One of the prosperous wholesale merchants inNew York came from Greece with his three brothersburdened with debts owing to their father's business.They started as waiters. As soon as theysaved some $2,000 they opened a grocery store andbegan importing goods from Greece. Now they arevery successful wholesale grocers and in the exportand import business.Groceries.—New York City has many Greekwholesale grocery merchants engaged also in importand export business. Fourteen of them formed acommittee in 1919 to collect funds for Greek reliefin Thrace and Asia Minor, to assist the work ofthe Greek Belief Committee.These merchants have great business with retailgrocers scattered throughout the states, especiallythe eastern. Chicago is another important centerfor wholesale grocers and merchants whodeal chiefly with the middle west and western states.

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 83They are also doing an extensive business as furriersin New York and other places.Cigarette manufacturers.—Greeks have been pioneersin cigarette manufacturing and the tobaccobusiness. Anargyros Melanchrinos, Stefano Bros.,Condax Bros., are a few of the well known Greeksin the cigarette business. In recent years there haveappeared many Greek commercial houses dealingin tobacco and some of them have been very prosperous.The Stefano Bros., Poulides Bros., theStandard Commercial Tobacco Co., Pialoglou Bros.,B. D. Dugundji & Co., and Condax Bros., all of NewYork, are a few of the prominent tobacco merchants.Shipping.—The Greeks, being a seafaring andcommercial people, have been very successful insteamship work. Thus the Greek Line or NationalSteam Navigation, 20 Pearl St., New York City, hasregular steamships between New York and Piraeus,Greece. Also Greeks, naturalized in America, ownships and are doing good work between America andEuropean ports, e.g., D. Theophilatos, Stephanidesand Benas of New York.Agencies.—^In New York and other important centersthere are many steamship ticket agents providingmany facilities for immigrants and emigrantsat their arrival in or departure from the UnitedStates. Some have hotels and transportation facilitiesof their own. There have been many abusesin the past, at the expense of inexperienced immigrants,but conditions are much improved.Banking.—Many Greeks have gone into banking.Besides many employed by American banks eitheras employees or heads of their Greek departments,they have organized banks with Greek capital.There are Greek banks in Boston and Chicago, andseveral are being organized in New York and othercities.Theaters.—Moving pictures and theater opera-

84 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAtions have drawn a number of them. Although^ agreat many operate small theaters and moving picturehouses, some have larger ones, e.g., in Pittsburg,Pa., Paterson, N. J., and many other places.But the one Greek who has earned the title *'Kingof Theatres,'* is Mr. Alexander Pantazes of Andres,Greece, who owns a whole series of theatersalong the western coast, centering in Seattle, Wash.There are numerous Greek motion picture housesin Pennsylvania, Illinois, Massachusetts, New York,and Texas.Many are in trades as barbers, bakers, carpenters,printers, tailors, furriers, shoemakers, electricians,machinists, etc.There are two other lines of work in which Greekstake a prominent part—shoe-shine parlors and coffee-houses.Shoe-shine parlors.—In connection with the shoeshineparlors there is the question of child laborand the protection of the young workers from theWhatever abuses havegrafting abuse of the bosses.happened in the past there has come about muchimprovement in the working conditions and therights of the boys are well guarded by the law. Inconnection with the pool-rooms and the shoe-shineplaces there are often barber-shops and cigar andfruit stands. Coffee-houses have been importedwith the immigrants and they accompany them inall their migrations.In Tarpon Springs, Fla., there is a strong Greekcolony of 2,000, many of whom are sponge-divers.STANDARD OF LIVING AND WAGESThe earlier immigrants, usually of a rather ignorantpeasant class, lived in crowded and unsanitaryrooms. They did not realize the value of fresh airand sunlight, and the result was that many caught

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 85tuberculosis. Those who returned to Greece carriedthe germs to their homes also.They were careless of their diet and neglectedtheir health, living on scanty food. It is true Greeksin general are moderate in eating and drinking andmany take very light breakfasts. They may passthe day with bread and olives or cheese in theirhome towns or villages, but they soon found out theycould not stand the struggle for life here on thatkind of diet. Their main desire was to economizeas much as they could, so that they might sendhome money for the support of their families. Theyfollowed an oriental proverb, ^^One cannot save byworking but by not eating. "* ' Every penny unspentis a gain."There is great change now and improvement inevery way. The negligent at first are now livingin better circumstances, taking proper meals andkeeping their rooms and clothing clean and tidy.The earlier comers were mostly single, ignorantmen. As time passed they earned more and spentmore. The married ones brought their families andthe single got married. The family life brought itscomforts and improvement. Greeks of a better andmore educated class began to come to the UnitedStates. Among the immigrants, there are graduatesof high schools and even of Athens University.Some of them may be found among the waiters andattendants in hotels and restaurants. Probably theyare working their way in some college or universityhere.Houses.—Greek houses are usually tidy, clean andcomfortable, with separate dining, living and sleepingrooms, although in large cities like New York,Greeks, like the rest of the people in the country,are endeavoring to utilize every room available, forthe sake of economizing in this time of **high costof living."

S6THE GREEKS IN AMERICAam told by several who haveFactory workers.—^Itraveled much and came into personal touch withmany, that the men who work in factories, millsand railroads are as a rule attentive to their habitsand take good care of themselves. In answer tomy question as to their standing of living **0h, theyare all Americanized," they said, **they know howand what to eat and how to live."High wages.—^With the rest in the country, Greeksalso are earning more and get higher wages. Commonlaborers are making far more money than manyan educated man. During the war many Greeksearned good sums of money in ammunition factoriesand ship-yards and generally in every trade.Among the Greeks usually men 'alone work forwages, while women attend to household work.Greek women are good in domestic science, are fondof cooking, sewing, knitting, and embroidery. Afterfinishing the necessary household work, they usuallymake calls or do some handiwork.But now under new circumstances in America,Boys and girls areeverybody who can is working.doing their part helping with the family expensesand increasing the savings. Women help their husbandsin grocery stores, florist shops, or candystores.Savings.—Greeks, like other people, are earningmore and spending more, but as a rule are savingmoney. Many have accounts in savings banks. Itis surprising how illiterate persons have saved thousandsof dollars. Many, however, carry all theirsavings in their pocket-books or keep it in theirrooms. A case is known of a Greek who had hispocket picked of $12,000 in a theater in Detroit,Mich. Similar incidents are not rare.Greeks who left the United States for Greece sincethe armistice have taken along hundreds and thousandsof dollars.

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 87UNRESTNo unrest.—Greeks are loyal and respect orderand government. There is no movement of unrestamong them. Letters that came from many partsof the United States and numerous interviews withmany leading personages in various walks of life,all showed one thing— '^there is no unrest among theGreeks.''H. C. L.—There is of course an undertone of complaintin all hearts against the high cost of living.The Greeks share this feeling of discontent, andmany in their effort to explain the matter blame thisor that individual or organization.Americans generalize.— I have heard loyal Americansof leading political parties say ^4f things goas they are everybody will turn socialist." ManyGreeks say the same, but all are speaking commongeneralities. While discussing this subject with aleading, educated Greek, I mentioned this fact. Heat once replied with emphasis, ''Do not repeat anythinglike that, it may be misunderstood or misinterpreted.There may be individual Greeks whocherish queer notions. And there are Americanswho will at once generalize -and in the present dayfashion of hunting for ringleaders of unrest theywill rashly class the loyal Greeks among the anarchists,socialists, etc. It is a real fact, there is nounrest among us."Experience shows that the fear of this man wasnot groundless, because people meet a crook or deceiveramong foreigners, they readily suspect allforeigners, and are seized with foreigno-phobia orGreeko-phobia. I know a number of fine, respectable,Greek young men who had great difficulty infinding rooms, because landladies would not rentthem to Greeks. They succeeded easily in findingwhat they wanted by passing for Frenchmen!

Chapter HITHE GREEKS IN AMERICA (Continued)SOCIAL. CONDITIONSImproved social conditions.—Now, as a rule, peopleare living in more sanitary conditions than formerly.Greeks, like other immigrants, adapt themselvesto circumstances. Those who arrive at anyport in the United States searching for work areglad to find a place to put their head. The wholefamily of four, ^ve or more get along for a timein one room, but as soon as they get work and improvetheir circumstances, they seek better quarterswith improved conditions of living.RECREATION-Coffee-houses.—Greeks have brought to Americatheir customs and modes of recreation from the oldcountry. Coffee-houses provide the principal recreationfor men. People flock to these places day andnight, sitting around tables, sipping black coifee,smoking cigars, or more commonly cigarettes, or thenarghile, and discussing everything,—business, newsof national interest, and of course the politics ofGreece and the attitude of Americans towards them.At times they discuss American politics. There areoften animated discussions that might be taken forquarrels by those who do not understand Greek, butit is all verbal, no blows exchanged excepting theblows the tables or chairs receive. Greeks, like theLatin people, accompany their words with multiplegestures of hands and head, maybe even the foot,or the whole body.88

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 89Games.—Certain games are played in almost allthe coffee-houses,—cards, backgammon, chess, anddominoes. Cards are the most common game.They are often played for pastime and recreation.Gambling.—But unfortunately gambling is frequentlyconnected with them. Almost every answerto my questionnaire mentioned gambling as the chiefevil among the Greeks in America.In discussing this matter, an American friendwondered whether the case was any worse amongthe Greeks than among Americans or other races.Probably not worse.Lack of social centers.—In many places Greeks,working in factories and mills, have no properamusement or entertainment centers after workinghours. As one of them in Canton, Ohio, put it, ^' theydo not know English, cannot attend lectures or othermeetings, they have no books and could not readthem if they had; they have no homes and do notindulge in evil jDractices, so they spend the eveningsplaying cards and a little sum of money serves asa stimulant.''Refreshments.—Greek coffee-houses take theplace of what used to be the saloon, and serve usuallyas social centers where people meet each other, formnew acquaintances, and get rested. Here are servedcoffee, tea, lemonade, and Greek pastry {paklava•—used also by Armenians, Syrians and Turks.)Unfortunately coffee-houses are much abused, aspeople get a lazy and sedentary habit, breathing fouland smoky air in a crowded hall and wasting valuabletime.Motion-pictures, theaters and concerts are moreand more being attended by Greeks, especially thosewho understand English. Dancing, both Greek andAmerican, is much enjoyed everywhere.Receptions and Dances.—Many Greek societieshold annual receptions with balls or theatrical pres-

90 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAentations, and as they are numerous in New Yorkand other cities, there are frequent entertainments.On such occasions, amateurs or professionals presenta drama in Greek and a comedy is usually addedat the end. A band plays American and Greek airs.Dancing begins at the end, lasting often till morninghours. The grand march is usually the finale.As there are not many Greek young women, manyGreek young men bring American or English speakinggirls.Picnics.—Another feature of these societies istheir annual picnics or outings to some park orsummer resort. Here again life in the homelandis reproduced. National songs are sung, dances andgames are played. Some resort to various athleticevents, which are extremely popular with certainyoung men, and some societies give prizes to thesuccessful contestants.Lamb, roasted in Greek style, is sometimes thefinale.Wine, as in Greece, is used on such occasions.Meals and parties are regarded as dry and spiritlesswithout some spirituous substance. In general,however, moderation is the rule and excesses areusually avoided.Visiting.—Another source of much pleasure andentertainment is visiting homes, especially on saints'days, which takes the place of birthday among theGreeks. Often a child is called after the saint ofthe day on which he is born. Friends and relativesvisit on such occasions and there is much enjoyment,music, dancing, chatting and playing indoor games.Games played in American parties are being introducedinto such gatherings and are proving veryenjoyable. Phonographs are getting very popularand both American and Greek and even Turkish airsare played.

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 91FAMILY LIFEHusband and wife.—Greeks are very much devotedto their families. Whatever freedom may beallowed to men during their pre-marital life, it is understoodand expected that, after the marriage, anew chapter is to be opened and strictly clean recordsare to be entered in it. Women of course havealways to be exemplary and pure in every way.Divorce is uncommon among the Greeks. Childrenare numerous and are regarded as blessings andgifts of God. However poor and ignorant parentsmay be they are anxious to educate their childrenin good schools.There is not much data for comparing the firstand the second generations, as to family life, butthere are many indications that the new generationis getting Americanized and is learning both thegood and bad aspects of American life.Divorce.—A Greek young man was asked:** Would you marry a Greek or an American?" Hereplied ** American." To the question, *^Will yoube able to agree together and be happy?" *^If wedo not, then we get divorced," was his emphaticreply. He would never have thought or said so inGreece or Turkey. There marriage is thought ofas a matter of harmony and love to last till death.Children are devoted to their parents and relatives.Young men gladly undergo many troubles andlive a life of thrift and self-denial in order to save,and send money to their parents. They pay the olddebts of their parents to keep up their good reputationor save paternal inheritance. They postponeor even forego marriage in order to get their sistersmarried. Unfortunately the evil custom of dowrycontinues in the old country. So fathers andbrothers working here must save money in order to

92 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAprovide dowry for daughters and sisters. It is agood thing that the custom of dowry is gettingbroken in America, though not entirely abandoned.Neighborhood life.—People from the same townor village in Greece are usually drawn together inAmerica too. The newcomers find out first of allthe whereabouts of their relatives and fellow-countrymen.In fact they may come directly to them,having already corresponded with them. Even thoseof different toA\Tis are very helpful to one anotherin finding work and if need be helping each otherfinancially and otherwise. They room together;work together; frequent the same cofPee-house, cluband restaurant. Thus close attachments are formed.Here people may live in the same neighborhood(even the same house), and not get acquainted witheach other. Not so among the Greeks; they easilyget acquainted and are friendly and neighborly toone another.Of course this does not mean there are no illfeelings,rivalries, competition or even animositiesamong them. Those of the same trade or professionare often bitter rivals against each other.Moral standards.—Greeks are usually temperateand sober; prudent moderation characterizes theirpleasure and enjoyments. Most of the answers tothe question as to the moral conditions among theGreeks said '^good''; ^'fairly good"; ^^fair"; *^notany worse than their neighbors or others."In general they are loyal and obedient to the lawsof the country. Their chief misdemeanors are neglectof police or sanitary regulations. They bringfrom the old country certain bad habits. Some ofthem resort to deceptive methods, yet even such peoplefind by experience the truth that *^ Honesty is thebest policy." In general they are honest and reliable.Temptations are many on all hands, and some

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 93young men who were pure and temperate in theirhomeland have been led astray in America, usuallythrough bad companionship. Women of low morals,supposedly American, speaking English, visit themin their rooms. Most of them are single young menof military age, at the prime of their youth andstrength, open to all influences in the formativeperiod of their character.Unfortunately they do not see the best in Americanlife, and the evil is always near. In justifyingmisconduct they often say, *^This is America; weare not in Greece or Turkey. Here customs are different,and everything is possible." Even supposedlygood people change their standard of life here.Possibly change of circumstances and environraentbrings out what was in them or draws them intocourses of life they would not have been led intoat home. A young man who would not help his parents,as it is customary to do in Greece, said in justifyinghis refusal, ''This is America; every one hasto look after his own interest and mind his ownbusiness.''United States a mission field.—Many good people,Greeks and others, who had known missionaries andtheir work among the Greeks and Armenians inTurkey, and who have seen chiefly the street lifeor the disorderly conduct in houses and apartmentsor saloons, and who have not seen and cannot seethe citizens of better class and character in theirhome life, ask, ''Why do the missionaries go awayfrom this country? This is the real field for theirwork; those on the other side are real Christians;here is hell."Safeguarding youth.—As there is ground for precautionand exclusion of corrupting influences fromabroad, there is equally great need to keep the inexperiencedyouth from abroad from coming intocontact with the corrupting elements in America,

94 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAand to surround them with better influences, withproper social environment, pure amusements andinnocent entertainments.RELATION TO OTHER RACIAL GROUPSFriendly to other races.—Greeks are usuallyfriendlyand on good terms with representatives ofother races. Political questions and collisions ofviews and interests have created a mutual antagonismbetween Greeks, Albanians, and Bulgarians,and Turks. They cannot work together amicably.In normal times they can all get along well. Thereare many cases of strong friendship and attachmentbetween individuals from these various groups mentionedas antagonistic. Greeks from Turkey areoften on very good terms with the Turks, when theymeet in this country, especially those coming fromthe same region. War, however, upsets all conditions,destroys best friendships, and creates bitteranimosities. Albanians and Greeks were veryfriendly until foreign intrigues separated them.Should those intrigues stop,Greeks and Albanianscan adjust their differences, and may even form astrong alliance. There are many Albanians inGreece, and some of the most prominent, patrioticcitizens of Greece were of Albanian descent.Esteemed by Americans.—Greeks are held generallyin good esteem by Americans and other races.There have been, however, exceptions, especiallyyears ago when a mostly ignorant and low type ofGreeks, only, were known to a great many Americans.Greeks had a rather low standing. Also,owing to the elasticity of the meaning of Greek,menabers of the Greek Church of other races beingalso called Greek, often crimes and offenses of Bulgarians,Albanians, Eumanians and other races,even Turks, were ascribed to Greeks.

'THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 95Marriage between Greeks.—^In general Greek menmarry Greek women. As there are not many Greekwomen in the United States, when a young manwants to marry he writes home to his parents tofind a bride for him. After a successful search whenthe selection is decided upon, photographs are exchangedand the result may be an engagement.Then the young lady comes to America and theyget married. The story of Isaac and Eebecca is repeatedfrequently or the young man may go homefor a furlough and the matter is settled there. Thetendency is to select a bride from their own villageor town, following a popular proverb, **Even if youare to buy shoes or sandals, buy them from yourown place. 'Intermarriage.—Still there are many cases of intermarriagewith other races. When the two, manand woman, of whatever race, agree in temperament,culture, tastes, they live in happiness. But whenthere has been a hasty marriage without proper mutualacquaintance, many difficulties rise. Differencesin taste, as to diet, manners of life, habits,customs, religious and denominational matters, allcreate an atmosphere of misery, and may end indiscord and divorce.Religious.—^Keligious principles are inculcatedordinarily in terms of patriotism. Even the celebrationof the resurrection of Jesus at Easter suggeststo them the hope of the resurrection of theirnation; the Annunciation by the Angel to Mary iscoupled with the declaration of the independence ofGreece, etc. They are superstitious, being stronglydevoted to old customs, usages, and practices. Suchdevotion, however, is often coupled in them withmoral indifference.They are generally thrifty, energetic, enterprising,alert, intelligent. Here are some of the virtuesand evils mentioned by various Greeks as character-

96 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAizing their people in answer to my questionnaire:Chief virtues : ** Steady and hard working; successin any enterprise they undertake; united in theirnational aspirations and religious doctrines; industriousness,love of country, dependability in business,ambition to succeed; love for their families;patriotism, loyalty and good-fellowship; progressiveness;morality; economy; honesty; integrity;wide-awakeness ;good citizenship, thrift ; steadinessin work; frugality; independence; quietness and respectof laws; love of work; ambition for higher andbetter conditions of life ; freedom from communistioideas."*^Chief evils : Selfishness ; lack of organization andcommunity centers; the so-called ^' Greek Cafes'';discord and divisions among themselves; ignoranceof English and lack of proper education in generalpropagandist press, disloyal both to the UnitedStates and Greece divides us (Greeks) ; card-playing,the worst of all; gambling among the low classpeople (mentioned by many) ; envy and jealousyamong themselves ; none ver}'- bad ; lack of enthusiasmto commune with nature; coffee-house loitering;vile talking."RELATION TO AMERICAN PEOPLE, IDEALS,ETC.INSTITUTIONS,Love for America.—Greeks have always lookedup to America and the American people with devotionand admiration; an affectionate regard has characterizedall references to America by Greeks. Sincethe war of Greek independence, at which time Americashowed practical sympathy and support toGreeks through relief work, they have had a specialregard and appreciation for America.The American School of Archaeology in Athens,and the various American educational institutions

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 97in the Near East have greatly strengthened thesebonds of affection and have drawn the Greeks closerto American ideals and institutions.Those who have come to the United States havealways been loyal to the American government,laws and other institutions, and feel much attachedto the American people. Everywhere they wish toget acquainted with Americans, to learn their waysand get the benefit of the educational, social andother opportunities. Those who know English andare able to appreciate American thought and idealsare drawn with deepest admiration to America.Those who are apparently distant or unappreciativeare usually ignorant of the language, hence unableto understand this country, and so remain isolatedand clannish, keeping company with their compatriotsonly, and always using the Greek language.Democratic.—All Greeks feel grateful for the hospitality,and business and educational opportunitiesthey find on American soil. Greeks are truly democraticby nature, temperament and upbringing. Theideas of the oldest democracy in history, and thoseof the greatest republic of modern times—of alltimes—are identical. Therefore devotion to Greekideals is not antagonistic to loyalty to America; onthe contrary they go together and strengthen eachother. All true Americans have been lovers andfriends of Greece, sympathetic in all her difficulties,and kindly towards her aspirations. In turn all trueGreeks have always admired American ideals andaspired to learn and practice them.This we see illustrated in those Greeks who havestudied in American schools and colleges in the NearEast or United States. Graduates and students ofthese institutions have been warmly devoted to them,and have acted everywhere as missionaries of Americanideas and institutions. They are among theleaders and best influences in the life of Greek com-

98 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAmunities and serve as links of connection and mutualacquaintance between Americans and Greeks. Suchare lawyers, engineers, physicians, literary, andbusiness men.Helicon.—There are several associations of Greekstudents in American colleges and universities.The oldest is ^* Helicon'' of Boston and has renderedgreat service in bringing students togetherand in arranging series of lectures and addressesfor the enlightenment of the people. There is alsoa ** Helicon'' in Berkeley, Cal., and a similar association,** Greek Students' Association Helicon," inNew York. The latter is gathering statistics of theGreek students in various American colleges anduniversities. By the courtesy of Mr. T. Cottakis,Secretary of the ^* Helicon," I have secured the followingfigures (1920) :students of Engineering 26" " Medicine 18" " Chemistry 8Law 3" " Pharmacy 2" " Commercial Science 8" Academic 8" Dentistry 4" " Agriculture 6" " Philosophy 1" " Finance 1" " Liberal Arts 1" Art 8The list is incomplete.Total 94It could easily be doubled.I know several studying theology and other subjectsthat do not appear in it. *^ Helicon" is endeavoringto complete it.There is also a greater number of Greeks attendinghigh schools and business schools in variousparts of the country, and almost all the Greek childrenof school age are attending public schools, alimited number going to private schools.

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 99A remarkable thing about Greek students is tbefact that almost 95 percent of them are workingtheirway through college or university. Thus Dr.E. Demos of the Department of Philosophy, HarvardUniversity, writes, *^I hope you will stress inyour report the increasing number of Greek studentsin America—the fact that 95 percent are earningtheir own way along, that when they graduate theyenter into professional activities and become responsiblecitizens. '^Illustrations.—^When I visited Michigan University,in 1916, I found some 10 or 12 students^graduates and former students of Anatolia College,Marsovan, Asia Minor, all earning their way. Theyearned their meals by serving as waiters in clubsand boarding houses, secured their rooms by attendingto the furnace of some house, and worked insummer for their tuition. Now one is a successfuldentist, several are physicians, others engineers.The same is true of other schools. One who workedin a shoe-shine parlor has successfully finished collegeand law school, and is now a very proficientattorney. Another kept a shoe-shine parlor and hatcleaningestablishment, working himself, while hestudied political science in winter. Dr. Constansof Washington, D. C, went through his medicalcourse by keeping a barber-shop and now occupiesa prominent position as professor and p^^ysician.Others work as waiters in restaurants, ice-creamor shoe-shine parlors, business offices, farms, or astutors.Successful in studies.—Many a Greek student hashad a bright record in his college or universitycareer. Dr. E. Demos, a graduate of Anatolia College,Marsovan, took a post-graduate course in philosophyat Harvard with distinction, receiving three years and a scholarship which enabled himto take two years' study at Cambridge University,

100 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAEngland, and at Paris. He is now assistant in theDepartment of Philosophy at Harvard.Dr. A. E. Phoutrides, after graduating with distinctionat Mount Hermon School, Massachusetts,and in classical studies at Harvard, won a travelingscholarship, and visited Rome and Athens and otherplaces in Europe and assisted in classical studiesat Harvard. He had been appointed professor ofGreek Literature at Athens University, Athens,Greece. But on the return of Constantino returnedto Harvard, where he is teaching Greek. He is theauthor of a volume of verses in English and translated^'Life Immovable,'' by Costes Palamas ofAthens, Greece. Another Greek holding a high academicposition is Rev. Prof. Andrew Zenos of Mc-Cormick Theological Seminary, Chicago, 111.Mr. N. Cassavetes worked in an ice-cream parlorwhen he came to America, a little boy. He graduatedfrom Mt. Hermon School, being valedictorianof his class, and took courses at Harvard with muchcredit. Now he is at the head of the Pan-EpiroticUnion of America, and the League of the Friends ofGreece, both in Boston, Mass.Dr. Theodore Ion was Professor of InternationalLaw at Boston University, now practicing law anddirector of the American Hellenic Society and authorof various publications, and many magazine articles.Dr. L. Hadjopoulos, graduate of Anatolia College,Marsovan, after graduating with a bright recordfrom the Medical School of Cornell University,served at the Bellevue and other hospitals and isstill connected with the staff of a New York hospital.Dr. P. N. Papas and Dr. C. J. Soukires graduatesof Anatolia College, Marsovan, graduated, one fromHarvard Medical School, and the other from BaltimoreMedical College and both are on the staff ofBoston hospitals. Dr. L. P. Kyrides, graduate ofMichigan University, is the research chemist of the

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 101National Chemical Aniline Company at New YorkLaboratory. Dr. J. G. Stateropoulos, graduate ofYale University, is the research chemist of a prominentfirm, Brooklyn, N. Y. Both are graduates ofAnatolia College, Marsovan. The late Prof. Sophocles,Professor of Greek at Harvard, and author of aGreek English Lexicon, and Michael Anagnos, Directorof Perkins Listitute, Boston, Mass., wereGreeks. Mr. M. Dorizzas, a graduate of the Universityof Pennsylvania, and Dr. V. Moysides, of MichiganUniversity, besides distinction in their studies,have a high record in athletics and won much reputationas wrestlers. They represent a group ofGreek student athletes who shine in athletics as wellas scholarship.It was a Greek, Trivoulides by name, who won theMarathon race at Boston, Mass., in 1920.Mr. Nicolay of Greece is a successful tenor in theChicago Opera, and several others are getting reputationsas singers. So there are dentists, engineers,lawyers, artists, actors, doing great credit to theGreek name.The record of almost every Greek student inAmerica would be a matter of great credit and muchinterest as an achievement in culture and attainmentthrough self-help and thrift.Political Relations.—At first Greeks came toAmerica with the intention to make money as fastas they could, and to return enriched to their nativeland as soon as possible. Consequently they keptaloof from American politics, neither taking anyinterest or part in them. It is only lately that theybegan to appreciate the value of citizenship andnaturalization. Some have already taken out theirsecond papers, and a far greater number their firstpapers. It may not be far from the truth that onefifthof the Greeks are already citizens and the numberis growing daily.

102 THE GREEKS IN AMERICASOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS AND FORCESNo destructive organizations.—There are no destructiveorganizations among the Greeks in America,or elsewhere. There is a Greek socialist societyin New York, but it is a rather microscopic affairand is not much heard of. Before 1917, when openairmeetings on radical questions were allowed, oneof the speakers, or rather salesmen (for the speakersaimed chiefly at selling books of the New York SecularSociety) was Greek. There may be a few otherslike him, belonging to socialist or secularist organizations; but there is no destructive organization distinctivelyGreek.Constructive Greek societies.—There are, however,very many constructive Greek societies, associations,leagues or brotherhoods, as they are calledin all the Greek communities in America. The numberand the constitution of their organizations illustratethe Greek tendency to individualism and decentralization.There is no organization comprising allthe Greeks in a single union or comprising all factions,parties and localities.Eepresentatives of almostevery prominent village or to^vn have formedseparate organizations here with a definite programfor each. There is a tendency now to group andunite the various local associations into one centralone, which might have branches in different parts ofthe country. Thus there are various local Samiansocieties; they all unite in the Pan-Samian society,Pythagoras, with branches in New York, Peabody,Mass., etc. There are various societies of Greeksfrom Chios. Then the Panchiotic society, ' ' Koraes, 'with itscenter in New York.There are over 80 or 90 Greek societies in NewYork City alone, with many others scattered in allthe Greek communities in the United States and

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 103Canada. A good many exist in name only. Theyhave been formed at a time of enthusiasm for somedefinite object, then the founders leave or die orthe original object is no more pressing, and theyare forgotten or dissolved.Each society has an executive committee, withpresident, vice-president, secretary, treasurer andcouncilors, and various sub-committees, e.g., auditingcommittee. Some have regular collectors whoare paid for their labor, a fact indicating the difficultyin collecting dues. Some have rented haUswith library, newspapers, and a coifee-house wheremembers and others can have refreshments, rest andplay the usual games. Such are the Lacedsemoniansociety of the Spartans, Marmoras; Hellespont societyof the Madytians; The Castorian society,*^Omonia,'' New York City; Panchiotic society,^^Koraes,*' New York City, etc. Others have nospecial office or hall, but are known by the addressIt may beof the president, secretary or treasurer.some barber shop, bakery, tailor shop, hotel or restaurantor grocery. With the change of the officersthe address changes.Mutual Benevolence.—A good many of them aremutual benevolent societies, each member contributinga monthly or weekly fee and receiving an allowancein case of sickness. It is also part of theplan to help their poor compatriots in case of sickness,and provide for their funeral if they die.Others have in view to render some help to theirnative town or village in Greece or Turkey, etc., inchurch or school work, or some public utility.Some have an educational program with eveningclasses in Greek, English and other courses. Theyalso hold courses of lectures and addresses on Sundays.Such is Plato, an educational society. NewYork.Most of these societies are social and educational

104 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAcenters as well as serving benevolent ends. Theygive their annual reception in one of the theaters orhalls to which the whole Greek community of thetown is invited, admission being by ticket, and theproceeds go to defray the expenses and the surplusto the society's work or some definite benevolentend, as relief work.In recent years some of the most prominent andwealthier societies like the Lacedaemonian Society,Greek American Florist Association, Greek LadiesBenevolent Society, all of New York, have been holdingtheir receptions at the Waldorf Astoria, HotelAstor or Commodore. The decorations and the generalarrangements in the hall are carried out by adecorating committee of the society, who displaysuch good taste and produce such fine effects thattheir work would be a credit even to a well-organizedAmerican society or club. Societies in Chicago,Pittsburg, Boston, and elsewhere do similar workwith similar effects. Some have annual dinners,iSTew Year and Christmas parties or arrange Christmastrees for the children.Relation to Sunday observance.—The only objectionfrom the American Protestant standpoint wouldbe that all the picnics and many social affairs areheld on Sunday, which is observed, customarily,as a pleasure day. There also may be an objectionto some dances from the evangelical standpoint.Greeks have what is commonly known as the ContinentalSunday. Some may attend church servicein the morning and devote the rest of the day topleasure and recreation. Others do the same forthe whole day, omitting church attendance.There are one or two other organizations thatrequire special mention. I have already mentionedthe ^^ Greek Students' Association Helicon." Thereis a similar organization in New York, the Greek-American Inter-Collegiate League, consisting of

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 105leading physicians, lawyers, engineers and literarymen. They have regular monthly meetings at whichliving scientific topics are discussed. Part of theirprogram is to spread scientific and hygienic informationamong their people. They have circulateda pamphlet on tuberculosis in Greek, and are planningto send out other leaflets treating of socialproblems. Such organizations would grow more,and exert greater influence, if branches were formedin other Greek centers, because there are many culturedand able college and university men scatteredin various communities. They would be of greatpower if they could all be united in a well-organizedassociation.The Pan-Hellenic Union of America, as its nameindicates, aims at uniting all the Greeks in theUnited States, irrespective of political views or placeof birth, in one organization, with the center inNew York and branches in all the prominent communities,thus rising above the limitations of theother local societies. Among its objects are includedthe giving of a social center to the Greeks with readingroom, and assembly hall for lectures, addresses,and social occasions; to conduct evening classes inEnglish and other practical and business courses;to establish scholarships to help deserving studentsto take practical and scientific courses in Americaninstitutions; to provide funds for charitable work,especially under the care of the women's branch;to have information and employment bureaus forthe benefit of immigrants, and to help all patrioticcauses. Thus the union has a broad and comprehensiveprogram, but unfortunately it is not put intoaction. In the first place its very aim defeats it.Greeks being individualists and under the sway oflocal influences, they form smaller local societies,just as they had city states in ancient Greece, andfailed to organize one big ^^ United States.*' Then,

106 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAthe union has been made an object of attack andcriticism as if it were a partisan institution, henceit has the support of only one party at present, theVenizelists.Before and during the Balkan wars, the Pan-HellenicUnion rendered noble and enthusiastic serviceto the Greek cause. It raised large sums of money,and armed and sent to the Balkan front soldiersfree of all charge to the Greek government.Pan-Epirotic Union.—The Pan-Epirotic Union ofBoston, with branches in other parts of the UnitedStates should be mentioned. It was organized to defendthe claims of Greece to Northern Epirus. In1918 the Union raised a considerable sum of moneyamong its members and friends, for the relief of sufferingGreeks in Asia Minor and Thrace. NorthernEpirus claimed by the Albanians and Italians wastruly Greek at heart and responded sympatheticallytowards relief of their brethren oppressed under theTurkish yoke.Through the activities of the Pan-Epirotic Union,there was organized the League of the Friends ofGreece in the same center as the Union, but with awider scope, i. e., to defend the rights of Greece inall the regions under dispute, Thrace, Asia Minor,Dodecanese, as well as Northern Epirus.Loyalist or Royalist Leagues.—There are whatare called Loyalist organizations in various Greekcommunities with headquarters in New York. However,they do nothing constructive. Their main objectiveis propaganda in favor of King Constantinoor the Royalist party, sending him congratulatorycablegrams, or messages to the President of theUnited States denouncing Venizelos and his policy.The Loyalist WeeJcly is their organ. The Venizelistsare organized into what is called the League ofLiberals, with branches in many states. They havestate and federal organizations. The Federal head-

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 107quarters are in New York. Their official organ, aweekly, published in New York, is called The LiberalBulletin. A part of their program is the establishmentof a republic in Greece. Unfortunately theseparties divide the Greeks into the fighting campsso that the Eoyalist and Venizelos controversy anddiscussions are carried on constantly in houses,stores, coffee-houses, churches, and everywhere.Often members of the same family are dividedagainst each other.Greek-American Boy Scouts.—There is in NewYork the Greek-American Boy Scouts organization,under Royalist control and direction, which fact unfortunatelylimits its usefulness, regarded as partisanand for political ends. It ought to have beena real Greek American organization for all theGreeks, supported by all, irrespective of politicalviews, for the good of the rising generation. WhateverKing Midas of Phrygia touched turned to gold:whatever Greeks touch becomes political. Politiciansare managing to make capital out of everythingfor their own ends.EDUCATION^AL. FOECESAttend public schools.—Greeks seek wisdom.Wherever they go, they open and support schools.Parents are anxious to educate their children well.So they are very glad to take advantage of the publicschools. All children of school age attend publicschools, excepting a small number that go to privateschools. The public school is a melting potwhere children of all races are receiving the sametraining. They all learn English, sing patriotic andpopular American songs, play American games, saluteand respect the Stars and Stripes and when theyfinish the public school or reach high school, they arealready Americanized.

108 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAGreek American Institute.—There are no parochialschools among the Greeks of the type prevalentamong the Roman Catholics. The only schoolapproaching that type is the Greek American Institute,Eagle Avenue, New York City. It is regarded^s a typical institution where Greek children shouldreceive an education similar to that in the Americanpublic schools while getting at the same time trainingin the Greek language, institutions, and GreekOrthodox doctrine. It is supposed it will serve asthe Acropolis of Hellenism, preserving the Greeklanguage and religion, besides giving the childrenthe essentials of American education. Some 200pupils attend it. It has a boarding as well as dayschool department.Church schools.—There has recently been openeda number of schools connected with the Greekchurches or communities in the United States.Church and school go hand in hand among theGreeks in all lands. Education has been entrustedto the church. There are some 150 Greek churchesin the United States, but only 40 to 50 schools, butthe number is growing. The plan is to gather thechildren after school hours from 4-6 or 7 P.M. toteach them only the rudiments of the Greeklanguage and Greek religious instruction similar tothat in Greece, i. e.. Sacred History, consisting ofthe story of the Old and the New Testaments, andelementary catechism. All the other subjects aretaught in the public schools in English. Such schoolsare usually in the basement of the church, not verysunny or conducive to the health of the children.Some churches are planning to build separate schoolbuildings, and all is being carried out by privatedonations and contributions.Private schools.—There are a number of privateschools in New York and other centers where childrenand adults learn Greek. Some are night

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 109schools, others give instruction during the day also.Some adults have learned reading and writing insuch schools. Then there are private day and nightschools in the large Greek centers, to teach Englishunder Greek direction. Some schools have Americanteachers.Books and newspapers.—Most of the books publishedin Greece on history, biography, religion, fiction,etc., can be obtained at the principal Greekbook stores, especially at those of Atlantis and theNatiofial Herald, New York. There are book storesin all the important centers. Besides original worksthere are many translations from French, English,German and Italian, but the first two predominate.Greeks in America have contributed a number oforiginal works including stories, fiction, poems,dramas, and religion. There are several translationsand adaptations from English into Greek.But the chief contribution has been in the line ofnewspapers and monthlies.Greeks carry with them wherever they go, theirlove for news. So in America too, many attemptsare made to meet their need and cravings. ManyGreek papers appear and disappear from time totime.The largest Greek newspapers in the world arethose in New York, which go all over the UnitedStates, Canada, South America, and even Greece andTurkey, in fact wherever Greeks are found. Theyare Atlantis and National Herald. The first is theoldest Greek daily in the United States. It startedin 1894 as a monthly, then it became bi-monthly,weekly, and at last daily. It grew as it went. Thesecond started almost full grown from the very beginning,with a capital of $100,000 in 1915, but it hasgained much ground growing and improving.Both Atlantis and National Herald have illustratedmonthly editions, with fine pictures illustrat-

110 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAing life and scenes in America and elsewhere. Theyare the best of their kind, unequaled in all the Greekworld, so far as material and pictures are concerned.Party spirit.—The party opposition and rivalryamong the Greeks appears in all its bitterness andhatred in the press which reflects and at the sametime kindles and animates it. Atlantis claims to beindependent. At present it is Royalist, the NationalHerald, Venizelist. Besides the party opposition,there is the bitter newspaper competition betweenthem, each striving to supplant the other and havethe whole field for itself. Atlantis has seen the riseand fall of many rivals and stood gaining ground.But the National Herald too, has started vigorously,fought valiantly and kept gaining ground.Services of the press.—The press is a great poweramong the Greeks. It meets a great demand.Doubtless it renders a great service to the public ingeneral, the Greeks in particular, and to the UnitedStates Government. Whatever bitter differencesand quarrels newspapers may have among themselvesthey all defend the United States Government.They urge the people to learn English and to respectand obey the laws. They publish and explainall the news concerning the public welfare.They give also prominent space to all matters concerningthe Liberty and Victory Loans, Eed Cross,Y. M. C. A., Y. W. C. A. and other humanitarianorganizations. They preach Americanization.Besides they are educating and informing theGreeks on many valuable points in hygiene, manners,and social conditions. Many ignorant Greeks areimproving their Greek and general knowledge bythe newspapers.Leadership.—As in Greece, so in America, it isdifficult to be a leader among the Greeks. They aretoo individualistic and all aspire to leadership.Their weakness lies in their factiousness and eager-

—:THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 111ness for dispute and controversy, quibbling and sophistication.This weakens their moral influenceand diminishes their usefulness. The difficulty isenhanced by political divisions, as politics pervadeall departments, the church as well as secular concerns.Hence the followers of one party are notwilling to be led by leaders in the churches, the pressor diplomatic service who are of a different party.Quotations on leadership.—Some of the answersmy correspondents gave as to leadership among theGreeks are as follows^'Hardly any"; ^^They are taken care of by goodleaderi^''; ^^ Inspiring; good; at present there is goodleadership, through the Hellenic .Society ofwhich controls Church affairs also;'* '^None ofany consequence;'' ^^ Every one wants to be theleader, so they do not readily follow their leaders.''Many correspondents had left blank this question.As leaders among the Greeks in America I wouldmention.1 The press; the newspapers reach and influencea wider group than any other factor.2 The church leaders: the bishops and otherclergy. In spite of the lack of culture and fitness forleadership of a good many priests, they are a powerin Greek communities, as they come into touch withthe people at important occasions, such as sickness,marriage, baptism, and death.3Those in diplomatic service at the Legationat Washington, D. C, and the consulates at variousplaces. As official representatives of the Greek nation,the people have to apply to them on many occasionsfor advice, as well as for official functions.They have much influence which would have beengreater, had it not been for political factions.4 The literary and educated men, such as physicians,lawyers, writers, and teachers, play an importantpart in the life of the communities. At various

112 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAgatherings, people look up to them to act and speak.5 Prominent and successful business men, especiallythose devoted to generous giving.6-—The presidents and other officers of the varioussocieties and clubs. They often sway the membersand friends of their organizations.FORCES OF ASSIMILATIOITAmericanization.—A great deal is being said andwritten regarding the Ainericanization or assimilationof the immigrants that seems strange. Some ofthe heated utterances sound like the nationalistictheories of the Pan-Germans or the Pan-Slavists. Ifthe various races are to be forced to forget all theirracial peculiarities and characteristic customs,usages, and language, and to adopt American ways,instead, the result will be disappointing. Whenevera people is forced to accept, willingly or unwillingly,a certain course of action, the result has usually beenthe opposite of what was desired.But if without being interfered with in their cherishedcustoms, ideas, language and traditions, theyare surrounded with a genial American atmosphereand are given suitable opportunities to learn Ainericanways, ideas, language and institutions ; in short,if they are gradually taught what is good in theirnew surroundings, while they retain what was goodand useful in their former life, all the immigrantswill be Americanized in due time.Even the word ^^Americanization'' sounds strangeto many ears ; it sounds like suppression, force. Letthe immigrant have freedom to contribute his bestto the welfare of America. As the various raceshave brought their national dishes, customs andusages, so let each contribute his peculiar talent andaccomplishment in art, letters or business, thoughhe may be deficient in the knowledge of the Englishlanguage.

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 113Americanization of the children.—Many a simple,illiterate immigrant may turn out to be more loyalto America, than the so called cultivated theoristswho can chatter, parrot-like, good English, but areunsound in morals and unprincipled in action. It isdifficult and in some cases impossible to change thehabits of the adult. It is different with the youngand the children. They are open to impressions,and the future lies with them. They will all getAmericanized through education. The public schoolis the melting pot where children of all races arebeing assimilated. Many Greek children who arebeing educated in American schools, answer theirparents in English who speak to them in Greek.The evening schools are of immense value. Bothmen and women are attending evening classes, inthe public schools, Y. M. C. A. and the various Greeksocieties.Y. M. C. A.—The Y. M. C. A. is bringing manyGreeks into contact with American ways, ideas, customs,and moral and spiritual ideals. A great manyare now joining the Y. M. C. A. in different parts ofthe country. In New York, the 23rd Street Branchis becoming a center for foreign born men. A Greekbranch had 165 Greeks connected with it in 1920 and300 in 1921. Special social gatherings are heldwhere Greeks and Americans meet, get acquaintedand discover unexpected qualities and attractions ineach other.Meetings for Greeks are held, addressedby prominent Greeks and Americans. Eveningclasses of various kinds are held. A Greek musiciangives lessons on the violin, guitar and mandolin.Many are interested by assignment to various subcommittees.A Greek assists the American Secretariesand their program includes helping the immigrantson landing at Ellis Island, finding them lodgingsand employment and helping them in otherways. Some young Greeks room in the Y. M. C. A.

.1114 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAbuildings. The athletic, recreational, and social featuresof the Y. M. C. A. and its Bible classes andSunday afternoon gatherings are valuable influences.Y. W. 0. A.—The International Institutes of theY. W. C. A. are doing similar work among youngwomen. The International Institute, 121 E. 22ndStreet, New York, has a ''P. A. A.'' (the initials ofthe Greek words meaning patriotism, devotion andmutual help), a club for Greek girls, who meetmonthly for lectures, social gatherings with music,and other attractive features, and to give assistanceto Greek immigrants. There are also Greek branchesin Lowell, Mass., and San Francisco. Theatres,motion pictures, concerts and lectures, trade andbusiness relations, and many other points of contactbetween Greeks and Americans in daily life, are contributingtheir share in getting the immigrants acquaintedwith American life and ideas.There are certain other organizations whose programis Americanization, as the Greek AmericanLeague, 56 Pine Street, New York. Its main activityconsists in an annual dinner thus bringing togethermany prominent Americans and Greeks at a socialgathering.Similar organizations exist in Springfield, Mass.,Peabody, Mass., Chicago, and other Greek centers.Greeks are more and more reading Americannewspapers and periodicals which are all exertinggreat influence in educating and Americanizing them.Certain industrial corporations as the Ford works,Detroit, Mich., are conducting classes in English andcivics, with good results.I have read of an illiterate Greek condemned toeight years' imprisonment, who decided to put intogood use his term in prison, and learned English andgot an education.Majority clannish.—All the above-mentioned influencestouch only a section of the Greeks. The

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 115majority are living an insular or clannish life, frequentingthe Greek centers, clubs and cotfee-housesand all the time associated with their compatriotsonly. So that they do not learn English and cannotget American ideas.RESULTS AS REFLECTED IN WAR SERVICELoyal service in war.—The Greeks proved theirloyalty to the United States and the cause of theAllies, by enlisting in great numbers to serve underthe Stars and Stripes. Some 60,000 thus renderedvaluable service in the war. Those from Greeceproper according to an agreement between Greeceand the United States by service under the Americanflag were counted as under the Greek flag. Otherswere from Turkey, and as such might have claimedexemption as enemy aliens. But very few took advantageof this opportunity. Proportionately agreater number of Greeks were enlisted in the UnitedStates, as many of them were young men withoutfamilies, and of military age. Many Greeks werecited for distinguished service in France.Bought Liberty bonds.—Greeks bought extensivelyof Liberty and Victory bonds. According tofigures published in the Greek press, they boughtover $30,000,000 worth,' during the third LibertyLoan campaign alone. Men, women and even childrentook a prominent part during all the campaigns,selling Liberty Bonds. The clergy, the societies, especiallythe press, did their best in promoting thevarious drives. They also contributed liberally tothe Eed Cross and other benevolent organizations.Many florists, confectioners and others offered theirproceeds for one or more days, sometimes a wholeweek, to such patriotic and philanthropic causes.Greek relief committee.—One of the organizationsformed to assist war sufferers in Thrace and Asia

116 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAMinor and refugees from those territories in Greeceand the islands was the Relief Committee for Greeksof Asia Minor, with offices at 1 Madison Avenue,New York, cooperating with the Near East Relief.The contributions came mainly from Greek sourcesand all the appropriations were doubled by the NearEast Relief and used for Greek relief in regionsdesignated by the Greek committee. The clergy, thesocieties and many individuals contributed generously.Its receipts, amounting to some $250,000were doubled by the Near East Relief, so that$500,000 have been spent for the relief of sufferingGreeks in Asia Minor and elsewhere.Services of the committee.—The committee renderedmuch valuable service in transmitting money,clothing, and other goods from many Greeks in theUnited States to their relatives in Turkey, throughthe Near East Relief, especially during the war whenthere was no other channel to reach Turkey. Thecommittee besides its humanitarian work, representsan excellent type of Americanization work also.Misunderstandings corrected.—This committeeand its work has helped greatly in breaking downprejudices and misconceptions on both sides. TheGreeks were extremely suspicious of any organizationor activities in which missionaries were involved.When the committee started in 1917, therewas a great deal of opposition on the part of a numberof Greeks. But it gradually waned and disappearedand almost all came to appreciate the committeeand the self-sacrificing work of the relief workers^among whom there were many missionaries.There have come many expressions of appreciationand letters of thanks from the Greek Patriarchate,Constantinople, the various bishops, and otherleading Greeks in Greece and Turkey, both to theAmerican and the Greek committee.There was also a good deal of misunderstanding

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 117on the part of the missionaries regarding the Greeks,and American missionaries generally were unfavorablyinclined towards them. Some even thought theywere obstinate, distant, and unsympathetic. Yetthose who came into touch with them through the reliefwork were impressed so favorably, that somebecame enthusiastic about them. Many Americanscontributed both money and service to the cause.The Greeks know their friends and feel deeply gratefulfor such sympathy and helpfulness. Such mutualacquaintance and cooperation continues on theother side too in the actual field of relief activities.In July, 1921, the Greek Relief Committee handedits work over to the Near East Eelief which continuesthe work.Another organization that helped greatly in bringingAmericans and Greeks to better acquaintancewith and appreciation of each other was the AmericanHellenic Society under the Presidency of Dr.Nicholas Murray Butler, President of ColumbiaUniversity. Its main object was to bring the Greekcause before the American people and enlightenthem on Greek questions, but it did a great deal inwinning the Greeks to American ideals and institutions.The Society published several books andbooklets on Greek affairs, especially the politicalsituation. It was discontinued November 14, 1920.Similarly the Red Cross, the Y. M. C. A. and theY. W. C. A. have done much to impress on the immigrantas well as the people in Greece and Asia Minorthe true ideals of Americanism. They have shownthe best in America and have attracted the love andadmiration of all towards America and the Americanpeople.Many who are unable to utter a word in Englishare truly devoted to American ideals as a result ofthe varied activities of the above mentioned organizations.

Chapter IVTHE GREEKS IN AMERICA (Continued)GKEEK CHURCHESAlmost all the Greeks in America, with the exceptionof a few Protestants and Catholics, belongto the Greek Orthodox Church ; even the indifferentand the non-churchgoers regarding themselves asGreek church people.Greek communities.—We have already spoken(in Chapter II) of the Greek community organization.The directors are usually laymen who controlthe affairs of their group. The position of the priestin a community until 1918 was somewhat irregularand not well defined. Generally he was at the mercyof the trustees who invited and dismissed him asthey pleased. He was free in the performance ofreligious rites and ceremonies, and was responsibleto his religious superiors in Greece or Constantinople.Supervision of the churches.—The EcumenicalPatriarchate in Constantinople, constituting thehighest authority in the Greek church, claimed andhad the right of founding and supervising churchesin America. It transferred, however, this right tothe Holy Synod of Greece in 1908. Until recently,the whole matter of the organization and supervisionof the Greek churches was ill-defined and neglectedand Congregationalism reigned supreme in an episcopalchurch. Individuals organized a community,owned property and found a priest to carry on thereligious services, as independent bodies. Somesecured their priests through the patriarchate and118

;THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 119others from the Synod of Greece. There have beencases of individuals unconnected with either, andwithout proper credentials of ordination, acting aspriests, in isolated colonies or communities.Theoretically all the Greeks in a given locality constitutethe Greek community there. In recent years,however, there has been laid down a rule, that onlythose who pay certain yearly dues are regarded asmembers and have the right to vote and be electedto an office in the community.Colonies.—There are at present some 150 communitiesin the United States and Canada which areorganized with churches or halls owned or rented.There are numerous unorganized Greek coloniesscattered throughout the United States and Canada.Priests from the neighboring community visit themoccasionally to perform marriages, baptisms andother ceremonies, often using the local Episcopalchurch. There are four communities in Manhattan,one in Brooklyn, N.Y. ; one in Newark, N.J. ; one in"West Orange, N.J. There are colonies in Elizabeth,Perth Amboy, Trenton, Hoboken, Jersey City, N.J.Poughkeepsie, Yonkers, Albany, Troy, and Newburgh,N.Y., and in many other centers and states.Organization of the churches.—In 1918 ArchbishopMeletios Metaxakis, then Metropolitan ofAthens and Primate of Greece, accompanied ^ byother prominent ecclesiastics, visited the UnitedStates. Plans were then laid down for the organizationand systematization of the church work inAmerica. The plan provided for an archbishop,probably with seat at Washington, D.C., and two orthree bishops with New York, Chicago, Lowell orSan Francisco as their respective seats. There werefinancial and other difficulties in carrying it out,the main one being how to harmonize the right ofjurisdiction and administration by the church ofGreece, an established and state church, over congre-

120 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAgations constituted as corporate bodies and holdingproperty in accordance with the laws of the UnitedStates. Ultimately there will doubtless be an IndependentGreek Orthodox Church of America as invarious patriarchates, and the national churches ofGreece, Rumania, etc.Pending further settlement of the organization ofthe churches. Archbishop Meletios left Bishop AlexanderEodostolou as delegate of the Holy Synod ofGreece, to supervise the Greek churches in Aonerica.The office of the delegation is at 140 E. 72nd Street,New York. He has visited various Greek communitiesand is completing plans for the better organizationof the work.The priests of the churches at New York under thepresidency of Bishop Eodostolou constitute thesacred court which acts in all cases of discipline, divorce,etc.Politics and churches.—^Politics continue to havetheir factional influence even in ecclesiastical matters.The leaders of the Royalists, or the ConstantineParty, characterized the delegation as Venizelistand tried to divide the churches on political grounds.In general, however the communities were united inacknowledging and respecting the authority of thedelegation, in spite of the political views of the individuals,priests, or layman until June, 1921. Thefall of Venizelos on Nov. 14, 1920 had far reachingconsequences in the church both in Greeceand America. The revolutionary government ofVenizelos started at Salonica in 1917. The HolySynod of Greece under the presidency of MetropolitanTheocletos, at the instigation of the Court anathematizedVenizelos, not for any spiritual offenseor heresy but to discredit him and his act in the eyesof the people. After the exile of Constantine toSwitzerland, Venizelos returned to Athens. A specialecclesiastical council of bishops, including those

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 121of the new Grecian territories, under the presidencyof archbishop Gennadios, Metropolitan of Salonica,found Theocletos and some of his associates guiltyin the matter of the anathema, unfrocked them andsent them to monasteries in Crete and elsewhere.Later Archbishop Meletios Metaxakis, Metropolitanof Kition, Cyprus, a Cretan, was called to Athensas Metropolitan and Primate of Greece. On Venizelos'fall (Nov. 1920) the new Greek Governmentasked Archbishop Meletios to vacate his palace andseat claiming his appointment was null and void.He yielded, protesting against the interference of thestate in affairs of the church, and claiming to be thelawful Metropolitan of Athens. The government restoredTheocletos to the Metropolitan throne, ignoringthe former action of the ecclesiastical council.Bishop Alexander Eodostolou in America refused torecognize the authority of the Synod and Metropolitan,as they were still under ecclesiastical discipline.The Synod charged him with disloyalty and summonedhim to Greece. He refused to obey, sayinghe would acknowledge fealty only to the Patriarchof Constantinople, the highest authority in thechurch. The Synod then appointed Germanos Trojanos,bishop of Sparta and Monemvasia, as SynodicalExarch in North and South America. Hereached New York in June, 1921. His office is at 12W. 76th Street, New York City. A part of thepriests and communities acknowledge Rodostolouand a part Trojanos as bishop. Each claims amajority. In December, 1921 a majority acknowledgedBishop Rodostolou. The breach widens,churches and communities are divided and the effectis depressing on the spiritual life of the church. InApril, 1921, Archbishop Meletios came to America.He supported Rodostolou. The patriarchate at Constantinoplerecognized him as head of the^ GreekChurch in America and refused to recognize the

122 THE GREEKS IN AMERICASynod in Greece. In November, 1921, Meletios waselected Archbishop of Constantinople and EcumenicalPatriarch. The Eoyalists or Constantinists refuseto recognize the election as legal. The Venizelistsinsist it was the most regular patriarchal electionin years, and whatever dissensions there wereamong the bishops, the people of Constantinoplewere unanimous. The Synod of Greece besides refusingrecognition of Meletios charged him withusurpation of the Metropolitan throne of Athens,and starting schism in the churches in America. Hewas tried in his absence and condemned to be unfrockedand shut up in a monastery in Zanta. Meletiosregards his condemnation as a political move bythe Court and that the Synod was illegally composedof unfrocked clergymen. It is most unfortunate thatthe affairs of the Greek Church and State are insuch turmoil. Both suffer. All the dissensions areprobably symptomatic of a real need of the Greekpeople—regeneration. As Koraes, one of the modernGreece's great leaders said, *' Greeks will notbecome a great nation until they become regeneratein Christ Jesus.'*One of the difficulties in the administration of theGreek churches is the collision of the Episcopal rulewith the rights of the congregations in the choice oftheir priests. The bishop appoints, or removes thepriests, and his decision is final, which often createsdissension.Priests.—Some of the priests in America aregraduates of the University of Athens, or the TheologicalSchool of the patriarchate at the Island ofHalki, near Constantinople. But most of them aretrained for the priesthood under some bishop orPreaching among the Greeks is usually ver-priest.bose, full of rhetoric, fine expressions and phrases,but devoid of variety or depth of thought. Or itmay deal with abstruse dogmatic topics, illustrating

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 123the fondness of the Greek mind, for theoretical andphilosophical questions. Consequently both ideasand diction are often above the heads of the audionce.There are among them men of ability, cultureand spiritual power with simplicity of faith. Butunfortunately, there are also men full of greed andworldliness, using the office of priest simply as ameans of material gain. Some are even disbelieversor sceptics and yet they defend the minutest detailsof the ceremonials of the church as a national institution.Others are well informed and in full sympathywith the reform movement in the Greekchurch. They are very friendly to Protestant ministers,organizations and churches. They use opportunitiesto attend services and other meetings. Theytake notes from the sermons and preach them totheir people, and are studying the various vitalproblems and questions in the churches. A numberof them are members of the clergy club, in New York.The Greek priests especially in large cities are verybusy. In addition to the regular services of thechurch, there are many calls for baptism, funerals,marriages, visitation of the sick for prayer and unctionand communion to the dying.Salaries.—The priests in Greece and Turkey areunderpaid and are poor in general. But those in theUnited States are well paid. In addition to a salarythey get fees for the various rites they perform, e. g.,weddings, baptisms, funerals, etc., and the fee iselastic, left to the discretion and social standing ofthe giver. It is customary while the guests congratulatethe bride and bridegroom at the end of themarriage service for them all to place contributionsin a plate. This collection goes to the priest. Apriest in the Middle West in 1918 sent $140 as hiscontribution to the Greek Eelief Committee, representinghalf of the collection at the first wedding heperformed in his new charge.

124 THE GREEKS IN AMERICADress.—Almost all the clergymen of the Greekchurch in America have adopted clerical clothes andcollar and trim the beard and hair. In Greece theywear long robes with loose sleeves, preacher's highhat, and have long hair and beards, in accordancewith the Nazarite rule in the Old Testament.During the church services and ceremonies theyput on the usual gorgeous ecclesiastical vestments asin Greece, and all the ritual is carried on as prescribedin the church symbolics.Greeks are very religious like the Athenians ofPauPs time, and deeply devoted and loyal to theirchurch.In some families icons (pictures of Christ or thesaints) are kept in a room facing the east, and candlesare lighted before them. There is a householdaltar.I translated, some time ago, a letter from a Greekin the West to an Armenian goldsmith in New York,asking for an icon of St. George, because he wasalone and far from Greek communities and churchesand wanted to have it in his room as a reminder ofhis religion.Church attendance.—Some churches are well attendedall the year round, and at Easter and certainother festival seasons, especially during Holy Week,all churches are crowded. But generally attendanceon other occasions is small. I asked a priest in theMiddle West if he preached to his people. His replywas "They do not come to the services. EverySunday there are some 10-15 persons, and almostthe same set of people every week, what is the useof preaching to them.'' And yet there was a strongGreek community in the city of at least 1,000. Inanother city I attended a service on Sunday morningin which there were some 25-30 persons present, outof a Greek population of 700-800. This was in sum-

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 125mer. But I was told it is not much better in winter.The same is true of many other communities.Worldliness.—This is partly due to religious indifferenceand worldliness of the people, and partly,probably with a good many, to the rush and tear ofAmerican life. Worldliness dominates the peopleand things spiritual recede into the background. Allwork hard and get tired on week days, and are anxiousto rest physically on Sundays, so they get uplate and spend the rest of the day in outings, visitingand amusement. Even those who attend themorning church service spend the rest of the day inpleasure. Sunday observance among the Greekseverywhere is the continental and not the Puritanmethod. Even church attendance with a good manyis perfunctory, consisting of a brief time at the mass,lighting a candle before the icon and making thesign of the cross. Many indulge in conversation duringthe services.America has had influence in modifying certainreligious practices among the Greeks. Thus fastingis almost abandoned, except on certain days duringLent and that in a limited circle, whereas in the oldcountry and in the rural regions they are more strict,especially women. The fast days are 50 days beforeEaster; 40 days before Christmas; 15 days in Augustbefore the Feast of the Assumption of Mary,and the Fast of the Apostles in June, the number ofdays varying, according to the proximity of Easterwhich falls between March 23rd and April 24th.Wednesdays and Fridays, throughout the year arealso fast days. Fasting is abstinence from meat andfollowing a vegetarian diet, even butter, milk andeggs are not allowed. Fish and olive oil are allowed,but not during Lent, excepting certain festivals.But human ingenuity in the art of cooking has inventedvery appetizing dishes especially with sea-

126 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAfood, so that the Lent diet is soinetimes most attractiveand tempting.Julian Calendar observed.—The Greek Churchofficially follows the Julian Calendar which is 13days behind the Gregorian Calendar. Thus Christmasis on the 25th of December, but 13 days laterthan the American Christmas, i. e., January 7th.New Yearns day is January 1st, i. e., January 14th.But the people use in business and all other transactionsthe Gregorian Calendar. Many observe evenChristmas as a social occasion with the rest of thecountry, thus having a double Christmas. The sameis truo to some extent with New Year and Easter.Pious Orthodox Greeks partake of communionfour times a year, during the four fast seasons.Confession precedes the communion. But manycommune only once a year, usually, during Lent.Only a minority of the Greeks in America go to confessionand communion.A number of liberal and evangelically inclinedpriests emphasized the utility and effectiveness ofthe confession. One said he utilizes it as an opportunityto instruct, guide, admonish and exhort thepeople in the paths of truth and righteousness.Many Greeks partake of communion on their deathbed. This is partly due i:o the belief that they wouldin this way be cleansed of all their sins and thus enter** Paradise,'' and partly to the wish that thepious act might help the healing and the recovery ofthe patient. Greek priests often go long distancesto render this last service to the dying.Posture at prayer.—There are only a limited numberof seats in the Greek churches, but even these canbe used only during the singing of certain hymns.Almost all stand during the entire service. Kneelingis resorted to only once a year, on the Day ofPentecost. But in America seats are being providedat some churches. Some communities have bought

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 127Protestant churches, with seats and galleries andthey are kept intact, as they are found very convenient.In Greece and Turkey men and women use separatesections of the church during the services. InAmerica they are getting somewhat mixed and standtogether in some churches. Unfortunately theGreeks do not have the Protestant custom of familyseats at the church where parents and children attendservices together. Boys may be with the father,and girls with the mother.As to the influence of the Greek churches here, afew of the answers to the questionnaire from differentparts of the country follow:*'The influence is very small, excepting in familycircles ;^^ ^* Beneficial and uplifting;'' '^The best;"^^ Little;" *^In religious matters the Greek adheresto his church;" ^^Not very strong;" ^'The church iskeeping the Greeks in their Christian religion;"^'Eather small, because of the general lack of spirituality,and the Greeks are not interested in religion."From the above and other answers it becomes evidentthat the Greeks adhere to their church in spiteof their indifference, or non-attendance on its services.The main difficulty, however, is the lack ofspiritual power. Keligion is usually limited to theperfunctory performance of ritual or is confined tocertain seasons.Need of spiritual power.—The greatest need isspiritual vitality to translate the vital principles intodaily life. Of course, this is the need of all Christendom.Judged by the strict standards of Gospelprinciples, most of them are but poor Christians,as one of the leading Orthodox Greeks in high positionsaid, *4n the sense of Apostolic Christianity,we are superstitious, narrow-minded, opposed to allprogress, and change."

128 THE GREEKS IN AMERICANeed of Pastoral visitation.—Pastoral visitationis one of the greatest needs among the Greeks.Many are *'like flocks without a shepherd.'' Nominallyall Greeks are Christians. Large numbers ofyoung men in the stores, restaurants, factories andother places are sorely neglected. There is scarcelyany one looking after their spiritual welfare. Manypriests are either unable to do it, or are too busywith their levitical functions.Forms of religious break-up.—^Apparently thereis no irreligious movement among the Greeks, noopen atheists, nor free thinkers. Theoretically mostof them, if not all, respect religion. As all Americans,good or bad, are citizens, so all Greek believersor unbelievers, warm or indifferent, church-goers ornot, are reckoned, and they regard themselves asmembers of the Greek church, excepting the Protestantsand Roman Catholics, whose Hellenism or patriotismis questioned by the zealots, although facts haveshown repeatedly and conclusively that patriotismis not the monopoly of the Orthodox. Americanswill state what they profess, believe or disbelieve;will say they are not Christians, do not profess tobelong to any church, but Greek materialists or agnosticsmay ridicule all religion and still defend thepractice and usages of their church as a nationalinstitution. This peculiar combination of religionand patriotism pervades and influences the wholeGreek life.Practical unbelief.—There are, however, manypractical unbelievers, who live as if there were noGod, the whole of whose religion consists in an occasionaloutward conformity to some religious ceremonyor a visit to the church at Easter.As in Greece, here in America, too, the educatedclasses, especially students, are occupied with philosophicaland metaphysical problems. They havetheir doubts, difficulties, tendencies to materialism

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 129or agnosticism, but almost all cling to the church,and if questioned, they will profess to belong to theGreek church.This may be due partly to patriotic feeling, as alreadymentioned, and partly to moral cowardice orhypocrisy. It is also due to superficiality of thoughtand a lack of real conviction. In discussing the subjectwith a prominent college graduate, a Greek ofintellectual power and moral principles he expressedhis regret that there was not more free thoughtamong the Greeks. ' 'There is too much stagnation, ' 'he stated, ^'and indifference to truth; besides, ourpeople are very intoleran' and opposed to all changeand progress. They are under the spell of the pastand strongly devoted to medieval ideas and forms."This good gentleman, however, used ^^free thought"in its good sense, as a spirit of inquiry and openmindednesswhich is the motive power to all progress.Difficulties of liberal leaders.—This spirit of intoleranceor opposition to change is well illustratedin the case of the leaders, evangelically inclined andwho preach spiritual and pure Gospel principles.Such are often attacked and criticized by the conservativesas leaning to Protestantism and are suspectedof heresy. Hence some among them feelobliged to take up in their sermons topics of decidedlyGreek Orthodox type, e. g., icons, saints, fasts,effectiveness of the ritual, and they may even attackProtestants and criticize their teaching and practicesas a means of self-defence and thus secure theirown safety and liberty to continue in their work ofpreaching. There is needed moral heroism ; men ofthe type of Luther, who can proclaim their convictionsand are not afraid to face the consequences.2. Forms of religious realignment.—There isscarcely any extra-church religious movementamong the Greeks.

130 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAThere are Greek Protestant immigrants in variousparts of the United States who have joined someone of the Protestant denominations or attend servicesof the Congregational, Presbyterian, Methodist,Baptist, Disciple, Episcopal or some other church.In addition to the English service in some Americanchurch, some attend and help the Greek Protestantchurches in case there is one in the place of theirresidence.Worldly Protestants.—Those Protestant Greekswho fail to join a church, American or Greek, or whokeep aloof from church influence grow cold and indifferent,or even irreligious. A Greek Protestantpastor of wide experiences among the Greeks bothProtestant and Orthodox, said, * ' The indifferent Protestantsget worse than the indifferent Orthodox.The latter retain at least certain forms as an icon orthe sign of the cross, and keep up an appearance ofreligion in spite of coldness to the church ; the Protestantswhen far from church influences, lose allform and appearance and grow colder and more indifferent."Value of the ritual.—^Ritualism, it would seem,then has a legitimate place in the religious life ofthe individual and institutions, and observances havea retentive influence. Once learned, they cannoteasily be forgotten or given up. Through centuriesof ignorance and oppression under Turkish tyranny,the Oriental Christians have clung to the externalforms of their churches and kept up the name ofChristianity, with little preaching, teaching or studyof the Scripture. Had it not been for these forms,the very name of Christianity might have been wipedout.Influences of the Passover and the ritual.—As illustratingthe power of ceremonial there is the Passoverin Jewish history. It is said it was thePassover, more than anything else, that kept the

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 131Jews together through all the vicissitudes of exile,climate, country, language, etc., as a distinct andseparate race. They may speak different languages,live in different countries, neglect the study of theirScriptures and attendance of synagogue, but almostall observe the Passover. Protestantism as preachedto the Oriental Christians depreciated, even denouncedritual, and appealed rather to the intellect.Protestant services were rather a series of lecturesand addresses fitted to mature minds. Even the devotionalportions of the service were regarded assecondary. The immature or negligent, deprivedof the assistance of ritual, fell away easily from thefaith.Greeks attending Protestant churches.—Thereare a great many Greeks who profess to belong tothe Greek Orthodox Church who attend pretty regularlythe services of some Protestant denomination.One wrote me from Eaton Rapids that there is noGreek church there, and he attends a Methodistchurch. One of the oldest and most prominentleaders who avails himself of every opportunity toattack Protestants, especially missionaries, told mehe did not attend any Greek church, but usually wentto some Protestant Episcopal Church, ^'because'' hesaid ^^the Protestant Episcopal Church does not attemptto proselytize the Greeks." One family attendsregularly a Methodist Church in New York.The wife had gone by chance or curiosity and wasso impressed with the simplicity and spirituality ofthe service that she is attending regularly and herchildren attend the Sunday school. There aremany more Greeks attending Protestant EpiscopalChurches and a great many send their children totheir Sunday schools.It is impossible to learn the number of those whoattend Protestant Churches.There are many within the fold of the Greek

132 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAchurch who are dissatisfied with the actual conditionsin the church, who are not indifferent to religion,though they seldom attend any services, buthope there will some day be a change and theirchurch will become up-to-date and a greater spiritualpower and center of attraction to all.Moral courage.—But they hesitate to take a decidedstand because they fear the charge of unpatriotism,owing to the close connection of the churchand nationality in the past. They lack the moralcourage to stand for their convictions and face theconsequences. They suspect and fear each other.They hesitate to speak in the presence of others,^but express themselves freely when alone. This istrue both of the clergy and the laity.Illustrations.—One liberal priest said to a colleague,^'It is high time that we all speak out andnot hide our light. ' ' One bright young college graduate,speaking in the presence of other Greek youngmen, praised the Greek Church and, ^^our OrthodoxEeligion," attacked and condemned the missionariesBut later when alone said he wasas proselytizers.for the evangelical truth and attended Protestantservices more than Greek.Other young men, when together, speak as loyalsons of the Greek Church, but wnen alone, professtheir real conviction as Protestants. These are typicalof countless other instances.Eeforms are needed and reforms require reformerswith the ardor and daring of John Chrysostom,Ambrose of Milan, Luther and other reformers, whodared to speak the truth even though they incurredthe wrath of an emperor or an empress, and didnot hesitate to go to exile, imprisonment and death.FOKMS OF KELIGIOUS APPKOACHThere is little effective work being done by the.

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 133Protestant churches exclusively among the Greeks.The need is extremely great, and the field scarcelytouched. There is no social settlement, institutionalchurch or evangelism exclusively for theGreeks. They get the benefit of the^general servicesin English in factories, open-air meetings, and othermethods of evangelism. Settlements such as HullHouse, Chicago, are coming into touch with Greeksas well as other races. The Protestant EpiscopalChurch welcomes the Greeks to the facilities, privilegesand social advantages of their church houses,as well as to its church services. Doubtless otherchurches would give the same welcome. But theGreek responds more readily to the ProtestantEpiscopal call.EVANGELICAL WORK AMONG THE GREEKS BYPROTESTANT CHURCHESThe Congregational churches first took a specialinterest in the Greeks in America and started missionarywork among them. The missions in theNear East, and so the Greek field, is under theAmerican Board, consequently Greek Protestantimmigrants usually affiliate with the Congregationalchurches. The Massachusetts Home Missionary Societyof the Congregational churches has had foryears Greek evangelical work in Boston, Lowell, andHaverhill, Mass.In general the other Protestant denominationsassume that the Greek field belongs to the Congregationalists,and they in turn confess they are not ina position to carry the work alone without the helpof other denominations.The Protestant Episcopalians are against anyProtestant work among the Greeks. They are veryfriendly and ever ready to help the Greeks to helpthemselves. They loan them churches, chapels and

;134 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAhalls, and bishops, clergymen and laymen are sympatheticand helpful.The Methodists have missions in Lowell, Mass.,where Sunday and week day services are carried on.The Presbyterian Church comes into touch withthe Greeks through their educational work in Syriaand evangelical work in Greece was for a whileunder the Southern Presbyterian Board.Bott Presbyterians and Baptists conducted workfor Greeks in New York City for a time but nolasting results were achieved. Work was discontinuedby Baptists because the City Missions Councilof New. York advised that in the interest of comityevangelical work for Greeks be left to the Congregationalists.The main Greek evangelical churches in theUnited States are in Lowell, Mass. ; Boston, Mass.and Chicago, 111.The work in Boston and Lowell was started byRev. and Mrs. S. Vaitsis. Both worked with greatdevotion for years, helping the poor and the sick,conducting English classes, acting as EmploymentBureau, and advising the immigrants in many ways,and preaching and teaching the Gospel on Sundayand weekdays.There was great opposition, but in spite of allfanaticism and bitterness on the part of some, prominentOrthodox Greeks testify that they worked asgood Samaritans and did much good in many ways.*^If you want to see a good pastor and a true shepherdof his people go to that Protestant, Mr.Vaitsis," said several Greeks. He has the largestGreek printing press in New England. He edits areligious monthly, Aletheia (Truth), and a newspaper,Angeliaforos {Messenger). After workingfor years at both Lowell and Boston, Mr. Vaitsisleft Boston, in 1914, confining himself to Lowellwhere he works independently.

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 1350. Tokas.—Rev. C. Tokas is in charge of the workin Boston, under the Massachusetts Home MissionarySociety. The services are conducted at thechapel of the Park Place Congregational Church.Mr. Tokas gives prominence to social activities andmakes the church a social center where the Orthodoxand Protestants may meet for social occasionsunder true Christian influence at all times. Hestudied at the University of Athens and the ChicagoTheological Seminary. He was in charge of theGreek Evangelical Church, Athens, Greece, foryears, before coming to Boston.0. T. Papadopoulos.—The work in Chicago wasstarted by Rev. C. T. Papadopoulos, a graduate ofAnatolia College and the Theological Seminary,Marsovan, Asia Minor, and pastor of several GreekEvangelical Churches in Asia Minor, before comingto Chicago.He had great opposition at first, but finally thingsquieted down. He conducted Sunday and weekdayservices and Sunday school. His home was a socialcenter where many met for song services on Sundayevenings. He edited the monthy Elpis (Hope).He printed several tracts. He worked independently.The Chicago Tract Society was of muchassistance to his work. He died in 1921. The churchis looking for a successor.Haverhill, Mass., Canton, Ohio.—There was workfor a time at Haverhill, Mass., and Canton, Ohio,but for lack of support and workers, was discontinued.There are many Protestant young men fromthe Black Sea region in Canton and Akron, Ohio,and elsewhere in Ohio and other States. They allneed the counseling and guiding power of the Gospel,and there ought to be found some way to providethem with it.The Russellites.—Groups of young men meet atdifferent centers at New York and elsewhere to

1S6THE GREEKS IN AMERICAstudy the Scripture with Eussellite interpretation.They call themselves '* Students of the SacredScriptures. '^ They publish various tracts, leafletsand other literature translated from English toGreek. Certain groups issue multigraphed weeklyleaflets. Among them are many workers at shoeshineparlors, lunch rooms, etc.LITEKATUREReligious literature in Greek.— ino secular or religiousnewspapers or periodicals are being issuedby any American church in Greek or for the Greeks.The existing Greek papers, Atlantis and the iVaiionalHerald of New York, often contain religiousarticles, especially on Sunday and special occasions.During Lent, the Holy Week passages of the Gospel,read in the churches, are printed and explained.I have already mentioned Aletheia (Truth) and'Angeliaforos (Messenger) , edited by Eev. S. Vaitsis,Lowell, Mass., and Elpis (Hope), edited by Rev.C. T. Papadopoulos, Chicago, 111. All have a limitedcirculation, mainly among the Protestant Greeks,though a good many Orthodox also get them. Theyare handicapped in their work by opposition of theGreek press.There is a religious monthly. Religious Echo, untilrecently edited by Rev. H. Panagopoulos, Milwaukee,Wis. It dealt with Greek dogmatics, and controversialmatters and had a limited circulation.The editor having left for Greece, Rev. C. H. Demetryof Chicago, 111., is the new editor. He is of aliberal and enlightened mind.Other periodicals.—Religious periodicals publishedin Greece or Constantinople come to America,but are taken only by a very few. Other publicationsare National B,enaissance (Illustrated Monthly),Rev. D. Callimahos, editor, Brooklyn, N. Y.,

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 137and Archbishop Meletios' Ecclesiastical Keryx, ofNew York, edited and published by St. Athanasias'Theological Seminary.Others are: Ecclesiastihi Alitheia (EcclesiasticalTruth), organ of the Ecumenical Patriarchate,Phanar, Constantinople; Saint Polycarpos, editedby Rt. Eev. Chrysostomos, Metropolitan of Smyrna,and some others.Religious in secular press.—The National Heraldand Atlantis, besides keeping in stock variousreligious books published in Greece or Constantinople,have published several volumes on religious topics,mostly in the form of prayer books, but there isnothing similar to the edifying, stimulating, spiritual,evangelical literature of America.Atlantis has a new edition of the New Testament,as published by the Greek Patriarchate, Constantinople.Eeligious and other books are on sale at otherGreek book stores in all the principal Greek centersin United States.The American Bible Society and the New YorkBible Society, provide the Scriptures in the Old andNew Testament in modern Greek; in whole or parts.They have also the New Testament in the originaland the Septuagint. The Greek Protestant pastorsand various other religious workers help circulatethese Scriptures.Tracts.—The Chicago and the New York TractSocieties have published a number of tracts in modernGreek. Many more were published by theGreek Evangelical Church at Athens, Greece, whileDr. N. D. Kalopothakes was living. Among themare two of the type of catechism, "Milk for theChildren" and "Bread for the Children,'' bothtranslated from the English.A catechism and many leaflets have been publishedby Dr. X. Moschou of Smyrna.

138 THE GREEKS IN AMERICA** Helping Hand" series.—^Under the patronage ofQueen Olga of Greece, while King George lived,there was published a series of leaflets under theheading ' ' Helping Hand. ' ' Some of them were original,but many were mostly translations from theEnglish, adapted to Greek needs. They would proveuseful anywhere. I had circulated many copieswhile in Turkey, and they were welcome everywhereas coming from Greek Orthodox sources. Amongthem was Drummond's **The Greatest Thing in theWorld."The missionaries in Constantinople had publisheda great many leaflets and books in Greek and inGreco-Turkish, i.e., Turkish written with Greekcharacters. Copies of all these publications havefound their way to America.New literature needed.—^Doubtless there can bemade a selection from the leaflets and tracts alreadypublished, that would be interesting, useful and helpfulto the present generation. But most of them areadapted to another generation. At any rate not tothis. There is great need of fresh material dealingwith living questions and problems of the day, theeternal principles and truths of the Kingdom ofGod.Stories might be used very appropriately to bestadvantage. People are addicted to fiction and plays.This style of writing might well be utilized. Suggestive,catching writing in attractive style would bevery useful.Besides the material, the style of most of thetracts already published is against their usefukiess.

Chapter VTHE GREEKS IN AMERICA (Continued)(a)SPECIAL PEOBLEMSLeadership of Greek ChurchesAmerican trained leaders needed.—Most of theGreek priests and other church leaders are trainedand educated in Greece or Turkey. Greeks needchurch leaders trained in American ways, ideas andcolleges and theological seminaries. Such menwould be of immense value in reviving the Greekchurch and the nation. There are one or two of thehigher clergy in the Near East who were trained inEngland ; they are now among the foremost leaderswith great power and influence in the life of thechurch and nation.American trained men would be of great influenceboth in the United States and the Near East,as some may go back to the old country and mayoccupy prominent positions in training the candidatesfor the clergy as well as in the general workof the church.Before the war, leading Greek theologians wentto Germany for advanced studies. The tendency isat present to English-speaking institutions. Americamay draw a great many more in the future.Greek-American theological schools.—A numberof young men are taking courses in American theologicalseminaries. Some are Protestants and arelooking forward to join the Protestant ministryeither in America or Greece. They may work inAmerican churches, as some are doing already.139

140 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAOthers profess to belong to the Greek church andare planning to work in their church. More thananything else, well-trained men will hasten the revivaland reform in this old historic church andmake it a power in the Kingdom of God, both inAmerica and elsewhere.Armenian Bishop of Smyrna.—An Armenian, theson of a Protestant pastor in Turkey, who studiedin prominent theological schools in the UnitedStates, conceived the idea of serving Christ in theold historic Armenian (Gregorian) Church. Hejoined that body, was ordained a priest and was fora time Assistant Bishop of Smyrna, preaching tovast congregations witli much power and influence.He says that he is preaching in the Armenianchurch, the same Gospel messages that he used togive the Americans while he studied in the seminary.There are opportunities in the Greek church for suchmen and messages.Liberal priests.—Some of the priests in the UnitedStates in touch with Americans improve their opportunitiesby attending classes in the TheologicalSeminaries, church services, club meetings or lectures.Such are very progressive and are leadingtheir people to progressiveness.They also serve aslinks qf connection and friendship between theGreek and Protestant Churches.American workers among the Greeks.—^Americans,trained in the Greek language, acquainted withGreek history, ideas and customs, life and ideals,would be of great service and a great blessing to theGreek people.No outsider can work among a peoplewhile keeping aloof from them as foreigners, oroccasionally condescending to keep company withthem. That was not Christ's me':hod. The successfulworker has to identify himself with the peopleamong whom he works. He should be as one ofthem. He has to follow Christ's example in draw-

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 141ing men unto himself. Illustrations are numerous.The Y. M. C, A. men in Greece and in the Greekwork in the United States are held in the highestesteem by all. American educators in Americanschools in the Near East who approach the Greekssympathetically are loved and admired by theirGreek students and their friends and relatives.The earlier missionaries of the American Boardin the Near East acquired Greek, Turkish, Arabic,or Armenian as the locality required. Later mostof them learned Turkish because it was understoodto some extent by all, and also because they desiredto cultivate work among the Turks. Now in spiteof success in educational work through the Englishlanguage and through the Turkish in other lines,the lack of Greek is a distinct handicap, for theTurkish is a foreign language to the Greeks, especiallythe women. The missionary needs the Greekto get access to their books, newspapers, songs, andnational and ecclesiastical ideas. The AmericanBoard has inaugurated a school of languages inConstantinople where missionaries may learn thelanguages of the Near East. Missionaries shouldkeep entirely neutral amid the conflicting politicaland ecclesiastical controversies of that great region,preaching the Gospel of love and goodwill, andpointing all to the same Heavenly Father. Thechurches ought to use the same method. Prominentpreachers and evangelists could do splendidwork in certain Greek communities, even throughinterpreters. Dr. Theodore Ion writes : ''The Greekintellectuals, both clergy and laymen, are anxiouslyawaiting the opportune moment to reform the externalforms of the Orthodox religion and to conformto the present needs of society. The Greekclergy has already made great progress and thetendency every^^here seems to be to have, as priests,graduates of theological schools. In the course

142 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAof time the higli clergy will also be, I suppose, allowedto many, which would be an inducement tomany educated persons to become priests. Manyof the high clergy study theology either at Athensor in Constantinople.It will be an excellent plan to encourage Greekstudents of theology to get their training in the theologicalseminaries in the United States.I think that if many Greeks would study theologyin the United States and in England the union betweenthe Greek church and the various Protestantchurches will be probable. ''(&)Foreign Language Training SchoolsTraining schools.—There are no training schoolsfor the Greeks. The Protestant leaders g^i theirtraining in the American schools. Separate shortcut courses or schools for foreigners should not beencouraged. The foreign-born worker should receivethe same training, and pass the same tests asthe American born.Plan for a Greek Theological Seminary.—ArchbishopMeletios Metaxakis of Athens, among others,spoke of a plan, while visiting the United States in1918, to establish a theological seminary in Americawhich might be the highest institution of theologicaltraining for the Greeks. In November, 1921,the school was inaugurated by Archbishop Meletiosin the auditorium of the 23rd Street Y. M. C. A.with six students. Eecitations take place at the CentralY. M. C. A. in Brooklyn. A building will shortlybe provided. Greeks of Chicago and elsewhere arecontributing generously. Venizelos and his wifegave the first $1,000. The editor of the EcclesiasticalHerald, M. Galanos, is one of the instructors. Prominentclergymen of New York and Brooklyn are onthe teaching staff.

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 143Need of American teachers in Greek schools.—TheEnglish language is taught in the Theological Schoolat Halki, one of the islands of Marmora, the highesttheological school of the patriarchate, Constantinople.A prominent American professor in that institutionwould do a great deal in bringing Greeks andAmericans into closer relationship in church workand would render a great service in the training ofthe Greek clergy. American professors in the Universityof Athens would be a great blessing. Exchangeprofessorships between that university andAmerican institutions could be arranged with muchbenefit to all concerned.(c)The Future of the Greek Church in AmericaGreeks will stay.—The Greeks will stay inAmerica. Even though many should return toGreece, others will come to take their place.Greek Orthodox Church in America.—There areimmense possibilities and a great deal of energy andresources in the Greek churches when properly organizedand utilized. In the course of time it willbe an autonomous, independent, and in ecclesiasticalusage '^autocephalous'' church like the churches ofGreece, Eumania, Serbia, etc., acknowledged by theEcumenical and other patriarchates. It will be theGreek Orthodox Church of America.All services in Greek.—All the services are atpresent, in Byzantine or ancient Greek, which isnot really or thoroughly understood by the people.A modern up-to-date church must use the languagespoken and understood by the worshipers. Thechurch in Greece will doubtless adopt, in time, themodern Greek in its services and hymns. Thechurch will not have its prayerbook and hymnbookforever closed, and handed down unchanged fromgeneration to generation. New poets will rise, new

144 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAsongs will be produced and additions and omissionsmade, as is done in other churches.English a unifying force.—But the Greek churchin America may ultimately adopt the English languagefor its services as the coming generation willhave the English as their mother tongue and exceptingthe newcomers will not understand the Greek.Then people of other races and of Orthodox faith,the Syrians, Eumanians, Serbians, Albanians, etc.,may cooperate with the Greeks. In fact they mightall unite as one and the same denomination. OtherAmericans might join it as one of the prominent denominationsof the country. There are already casesof American women marrying Greek husbands andthus joining the Greek church.There is already a precedent in the Eussian OrthodoxChurch which inaugurated services in Englishin the chapel of St. Vladimir ^s Home, 233 East 17thStreet, New York. The Liturgy of St. Chrysostomwas said there in the English language. The churchwas open to all Americans.The English language will open to them all thetreasures of English literature, and make them acquaintedwith American thought. This, however,cannot happen during the present generation, whichuses Greek, and is not accustomed to English associationof ideas. The Greek language and otherusages brought from Greece are too sacred to them,and cannot be changed easily. Changes will be effectedmore readily with the new generation.Greek Protestants.—Protestant Greeks are moreopen to Americanization and assimilation. In factthose who attend American churches, especially thechildren and young people are already Americanized.The few congregations in existence use the Greeklanguage for sermon, prayers and hymns, but Englishhymns and anthems are being introduced, atleast by the Protestant Armenians, whose work is

' ''THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 145similar to the Greek. Children go to American Sundayschools, unless there is a separate Greek school.English is coming in slowly but surely. Greek maycontinue to be used for the sake of the newcomers,but for the rising generation English will be the languageof the Greek Protestant churches. They willbecome Americans.RECOMMENDATIONSThe following recommendations came from variouscorrespondents:The chief needs of Greek immigrants are '* sympathy,friendship and respect from native bornAmericans. Make them feel that America is theirhome. ' ^'' They need lectures, entertainments, books,and close friendship with better class Americans,preferably on the non-sectarian basis. The future ofthe Greeks in America is very optimistic.''^^There are needed schools for adults to teachthem the English language and open their eyes tothe higher opportunities this country offers. Thereshould be a law requiring adults to learn English.All the Greeks in the United States should form localcommittees and through these, should unite into aNational ^Pankoinotic' Union ('of all the communities').There must be a radical reform of thechurch, which is almost dead (the writer is GreekOrthodox). If the Greeks can be made to work inharmony with one another in all important matters,they will be ahead of the other foreign elements inthe United States. The greatest need now is men.Where are they?"''Greeks should be obliged to attend school.""They should be considered as the best lovers ofAmerica and be treated accordingly. '"The chief need is organization, and the outlookfor the future is hopeful. ''' Chief need is education. '

'146 THE GREEKS IN AMERICA*^They should learn the English language, shouldabsorb American ideas and recognize that Americansare just as good, if not better, than Greeks.'*'^The chief need is first to fight gambling, by enforcinga jail sentence upon any proprietor whoowns and runs a gambling house ; secondly, to establishreading rooms and libraries with a little morefreedom of association in order to attract the classthat rottens in the coffee-houses. *' *'They need*good teaching.' "^'They need more education in English, morechurches and schools. The future is very bright."Within the last ten years, they improved 100 percent.''^The chief need is education, again education withkindness." "Private teaching in families how tolive, and also the study of English in general."^' They should learn their religion by securing good,honest and conscientious priests.""The chief need—capable leaders and priests whoshall be real priests of our Lord and not moneygrabbers,and who know the conditions in America.We need teachers who are capable of teaching youngchildren of Greek parentage to become good citizensof America and an honor to the land of their fathers.Under good and unselfish leaders, they will make finecitizens. If we could overcome our self-importanceor egotism, we would be a model people.""As to the subject of Americanization and themethods employed, I am not in a position to commitmyself, but I would be glad to see a good deal moreeffort made to help educate the younger generationunder such supervision, that they will learn the Englishlanguage as their vernacular, and be interestedin American history and Americanism, so that theywill not be fanatical Greeks, but well developed citizens,able to use their unbiased judgment for social,political and religious matters. I am afraid this part

—THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 147of the work is not receiving as much attention herein Detroit as it should/'I may sum up and supplement a few of the outstandingpoints made by my correspondents.1.—Emphasis is laid everywhere by all on education,(a) The most important of all is the education ofthe children. They are the hope of the future. Butthey should receive the same education that theAmerican born get. Discrimination is harmful inall cases. To give something inferior or to do superficialwork in schools when it concerns the foreignborn, or to treat as inferiors foreign born pupils hasa damaging effect. Americans of this type are theworst enemies of Americanism. Nothing wins so effectivelyas genuine sympathy and cordiality.(b) The adults need education. Evening schoolsshould be continued, enlarged, and made more general.More Greek societies should conduct classesin English and civics for their members.One of my correspondents suggested an excellentpoint— i. e., to teach families or individuals at home.Bible women in the Near East used to do excellenteducational work by visiting homes and teaching theilliterate women reading and writing. Such amethod would produce good results. One denominationalboard in New York supports Christian womenteachers, who go into homes where English is notspoken and teach English and interpret Christianity.2. Literature: Greeks need helpful, constructiveliterature. Translations from English as well asoriginal works would be welcome.An ethico-religious periodical would be of greatservice. It may be weekly or monthly. It shouldhave real, readable matter. Greeks read, think andcriticize. It should be catching, attractive and suggestive.True patriotism should occupy its proper

—148 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAplace on its pages. Constructive views on religionshould be emphasized, rather than controversy. Eeligiousmysticism would appeal to many contemplativeminds. History, fiction and poetry, should allbe utilized in enriching this much needed periodical.Some asked whether it would not be a good planto carry out such a program through existing Greekperiodicals. I believe the editors would welcomecontributions of the type suggested. But a separatework with a definite ethico-religious program wouldmeet the need better. It need not compete with otherpublications, as it will be something different fromthe rest. It may have wide circulation in Greece,and other lands wherever Greeks are scattered.It should be undenominational, setting forth thefundamentals and eternal verities of the moral andspiritual realm, and the deepest needs of the humanheart.Prominent clergymen and laymen from all thechurches, including the Greek Orthodox, should beinvited to write for it. It should have the good willof the Greek church authorities.3. Sunday schools: Every Greek church andcommunity, every Greek colony, and center, shouldhave Sunday schools. There should be classes forchildren, young men and young women, and also formen and women.Eeligious instruction for children, and young peopleis absolutely necessary, as the public school doesnot provide and many are unable or have not thetime to train their children in the ''fear and theknowledge of the Lord.'' Many do not attendchurch. There is therefore great danger of the risinggeneration being brought up irreligiously. Sundayschool and religious day schools are for thisevil.There is no Sunday school material available forGreeks. The ordinary Sunday school publication

THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 149would not meet the Greek need. New, original workis needed and should be adapted to the Greek standpointand peculiarities. Graded work is needed.Maps, charts, illustrations, lantern slides, will allbe something new for the Greeks in this line andwould attract much attention.English might be introduced to good advantageas children would be more at home in it. ThusAmericanization would be combined with religiouswork.Religious songs and hymns in modern Greek,should be introduced. One of the greatest needs ofthe Greek lies in this line. Sunday schools wouldbe the best place to begin to improve it.Byzantine music is used in the church services andall the hymns and prayers are in ancient Greek.Religious instruction and devotion should be in thelanguage the people understand. Of course thiswould not mean excluding all the fine spiritual songsalready familiar to the people, though in ancientstyle. Some of these fine ancient Greek hymns havebeen translated into English.Sunday school teachers are needed. In additionto the priests, spiritual and religiously inclined menand women, competent to teach, should volunteerand help. They should be '' mighty in Scriptures, '*and experienced in modern Sunday school methods.Teachers can use with much profit the Sunday^school publications, commentaries, and Bible dictionariesin English, as they will be very likely peoplefamiliar with English.The whole work should be with the sanction (andpossibly supervision) of the Greek church authorities.This would assure the people of the unsectariancharacter of the work.The Greek Sunday school in America might serveas a model for the rest of the Greek world, as theneed is universal.

—150 THE GREEKS IN AMERICA4. Preaching: I believe prominent Protestantpreachers and evangelists would be welcome inGreek pulpits, at least occasionally. Special meetingsmight be arranged where prominent men mightspeak. Such a work would inspire both the clergyand the laity.5. Conferences of the priests and other leaders inGreek commimities: Owing to distance and mattersof expenses and also for lack of organization, therehas never been any attempt to bring the leaders togetherfor religious conferences. Political and patrioticconferences have taken place at times. Ameeting of all the prominent Greek leaders, to discussthe urgent religious need and question, wouldgive a splendid opportunity to hear some of the outstandingreligious leaders in America. The wholemovement should be pervaded with an atmosphere ofdevotion, spiritual vision and unsectarian Christianfellowship.Such a conference might serve as a model andstimulus to the whole Greek church in the world, forit would be unique. Meetings of the higher clergyfor discussion of ecclesiastical and dogmatic matters,have taken place, but no conference of the typementioned above is in existence in the Greek church.Bishops need it ;priests need it ; theological students,and all the people need it. Large crowds gather atfestivals, monasteries, and shrines. A great meetingfor this purpose would be epoch making.6. Social centers: To counteract the coffee-housesand the gambling centers, social centers should beopened in all the Greek communities and colonies.Various features in settlement work, institutionalchurches, Y. M. C. A. and clubs, might be selectedand adapted to the peculiar needs of the Greeks withdoubtless very good results. "What is good in thecoffee-house might be retained, and American indoorgames introduced. In order to keep the young

—THE GREEKS IN AMERICA 151from evil influences they should be provided withwholesome and innocent amusement. Men withouthomes, should find a place where they would feel athome, refreshed and cheered up.Such centers should have employment bureaus,and lists of furnished rooms and apartments andother facilities to help the immigrants when theyfirst arrive.Such social centers might attend to the needs ofthe sick and the poor also. Applications often cometo the Greek Relief Committee, who find it difficultto assist the applicants, as the committee's own objectis to help the refugees and orphans, victims ofthe late war, and there is no organization in existenceto which such applications could be referred.Most of the above suggestions are applicable toall the Greeks including the Protestants. As regardsthe social centers and Sunday school work inparticular, they could all cooperate. But some specialprovision should be made for the Protestants incertain respects.7. Greek Protestants: The existing stationsshould be strengthened and made models to socialand conmiunity centers among the Greeks in general.Sunday schools, and Young People's Societies, mighteasily be developed among them as they have alreadybeginnings of such work.The Protestants can not go back to the old churchbut they desire to worship God according to the dictatesof their conscience, and wish to bring up theirchildren in accordance mth that comdction. Theirwork, as in the old country, would serve as a stimulusto the wider work of the Greek churches inAmerica.Greek evangelists.—As Greek Protestants are scatteredin various states and many receive no churchministrations, it would be an excellent thing if oneor two evangelists could visit the principal centers

152 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAand take care of them. He could start evangelisticwork in those centers and thus have a nucleus tostrengthen the Greek evangelical work.8.—Above everything else the whole country includingthe Greeks needs men of God, filled with theSpirit to proclaim messages from above, to set forthfearlessly and with vigor the eternal truth of theKingdom of God; men of the type of Isaiah andother prophets who heard voices from the center ofthings and proclaimed them courageously to theirgeneration. Unless such voices are heard the countryis in danger of falling into the thraldom of materialism,worshiping luxury, and material enjoyment.Happily such voices are not scarce. Wouldthat they would resound louder and in wider circles.

Appendix IGREEK NEWSPAPERS IN THE UNITEDSTATESAtlantis, Daily and Monthly, 203 W. 25th St., N.Y.C.National Herald, Daily and Monthly, 146 W. 26th St.,N.Y.C.The Loyal, "Weekly, 160 E. 72nd St., N.Y.C.California, Weekly, 340 3d St., San Francisco, Cal.Prometheus, Weekly, 725 Harrison St., San Francisco,Cal.Greek Newspaper, Tarpon Springs, Fla.Greek Star, 130 N. Wells St., Chicago, HI.Independent, 610 Blue Island Ave., Chicago, HI.Neiv Era, Illustrated Semi-monthly, 600 Blue IslandAve., Chicago, 111.Saloniki, Weekly, 748 Blue Island Ave., Chicago, 111.Demonios, Weekly, 55 Andrew St., Lynn, Mass.People, Weekly, 62 Pleasant St., Lynn, Mass.Progress, Weekly, 1034 Dime Bank Bldg., Detroit,Mich.Campana, Humorous Bi-Weekly, 54 W. 28th St.,New York City.Evzonos, Weekly, 134 W. 2nd St. S., Salt Lake City,Utah.Light, Weekly, 16 S. Fourth Work St., Salt LakeCity, Utah.Religious Echo, Monthly, 159 Oak St., Chicago, 111.The Liberal Bulletin, Weekly, 133 E. 35th St., NewYork City.Lacedaemon, Weekly, 251 E. 31st St., New York City.National Renaissance, Monthly, 125 State St., Brooklyn,N.Y.153

154 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAGreek Telegraph, Daily, 709 Folsom St., San Francisco,Cal.Greeh Daily, Daily, 768 S. Halstead St., Chicago, 111.Aletheia, Monthly, 311 Market St., Lowell, Mass.Angeliaforos or {Messenger), Weekly, 311 MarketSt., Lowell, Mass.Telegraphos, Weekly, 515 Market St., Lowell, Mass.Keravnos, Drummer St., Lowell, Mass.Eagle, Weekly, 267 Pine St., Manchester, N.H.Ergatis, Weekly, 61 Pine St., Manchester, N.H.Elpis (Hope), Monthly, 4747 Paulina St., Chicago,111.Ecclesiastical Keryx {Herald), Weekly, 140 E. 72ndSt., New York City.The New World, Weekly, 436 4th Ave., Pittsburgh,Pa.Appendix IIBIBLIOGRAPHYBOOKS ON GREEKS IN GENERAL. AND THE VARIOUS TOPICSTOUCHED UPON IN THIS STUDYThe Orient and Greece, Botsford, Macmillan, 1902.Greek Art and National Life, Smith, Scribner, 1914.Social Life of Greece, Mahaffy, MacmiUan, 1902.Destruction of the Greek Empire, Pears, Longmans,1903.Greek War for Independence, Phillipps, Scribner,1897.Christian Greece, Bikelas (Translation), Gardiner,London, 1890.Greek and Eastern Churches, Adeney, Scribner,1908.Study of the Eastern Orthodox Church, Lacey, Gorham,1912.

BIBLIOGRAPHY \i55Study in Social Heredity as illustrated in GreekPeople^ Lacey.Neighbors, Lacey, Department of Missions, P. E.Church, 1920.Foreigners or Friends, Bukgess.Greek Lands and Letters, Allinson, Honsrhton,1909.Greece and the Aegean Islands, Makden, Houghton,1907.Aegean Days, J. J. Mannatt, Murray, London, 1911.Vacation Days in Greece, Eichaedsoit, Scribner,1904.Greek Life in Town and Country, "W. Miller, GeorgeNewnes, London, 1915.Modern Greece, Jebb, Macmillan, 1901.Greece, Her Progress and Present Position, A. R.Eandabe, Putnam, 1867.New Greece, Sekgeant, Fisher Unwin, London, 1897.Greece of XX Century, Martin, London, 1913.Athens, the Violet Crowned, Whiting, Little, Brown& Co., 1913.The Balkans, Sloane, Meth. Book Concern, 1914.Hellas and the Balkan Wars, Cassavetti, Dodd,Mead, 1914.The War in Europe, A. B. Haet, Appleton, 1914.With the Greeks in Thessaly, Rose, L. C. Page & Co,,1898.The Balkan Wars, Schueman, Princeton Press, 1914.When I was a Boy in Greece, Demetrios, Lathrop,Leo Shephard, 1913.Greece of the Hellenes, Garnett, Pittman, London,1914.Letter from Greece, J. Navrocordato, Seeker, London,1914.Greek Immigration, Fairchild, Yale Press, 1912.Greeks in America, Burgess, Sherman, French & Co.,1913.On the Trail of the Immigrant, Steiner, Revell, 1906.

156 THE GREEKS IN AMERICALife Immovable, Gostes Palamas (Translation by A.E. Plioiitrides).The Byzantine Empire, the Rearguard of Europe,E. A. TwoRD, Harvard Press, 1920.The Greeks of To-day, Tuckerman, Putnam Sons,London, 1872.Eelladian Vistas, Don. D. Quinn, Yellow Springs,O., 1920.Tales from a Greeh Island, Dragoumis, Houghton,Boston, 1910.In Argolis, George Horton.Modern Athens, George Hortoist.Isles and Shri7ies of Greece, S. J. Barrows.Student's History of the Greek Church, A. H. Hore.The Organization of the Orthodox Eastern Churches,Margaret Dampier.Service Book of the Greco-Russian Church, Translatedby Isabel Hapgood, Houghton, Mifflin.The Catechism of the Orthodox Eastern Church,Ignatius Moschakes.Catechism of Christian Doctrine, X. Moschou.Hindrance and Progress in the Modern GreekChurch, Const. Callinicos.The Church and the Eastern Empire, H. F. Tozer,^* Epochs of Church History.'^Hymns of the Greek Church, John Brownlie.Christian Americanization, Charles A. Brooks, MissionaryEducation Movement, N.Y., 1919.Leadership of New America, Archibald McClure,George H. Doran, N.Y., 1916.Immigrant Forces, AVilliam P. Shriver, MissionaryEducation Movement, New York, 1913.Races and I m^ni grants in America, J.The Macmilian Co., New York, 1916.The Races of Europe, E. A. Grosvenor, The NationalGeographic Magazine, Dec. 1918.Dictionary of Races or People, 1911.K. Commons,

BIBLIOGRAPHY 157The People of the Eastern Orthodox Churches, NewYork.United States Religious Census Report, 1906.The Unify of the Greek Race, R. M. Burrows.Greeks and To-morrow, Z. Ferriman, American HellenicSociety.Hellenism in Asia Minor, K. Dicterich, AmericanHellenic Society.Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey since the beginningof the European War, Carroll N. Brown,American Hellenic Society.Memorandum presented by the Greek Me^nbers ofthe Turkish Parliament to the American Commissionon Mandates in Turkey, American HellenicSociety.An Ethnological Map of the starting of Hellenism inthe Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor, GeorgeSoTERiADES, E. Stamford, Lon. 1918.The Greeks in Smyrna, London, 1920.Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey before theEuropean War, Rev. Alex. Papadopoulos, Societyof Unredeemed Greeks.Greeks in America, Seraphim Canoutas.Greece before the Peace Conference of 1919, Eletj-THERios Venizelos, American Hellenic Society.Eleutherios Venizelos, S. A. Xanthaki, New York,1916.The Greeks Triumphant, A. H. Trapmann, London,1915.Reports of the Anglo-Hellenic League, London,1913-1921.Turkey, Greece and the Great Powers, George R.Abbott, London, R. Scott.Ambassador Morgenthau's Story, Henry Morgen-THAU, Doubleday, Page & Co., 1918.Under the Turk in Constantinople, George R. Abbott,Macmillan & Co., 1920.

158 THE GREEKS IN AMERICATurkey and Its Peoples, Sir Edwin Peaks, London,Methuen & Co.Fifty Years in Constantinople and Recollections ofRobert College, George Washburn, Houghton,Mifflin & Co.Turkey of the Ottomans; Home Life in Turkey;Balkan Home Life, Lucy M. J. Garnett.Constantine I and the Greek People, Peyton Hobben,Century Co., 1920.Ex-King Constantine and the War, George M.Melas, London, Hutchinson & Co.Eleutherios Venizelos, Herbert Adams Gibbon.The New Map of Asia, 1900-1912, Herbert AdamsGibbon, Century Co.Leavening of the Levant, Joseph K. Greene, ThePilgrim Press, Boston.History of the Protestant Missions in the Near East,Julian Richter.Annual Reports of the American Board of ForeignMissions and Missionary Herald.The Near East Crossroads of the World, Wm. H.Hall, Interchurch Movement, with good bibliography.The Cradle of the War, H. Charles Woods, 1918,Boston, Brown & Co.Lowell Institute Lectures.Turkey a World Problem of To-day, Talcott Whtliams,Doubleday, Page & Co.

INDEXAgriculture, 34; American machines,35.Americanization, 86, 110, 112,113, 114, 144, 146, 149.Anglican Church, 61.Appendices, 153.Balkan League, 24.Banks, 31, 83.Books, 109.Coffee houses, 46, 47, 84, 88, 92,103, 115, 146, 150.Constantine—Field Marshal, 23;King, 25; break with Venizelos,25; overthrown (1917),26; restored, 27.Constantinople, fall of, 17,Dairying, 35.Dark Ages of Greece, 61.Divorce, 91.Dowries, 48.Eastern Orthodox Church (SeeGreek Orthodox).Economic conditions abroad, 38;in U. S., 79.Education: Greek fondness for,41; need of, 145-147; Americanschools, 44; advanced,schools, 44; French schools,44; girls, 42; Greeks in publicschools, 97-101, 107; Greeka Inschools in Turkey, 43; Greekschools in Turkey and Asia,412-44; religious instruction,43; parochial schools, 108.Emigration, 30.Emigration from U. S., 77; reasonsfor, 77.English language, 144-147.Evangelical Church in Greece, 64.Extermination of Greeks byTurks, 22.Family life, 47, 49, 91.Filioque, 57.exports and imports, 31, 32;prosperity, 37; revenue andexpenditure, 37; roads, 35.Greek Colonies, 119; communities,118; diet, 36; good willto U. S., 96, 97; industries,33; life simple, 36; loyaltyduring Great War, 115; patriotism,50; restaurants, 81;thrift, 86; traits good, 96;evil, 96.Greek Evangelical Alliance, 65.Greek Evangelists needed, 151.Greek press (see Newspapers).Greek Protestants, 70, 71, 130,144, 151; worldly, 130.Greek Puritans, 59.Greek Relief Committee, 115,116.Greek Societies, 102-107; Pan-Hellenic Union, 105; Pan-Epirotic Union, 106; benevolent,115-117; constructive,102.Greeks in business, 80-84; relationto other races, 94; racialintermarriage, 95; in Americanuniversities, 98-100.Greek Orthodox Church, 54-59;attendance, 124; communion,126; doctrinal standards, 55;fast days, 125; influence ofPassover, 130; organization,54; patriarchate, 54: posturein prayer, 126; Sacraments,56; supervision, 118; StateChurch, 55, 61 ; value ofritual, 130; worldliness, 125.Greek Orthodox Church in U. S.,118-132; and Greek politics,120-122.Greek Orthodox priests, 122;dress, 124; salaries, 123.Greek Unity, 19-21.Helicon, 99.Hellenism spread by Romans, 17.Hellas, origin, 15.Greece, ancient and modern, 16; Image controversy, 58.159

160 THE GREEKS IN AMERICAImmigration (Greek) to U. S.,38; causes of, 38; early, 40;later, better class, 40; distribution,75; 3 per cent law,41; married and single, 76;future of, 40.Industries, 33, 34.Julian Calendar, 126.Kalopothakes, M.D., 63.King, Jonas, 63.Language, 51; demotic, 52;purist, 52.Leadership, need and sources of,in Turkey, 53, 54; in America,111; personnel. 111; trainedin U. S., 139.Literature: books, 137; newspapers,137; tracts, 137, 138;new needed, 138, 147.Lucaris, Cyril, 60.Marriage, 95; intermarriage, 95.Megali (great idea), 21.Meletios, Archbishop, 58 66, 71,119-121, 122, 142.Military revolution of Ghoudi,23.Military service in Turkey, 39.Minerals, 35.Misunderstandings corrected, 116,117.Moral Standards, 9i2-93.Morals: drink, 49, 90; gambling,46, 89; sex morality, 48; untruthfulness,49.Navigation, 33, 83.Newspapers: abroad, 46; inU. S., 109, 110; services of,110; list of, 153, 154.Neighborhood Life, 92.New Testament translation, 70.Papacy, pretensions of, 57, 58.Peasants, 40.Plymouth Brethren, 64.Protestant Missions amongGreeks abroad, 62; in U. S.,133, 135.Protestantism in Turkey, 65.Recreation, 46; athletics, 46;games, 46; theaters, 47.Religious break-up, forms of,128; classification in Turkey,67.Religious realignments, 129; approach,132.Roads, 35.Sabbath observance, 104, 125.Separated churches, 57.Sevres, treaty of, 21.Social conditions abroad, 41 ; inU. S., 88; housing in Greecein towns, 45; in interior, 45;housing in U. S., 85; sanitation,45; recreation, 46.Social life, picnics, 90.Social centers needed, 150.Socialism, 50.Societies: abroad, 46; in U. S.,102-107.Sunday schools, 148-149.Theaters, 8, 47.Training schools, 142.Turkish oppression, 17; massacreof Greek Christian, 17;Chios, 18; program of extermination,22.Unrest, small, 87.Venizelos, 23, 24, 25, 70; dismissedby Constantine, 26; atParis and San Remo, 26, 27;defeated by plebiscite, 27;causes of defeat, 28; anathematized,120.Venizelist party, 26.Wages in Greece, 36; in U. S.,86.War for independence, 18.War with Turkey, 1897, 20.Wars, Balkan, 21; First, 25;Second, 25.War with Kemalists, 1920, 29.World War, 21, 25; and Greece,27; influence on Morals, 48.Y. M. C. A., 12, 117, 141, 150.Y. W. C. A., 114, 117.631

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