Vol. 31 No. 361 - The New Agora

Vol. 31 No. 361 - The New Agora

Vol. 31 No. 361 - The New Agora


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Vol. 31 No. 361Oto by courtesy ofJames White"Brooks . . . which are blackish by reaof the ice, and wherein the snow is hi(Job 6:15,

CONTENTSPageTHEQUIET MOMENTF.E.M.1THE PILGRIMAGE OF JESUS :(59) THE TRADITIONS OF MENIN TIMES OF TROUBLEJohn Mitchell. . Winifred M. Firth24JESUS WANTSENTHUSIASTSJames Carter6THE PROPHECY OF JOEL (1)OUT OF THE DUST :GLEANINGS . .THOUGHTS ON THE LOGOSTHE BOOK OF JOB (1)REVIEWS :WHEN WILL CHRIST COME ? (1)WATCHMAN :ALL ROADS LEAD TO ROMEWIND OF CHANGE IN AFRICA (3)A. AkeroydF Ε MitchellElwyn HumphreysCyril TennantF. Whiteley. . Hubert W. CraddockAlbert T. Abbotts8121518202429NOTES ON THE DAILYREADINGSP.H. Adams31PROBLEMS :THE LEPROSY OF GEHAZI"HE THAT HATH NO SWORD ..."" \ P.H. Adams3535Full Editorial endorsement applies to all articles except those of anon-fundamental nature.Articles from contributors of either sex will be welcomed for considerationby the Editors.

TheTESTIMONYFOR THE STUDY AND DEFENCE OF THE HOLY SCRIPTUREVol. 31, No. 361 January, 1961THE QUIET MOMENT" Who is this that eomethup from the wilderness ?"The "Song of Solomon," especially in its details, has been the subjectof a number of interpretations, which have been strained or forced, butthere is no doubt that, couched in all the imagery of the East, it is, ingeneral, a picture of the ideal bridegroom and the ideal bride. It may,therefore, be taken, without any extravagance, as foreshadowing therelationship between Jesus and the saints, who in the aggregate constitutehis bride. (Rev. 19 : 7, 8). Verse five of chapter eight of the Song reads,"Who is this that eometh up from the wilderness, leaning upon herbeloved ?"The wilderness has often been referred to as a figure of the earthlylife of the believer in Jesus. It is the place where he suffers spiritualhunger and thirst; where the burning sun of temptation may smite himunless he protects himself ; and where the journey is often tedious, theland in which all things always seem the same. There the impulse togive up the struggle as hopeless is too often not very far away.The wilderness life, however, is not an end in itself, but only a meansto an end. Nor is it without its present alleviations, whereby we can"come up" from it. For the prospective bride has the support of herbridegroom-to-be. Leaning upon him, her beloved, she can go fromstrength to strength, until she stands before God in Zion. All histenderness, resource and self-sufficiency are hers. Let us, as beloved ofhim, lean hard upon him, that we may be sustained through the perilsof the desert.F.E.M.

The TESTIMONYONALEdited byJ. MITCHELLThe Pilgrimage of Jesus(59) THE TRADITIONS OF MENJohn MitchellR many months the rift between Jesus andthe spiritual leaders of Israel had beenwidening. Numerous examples of their differencesare given in the gospels, and theremust have been others. Right from the earlydays of his ministry, the Lord Jesus had comeinto head-on collision with the Scribes andPharisees. He had entered the Temple anddriven out the money-changers and themerchants. He had healed a man with awithered hand in the synagogue on the Sabbathday. When he cured a paralysed man with thewords, "Thy sins be forgiven thee," he wasaccused of blasphemy. After another healing,he had told a man to carry his bed—on theSabbath day. His disciples had "defiled" theSabbath by plucking corn to ease their hunger.The whole band of them had frequentedopenly with publicans and sinners. AndJesus had often denounced the Scribes andPharisees for hypocrisy in the most scathingterms.All this added up in the hearts of the spiritualleaders of the Jews to a volume of hatredwhich is revealed in the words : "After thesethings, Jesus walked in Galilee : for he wouldnot walk in Judea (which was the strongholdof Pharisaical orthodoxy) because the Jewssought to kill him." That being so, theScribes and Pharisees pursued the Lord inGalilee, seeking to trap him in his words, andto discredit him. Their quibbles may seemfarcical in our ears, but we may be sure theywere taken very seriously at a time when Jewswere held together the world over by their ownreligious code."Why do thy disciples transgress the traditionof the elders ? For they wash not theirhands when they eat bread ?"This was the question posed by a deputationof Pharisees and Scribes who had travelled allthe way from Jerusalem. And so that we shallunderstand, Mark says, "For the Pharisees andall the Jews, except they wash their handsdiligently, eat not, holding the tradition of theelders : and when they come from the marketplace, except they wash themselves, they eatnot: and many other things there be whichthey have received to hold, washing of cups,and pots, and brasen vessels."It must however, be realised from the outsetthat the point at issue was not hygiene, butdefilement—the lowering of man's religiousstanding because of failure to perform someritual observance which man had added toGod's law. In the matter of washings, theScribes and Pharisees could scarcely havechosen a subject on which the triflings of theRabbis had been carried to more fantasticlengths. This is what one writer has writtenconcerning the prescribed washing of the hands:"It was laid down that the hands were first tobe washed clean. The tips of the ten fingerswere then joined and lifted up so that thewater ran down to the elbows, then turneddown so that it might run off to the ground.Fresh water was poured on them as theywere lifted up, and twice again as they hungdown. The washing itself was to be doneby rubbing the fist of one hand in the hollowof the other. When the hands were washedbefore eating, they must be held upwards ;

The TESTIMONYwhen after it, downwards, but so that thewater should not run beyond the knuckles.The vessel used must be held first in theright, then in the left hand ; the water wasto be poured first on the right, then on theleft hand, and at every third time the wordsrepeated: 'Blessed art Thou Who hastgiven us the command to wash the hands.'It was keenly disputed whether the cup ofblessing or the hand-washing should comefirst; whether the towel used should belaid on the table or on the couch ; andwhether the table was to be cleared beforethe final washing or after it." #The Lord Jesus Christ swept away suchpretences of righteousness with words quotedfrom a prophet of old—"Well did Isaiahprophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written :"This people honoureth Me with their lips ;but their heart is far from Me.'"But in vain do they worship Me,"Teaching as their doctrines the precepts ofmen."And then the Lord turned fully to the attack,charging the scribes and Pharisees with rejectingGod's commandments in order thatthey might keep their own man-made traditions.In the Law of Moses, the Jews were commandedto honour father and mother, andwere given promise that if they did so theirdays would be long in the land. On the otherhand they were warned that he that cursedhis father or his mother should be put to death.It is an outstanding example of the fact thatthe commandment of the Lord is holy, just andgood. It is surely an honourable thing to respectthose who have given us birth, and who haveprovided for us throughout our helpless earlyyears. Only as we ourselves take on the dutiesof parenthood do we fully realise the sacrificeswhich our own parents have made for us.Moreover the part which these commandmentswere intended to play in a society which knewnothing of the old age pension, or the welfarestate, will immediately be obvious. They wereto create an attitude of mind which wouldensure the proper discharge of filial duty whenfather and mother became too old or infirm tocontinue to earn their own living. Moreover,it is a principle which is carried forward intothe Church with the words of the Apostle :"If a man provide not for his own, he hathdenied the faith, and is worse than an infidel."But the Rabbis of Christ's day, with typicalcasuistry, found a way of avoiding the burden,without seeming to depart from their standardof righteousness. God, they argued, mustcome first. If, therefore, a man had made avow that he would dedicate to the service ofGod the money or the property (called corban)with which he would have been able to helphis parents, then he need not do anythingfurther for them.One is reminded of that great pronunciationof the prophet Samuel against Saul, when hepreserved the best of the cattle of the Amalekites"to sacrifice unto the Lord." "Hath theLord as great delight in burnt offerings andsacrifices, as in obeying the voice of theLord ?" demanded the prophet. Did Saulreally want to honour God, or was he thinkingof himself and the people ? And similarlywere these Jews thinking of themselves whenthey said that whatsoever might have profitedtheir parents, was Corban—hallowed anduntouchable ? Well might the Lord JesusChrist remind them of that other solemnwarning of Moses, "He that curseth fatheror mother, let him die the death !"This deferring to the dark counsels of men,instead of being illumined by the clear light ofthe Word, was deep-seated in the Jewish mind.It became an intellectual veneer with which tocover their wicked hearts. They forgot that"all things are naked and opened unto the eyesof Him with Whom we have to do." Buttheir judgment, now of a long time, slumberednot, as was prophesied by Isaiah—"Forasmuchas this people draw near to Me with theirmouth, and with their lips do honour Me,but have removed their heart far from Me, andtheir fear toward Me is taught by the preceptof men : therefore behold I will proceed to doa marvellous work among this people, even amarvellous work and a wonder : for the wisdomof their wise men shall perish, and the understandingof their prudent men shall be hid.Woe unto them that seek deep to hide theircounsel from the Lord, and their works arein the dark, and they say, 'Who seeth us ?And who knoweth us ?' "For these things, the Jews became shortlyafterwards "a nation scattered and peeled,"cast off for the times of the Gentiles, whilebelievers among the Gentiles became God'speople in their stead, "And in that day shallthe deaf hear the words of the book, and theeyes of the blind shall see out of obscurity, andout of darkness. The meek also shall increasetheir joy in the Lord, and the poor amongmen shall rejoice in the Holy One of Israel."And so we have been "grafted in," contrary to* The Life and Words of Christ—Geikie.

The TESTIMONYnature, to the people of God. We, who werenot His people have become His people by thesanctification of the Word. Are we moreworthy of it than the Jews ? The same acidtest will be applied to us as to them. God doesnot change. Man can, but he seldom does.The same motives that bedevilled Jewry areat work also in our hearts, because we also areof the same sinful flesh. There is only oneremedy and one safeguard. "Thy word haveI hid in my heart, that I might not sin againstThee." We must never succumb to the temptationto think that there can be some subtledifference between obeying God and obeyingHis word, for the Word is the expression ofthe Deity in purpose and character. Sad tosay, this Word has had many triflers ; andthere has been no situation but what they havefound some convenient text which they wrestto justify their deeds.The paramount need, therefore, is not merelyto regard only the letter of the Word, but alsoits spirit. God is love, perfect love, but Hedoes not dote, and therefore what a man soweththat shall he also reap. He is a God of mercy,but also of judgment. He is perfection in allthings, perfectly balanced. Therefore HisWord has also to be used with balance andcommon sense. The Lord Jesus Christ gavean example of this common sense, when hecalled the multitude to him and addressedthem on the question of washings and ofdefilement :"Hear and understand," he said, "not thatwhich entereth into the mouth defileth theman ; but that which proceedeth out of themouth, this defileth the man."In the history of the Christian church therehave been many who, in a show of will worshipand voluntary humility, have prescribedabstentions from this or that, and make it a"tradition" in their sect. One of the weaknessesof human nature is that it loves to feel it has aclaim to righteousness in this way. Butit is not the righteousness of God, ratherof the Pharisees. The righteousness of God ismore positive than "touch not, taste not,handle not." It wells up in the heart of thetruly righteous man, and displaces the .evilthoughts to which his nature is prone. For,it is that which proceeds out of the man thatdefiles him, even the whole catalogue ofwicked intentions from covetousness to murder,from pride to deceit. These are the thingsthat require to be washed away, rather than thehonest dirt which soils our hands.This is Divine common sense—but thePharisees could not receive it. They were"offended," and the disciples came to Jesus totell him about it. "Let them alone," saidJesus, "they are blind guides. And if theblind guide the blind, both shall fall into a pit."These men, so steeped in religion, so sincerein their attention to its details, were yet blind,and destined for the pit, because they failed todistinguish between the form of their religionor godliness, and its spirit. We must bewarelest we fall into the very same pit.moves swiftly and surely. Sometimeswe witness a part of His plan takingshape in one master stroke in the world'saffairs, and we stand in awe before the Father'sthrone, knowing that only He could havearranged the circumstances. A political moveshakes the world, and leaves us spellbound thatman is unable to see the clear way of the Lord.These swift workings of the Lord make usrejoice that we are privileged to see with eyeswhich are directed to the Father's light, andto live in times when we truly live by sight aswell as by faith. "Blessed are they who havenot seen and yet believe . . ."—more thankfulthan ever before should we be who live in thetime of the end.In Times of TroubleWinifred M. FirthWhat happens however, when the workingsof God in our lives are slow and grinding ?We know that we are in His hands and thereforewe must be prepared to allow Him to do asHe will. "Swift and sure" is sometimeseasier to contend with than the long drawn outworkings which demand so much patience,and soul searching on our part. Sometimesthe one thing we were certain we could neverdo is the one thing, we discover, that Godknows we can accomplish. He knows this,while we very much doubt it; and in ourhuman frailty we know only how low we feeland how unable to "cope" we are. We areapt to ask God to hurry up—not in so manywords of course—but in our attitude we forget

The TESTIMONYand in differing circumstances.To those whose life just now is shadowedby grief, uncertainty, pain, mental anguish, orjust the turmoil of a busy life, we would alsowish and pray for God's speed . . . not that Heshould hurry and get the gloomy time over,but that He will deal mercifully with themwhile it lasts, and give them courage to facethe unknown, comfort to ease the grief, andHis wisdom and miraculous skill to guidethose who have precious lives in their hands.Our faith grows dim, but God's care for usdoes not, otherwise He would desert us, butHe never does. Our hopes fade, and Godtakes hold in the shadow and leads us towardthe light if we can but hold fast. Our weaknessoverwhelms us and we go hurtling over theprecipice down into the dark regions wherehelp seems unobtainable, but God's arm canreach as far as we can fall, and much furtherthan that. He will hear if we call, and Hisgrip is certain, His arm strong. Our wordsfail us, but God's words never do ; there is aBook full of them, and we have only to reachfor it.To the ministering ones, we would that theircourage and loving service be acceptable toGod because they are doing service as to Him,and they can help so much, or so little, bytheir attitude to the needy.There is a solution to all puzzles ; we donot always need to know exactly how. It mustsuffice that He who sets the puzzle has theanswer in His keeping. We shall know theanswers one day if the Father deems it fitting—when the sorrow and sighing have flownaway when the tears have all gone, and all thepain is no more. Then we shall behold theKing in His glory, achieved through suffering ;one day shall be as a thousand years and weshall rejoice that it is so, having forgotten the"thousand years" of suffering which will thenseem as a day. Then we shall be able to offerthe qualities in ourselves that our suffering hastaught us. How we shall rejoice if there isfound in us, by God's mercy, kindness, patience,longsuffering, tolerance, courage, sympathy,mercy, gratitude, forgiveness, humility, faithfulness,and the greatest of all, love.Jesus Wants EnthusiastsJames CarterVV7HEN we consider the greatness of the call*^ we have received in Christ Jesus, anapathetic response seems utterly impossible. Inthe first place, we who by generation are sonsand daughters of man, by regeneration havebecome sons and daughters of God ; that, initself, should fill us with burning zeal for theGod of Heaven and His son, our Lord. Wehave also become the brethren and sisters of theLord Jesus, he who is 'the fairest among tenthousand' and is 'altogether lovely.' We havebecome the latter-day custodians of the Wordof God, and to us the language can be applied :"What advantage hath the (adopted) Jew?Much every way . . . because unto them arecommitted the oracles of God !" And what apriceless treasure they are—not to be comparedin any way with present-day literature—theirprice is far above rubies ! Fine gold, even muchfine gold, is not so precious as are these pricelesspages of the Word of God.And what of the privilege of prayer ? TheAlmighty invites us to commune with Himthrough His Son, and no matter how lowly ourstatus, He bows down His ear and listens to ourfeeble breathings. What infinite condescensionthere is in this, and, conversely, how greatly weare honoured by the God of Heaven in havingthis privilege. He invites us, in all our ways toacknowledge Him, and He assures us that Hewill direct our paths. What more can mortalwant ? Time and place matter not. Aninstantaneous response was given to Nehemiahas he stood, sad at heart, in the presence of theKing. Faithful Hannah received from Him thedesired answer of peace. Roman dungeonsmatter not, nor Egyptian ones either. Paul,Silas and Joseph were all heard and theirdeliverance was granted. Samuel's ceaselessprayers for his people, Daniel's petitions threetimes daily, Elijah's—that man of like passionsto ourselves—all received their abundantanswer from the God of Heaven. And ourprayers, too, receive their answer, often morethan we dare hope.And what of His well-beloved Son ? Hetaught us to pray, he showed what prayer reallymeant. He knew from long experience the

The TESTIMONYuplift received from prolonged communionwith his Father, yet always submitting his willto the greater one of his Beloved Parent.We are cared for day by day ; food, homes,warmth, shelter, clothing—none of us goesshort of essentials, and almost all attain tosuperabundance. The One Who clothes theflowers in splendour greater than Solomon's,and Who feeds the smallest of the birds, He itis Who looks after His children, Who openswhen they knock, Who gives when they ask,and who rewards suitably when they seek, andusually He answers speedily !What then, is our response to all thesemercies ? Are we lukewarm or boiling hot ?Do we give to God generously or is our givingof the niggardly variety ? In serving Him, havewe an eye to the favourable reaction of men,or do we render service regardless of theopinion of our fellows ? Do we go all the way,like the widow woman, or do we contributemerely of our overflow, like those who gavetheir contribution generously and with muchostentation ! It is a comparatively smallmatter for us to have possessed the Truth ; themajor matter is, has the Truth possessed us ?In order that we might have our sins forgiven,the Lofty One Who inhabits eternitygave His Son, His only Son, His only-begottenSon, as a sacrifice for sin. How utterlyobnoxious must sin be in God's sight if that wasthe only way whereby it could be forgiven !And how utterly sublime is the obedience andlove of Jesus in thus dying that we might havelife and have it more abundantly !In the face of all this majesty, this supremelove, this infinite condescension, this prospectthat opens before our eyes, what can we give tothese Givers of all ? Nay, has not the questionto be put the other way round ? What can werefrain from giving, when we consider all thatwe have received ? No meagre offering can becontemplated ! No thinking "How little willsuffice ?"! We have received abundantly, fortruly does James say, "God giveth to all menliberally"; so can we do any less than showthe family likeness if we are indeed sons ofGod?What can we give ? How far can we go ?Can we keep anything back ? And what we giveor do or offer, in what spirit do we, must we,offer it ? "Here am I, send me" ! Let him thatheareth say, "Come" ! Let us remember weare labourers together with God, built uponthe foundation laid in gold, silver, and preciousstones. If there be any restraint let it be as itwas in days of old, when the people had to berestrained from giving. Work ? Let it be asin the days of old, when "the people had a mindto work." Toil ? Let it be as when theytoiled 'from the rising of the sun until the starscame out' ! Afflictions ? We know them not,and were they there, they could not be comparedto the weight and glory that will be revealed !The call has gone forth, "Go work in Myvineyard !" The fields are white unto harvestand the need for labourers is great Those menof Meroz were cursed because they answerednot the call when the need was great; but howpleasurable in contrast was the response to"come over into Macedonia and help us" !How understandable is Paul's disappointmentwith John Mark because "he went not with usto the work," but on the other hand howdifferent is the spirit in "My Father workethhitherto and I work." We are but stewardsof whatever we have—health, energy, ability,intelligence, possessions, money, books, amongother things, and for all these we have to givean account of our stewardship when our Lordreturns. Happy indeed be those who, whenour Lord surveys results, will hear him say,"Well done, enter thou into the joy of thyLord."Yes, lukewarmness is abhorrent, for Jesuswants enthusiasts !"MY LAND" — "THE PLACE THAT I HAVE CHOSEN"No plot of ground exists on the surface of the earth that has had a more remarkable history or a morefascinating influence than the strip of Syrian limestone which we call the land of Israel.Of all places on the face of the globe Palestine claims unquestionably a superiority in points of interest.This spot is 'the glory of all lands' on which the greatest scenes of antiquity were enacted.. THEN ARE YE ABRAHAM'S SEED : HEIRS "—Gal. 3 : 29The truth gives a man the hope of seeing with his own eyes the work of God at last triumphant inthe earth, whether he live or die ; and of himself sharing the blessedness for all the ages covenantedfor all the earth through Abraham and his seed.

The TESTIMONYHISTORYThe Prophecy of Joel (1)A. AkeroydEdited by JAMES CARTERHPWO points must be kept in mind in a-•* consideration of the prophecy of Joel.First, it is pre-eminently the prophecy of "theday of the Lord," and verse eleven of chaptertwo gives in concise form a summary of thewhole of the book."And the Lord shall utter His voice beforeHis army,For His camp is very great.For He is strong that executeth His word.For the day of the Lord is great and veryterrible,And who can abide it ?"Second, seeing that God is our all-wiseCreator, we must appreciate that He has nouse whatever for wicked individuals, or wickednations, but considers them to be the vilestvermin, fit only for total obliteration in everlastingoblivion.There is no Biblical personal history of Joelbeyond that contained in the opening verse ofhis writings, where we are told that he was theson of Pethuel, and that to Joel came the wordof the Lord ! It is supposed that he was ofthe tribe of Reuben and that he was a nativeof Beth-horon, but these details can scarcely besubstantiated. Neither can we be certain ofthe years during which he uttered his prophecy,although the older school of commentatorsplace him in the reign of Uzziah, king of Judah,some eight hundred years B.C. and they are ofthe opinion that Joel foretold the seven yearsfamine which prevailed in that king's reign andwhich is described in 2 Kings 8 : 1-3. Joel, itis therefore assumed, was contemporary withHosea and Amos about 800 B.C.Summarising the contents of his book wefind that Joel calls attention to an impendinginvasion of locusts, an invasion of unprecedentedseverity, and one which causes greatdistress to the people of God, laying wasteboth vine and fig tree, so that even the meatoffering and the drink offering are "cut off"for lack of material. Because of this state ofaffairs Judah is called upon to weep like avirgin girded with sackcloth. Husbandmenand vinedressers are to be ashamed because ofthe stricken harvest; the priests also are tolament, and call a fast, and cry unto the Lord.But in all this there is seen a prophetic referenceto a greater and final visitation in "theday of the Lord," when greater judgmentsare to be inflicted upon the ungodly ; it isthe forerunner of a greater day of judgment.If the people will repent and turn to God,He will provide blessings including a finaloutpouring of His Spirit, when there will beestablished an era of peace and happiness andholiness—the Kingdom of God.In chapter one, verse four, mention is madeof Palmerworm, Locust, Cankerworm andCaterpillar. These are the means wherebydevastation is brought about and whereby theIsraelites, in case of disobedience, were to bepunished, as promised in the list of curses fordisobedience given in Deuteronomy 28 : 38."Thou shalt carry much seed out into the field,and shalt gather but little in, for the locustshall consume it." What is the differencebetween these four kinds of consumers mentionedhere in Joel 1:4?Palmerworm means "the Gnawer."Locust means "the Swarmer."Cankerworm means "the Devourer."Caterpillar means "the Consumer."Some commentators say they represent fourdifferent stages in the development of thelocust, Be that as it may, the end-product isthe same, namely, devastation, with consequentdistress and punishment falling upon thepeople of God.Is this description of the plague of locustsmerely a reference to a literal locust invasion ofgreat severity, or is there implied a prophetic

The TESTIMONYreference to an actual invasion of hostile armiesthat will pillage the land and reduce it todesolation ?It must be remembered that if Joel didprophesy about 800 B.C. it was almost ahundred years before the carrying-away captiveof Israel by the Assyrians in 721 B.C., and twohundred years before the carrying-away intocaptivity of Judah by the Babylonians in588 B.C. In Zechariah's prophecy attentionis drawn to four Gentile "horns" or powerswhich had destroyed Judah, Israel and Jerusalem; those four being Babylon, Medo-Persia,Greece and Rome. It may be possible thatJoel, impelled by the Spirit of God, was indicatingby these four destructive agencies ofpalmerworm, locust, cankerworm and caterpillar,these same four destructive powerswhich at various times after 800 B.C. invadedGod's Holy Land and laid waste "the PleasantLand," destroying Judah, Israel and Jerusalem,so that Jeremiah was able to say in his day,"The Lord could no longer bear, because ofthe evil of your doings, and because of theabominations which ye have committed, thereforeis your land a desolation, and an astonishmentand a curse, without an inhabitant as atthis day." "Israel is a scattered flock ; thelions have driven him away, first the king ofAssyria hath devoured him, and last thisNebuchadnezzar hath broken his bones." 1Then in verse six of Joel, chapter one, arethe words, "For a nation is come up upon Myland, strong and without number, whose teethare the teeth of a lion, and he hath the cheekteeth of a great lion."Assyria and Babylon are both depicted byDaniel under the emblem of a lion. Further,this locust plague of verse four has apparently,according to chapter two, verse twenty, comefrom the north, whereas locusts usually enterPalestine from the south. God says, "But Iwill remove far off from you the northernarmy." 2And a plague of locusts, howeversevere, does not fit in with our understandingof the expression, "the day of the Lord,"except in its symbolic application. It wouldappear, therefore, that we are justified inassuming that although Joel describes accuratelythe destruction caused by a literal invasion ofactual locusts, he also had in mind, at theSpirit's instigation, an invasion of hostilearmies in the later years of Israel's nationalexistence and even thoughts also of the yetfuture desolation that will be effected when theprince of Rosh "shall ascend and come like acloud to cover the land—thou and all thy bandsand many people with thee." 3So it is suggestedthat the mind of the Spirit was foretelling,through Joel, not merely the visitationof a swarm of locusts upon Israel, but avisitation of calamity by the lions of Assyriaand their descendant cubs including Gog;strong and without number, whose teeth arethe teeth of a lion, and with fangs of a lioness." 4Joel was predicting destructions in which onsome occasions the lions of Assyria wouldmeet with little opposition; occasions onwhich those lions would rend and tear andcarry off the prey, laying God's vine waste andbarking God's fig tree ; making it clean bare(verse 7) and casting it away, the branchesthereof being made white.In other words, there remained no sap inGod's fig tree nation ; it became, to alter themetaphor, a valley of dry bones. But the lionsof latter-day Assyria have yet to contend withthe Lion of the tribe of Judah and the prophetsof God tell us what the result will be. The"he" of verse seven of chapter one is the"nation" of verse six, and the nation of versesix is made up of the palmerworm, locust,cankerworm and caterpillar of verse four. The"vine" is God's people of Israel, as indicated,for instance in Psalm 80 : 8. "Thou hastbrought a vine out of Egypt," "Return webeseech thee, Ο God of hosts ; look downfrom heaven and behold and visit this vine,and the vineyard which Thy right hand hathplanted." It is suggested therefore that thefour destructive agencies of Joel, chapter one,are identical with the four horns of Zechariahchapter one, horns or powers which scatteredJudah, Israel and Jerusalem, agencies divinelyappointed to lay God's vine waste because ofwickedness and idolatry, and to bark His figtree, so that the vine of God's own vineyardwas dried up (as stated in Joel 1 : 12) andGod's fig tree nation languished. Theylanguished in Assyria and the cities of theMedes ; they languished in Babylon by whoserivers they sat down and wept when theyremembered Zion, and the joy was thuswithered away from the sons of men. 5Therethey lamented ; there they howled; therethey lay all night in sackcloth, for the mealoffering and the drink offering were withholdenfrom the house of their God, for Nebuchadnezzardestroyed Solomon's magnificent templein Jerusalem and Joel is predicting all thisand more in chapter one of his writings.124Jer. 44 : 22 and 5 : 17.Joel 2 : 20. 3 Ezek. 38 : 9.Moffatt's translation,5Joel 1 ; 12,

10 The TESTIMONYIn Joel 1 : 14 the Prophet summons allclasses of people to a solemn assembly in thehouse of the Lord, that they may cry untothe Lord in penitence, in order to avert thecalamities described in the previous verses ;in order to save themselves from being "driedup" and ''barked", and that they may besaved from languishing in a foreign landwhere sacrifice and offering will be impossibleand where no temple of God will be found."Alas for the day" 6 alas for the day of theadvent of the locusts, but also for the advent ofthe day of judgment that will finally come uponall sinners ! In this verse is the first mentionof "the day of the Lord," a day when Godinflicts judgments and destruction on thewicked, a day when, as Isaiah says, the loftylooks of man shall be humbled, and thehaughtiness of man shall be bowed down, andthe Lord alone shall be exalted in that day,for the day of the Lord of hosts shall be uponevery one that is proud and lofty, and uponevery one that is lifted up. Joel's descriptionof the locust invasion may be taken as including(a) a reference to a coming literal locustplague ;(b) a portent of the invasion that would comeupon Israel at the hands of the Assyrians andBabylonians ;(c) a prophecy of the siege and destruction ofJerusalem and its temple by the Romans ;(d) a prophecy of a more distant and yetfuture invasion by the lion of Assyria, thelatter-day Assyria, when God will take vengeanceon His enemies.Thus Joel's prophetic vision reaches forward,not only to the close of the Jewish dispensation,but forward again to the end of Gentile timeswhen God will be jealous for His land andpity His people. The land of promise onceflowed "with milk and honey," but the wordsof Joel 1 : 16-20 describe in detail its conditionresulting from the desolating work of thepalmerworm, locust, cankerworm and caterpillarswarms. "The garners are laid desolate,the barns are broken down, for the corn iswithered," and for centuries this has been thestate of "the Pleasant Land," but the divinepromise is that "the desolate land shall betilled whereas it lay desolate in the sight ofall that passed by, and they shall say, 'Thisland that was desolate is become like thegarden of Eden' ". This transformation istaking place at the present time, and one whichwill be completed when the Lord Jesus Christreigns in Mount Zion. .The connection of Zion with "the day ofthe Lord" is definitely established in Joel,chapter two. The reason for this connectionis that in "the day of the Lord" the law shallgo forth from Zion and the word of the Lordfrom Jerusalem. This fact is expressed thusin the words of the hymn,From Zion shall Thy rod proceed,The sword of judgment in Thy handShall make the hearts of rebels bleed,And bring the world to Thy command.Yet "the day of the Lord" has two phases, bothof which are concisely expressed in the w r ordsof Isaiah, "For the day of vengeance is inMine heart, and the year of My redeemed iscome."Vengeance is on the one hand ; redemptionand salvation on the other. The words ofJoel 2 : 2-10 are descriptive of events transpiringin "the day of the Lord"—a day ofdarkness and gloom ; the darkness and gloomof affliction, as the morning spread upon themountains, denoting the wide exteivt and quickappearance of the vengeance of God. Thephrase "a great people and a strong," whetherapplied to the literal locust swarm, or to theancient Assyrians or to the latter-day Assyriansis appropriate and applicable. "A fire devourethbefore them." This phrase brings to mindthe scorched earth policy of the latter-dayAssyrian during the Second World War."The land is as the garden of Eden beforethem, and behind them a desolate wilderness."The Promised Land is at the present timebecoming like the garden of Eden, fertile andluxuriant, prior to the final fulfilment of Joel'spredictions. But further desolation is in storeas the day of the Lord approaches, and itwould appear that the details of verses three toten, although speaking of the activities of alocust swarm, nevertheless are typifying thestate of affairs amongst the armies which invadeGod's land in the latter days, in the day of theLord. A greater judgment than that of theinvading locusts is typified by the languagehere used by Joel. It has been thought bysome that the "great people and a strong" (ofverse two), before whom "a fire devoureth"(verse three) and behind whom "a flameburneth", refers to God's army of immortalisedsaints ; and for proof of this, versesseven and eight are quoted, especially thewords, "and when they fall upon the swordthey shall not be wounded." It is true thatimmortal spirit beings cannot be wounded, butthe Revised Version reads, simply, "Theyburst through the weapons and break not off_____ ' " " ""* ~~

The TESTIMONYΠtheir course." Further, it is certain that whendivine intervention takes place, Jesus and hisimmortalised followers will not make a "gardenof Eden" into "a desolate wilderness," and itis suggested therefore that "his army," his"very great camp," is not mentioned inchapter two until verse eleven is reached;verse eight simply meaning that they, whetherlocusts or latter-day Assyrians, do not disintegrateas an advancing host, and the idea ofindestructibility may thus be eliminated."And the Lord shall utter His voice beforeHis army, for His camp is very great: for Heis strong that executeth His word : for theday of the Lord is great and very terrible ;and who can abide it ? " What constitutes"His army" in "the day of the Lord" ?Zechariah says that Judah is his goodlyhorse in the battle. The Lion of the tribeof Judah comes from the south, from Temanwith ten thousand of his saints, all immortalbeings, Spirit-impelled, all equal to the angels,so that his camp is very great indeed, and theday of the Lord will be very terrible—and"who can abide it ?" asks Joel. Malachi asksthe same question when he says, "The Lordwhom ye seek shall suddenly come to histemple, But who may abide the day ot hiscoming ? And who shall stand when heappeareth ? For he is like a refiner's fire andlike fuller's soap." Here is further evidence ofthe execution of judgment in "the day of theLord." Here is evidence too, of the necessityfor personal preparation in these days ofopportunity, so that when the Lord sits as arefiner and purifier of silver, no dross mars thepurity of the metal to be scrutinised by Him.Changing the figure, "he will gather his wheatinto his garner, but he will burn up the chaffwith unquenchable fire."Who can abide the day of the Lord ?None in that day can resist the omnipotenceof the divinely-appointed judge. None inthat day can elude his omniscient scrutiny oftheir hearts and lives. None in that day canevade the sentence which he pronounces uponthem, because his camp is very great: becausehe is strong that executeth His word. His verygreat camp includes, the Lion of the tribe ofJudah, he who will speak in righteousness,mighty to save, but who is also the Breakerspoken of in Micah's prophecy—the "remnant"of Micah's prophecy ; the flock of Bozrah, ofthat same prophecy ; the holy flock, the flockof Jerusalem ; the ten thousand saints fromTeman ; the carpenter of Nazareth ; thefour carpenters of Zechariah's prophecy ; theriders on red, white and sorrel horses amongstthe myrtle trees ; the four living creatures ofthe Book of Revelation ; the four and twentyelders of that same book ; the cherubim ofglory; the Lord's mighty ones of Joel,chapter three ; the multitudinous Christ ; theone hundred and forty-four thousand saintsredeemed ; the bride, the Lamb's wife, andthe Lamb himself at the head of them. Thatis the "very great camp of the Lord" ; that isHis army. That is the army of the Lord in theyet-future "day of the Lord," and the eleventhverse of Joel, chapter two, summarises thewhole theme of Joel's prophecy, the theme ofthe day of the Lord.^ Jer. 36 : 37.THE SILVER LININGThe inner half of every cloud is brightand shiningI therefore turn my clouds aboutAnd always wear them inside out,To show the lining{Unknown author)THY WILLHe sendeth sun, He sendeth the shower,Alike they're needful for the flower,And joys and tears alike are sentTo give the soul fit nourishmentAs comes to me or cloud or sunFather ! Thy will, not mine, be done.(Unknown author)"THOU, GOD, SEEST ME"—Gen. 16:13Search me, Ο God, my actions try,And let my life appearAs seen by Thine all-searching eye—To mine my ways make clear.Search all my thoughts, the secret springs,The motions thai: control ;The chambers where polluted thingsHold empire o'er the soul !Search till Thy fiery glance has castIts holy light through all,And I by grace am brought at lastBefore Thy throne to fall.F. Bottome.

12 The TESTIMONY~%^ί·*ΛΪ^ν»ίί&>^GleaningsF. E. MitchellEdited by F. E. MITCHELLVV7E are once more indebted to C.B. of*^ Seaford, Sussex, for interesting cuttingsfrom recent issues of the Jewish Chronicle.These include items of archaeological interest.Earlier Dead Sea ScrollsIn 1883, Mr. M. W. Shapira, a Jerusalemantiquities dealer, arrived in London andoffered for sale to the British Museum ancientmanuscripts of sections of the Book of Deuteronomy,which he said had been discoveredin a cave east of the Dead Sea. It was originallythought that the manuscripts dated to the timeof Solomon and at first the Museum authoritieswere inclined to buy them, after they had beenshown to Mr. Gladstone to whom Mr. Shapirawas introduced. Later German, French andBritish scholars rejected the suggestion thatthe manuscripts could be so old as the timeof Solomon and, without considering thepossibility of a later date, dismissed them asforgeries. The Museum thereupon refused tobuy them.Lately the matter has been discussed byDr. J. L. Teicher, Lecturer in Rabbinics atCambridge University. Dr. Teicher pointedout that the Dead Sea Scrolls exhibited manyfeatures similar to those shown by the Shapiramanuscripts. He expressed his convictionthat the manuscripts originated from thesame circles that produced the Scrolls. Heclaimed that the famous Shapira manuscriptsforgery was no forgery at all, but perfectlygenuine and the eminent scholars who decidedagainst them were actuated by prejudice andtheir judgments were hasty, ill-conceived andbased on quite illogical arguments.Between the TestamentsRecently a stone placard was unearthed bya bulldozer in the Emek Jezreel. It is inscribedwith eight letters in small Greek characters.One of the letters refers to a decree made byAntiochus III of Syria that the Jews should beallowed privileges in the Temple. Otherletters instructed the military commander inGalilee not to expel civilians and not to billettroops in their homes. The clemency ofAntiochus was in strong contrast to the ruthlessnessof his successor, Antiochus IV, surnamedEpiphanes, who took Jerusalem by storm andslaughtered the inhabitants without regard ofage or sex. He profaned the Temple bysacrificing swine and dedicated the buildingto Zeus Olympios. The Samaritan templeon Mount Gerizim he dedicated to ZeusXenios. His oppression led to the rebellion ofthe Maccabees, whose leader, Judas, wongreat victories over the troops of Antiochusagainst overwhelming odds. In the words ofDan. 11 : 32, 34, "the people who knew theirGod did exploits and were holpen with a littlehelp."The Aleppo CodexA dramatic announcement was made byPresident Ben Zvi at the Annual Conferenceof the Israel Exploration Society. This wasthat the 1,000-year-old Aleppo Codex had, afternearly 600 years, been returned to Israel, fromSyria.The Codex, or Keter Torah Shel Ben Asher,generally held to be the most accurate HebrewCodex in existence, was written at the end ofthe ninth century A.D., or not later than theyear 910, by the Rabbanite scribe, SolomonBen Buya'a, either in Tiberias or Jerusalem.A few years later it was collated (that is comparedletter by letter with previous manuscripts)pointed and annotated by Ben Asher, who hadmade a detailed study of the contemporarymanuscripts of the Bible and devoted his

The TESTIMONY 13THEALEPPOCODEX(With acknoivledgmentsto theJEWISH CHRONICLEwhole life to ascertaining the exact text. TheCodex was written on both sides of parchmentsheets and bound in book form. AboutA.D. 1000 it was purchased by one, Israel BenSimha, a Persian Karaite, and presented to theKaraite Synagogue in Jerusalem. The Karaiteswere a Jewish sect which held by the literalinspiration of the Scriptures and rejectedrabbinical tradition. In 1071 the SeljukTurks sacked Jerusalem, seized the KeterTorah and took it to Egypt. It was boughtback from the Turks by the Cairo Jews andplaced in the Rabbanite Synagogue in theircity. During its stay there it was used byMaimonides. Maimonides, or Moses BenMaimun (A.D. 1135-1204) was a famousrabbi, theologian, philosopher and physician.Towards the end of the fourteenth centurythe Codex was taken to Aleppo, perhaps byRabbi David, Maimonides' great-great-greatgrandson.Since the fourteenth century it hasbeen seen by English and other travellers andscholars. About 1900 the Keter Torah wasput in a place of honour in what the Aleppocommunity calls the Cave of Elijah. Afterwards,fearing that it might be stolen, themembers of the community made a specialiron box for it. This could be opened onlyunder the strictest security conditions.In 1947 anti-Jewish riots took place inAleppo and it was feared that the Codex hadbeen destroyed. It was in fact singed andmutilated. By the devoted efforts of the Jewsof Aleppo, however, the bulk of it was saved,588 of its original 760 leaves being preserved.The present Codex begins at Deuteronomy28 : 17 ; parts are missing from 2 Kings,Jeremiah ; some of the minor prophets ; 2Chronicles and from the Psalms. Entirelymissing are Ecclesiastes, Lamentations, Esther,Daniel and Ezra. Also missing are the endpapers but, fortunately, the full text of thesewas transcribed by Meir Nehmal and publishedin Aleppo in 1933. Each page has threecolumns, except for the poetic parts whjchare in double columns,

The TESTIMONYThe article in The Jewish Chronicle for the2nd December, 1960 by N. D. Cross states,"The recovery of the Codex, from which thestandard Old Testament texts were ultimatelyderived, has enabled the Hebrew Universityto undertake publication of a revised editionof the Hebrew Bible. The work will take manyyears but the first volume, the Book of Isaiah,is due to be published by 1965. ProfessorChaim Rabin, Associate Professor of HebrewLanguage at the University, has stated thatthe project is on a more exhaustive scale thanany previous attempts to collate the variousreadings of the Old Testament."StonehengeIt is known that the great stones, which wereused to build the pyramids of Egypt weredragged to the sites by slave labour. Aninteresting sidelight is shed on this knowledgeby a review in the issue of the IllustratedLondon News for November 26th, kindlysupplied by our colleague H.W.C. The reviewis by Sir Charles Petrie of a book by Mr.Edward Bacon entitled Digging for History.It includes a comment on the building ofStonehenge in this country. Sir Charleswrites, "It has, for example, long been acceptedthat the bluestones were brought to Stonehengefrom Prescelly in Pembrokeshire, but it wasdifficult to understand how such large stonescould have been manhandled such a considerabledistance with the primitive means oftransport then available ; so an imitationbluestone was cast in reinforced concrete, andthe aid of schoolboys was invoked. The boysof Canford School took the part of the landteam and successfully pulled it by sledge andropes, while those from Bryanston School,with equal success, mounted the stone onlogs laid across three simple punts, and poledit along by water ; thus simply was anotherarchaeological problem solved."MithrasThe same review refers to Mr. Bacon'sremarks about Mithras, the god, whose templewas unearthed in the city of London in 1954.Pointing out that Mithraism might so easilyhave beaten Christianity as the supplanter ofthe religions which decayed in the third andfourth centuries, Sir Charles quotes the wordsof Mr. Bacon, "Much against the odds, as itmust have seemed to any educated Roman,Christianity, the religion of slaves, triumphedfrom its very inclusiveness, its all-embracingness,its catholicity. Mithraism was far different; it was extremely exclusive, entirelymale, and very austere." Sir Charles adds,"It is tempting, if idle, to speculate what thefuture of the world might have been if thebattle between the two religions had gone theother way."The NegebThe issue also contains an article about theruins of Eboda, one of the six city-ruins in theNegeb or southern desert of Israel. Thisplace dates to the beginning of the thirdcentury B.C. It stood close to the junctionof the two main roads crossing the Negeb inancient times, that from the head of the Gulfof Akaba to Jerusalem, and that from Petra toGaza. It was the first point where caravanscould get plentiful supplies of food and waterafter crossing the desert from the south. Thecity was in existence during the ministry ofJesus and was successively occupied by theNabateans, its founders, the Romans and theByzantines.SumerA further review deals with a book entitledSumer by Andre Parrot. Attention is drawnto the exhibit in the British Museum from Urof the Chaldees, of "the ram caught in thethicket by its horns," which many have associatedwith the ram which was offered byAbraham, when he was relieved from the needto sacrifice Isaac. Parrot says quite rightlythat there is no connection between the two,"since the motif of two animals proppedagainst a tree, confronting each other is arecognised Mesopotamian theme." The reviewalso refers to a sculptured head in the BaghdadMuseum, which is that of Hammurabi, thelaw-giver king of Babylon, who is thought bysome scholars to have been the Amraphel,king of Shinar, mentioned in Genesis, chapter14.Sumer is the ancient name for southernMesopotamia, where the Sumerians settled.". . . FOOLISHNESS WITH GOD"The world draws upon its own imaginations, reasonings and conclusions in its efforts, so far as itputs forth any, to ascertain what is right,

The TESTIMONY 15pROBABLY most of us feel that there is an-*• unfathomable depth of meaning in theopening words of John's Gospel record. Evenwhen we feel that we have at last grasped theessentials, we are left with a sense of bewilderinginadequacy. Perhaps the bestapproach is that of understanding the reasonwhich prompted the Apostle to write in thisvein and with such terms.There seems little doubt that he was attackingthe heresy called Gnosticism. It has beensaid that the filth of the Orontes flowed intothe Tiber—a terse imaginative way of sayingthat the current of Oriental thought hadstreamed westward and commingled with thatof the Occident. Some classes of Christianswere not unaffected by these influences.From the Persian philosophy calledZoroastrianism came the idea of dual principlescontrolling the earth : a god of light and a godof darkness. It sought to explain the existenceof evil. From this theory, it is believed,Gnosticism derived some of its teaching.The Gnostics saw the universe as evil. Theysupposed it to have been formed from anemanation which had once proceeded fromGod, but which had become so remote inboth time and space as to be no longer divine.From this "word" they supposed all matterto have been derived ; consequently mattermust be evil.As with all heresy, there was a moral implication.An excuse was made for licence.This aspect is dealt with by the Apostle in hisfirst Epistle, "If we say we sin not, we makeHim a liar." In short then, the Gnosticswould separate God from His Word, theLogos.The opening words of chapter one demonstratethe contrary by a threefold cord, noteasily broken. John drives three nails into thecoffin of Gnosticism in the first verse. "InEdited by E. WHITTAKERThoughts on the LogosElwyn Humphreysthe beginning was the Word." It had alwaysbeen. There never was an occasion when itcame to be. Here is timelessness, co-eternitywith God. "And the Word was with God"—here is location, the Word was inseparablefrom God. And, thirdly, "The Word wasGod" ; here John describes its nature ; it wasdivine, part of the very nature of God Himself.In three essentials—we might call themdimensions—with which all things can befully defined, John established the inseparabilityof God and the Word ; in time, in space andin nature. It should be noticed, however, thatin the second clause the term "with" is notstrictly limited to the meaning of location,having a sense of relationship with God. Itwas "at home with God." The phrase—bearing in mind that John is a Hebrew—immediately recalls that joyous intimacy whichWisdom, a foster child of God, enjoyed withHim. 1"The same was in the beginning with God."John repeats the statement, thereby establishingthe matter. There are in Scripture whatmight be called literary marvels, single sentences,infinitely profound in content, yet withbrevity divine. They give expression to thewhole vast purpose of God. For example :"I am he that was, and is, and is to come."We would go further and suggest that thepurpose has been expressed, by implication,within the confines of a single term—"TheWord." It is unfortunate that we have not inEnglish a single word to give full meaningto the Greek Logos. We must attain thisthrough two, or even three, English words. Wemust use "reason" and "speech". Nevertheless,"word", which is the vehicle for the transmissionof thought, implies reason, for withoutreason there can be no coherent speech. Yet1 Prov. 8 : 30.

16 The TESTIMONYwords and reason are inseparable things. Onemust not think of words as the mere clothingfor ideas. As Wordsworth says, "Speech isthought incarnate."It has been pointed out by Dr. Thomasthat much of what John is saying in verse oneis an echo of Wisdom's words in Prov. 8 : 22,"The Lord possessed me in the beginning ofHis way." Wisdom is essential, but wisdomcan remain for ever with its possessor ; yetthe use of this term "Word" implies thenecessity of other intelligences to receive it.We have an example in Gen. 1:2. Godsaid, " 'Let there be light' and there waslight." If there had not existed intelligentbeings to receive this fiat, then the work couldnot have been described by saying, "and Godmade light and the light was good." But themode of creation was the employment ofangelic artisans to whom were transmittedthe reason and energy and through whom theresults were achieved to the accompanimentof their exultant songs. In short then, "Word"being the vehicle of the reason, there is impliedthe existence or the purposed existence ofother minds to receive the Word and absorbthe reason ; in other words, God manifestationin intelligent beings or "sons of God," whichis, in essence, the whole purpose of the Father.Looking again at the three clauses in verseone, we see now that John has not onlyestablished the unity ot God and the Logosbut has shown this too—from all eternity ithas been the very nature of God to expressHimself, intellectually and morally, in thepersons of His sons."All things were made by Him and withoutHim was not anything made . . .", Johncontinues to hammer at the Gnostics. Throughthe Logos all things were made. Here is theWord in creative activity as the purpose unfolds.Creation then is an expression of God, but onlyin part; as no artist can put brush to canvasor compose melody without revealing somethingof himself, so the Word is seen in thematerial creation. Jesus pointed to exemplarydetails and deduced the love of God for Hishandiwork. So the visible productions testifyto the invisible qualities and power of God,leaving man without excuse. 2 Neverthelesssome saw it. Men like Socrates and Platodeduced from the rationality of things, likethe stars in their courses, the existence of aSupreme Will, and that in an age of polytheism.The phrase "all things" interests us. Mustwe qualify it, or is it comprehensive of thewhole macrocosm ? We listen meekly to themodern astronomer telling us that our solarsystem lies on the fringe of a super-catherinewheel, or star galaxy, some 60,000 light yearsin diameter. We stand in awe as he proceedsto inform us that this star cluster of ours isonly one of myriads stretching away in alldirections in the universe beyond the reach ofman's telescopes. We fail to comprehend,and yet we must believe that this immensityfinds its purpose centred in what is not evena speck of dust by contrast—that is the microcosmcalled earth. Yet this is what we believeto be the implication of John's words. Vastas the universe may seem to us, its importanceis immeasurably less than the work which Godachieved in His Son on this planet. Mosesdismisses the creation of that immensity witha deft touch, "He made the stars also." Amodern journalist would regard that as thenadir of understatement. Yet does it notreflect the Divine disregard for physicalcreation, however immense, as compared withHis regard for the infinitely more importantpurpose of producing a Son in whom the Wordshould find its fullest expression ?The physical power of creation does notcompare with the moral force or "exceedinggreatness of His power," which He wroughtin Christ making him victorious over sin andenabling Him to raise His Son from the dead.The sum of it all we think is this : if allthings were created through the Word andthat Word became flesh in Jesus, then there isnothing in existence which is not related toGod's purpose in His Son. In that tinyconcentration of matter, the brain of the LordJesus, was won the victory, which was thevery fulcrum of God's purpose in creating theuniverse. Here is the infinitely great setagainst the infinitely small; yet in paradox, theinfinitely small is infinitely greater.The words of the writer to the Hebrews 3take on new and expanded meaning as herelates the sacrifice of Christ to this eternalpurpose—"upholding all things by the wordof his power." In Christ the purpose behindthe universe is assured, "All things werecreated through him . . ." 4 He gives to it itsconsistency, "in Him all things hold together."We perceive then that in the limitless ages ofeternity, whatever counsels are decreed orwhatever works are purposed, all are sure inhim.In this view of things, one might say thateven the wayside flower is related to God's2 Rom. 1 : 20.3 Heb. 1 : 1-3.* Col. 1 : 17 R.S.V.

The TESTIMONY 17purpose in His Son, even if its only functionis to contribute in some subtle way to an intricatetheme of nature. Thereby it forms anecessary fragment of the world in which wehave our being, which world is the arena forthe development of those Godlike intelligenceswhich the Creator purposes to produce throughthe Word.The subject opens up wonderful possibilitiesfor the exercise of the minds of saints in theage to come. Man is now conscious of hismental inadequacy. Knowledge of the universeis so vast that there is now no such thingas an all-round scientist. Man has been forcedto specialise and each group of specialists ofnecessity invents its own jargon ; consequentlythose in one group cannot comprehend fullythe studies of another group. Knowledge,therefore, can never be unified by man. Itrequires super-intelligences for this achievement.We think one of the pleasures ofincorruptibility will be the capacity to unravelthe mysteries of the vast ocean of truth ofwhich man has merely discerned a few drops—and not only to unravel and unify, but to relatethe knowledge of the material universe toGod's purpose.John then follows with a brief parentheticsurvey of the development of the Word'sactivities from creation of matter, inorganicand organic, to life which is higher and moraland, therefore, metaphored as light. Theassailing darkness failed to extinguish the lightin the earth. The light .prevailed until thetime appropriate for the manifestation of thefull and effulgent glory ; and so we come inverse 14 to the great denouement for whichthe acclamations of the celestial hosts were theonly fitting accompaniment. "The Wordbecame flesh and tabernacled among us : andwe beheld his glory." Here is another blowat the Gnostics who relegated Jesus to aninferior station. John's estimate of him isequivalent to that of Paul, who was answeringincipient Gnosticism when he said, "In himdwelleth all the fulness of the Godheadbodily." 5 Furthermore, the Word, as distinctfrom the evil emanation of Gnostic concept,was full of grace and truth and in verity theglory of God.John's view gains strength from a study ofthe Old Testament teaching, to which herefers by allusion. He shows us a Tabernaclingglory, which is another way of expressingwhat the Jew styled the Shekinah. It can beseen at once that this word is a derivative ofthe Hebrew word for the Tabernacle—Shakan—which was God's dwelling place in Israel.A common figure of speech in all tongues isthe metonymy. For example, we speak ofthe assembly in the House of Commons as"the House." Here "the House" is put forthe occupants. Similarly, the word for theTabernacle or Dwelling was substituted forthe Glory which dwelt within—the Shekinah.A point obscured by the A.V.'s phrase"Tabernacle of the Congregation" is that hereGod met with His people. The better descriptionis "Tent of Meeting"; not the meetingplace of the people, but God's meeting withthem. Here He dwelt with, and met with,and spoke to His people. Of all this Jesus wasthe antitype. His body was the tabernaclein which God was completely revealed. Hewas Emmanuel, the image of the Fatherimpressed in human clay which is the meaningof the figure used by Paul in Heb. 1:3. Itis by understanding these allusions in John'sprologue that we are able to grasp the meaningof much that is enigmatical in the Gospelrecord which follows, for these things colourthat aspect of Jesus which John portrays.Israel saw the magnificence of Egypt'stemples. They came into the desert and sawthe habitation of Yahweh, a larger version ofan Arabian tent, covered entirely by a drabexterior of sealskin. It was both uninvitingand uninspiring, but a privileged class saw thebeauty of the gold-lined walls within, itsfurniture and the cherubic veil. It was sowith Christ. In the nation's eyes he wasdespised. There was no beauty to make himdesirable. Yet, as the representative of aprivileged minority, John writes "... and webeheld his glory." These saw beyond thecommonplace exterior of a Galilean peasantartisan to the beauty of the Divine attributeswhich were radiant in the faith-lined walls ofhis mind.In spite of the teaching of the Tabernacle,we may still find ourselves hazy on this subject :a subject so profound that the ramifications ofits discussion once split Christendom anddestroyed kingdoms. We may wonder what,after all, is the meaning of John 1 : 14 interms of a helpless babe in a mother's arms.Samson, receiving the strengthening powerof the Spirit, was able to perform incrediblemuscular feats. Jesus was strengthened onthe mental plane to perform feats unheard ofin human flesh. The Spirit gave him thegenius and by it he saw the Father revealeds Col. 2 : 9 ?

18 The TESTIMONYin the Word. The veil is lifted momentarilyto show us the child Jesus exhibiting thisgenius in the temple courts. He was thebranch made strong; and through him, inresponse to the supplication of those tribeswhose forebears had marched behind the Ark,God shined forth. 6"My Word shall not return unto Me void,"God said through Isaiah. It is fitting then,in John's prologue, that he should concludeon this note. The Word had accomplishedthe set purpose and returns to the Fatherembodied in the person of a glorious Son andJohn can find no greater illustration of affinitythan that of a Son clasped to the bosom of hisFather."No man has seen God at any time," Johnwrites ; and judging by the context, his mindis upon Moses and that revelation of gloryreceived by the lawgiver as he stood in thecleft rock. Great as that revelation had been,it was limited to angelic manifestation and bydesign his face was hidden. The glory wasphysical, and there was need of a declarationconcerning the divine character in spokenword. But here was one who stood not in acleft rock, but in the very bosom of the Father.Here was one through whom that very gloryhad been declared.During his mortality Jesus saw in perfectfaith the face of the Father and imitated Himin all that he thought, spoke and worked,yet always he was separated from Him by theveil of the flesh. That veil had to be rent—and rent it was, enabling him to stand in thepresence of the Most High, to behold His facein righteousness 7 with consummate joy. Howappropriately, then, are we shown Jesusthroughout John's record on his way to theFather. 8 On that fateful night of betrayal,the night of Passover, we find him ready todepart out of "Egypt" to go to His Father. 9Beyond the grave, with gentle urgency, he begsMary to release him, for he yearned for thatmoment of inexpressible joy—"I ascend to myFather." Thus the Yahweh Name became areality, the first of those many sons had beenbrought to glory ; and he that had been alone,he that was "the first" had become "he that is."Thus the final manifestation is assured and"he that is" will be revealed in a vast multitudefashioned in image and likeness to him who isthe first-born of that new creation.As we read the gospel narrative which follows,it is the Logos in manifestation which we beholdin action, or in intimate discourse, with friendor foe. But in John 8, there is perhaps theclearest revelation of all. Moved by Jewishderision, the Lord not only reveals hisconsciousness of the fact, but asserts that hewas the Father in manifestation. "BeforeAbraham came to be, I am." In the Bush anangelic son of God said, "I am the God ofAbraham, Isaac and Jacob." It is entirelyappropriate, then, that when the occasionmerited, the only begotten Son, the fullestmanifestation of the Father, should givevoice not in the same words as the angel, butin words more appropriate, but having thesame implicit meaning—"I am."6 Psa. 80.8 Jno. 6 : 62 ; 7 : 34 ; 14 : 12.7 Psa. 17.^ Jno 13 : 1.Introductory ThoughtsTHE BIBLE is noted for economical use of•*• words, so we may regard the Book of Jobwith its central position and forty-two chapters,some of them lengthy, as obviously claiming animportant place. Its message is not easilyextracted, and the reader must always make adetermined effort to by-pass the many sideissuesthat too readily detract from the mainpurpose of the book. Many a reader has goneno further than the puzzle of Satan in chapters1 and 2, or stumbled at the apparently artificialarrangement of the arguments of the threefriends, or perhaps been unnecessarily deterredThe Book of Job (1)Cyril Tennantby the attitude of textual critics. This is nobook for the casual reader, but those who sparetime for meditation on it will be richly rewarded.Only two references are made to Job in otherparts of Scripture, but each provides a key ofentrance, and as such, will be noted here.Ezekiel links Job with Noah and Daniel asan illustration of a righteous man, whilst James,although mentioning the endurance of Job,emphasises the mercy of God to him. 1 TheBook of Job then, is a story, dramatically told,1 Ezek. 14 ; 14-20 ; Jas, 5 : 10-11,

The TESTIMONY 19of a man renowned for his righteousness, butsaved by the mercy of God.Turning to the book itself, we notice howoften the Hebrew name Shaddai (translated"Almighty" in the A.V.) is used of God. Ofthe forty-eight times the name occurs inScripture, thirty-one are to be found in theBook of Job. As it is recognised that the Namesof God are used with significance, we mustanticipate that the singular preference forShaddai will provide one of the keys to anunderstanding of the book.Shaddai, as the translation " Almighty"would suggest, reveals God as all-powerful andself-sufficient, and a careful study of its use inScripture will confirm this view. Before citinginstances, however, it is necessary first to notethe meanings of the roots Shad and dai. Shadis the word for 'breast,' a symbol of fruitfulness,whilst dai carries the sense of ability or sufficiency.Embodied in this Name of God,therefore, is the idea that God is all-powerfulbecause He alone is essentially fruitful, allcreative,and in this, self-sufficient. Our Godis not a Being of aimless might and power ; onthe contrary, He is fruitfully creative becauseHis power is purposefully directed.The Name Shaddai was first used of God byHimself when speaking to Abraham ... "Iam the Almighty God ; walk before Me, andbe thou perfect. And I will make My covenantbetween Me and thee, and will multiply theeexceedingly . . . And I will make thee exceedingfruitful." 2 Even without an understandingof Hebrew, one can clearly gather confirmationof the meaning of the Name by its usage here.God Who is great because of the fruitfulness ofHis expanding purpose, promises to make thechildless Abraham great through a fruitfulnesswhich will be accomplished in a miracle ofpower.Similarly, when Isaac invokes God's blessingof fruitfulness upon Jacob, he calls God by thesame Name ; . . . "And God Almighty blessthee, and make thee fruitful, and multiply thee,that thou mayest be a multitude of people." 3And the same name is significantly employedwhen God renews the Abrahamic promise toJacob ... "I am God Almighty : be fruitfuland multiply." 4It emerges from these passages that althoughGod is to be feared for His judgments, in whichHe "will arise to shake terribly the earth," Heshould be worshipped because He is powerfullyproductive, essentially fruitful and self-sufficient,and it is in this respect that He largelyfigures in the Book of Job, Although thronedin awful majesty, He is to be worshippedbecause He has laid the foundations of theearth, set the bounds of the seas, fixed the starsin the heavens, and fashioned all livingcreatures. Of what could Job boast comparedwith such mighty works ?The three keys of interpretation as we workour way through the study are, therefore :a. That Job was renowned for his righteousness;b. That God chose to be revealed in the Bookof Job as a fruitful God ;c. That even though Job was a righteous man,it was only by God's mercy that he wasfinally saved.At this stage it is necessary to decide whetherthe book is historical or must be treatedallegorically. It is a fundamental canon thatin Scripture the simplest explanation is morelikely to be the sound one : that is, all otheraspects being equal. Too often have theologiansresorted to an allegorical interpretation to foistan unscriptural doctrine on a credulous world.Once we arbitrarily elect to reduce history toallegory, and regard the Old Testament as ananthology of Israelitish legends, we shall beexpecting the Almighty to teach truth byuntruth, and logically renounce any sure beliefin the authority of the Word itself.The parables are obviously stories with amoral, the visions of the prophets were clearlypictorial representations ; and in such casesthe reader is left in no doubt whatever. Apartfrom such instances where there are goodscriptural reasons for a figurative treatment,it should be avoided except as a last resort ofinterpretation, otherwise we shall deprive theBible of authority and ultimately produce in theprocess a spineless Christianity poisoned fromwithin.Applying these principles to the book of Job,we find there is no hint of allegory. The charactersare introduced to us as living people withhistorical and geographical backgrounds thatcan be checked in their respective fields. Itmay be admitted that the sufferings of Job arepresented in dramatic forms to throw emphasison the lesson the book has for us, but this doesnot in any way make the writing detract from,the fact of its being an inspired account of truehistory.Let us now apply ourselves to the realmessage of the Book and any problems thatbear on it, leaving the incidental and lessserious ones to be considered in their owncontext as and when we meet them.«Gen. 17; 1-6,3 Gen, 28 ; 3-4, * Gen, 35; 11-12.

20 The TESTIMONYWhen Will Christ Come ? (1)F. WhiteleyEdited by F. WHITELEYΤ Ν view of Christ's own statement that no• • man knoweth the day nor the hour of hiscoming, it might be considered futile to ask,"when will Christ come ?" Yet when Daniel,"the man greatly beloved", had been givenastonishing visions of things to come, politicaland religious, concerning both Israel and theGentiles, and had been given time-periodsconcerning both, expressed on various reduced"scales," he was not told to "shut upthe words and seal the book" for ever, (else ofwhat use would have been their impartation ?)but "even to the time of the end." As in thecase of a previous vision, "the thing was true,but the time appointed was long ... for thevision is yet for many days." We note thatthe "shutting up" and "sealing" was not saidto be "to the end," but "to the time of the end."in which time many would increase theirknowledge of these long-time hidden things,by their earnest traversing of his prophecies.(Readers who have not already done so, maywith profit look deeper into the words, "runto and fro.")Again, if Daniel was immediately caused tooverhear the question, "How long shall it beto the end of these wonders ?" being put byone "man" in the vision to another, and tohear also, by way of reply from the latter uponsolemn oath, another time-period, with howmuch more urgency ought not we who knowourselves to be IN that very "time of the end,"to be asking each other that same question,which, for our very sakes, was asked andanswered two thousand five hundred yearsago ? Apart from the priceless personalassurance, in the closing words recorded, ofhis ultimate inheritance "at the end of thedays," Daniel himself reaped little from therevelations but anxiety and perplexity. It waschiefly for us they were recorded. Let anywho may be discouraged by premature expectation,remember what this same prophet alsosaw and recorded, namely that, "THE TIMECAME !" Also let them be comforted by,and aroused to renewed attentive study of,what was written for our learning, "upon whomthe ends of the ages are come," in a much fullersense than when Paul used that phrase to theCorinthian believers in the tenth chapter ofhis first letter ; for the last age prior to theKingdom-—the Gentile age—has added thefinal span. It must certainly have been intendedby the Father as an incentive to mostdiligent enquiry by believers living near theend of those wonders when, dismissing Danielto his long "rest" "till the end be," He addedthe significant repetition, "the words are shutup and sealed till the time of the end."This sealing of things seen and heard, inDaniel, chapter twelve, differs from thesealing of the things which were heard whenthe Seven Thunders of the Apocalypse utteredtheir voices, in Revelation chapter ten, in thatthe latter were to be shut up in John's mind :he was to "write them not;" whereas theformer were written down, but sealed inDaniel's book. We can only think the reasonfor this difference is that the Apocalypticthunders are to sound after Christ has returned,being the septiform outgrowth ofthe Seventh Trumpet in the days when "isfinished the mystery of God, according tothe good tidings which He declared to Hisservants the prophets ;" and being voiced bythe symbolic Rainbowed Angel, namely theMultitudinous Body of Christ, deathless,victorious, mighty and glorious, lion-likeroaring their right now to rule, as they echoround the earth and main the thunders of

The TESTIMONY2ΐJudah's Royal Lion, as he proceeds to place"his feet as pillars of fire . . . upon the sea andon the earth" in token that the time has comefor him to "Ask" and be given by his Father"the nations for his inheritance, and theuttermost parts of the earth for his possession,"as the second Psalm foretells, and thatthe time has come for the saints, includingDaniel and John, to possess the Kingdom (asboth these prophets foretell), whereas thetime-periods of Daniel will have run theircourse, almost in entirety, before Christ hasreturned.This difference being noted, the conclusionis inescapable that Daniel's dates were writtendown, that, by some at least, they may becomprehended before Christ's appearing. Thisis not inconsistent with their not having preciseknowledge of "day and hour," for in the verycontext in Matthew 24 wherein Jesus refers tothat lack, he supplies signs respecting "theSon of man coming," from which he w r ouldhave them "know that he (R.V.) is nigh, evenat the doors." He makes quite clear, too, thatthe narrow margin of uncertainty is divinelydesigned that vigilance may become a constantcharacteristic : "Watch therefore : for yeknow not on what day (R.V.) your Lordcometh." Relaxation of readiness, he urges,will be ruinous folly, for "in an hour that yethink not the Son of man cometh." To decrythe study of the God-given time-periods, asis now the manner of some, as if it were timewasted, is much more than a mistake ; it isan affront to the Father, saying in effect, "Weare not interested ; we have something betterto do !"We know there will be some who "remainunto the coming of the Lord" in literal truth,and no mistaken philosophist will deter theBride-to-be from "counting the days till herabsent Lord she see." She will know by thedivine time-tables that "the Coming of theLord draweth nigh." No ! Let those censurewho will, the study past or present of propheticperiods ; but a compelling urge should nowrun through the ranks of the watchers, torenew, rather than relinquish, their study of"what time, or what manner of time, the Spiritof Christ which was in the old prophets didsignify, when it testified beforehand thesufferings of Christ, and the glories thatshould follow them. To whom it was revealed,that not unto themselves, but unto YOU, didthey minister these things . . . which thingsangels desire to look into" ! Unquestionably, itwould be wise to be found on the side of theangels. It would seem certain, too, that theSpirit-guided Peter, when writing that rousingreminder, must have had in mind, primarily,as one of "the prophets" who "sought andsearched diligently"—Daniel, who, after beingthe Spirit's vehicle for the conveyance to usof precious knowledge (preserved by theprinted page to our late day), himself, despitediligent searching, was dismissed to go hisway till the end be.And now that every sign known to theservant of the Lord is maturing with remarkableswiftness, xfor that servant to say, even"in his heart, 'My Lord tarrieth,' " would bean evil indeed, for his Master "shall come ina day when he expecteth not, and in an hourwhen he knoweth not," and the result of thelaxity and turpitude to which Jesus warnedthat such a thought is liable to lead, wouldbe eternal disaster.There is today, in more than one direction,an insufficiency of dispensational discriminationwhich can lead to nothing but misunderstandingand mischief. For example, in the presentconnection, the words of Jesus, "It is not foryou to know times or seasons, which the Fatherhath set within His Own authority," were ofcourse true when spoken to the disciples whennearing the end of the Jewish Age. But theywould be untrue if quoted and applied todisciples now, when nearing the end of theGentile Age. It is inexcusable, now, for any*The speed with which the earth is becoming''corrupt before God and filled with violence,"much more than "it was in the days of Noah " ; asJesus said it would be : heedless of its imminentawful fate "in the days of the Son of man"—Gen.6:11; Luke 17 : 26. How long before "she saithin her heart, Ί sit a queen, and am no widow,' "with whom the head of a once Protestant Churchstrikes hands ? Strong religious currents aresweeping vast unheeding numbers back to "Babylon,"which the Lord comes to destroy—Rev. 18 : 7, 8.There are already some alarming reports that Israel,who was not considered among "nations whichpossibly could become atomic powers in the nearfuture," is now believed by some to be well on its wayto building its first experimental nuclear bomb !—althoughIsrael says research is for peaceful purposesonly. This has "led to a rush meeting of U.S. intelligencechiefs and politicians . . . British and U.S.defence chiefs are deeply concerned because they fearthat the intense feeling between the Israelis and theEgyptians, and the tie-up of Nasser with the Russians,could touch off a global nuclear war if the Israeliswere to threaten Egypt." "The signs" are maturingswiftly indeed ; and soon, when their Leader comes,the little nation which they didn't trouble to list,will receive the blessing they once forfeited : "TheLord shall make thee the head, and not the tail,"—Deut. 28 : 13.

22 The TESTIMONYdisciple not to have at least a little acquaintancewith those "times and seasons" which in "thetime of the end" (like many a vision, till thattime dumb) would speak to us. Had Jesusthen given a simple one-word answer to theirquestion, "Lord, wilt thou at this time restorethe kingdom to Israel ?" it would have had tobe "No" ; which, whilst true, by its baldbrevity would have but shocked and confusedthem. But when asked by a Jew of thepresent time, that selfsame question, one wasable, still in truth, to say, "Yes." Accordingto the proverb, it has been the glory of God toconceal these things, that it might be thehonour of "kings" (prospective) to search outthese matters—each in their own time. Thetime of the Flood was known ; of the end ofIsrael's stay in Egypt; of the end of theircaptivity ; of the Saviour's birth, etc. ; allwere known. And, as today, Gentiles knewmore about the last event (by the legacy oflight left by Daniel among the Magi) than didIsrael herself!Twenty years after the Crucifixion, we findthat Paul, in the second chapter of his secondletter to the Thessalonians, was able to warnthe believers that they must not "get quicklyunsettled or excited by any spirit of prophecyor any declaration or any letter purporting tocome from" him, to the effect "that the dayof Christ is at hand;" for that would bedeceit, beguiling to illusion. But today,probably less than half that time before hisreturn, it becomes our converse duty to warnlatter-day believers that it is high time we didget excited, by the true Spirit of prophecy, itsdeclarations, letters and Revelation, to theeffect that NOW "the day of Christ IS athand !" As surely as Paul's affirmation, in thesame context, that "the Man of Sin" would"be revealed in his own season" (the length ofwhich time is stated accurately by both Danieland Revelation) is demonstrably true ; andwhose posturing as God in the sanctuary of aChristendom sadly astray, "the Lord Jesuswill bring to nought by the brightness of hisComing ;" just as surely, "at the end of thedays," (prior to that bright "manifestation ofhis presence"—R.V.), will that thief-likeComing occur, that Daniel may enjoy hisapportionment, and all good servants be made,as the Lord promised, rulers over all that hehath.That word which in levity some time agowent round the world : "It's later than youthink," must have struck a more solemn notein the soul of many a saint ! And how shall wefind how late it is, if we cannot tell the timeby the prophet clock ? We are told to exhortone another daily, and so much the more aswe see The Day approaching. And how shallwe see The Day approaching if we cannot readthe time-table provided ? The ninth chapterof the epistle to the Hebrews concludes by thestatement that "at the consummation of the agesChrist appeared to put away sin . . ." andrespecting the next development upon thatcentral work of Divine Love, we have thereminder that it is "unto those who look forhim that he shall appear the second time,"(at the consummation of "the times of theGentiles") "unto salvation."The salutory effect of such a hope is touchedon by the beloved apostle John, in the thirdchapter of his first letter. He says, "We knowthat, when he shall appear, we shall be likehim . . . and every one that hath this hope inhim purifieth himself, even as he is pure."This leads us back to Daniel's last chapter,and our confidence that, just as the words,"Jerusalem shall be trodden down of theGentiles until the times of the Gentiles befulfilled," imply that when "the times of theGentiles" have been fulfilled their downtreadingof Jerusalem will cease ; and just as thewords, "sit thou on My right hand until Imake thy foes thy footstool," and the words,"The heaven must receive Jesus Christ untilthe times of restoration," alike imply that whenthe time comes for the Son now seated at hisFather's right hand to tread down his enemies,and the times arrive for an answer in the formof a very practical affirmative to be given tothe question on those believers' lips when hewas taken up from them, by actually restoringthe kingdom to Israel, he will leave the Throneon high and return to earth ; SO are we surethat those twice-spoken words in Daniel 12,"closed up and sealed till the time of the end,"implied likewise, that upon the arrival of "thetime of the end," then the process would bereversed and those "words" respecting thetime-periods would be ««sealed and opened up ;in other words, diligently studied by the peopleof God—and comprehended.Finally, lest there be any, from howsoeverwell-meaning a motive, who notwithstandingall our reasoning, resist conviction againsttheir will, and like the proverbial womanimpervious to logic, are of the same opinionstill, that the study of prophetic "dates" is atime-wasting exercise, we must now presshome our case as being irrefutably provedtrue, by citing the Spirit's own words in the

The TESTIMONY 23immediate context of the above statement toDaniel. The very next verse, with the sharpfinality of the coming Judgment itself, divides"thy people" visualised, into two contrastingclasses, "the wicked" and "the wise." Keepingin mind John's later statement of cause andeffect: "Every one that hath this hope in him"(of Christ's appearing) "purifieth himself," letus carefully consider, each for himself, Daniel12 : 10, and be humble (and wise) enough toadjust our viewpoint, if need be, upon thevery vital matter of whether we discourage orencourage study of prophetic dates at thismomentous present time. Here it is :"Many shall purify themselves, and makethemselves white, and be refined ; but thewicked shall do wickedly ; and none of thewicked shall understand : but they that bewise SHALL understand."With such a positive promise on recordfrom God, that in "the time of the end" itwould be not only a possibility, but a fact,that "many" would understand that whichDaniel could but set down and seal withoutseeing what was signified, it is wise to ignoreany who may too glibly quote, "Knowledgepuffeth up," (forgetful that Paul meant anunbalanced, mere knowledge ; and perhapssubconsciously aware of a neglect to "meditatetherein day and night" ?), for of the greaterpresent-day danger it is also written, "My peopleis destroyed" for lack of that very commodity !As further encouragement to latter-daysearchers into this aspect of divine wisdom,Daniel was inspired to record two furtherperiods of time—to whet the appetite of menand women who would do themselves thehonour of seeing another infallible proof thatGod IS, and of the way in which His Handhas guided men and nations over long ages,according to the measured Plan laid down, tothe (now very near) "time" when He willprove Himself to be also "a Rewarder of thosewho diligently seek Him"—and was then toldhe would "rest," for what has proved to be amere two and a half days—as God sometimesreckons : of a thousand years each !It is heartening, in a day of willingness tosurrender to a wave of sentimental loosethinking, to encounter evidence from theAntipodes that some still enjoy the study ofthe weightier matters of the Word, and endeavourto help others to share their profit.Our own reflections above were occasionedby the receipt, some little time ago, of apamphlet, the title of which is the questionwe have placed at top of these prefatoryremarks. We purpose to review its contents,together with those of a Supplement thereto,entitled, Judgments and Events of the ImmediateFuture, which we received later, in our nextissue, God willing."COMMIT THY WORKS UNTO THE LORDAND THY THOUGHTS SHALL BE ESTABLISHED"—Prov. 16Our purposes are formulated in the realm of thought. If we commit our purposes to God, ourthoughts through which they are formulated will be established, disposed by God. Thought, likeeverything else that is creative, has its seedtime and harvest. The harvest reveals the seeds wehave sown. If we have nurtured thoughts of evil, unkindness, jealousy or hatred, they will grow andreveal themselves however we may try to conceal or camouflage them. The mind takes on thecharacter of its thoughts and sad indeed is the lot of those whose thoughts tend only to evil. Everythingis seen in that light and the mind becomes seared and unresponsive to the call of the nobleand godly. Of Israel God said : "I will bring upon them the fruit of their thoughts."Such a course is not inevitable ; we can will to choose the ways of God and think His thoughts—thoughts of good and not of evil."Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace, whose mind is stayed on Thee, because he trusteth inThee."C.I.W."LET US MAKE MAN IN OUR OWN IMAGE"Man is a unique type. The animals most like him mentally, such as the dog, the horse, the elephant,are least like him physically. The animals most like him physically* such as the chimpanzee and thegorilla are least like him mentally. The gulf physically dividing him from the elephant, horse anddog can never be bridged over ; while the gulf mentally dividing him from the gorilla, as Huxleyadmits, is 'practically infinite,'

24 The TESTIMONYAll Roads Lead To RomeHubert W. CraddockEdited by H. W.CRADDOCK" Λ LL roads lead to Rome,** But our antagonists thinkWe are able to choose different paths."—Geoffrey Chaucer was the author, that greatEnglish poet of the Middle Ages, when Englandwas more staunchly Catholic than are Spainor Italy today. And even Chaucer was notbeing original in the sentiment of his first line,for a French poet, Alain de Lille, had written200 years earlier (circa A.D. 1175), "A thousandroads lead men forever to Rome."One path to Rome in particular has arousedthe attention of the world's newspapers, exceptthose published behind the Iron Curtain,whose utterances are strictly censored. Werefer of course to the pilgrimage undertakenby "the Most Rev." Dr. Geoffrey FrancisFisher, Archbishop of Canterbury and Primateof all England, to Jerusalem and Constantinople,culminating in an historic meeting withPope John XXIII at Rome.The interview took place in strictest privacyin the library of the Apostolic Palace, withno photographers present. It was the firstencounter between a Roman Pontiff and anEnglish Primate for over 500 years (A.D. 1397to be exact). According to Vatican records,the last Primate of Canterbury to visit a Popewas a Catholic Archbishop Thomas Arundel,over a century before the Protestant Reformation.The urge for some immediate workingarrangement between Rome and Canterburyis provided, of course, by the menace of thephenomenal growth of anti-Christ and theseeping poison of Communism, this beingparticularly evident at present in some of thenew independent African states, and in theEast Indian archipelago. The Hammer andSickle is casting a dark shadow over the Cross !Obviously, the conference, though brief, wasone of more than the advertised exchange ofcourtesies and pleasantries. The Archbishopsaid that they would talk about "everythingand nothing." The climate of world opinionwas generally surprisingly favourable to themeeting and was epitomised by the observationof Roman Catholic John Fitzgerald Kennedy,President-elect of the U.S.A. : "The ideal ofthe unity of the Christian world is fast beingreinforced."Less favourable reaction came from theModerator of the Free Church of ScotlandGeneral Assembly : "A visit of this kind mustbe watched very carefully ; it has dangerouspossibilities." The editor of the Church ofEngland Newspaper warned his readers that"Rome has shown no readiness to change herattitude to other churches." We refer later tofurther adverse criticism.It appears that this historic meeting betweenPontiff and Primate carefully avoided dogmaticquestions as Papal infallibility and Romanprimacy. The Vatican will not relax anyfundamental doctrinal conditions, and in itseyes Protestantism is still "schismatic heresy."On his arrival in Rome, Dr. Fisher referred to"bitter strife, not yet ended, between theconception of an Imperial Church, and themore ancient and apostolic conception of acommonwealth of churches." He then spokeof "the spirit of courtesy and friendship amongChristians.""The pace is quickening !" said the Archbishopbefore leaving England, on his momentousjourney. "We must enter into the unityof spirit with Baptists, Congregationalists,Methodists, Presbyterians, and even RomanCatholics. The attitude of Rome itself ischanging rapidly, it is indeed another sign ofthe times," To this latter phrase we echo a.

The TESTIMONY 25fervent "Amen" ! The sounding forth ofthese signs of the times may be but in a minorkey at present, but the Accents of God speakto Bible Watchmen in more than a "still,small voice." The opening up of the roadsto Rome in the final days of 1960 sounds a note"loud as mighty thunders roar" to those whoseears are attuned to the utterances of the Deity.On the day of Dr. Fisher's arrival in theSeven Hilled City, the B.B.C. featured anexpressive but allusive television interviewwith a high official of The Curia who has avery conservative outlook, Cardinal Tardinithe Papal Secretary of State. Commenting onthe talks between the two spiritual Heads ofChristendom, His Eminence referred to theirmutual "broadmindedness." He spoke of"the greatest scandal and handicap being thatthe Church is divided" ; adding that, "asnew nations develop and come into being, thehand of Rome stretches out across the world."He concluded that "the Catholic Church hasnot altered," reminding viewers of the renownedLatin motto, Semper Eadem—"ALWAYS THE SAME !" We might citeanother proverb, this an old English one,which aptly supports the Cardinal's attitude :"You may not sit in Rome and strive with thePope."The television programme ended with thecameras "panning" across a gallery of famouspictures in the Vatican, coming to rest atMichael Angelo's famous painting, "The LastJudgment," with the B.B.C. interviewersolemnly stating (and with more foresightthan he himself realised), "The last judgmentseems to hang over both East and West."# # #"Your Holiness, we are making history !"was the greeting extended by the Archbishopto the Supreme Pontiff. Dr. Fisher's visitcertainly makes history as he is the firstAnglican Protestant Primate ever to haveaudience with the Pope. The brief officialcommunique issued by Church House PressInformation Office at Westminster simplystated: "It was never intended that thisshould be an occasion for consideration ofparticular problems or issues ... it was markedthroughout by a happy spirit of cordiality andsympathy, such as befitted a notable event inthe history of church relations." Pope Johnsaid that "naturally, the crusts formed duringfour centuries are many, but with understandingand mutual contacts . . . there couldcome love and the truth."The historic exigency of such exceptionalimportance is the fact that such an encountertook place at all. Centuries of silence betweenRome and the English Reformation have atlast been broken. The 350-year-old hiatus hasbeen bridged, and if the absence of immediateor startling results disappoint some, a desirefor collaboration by the Churches is nowevidenced. Diplomatic Church relations havebeen opened up and this Rome conference isbut the beginning. The next step should besome form of Concordat, and the distantprospect should be brought into closer viewby the time the Vatican Oecumenical Counciltakes place, scheduled by the Pope for late1961 or early in 1962.Throughout the Primate's visit, the Vaticanitself maintained an attitude of "splendidisolation." No official admission of recognition.No permanent photographic record. ForRome, reunion must mean a return to MotherChurch. No negotiating, no bargaining, Papalsupremacy must be regarded as fundamental.For all his kindly interest in the meeting, PopeJohn XXIII has firmly insisted in public onthe unique nature of the Papal Office. "Mencould securely reach salvation," he stated 1unequivocally, "only when united with him,since the Roman Pontiff was the Vicar ofChrist, and represented his Person on earth.'The basic, primary principle of Protestantismis that the Holy Scriptures and a man's consciencebefore God are the only final authorities,plus a refusal to submit to the spiritual dominationof the Vatican political state. Justificationis by faith alone. The Anglican Church inRome itself expressed alarm at first concerningthe Archbishop's visit, fearing that it implieda surrender to the Pope of Protestant attitudes.In both the U.S. and Britain, Protestantepiscopal churchmen issued warnings againstminimising the conferring together of Popeand Archbishop. "Strong condemnation,"was the description of The Times of thespeeches made by the Protestant Alliancemembers at a protest meeting held in theSt. Bride's Institute. One London vicardenounced the Rome talks as "the greatestexample of backsliding and backpedallingthat the world has yet seen." He describedthe Primate's "courtesy" call as being "discourteous"to Christ, and "an affront toProtestant conscience." "We have driftedfrom our position and principle," he exclaimed.Another vicar considered that the visit was"wrong spiritually, morally and legally. Itput the Christian calendar back 1,000 years."

26 The TESTIMONYAfter his meeting with the Roman Pontiff,the Anglican leader conferred with Augustin,Cardinal Bea, a German Jesuit and head ofthe newly-created Vatican Secretariat forUnion among Christians, set up by the Popein preparation for the forthcoming OecumenicalCouncil. It will be recalled that MonsignorWillebrands, the Secretary himself, attendedas an observer when the World Council ofChurches met at St. Andrews last August, andthis prelate was largely responsible for arrangingthe Roman interview. The other Catholicobserver was Dr. John Heenan, Archbishopof Liverpool. At the conclusion of his talk,Canterbury informed Cardinal Bea : "If youwant any information about the AnglicanChurch, all you have to do now is to write toLambeth Palace."While conversations regarding reconciliationhave to be regarded as academic at present,the Oecumenical Secretary responsible fordrawing up the agenda for the forthcomingworld conference has established his link withLambeth, and in so doing tacitly recognisesthat for the time being at least, the Archbishophas met the Pope as an equal and not as asubject trudging through the snows to Canossalike the Emperor Henry IV, who cringed withabject servility before Pope Gregory in 1077.There was no mistaking the emphasis whichDr. Fisher placed on his words when preachingin the English Church in Rome. He pontificated: "An imperial power must in theend accept its subjects as partners and its sonsas equals." The Watchman can see thatwhile apocalyptic developments regarding Romeare being initiated, the Church of England isnot yet willing to bow to the authority of Rome.In turn, the Papacy is not ready to acquit26 millions of Anglican worshippers of their"heresy." The road to Rome has to betraversed by slow, halting footsteps just atfirst.# # #This editor has had an opportunity ofstudying the English translation issued by theVatican Press Officer of an Easter messagegiven by Pope John XXIII. We quote therefromtwo Papal pronouncements which leavethe Watchman in no doubt whatsoever as toRome's unwavering objective (not that wesuspect that our readers entertain any misgivingsor uncertainty in the light of theWord of God i)."We desire particularly to put before you,dear children, in order that your fidelity tothe Church may never waver, but ratherthat, rooted in love, you may know how toshare with joy and generosity in the life ofYOUR MOTHER, confident in her triumphantcertainty: ready to fight in herdefence, to spend yourselves to make herknown, linked together in bearing witnessto her.""We have been raised by a singular dispositionof Providence to include ALLTHE NATIONS OF THE EARTH inour pastoral and paternal embrace."In this same connection, we invite readersto mark well the Pontiff's plans revealed toleaders of Catholic Action, the Roman Church'slay organisation, respecting the forthcomingOecumenical Council. We have set this outin a "box" so that all may be suitably impressedwith the uncompromising nature ofthe Pope's invitation to world Protestants,including the Church of England, to take theroad home to Rome.POPE JOHN SPEAKS !The entire world is waiting for thisuniversal Council. The main aimwill be that of STRENGTHENINGTHE ROMAN CHURCH.Then, when the Catholic Church isin its full splendour, we will say tothe orthodox Christians and theProtestants : "Brothers, this isthe Church of Christ—Come, come,THIS IS THE WAY TO RETURN.Come to take your place which, formany of you, is that of yourancestors. From a religious peace,from a united Christian family, oh,what joy !"On the eve of the Archbishop's arrival inRome, one of our national newspapers conducteda special nation-wide Gallup Pollamong its readers to ascertain the amount ofinterest evidenced in Britain respecting thisunprecedented event of towering importance.The result of their findings revealed a trulyastonishing and deplorable negative attitude.Only 14% of all people claiming a declaredreligion in presumably Protestant Britainwere "very interested," while 62% declared

The TESTIMONY 21that they were "not interested." Approvalof the meeting came from 59% of Church ofEngland members, and—as was to be expected—from 76% of Roman Catholics.If 62% of people claiming a declaredreligion in Britain are "not interested," whatis one to expect from the vast, heedless majoritywho profess to no religious convictions at all ?NOT INTERESTED! Shades of Lutherand Latimer ; of Cranmer and Ridley ; of theSpanish Inquisition, the Albigenses, theHuguenots, the Smithfield burnings ! Adangerous laxity on all matters religiousprevails today, not only prompted by an easytolerance, but because of a general popularlack of conviction. Multitudes believe nothingat all, or hardly know what they believe, orwhy they believe what they do.Britain once held the honourable distinctionof being the leading witness among the nationsfor the truth of the Scriptures. The secret ofher past greatness was the Open Bible, loved,read, and believed in. How r this distinctionhas descended to the light esteem of today !There is no cause to fight the battle of theReformation over again, because no Cause isleft to fight for. All the talk of the "courtesyof Christian brotherhood" masks an indolenceand feebleness against the purposive tyranny,corruption, cruelty and destructive influenceof Rome.It is interesting to recall that the first half ofthe 19th century was a period of struggle forreligious equality in Britain. Roman Catholicsand Dissenters from Protestantism were debarredfrom most public offices in the state,and, in addition, a Catholic could not sit inthe House of Commons. Across the IrishChannel, revolution was rife demanding politicalrepresentation. A demagogic agitator,Daniel O'Connell, revived the old CatholicAssociation with the famous penny-a-monthsubscription, or "Catholic Rent", pledged tosupport Catholic political emancipation atWestminster.It was left to the "Victor of Waterloo," theDuke of Wellington, to "let the Papists intoParliament" with the Catholic EmancipationAct of 1829. The subsequent renaissance ofRomanism in Britain has been dealt withalready by us in The Testimony (April-May1959). Many of our readers might be surprisedto know that so strong was religious feeling inearly and mid-Victorian England that Dissentersof all creeds were still refused admissionto the older Universities of Oxford and Cambridge; were debarred from taking degrees orfrom gaining fellowships or professorships evenif admitted to University after 1856. And itwas not until the passing of the UniversitiesTest Act in 1871 that religious disabilities werefinally removed. Such was religious intoleranceto nonconformity and Romanism up toninety years ago. Even The Times fulminateda century ago against the restoration of Catholicterritorial Sees in England following emancipation.But now, sixty-two out of every hundredpeople professing a declared religion are just"not interested" in Roman reunion. What aresolute witnessing for Christ is made availableto Bible Watchmen who understand Divineprophecy regarding the true character of theMother Church ! Rome is making giganticefforts to advance her renewed ascendancythe world over. Rome's final resurgence isupon us. The final blow to be dealt her byChrist and his Redeemed is yet to fall, asforetold in the 17th and 19th chapters of theRevelation. .# # #The Pope was reported as expressing"greatest interest" in Dr. Fisher's encounterwith His All-Holiness Athenagoras I inIstanbul, Patriarch of the Orthodox Church,whom he personally knew when ApostolicNuncio in Turkey. The Oecumenical Councilis more likely to achieve early unity betweenRome and Byzantium than with Canterbury.Patriarch and Archbishop have agreed, however,for theological talks to take place at apan-Orthodox conference to be convened onthe island of Rhodes before the VaticanCouncil takes place.A commentator in the Sunday Times reportedthat "for the Archbishop himself, themost moving part of his journey undoubtedlycame at Jerusalem." Most significant was theenthusiasm with which he was received by thedifferent Roman Catholic communities there.In the Church of the Nativity, he knelt beforethe Sacrament at the High Altar to the blankastonishment of the English Catholics presentwho exclaimed among themselves : "It justcouldn't happen in England !" Confrontingthe eminent prelates of the Orthodox andArmenian churches, also the Lutheranministers, Dr. Fisher stretched out his armsbefore the Altar and declaimed : "We Churchmenare unhappy now about divisions overwhich we used to exult." At the most sacredspot in the world, the Holy Sepulchre, theArchbishop kissed a Relic of the Passion, andheld aloft the Greek Blessing cross, "Now

28 The TESTIMONYyou realise," he enthused, "divisions areconquerable." Ecclesiastical winds of changeblowing through Jerusalem, Rome andConstantinople !The English Primate next crossed over thehundred yards of no-man's-land from Arabto Israeli Jerusalem, and, for reasons knownonly to himself, chose but to spend six hoursin Israel. Six days in Arab Palestine, sixhours only deemed sufficient to allot to Israel !No calls were made upon Mr. Ben-Gurion orother Israeli political figures, but a 30-minutetalk was spared for the Israeli Chief Rabbi,Israel Nissim. Dr. Fisher's theme of conversationwas the same : "One of the greatestthings I am finding is that different religionscan live together." This brevity and superficialnature of the Archbishop's visit toIsraeli Jerusalem prompts our thought thatthe Faith of Jewry will NOT be included inthe concourse of Roman reunion. ThePrimate of England's short tarry is propheticsurely of the pattern for the future.Returning to the Jordan half of Jerusalem,the Archbishop preached in St. George'sCathedral and remarked : "This Holy Citystands before the world as a victim of history,cut in two by an armistice line which records,not peace, but a conflict of hopes and claimswhose bitterness does not pass with the years."This modern cutting in twain of David's cityand the human hopelessness of healing thewounds of Semite history may have colouredthe thinking of Dr. Fisher, when he waspreaching his subsequent sermon in Rome onthe long and bitter division between the twoChurches. He took for his text Luke 9 : 46,"Then there arose a reasoning among them,which of them should be greatest." and thenurged upon his audience, "If we are not againstone another any longer, we art for one another."A somewhat dangerous sophistry for anArchbishop !"All roads lead to Rome." Faithful watchmentoday have the privilege and honour ofwitnessing against the great Enemy of theGospel. Once the Bible is read, the power ofthe priest has gone. The Truth owes itsbirth in our hearts to the Bible, and its teachingsare in opposition to "co-existence" and"unity" with the fully organised systems ofapostate religion. "Come out of her, Mypeople" is the Spirit's warning, and this meansthat the true Church of Christ maintainscontinued separation from "The Woman"with all her abominations and idolatories, hersorceries and her satellites, and her declaredambition to sit as Queen with world dominion.In this seventh decade of the 20th century,"The Harlot" is once again riding the beast.Prior to the Lord's return, the unified spiritualand material swords of Latin and GreekChristendom will be consecrated in the serviceof the Sin Power. Woe to Britain if theexpressed desires of her religious leaders for"unity of spirit and understanding" with Romeare not frustrated !To accomplish its avowed aims, the Papacyis sending forth its modern Jesuits ; and bythe spirit of Institutionalism that exaltsreligious establishments, by subtly-wordedadvertisements appealing to the emotions,by saintly "epilogues" on the televisionscreens with the rosary and the crucifix displayedwith effrontery, with the show ofauthority peculiar to hierarchy, with all theastute rhetoric of a thousand channels ofmodern communications, she is powerfullyswaying the minds of men at every level in hercampaign of appropriating souls to Romanism.There is a planned, deliberate and sustainedexercise at the back of Papal policy to mouldpublic opinion in its favour. Dedicated menfitted to every sphere and to every enterprisemay wear the Catholic habit, but not all arehumble friars by any means. Their numberincludes scholars, politicians, propagandists,teachers, theologians—even casuists—all ofthem skilled in the techniques of advancingRoman Catholic interest. Our warning to anyreader who may even begin to consider takingfootsteps along Lateran lanes is the unambiguousfinality of St. Augustine, leading LatinFather of the fifth-century church : "ROMEHAS SPOKEN. THE CASE IS CON-CLUDED !"* # #EpilogueThe 20th Vatican Council held in 1869-1870under the direction of Pope Pius IX wasforcibly suspended after the entry of KingVictor Emanuel into Rome and was neverreconvened. What a thrilling prospect if thiscoming Oecumenical Council was to beabandoned likewise because of the unexpectedarrival of the greater Victor Immanuel, Kingof kings and Lord of lords. God speed theDay!H.W.C."LOVE NOT THE WORLD"The truth does not shine in a man who is at home in the world,

The TESTIMONY 29Wind of Change in Airica (3)Albert T. AbbottsXTORTH-EAST Africa is really part of the**^ Middle East and control of that area hasbeen regarded as the last step to world domination.The final attempt to secure this isoutlined in Daniel's eleventh chapter. "Atthe time of the end" a great Power pushessouthward and passing through "the gloriousland" (Israel) stretches forth its hand also uponthe countries (beyond); and the land of Egyptshall not escape . . . and the Libyans and theEthiopians shall be at his steps." x The mostremarkable thing is that "Libya" has againappeared on the map of the world to thenorth-west of Egypt, so that all the namesmentioned in Daniel are modern ones in actualuse today ! Gunther writes "Libya, this 'boxof sand', is the youngest country in the world,having been born on December 24th, 1951 ;it is also one of the oldest. 'Libya' was originallyan Egyptian word, and in both Greekand Roman times was the general name forall Africa west of Egypt. . . . The mechanismswhereby Libya did finally achieve independencewere curious. 'Freedom was not so muchgained as foisted on the country,' a Britishobserver says. 'The great powers could notagree on what to do with it, and Libya becamefree in the end mostly for want of any othersolution. . . . The British, who were payingthe bills, wanted to divide the country, that is,make Tripolitania and Cyrenaica separateentities .... The British have a lively interestin Cyrenaica because it gives them an admirablefrontage on the Mediterranean, close toEgypt; it makes a convenient staging groundfor British troops, and helps to compensate forthe (imminent) loss of Suez. . . . But theimpact of the United Nations and the UnitedStates is also strongly felt'." Its importancein the strategic development of the MiddleEast is obvious and the reason why any powerendeavouring to secure ascendancy in theMiddle East must secure this "box of sand."Divine strategy has long planned the deliveranceof Israel from the same peril thatthreatens north-east Africa. The deliveranceof Israel means the deliverance of Libya,Egypt and Ethiopia also, and gives the reasonwhy, "princes shall come out of Egypt;Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands untoGod" when He scatters the peoples thatdelight in war.Following the great event when the Lordin the person of His Son, the Lord JesusChrist is established in Mount Zion, inJerusalem ; "when the kings of the earth setthemselves, and the rulers take counsel together,against the Lord and against His anointed",the Messiah, the Christ . . . Jesus Christproclaims the decree, "The Lord hath saidunto me, 'Thou art My Son ... ask of Me,and I shall give thee the heathen (nations) forthine inheritance and the uttermost parts ofthe earth for thy possession'." At the sametime other messengers go forth from Zion toAfrica.The first, recorded in Isaiah 18, is to a land"shadowing with wings, which is beyond therivers of Ethiopia." There is no difficulty indiscerning the meaning of this figure. "Asan eagle stirreth up her nest, fluttereth overher young, spreadeth abroad her wings", soto the south of the great streams that w r aterAbyssinia and help to form the Nubian andEgyptian Nile, the great shadow of Britishprotection has long been cast. Today she isfluttering over her young and trying to advancethem to statehood, and, to change the figure tothe animal kingdom, make them "young lions"able to fend for themselves. Kenya, Uganda,Nyasaland and Bechuanaland are still technicallyprotectorates. As a comment on therecent agreement on Nyasaland reached inLondon, made much of as a bright omenagainst the dark shadows cast by the Congo,Gunther's assessment may be of interest."Like the Basuto, the Nyasalanders areexceptionally good workers ; industrious,cheerful, and quick to learn skills. They haveabsorbed a lot from the Scots ; loyalty, reliability,and a spirit of adventure. Above allthey are good soldiers. (But I heard a Europeanin Rhodesia say grimly, 'The Nyasa are thesource of all our woes, because they are sointelligent and able'), (p. 628). Now, as aB.B.C. correspondent says, "Nyasaland iswell on the way to becoming an African state."A comparison between the Revised Versionand the Revised Standard Version shows thattranslators are not agreed as to the precisemeaning of the command in verse 2. NowAfrica is "on the march" there is the possibility1 Dan. 11 : 40-43.

30 The TESTIMONYthat it is directed to an African nation u to anation, tall and smooth, to a people feared nearand far, a nation mighty and conquering, whoseland the rivers divide" ; and that it is a call tohalt their march and submit to Zion's ruler.Then the result would be "At that time giftswill be brought to the Lord of hosts from apeople tall and smooth, from a people fearednear and far, a nation mighty and conquering,whose land the rivers divide." (R.S.V.)Zephaniah 3 : 10 makes it quite clear,however, that the Jews in Africa will migratetherefrom to Zion. "From beyond the riversof Ethiopia My suppliants, even the daughtersof My dispersed, shall bring My offering."In Abyssinia there is the Jewish tribe calledthe Falasha (from the Ethiopic falas—a stranger)which there is every reason to believe hasdwelt in Africa since before the Christian era.Their numbers have been variously estimatedat from one hundred thousand to one hundredand fifty thousand. Gunther says, "Theymake influential small communities in severalareas, particularly near Lake Tana. Theywere great warriors as well as traders, and atone remote time even took over the dynasty(in Abyssinia) ; they think of themselves asexiles from the Promised Land, but do notknow Hebrew." (p. 251).In Isaiah 66 : 19 we read of the other messengersthat are sent to Africa. They too areto spread the news that God's Kingdom hasbeen established in Zion, consequent upon theutter defeat of the armed forces invading theland. The largest African state in point ofpopulation is Nigeria. Gunther says, "It isthe biggest British colony in the world*. Bythe census of 1952/53 it has a population ofalmost 31,500,000 ... a third more populousthan Egypt ... it is also larger in area than anyEuropean country except Russia." While theprincipal tribe in Northern Nigeria is theHausa, "in the early 1800's another Africanpeople, the Fulani, descended on the Hausaand conquered them in the name of theProphet. Under a great warrior Othman DanFodio they made a jehad (holy war) andestablished the Fulani Empire. Descendantsof these Fulani, a Hamitic folk who technicallybelong to the white race, are today tall, slim,much lighter-skinned than the Hausa, moregraceful and with finer features. Some evenhave blue eyes, and some Fulani women areextravagantly beautiful Generally it isthe ruling class that has most Fulani blood,and some emir's claim to be pure Fulani."Sir Η. Η. Johnston, who is acclaimed asone of "the most experienced and enlightenedcolonial governors who has held office inBritish Africa" wrote, "One of the mostremarkable of human elements in the presentcomposition of West Africa and the Sudan,and equally one of the most 'white' potentinfluences in moulding Negro Africa is andhas been the Fula people. . . . The root oftheir racial name, Ful or Pul, is said to mean'red' " (The Opening Up of Africa, p. 116).Their racial name "Ful" or "Pul" appears asthe latter in Isaiah's prophecy. It is a namethat commentators have had great difficulty inidentifying, but it may well be that the tribeexisted well back to the times of Isaiah. SirHarry Johnston writes, "It has been suggestedby one or two French writers that a Fula raceonce inhabited the Canary Islands and theSahara coast south of Morocco, about theRio de Oro ; that they were in touch with theCarthaginian trading settlements on the coastof Morocco; and that from them Hannoobtained his interpreters on his celebratedjourney of exploration along the West Africancoast. If they w r ere the Pharusians of Greekand Roman geographers, then according toStrabo they destroyed those Carthaginiansettlements on the north-west African coasts."(p. 118).It would appear then that the Messengersfrom Zion are sent not only to Tarshish, Tubaland Javan but also to Pul "one of the mostpotent influences in moulding Negro Africa,""to declare God's glory among the nations."In the Divine record (which many famousEgyptologists have maintained, first saw lightin Africa) the all-embracing covenant withAbraham was published. "In thee shall allfamilies of the earth be blessed." 2 TrueChristianity is linked indissolubly with thatCovenant. "If ye be Christ's, then are yeAbraham's seed," 3and therefore look forwardeagerly to the promised blessing of all thenations of Africa. The present "wind ofchange" will continue blowing until the plansof the African peoples are linked up with theplans of the Wonderful Counsellor, the Princeof Peace, the Lord Jesus Christ, returnedfrom heaven to reign from Zion and to blessall the ends of the earth.23Gen. 12 : 3.Gal. 3 : 29.^Editor's Note :Nigeria achieved political independence onOctober 1st, 1960. (H.W.C.)

The TESTIMONY 31Notes on the Daily ReadingsP. H. AdamsEdited by P. H. ADAMS"Jonah the son of Amittai"We are told in 2 Kings 14 : 25 that Jonahthe son of Amittai was of Gath-hepher, andthis place seems to be the same as the "Gittahhepher"of Josh 19 : 13, which was in theterritory allotted to the tribe of Zebulun, andappears to have been near to Nazareth.It therefore proves that the statement madeby Pharisees living in Jerusalem that "out ofGalilee ariseth no prophet" (Jno. 7 : 52) wassimply not true, a lie manufactured to throwdiscredit on the claims of Jesus "of Nazareth."There were other prophets who seem to havecome from Galilee, or from its neighbourhood.Both Nahum and Hosea probably came fromGalilee.There seems to have been a general contemptby Judeans for the less-refined Galileans. Itis true that most of the Old Testament prophetscame from Judea, and—at its best—thestatement that "out of Galilee ariseth noprophet" was a very rough generalisation ;at its worst, it was a very dishonest attempt todiscredit Jesus.# ^ #"Goto Nineveh"(Jonah 1 : 2)The command to Jonah to preach to theNinevites provides a salutary lesson for thosewho assume that Yahweh concerned Himselfexclusively with the Israelites, His chosenpeople.God held Gentile peoples as being to somedegree "responsible," although we are not toldin the Old Testament that people outside theoperation of the Law of Moses could gaineternal life. Yet they could hope for Yahweh'smercy in their mortal state. The king ofNineveh is recorded as saying, "Who can tellif God will turn and repent, and turn fromHis fierce anger, that we perish not ?" (Jonah3 : 9)We know that God inflicted punishments onBabylon, Tyre, Egypt, Philistia and so on,yet all these people were outside the covenantsof promise, and—so far as we know—outsidethe Divine Law.The Apostle Paul wrote in Rom. 4 : 15that "where no law is, there is no transgression,"but he himself, in Rom. 1 : 19, 20 said, "Thatwhich may be known of God is manifest untothem ... so that they are without excuse," andhe was writing of heathen people.So there seems to be a degree of "responsibility"even outside the express commandsof God, and we interpret that the people ofNineveh, heathen though they were, hadnevertheless a definite but limited responsibility.# # #"A ship going to Tarshish"(Jonah 1 : 3)What place was then known as "Tarshish" ?Inasmuch as the ship sailed from Joppa, wemust look for a port on or beyond theMediterranean coast.Ellicotfs Old Testament Commentary saysin a note on Tarshish : "This can hardly be anyother than Tartessus, an ancient Phoeniciancolony in the south-west of Spain." By theway, this colony is now known as Andalusia.The Companion Bible says : "It is identifiedby Oppert with Tartessus, noted for silver (notgold), iron, tin and lead. They sailed fromTyre to the west Mediterranean.' 4# # #"The mariners cried every man unto his god"(Jonah 1 : 5)The ship into which Jonah went was probablya Phoenician vessel which called atJoppa and the crew were likely to be mainlyPhoenicians, who are reputed as having hadmany gods.There were probably men of other nationalitiesalso in the crew, and we can well understand

32 The TESTIMONYthe statement that "they cried every man untohis god."" The Lord had prepared a great fish to swallow upJonah"(Jonah 1 : 17)The general idea seems to be that Jonahwas swallowed by a whale of some sort, anda few sceptical critics have asserted that thethroat of a whale is too narrow for a man topass along it.This is probably not true of all whales, butthe record does not say "whale" but "greatfish", and it is only in the Greek translationsthat the word "whale" appears.We ourselves are quite content to accept theHebrew text here, which speaks of "a greatfish," which was evidently suitable for theoccasion, and may have been created for thespecial purpose of saving Jonah's life. Indeed,the word "prepared" seems to suggest somesuch interpretation."Micah the Morasthite"(Micah 1:1)"Micah" seems to be an abbreviation forthe fairly-common name "Micaiah," which wasthe name of a prophet in the days of Ahab("Micaiah the son of Imlah"), and there wasanother "Micaiah" in the days of Josiah, for in2 Kings 22 : 12 we read of "Achber the son ofMichaiah" (R.V. "Micaiah"), who, incidentally,is called "Micah" in 2 Chron. 34 : 20 ("Abdonthe son of Micah") when recording the sameincident. And we read of still another"Michaiah" (R.V. "Micaiah") in Jer. 36 : 11."Morasthite" seems to refer to the villagewhere Micah lived, and this village wasprobably Moresheth-gath, mentioned inMicah 1 : 14."She is the beginning of the sin to the daughter ofZion"(Micah 1 : 13)This reference is almost certainly to the townof Lachish. At one time belonging to theAmorites, it was captured by the Israelitesunder Joshua, and allotted to the tribe ofJudah (Josh. 15 : 39).It seems to have been on the border of thesouthern kingdom, and to have adopted theidolatry established in the northern kingdom byJeroboam the son of Nebat.It was apparently from Lachish that idolatryspread into the remainder of the southernkingdom, hence the statement "She is thebeginning of the sin to the daughter of Zion."" Ye pull off the robe with the garment"(Micah 2 : 8)This is a clearly reference to the thievingpropensities of the people. They attackedunsuspecting wayfarers, and stripped them ofboth coat and cloak.We are reminded of what Jesus said in theSermon on the Mount. "If any man takeaway thy coat, let him have thy cloke also."(Matt. 5 : 40).# # #"Their king is passed on before them, and theLord is on the head of them"(Micah 2 : 13)This verse follows one predicting the regatheringof Israel, and means, "The breakeris come up before them."The Jews interpret "the breaker" to be theMessiah, and if this interpretation is correct,this verse speaks of the "breaking" by Messiahof Israel's bonds, and of their deliverance fromGentile oppression ; also of the expulsion ofthese oppressors from Jerusalem. We readin Luke 21 : 24 that "Jerusalem shall betrodden down of the Gentiles until the timesof the Gentiles be fulfilled."The phrase "The Lord is on the head ofthem" appears to denote that the reversal of thatposition at Jerusalem is an act of Yahweh'sjudgment.# # #"In the last days it shall come to pass ..."(Micah 4: 1)Micah and Isaiah seem to have been contemporaries,and because of that fact it haslong been wondered if Micah copied thisprophecy from Isaiah, or whether Isaiahcopied from Micah, as the first three versesof Micah 4 are practically identical with Isa.2 : 2-4.The majority of commentators now thinkthat the prophecy was given through Micah,but Isa. 2 : 1 seems to mean that Isaiah toowas given the same prophecy as was given toMicah about the same time.# # #" The Assyrian shall come into our land"(Micah 5 : 5)This verse begins by saying that "this manshall be the peace" when the "Assyrian"comes. And there is little doubt that "thisman" is the one referred to in verse 2 as theone who will come from Bethlehem Ephratah,and be "ruler in Israel."We are all agreed that "this man" will beJesus Christ. Matt. 2 : 4-6 confirms theidentification, of course.

The TESTIMONY 33So the only interpretation which we can applyto Micah 5 : 5 is that, when Jesus is reigningover the re-gathered Jews, Palestine will beinvaded by someone called "the Assyrian."Who this latter-day "Assyrian" will prove tobe, we cannot say definitely. Time will tell,of course. Ezekiel 38 suggests that he standsin the prophecy for the confederacy headedby Gog (Russia), which will invade the landof Israel (see Ezek. 38 : 16).# # #"Will the Lord be pleased with thousands oframs}"(Micah 6 : 7)Some have suggested that verses 6 to 8 ofthis chapter foreshadow the end of the Lawof Moses, with its provisions for animalsacrifices, but there is, we think, a simplerexplanation.God would much rather that men shouldnot sin than that they should seek to atone fortheir sin by the offering of animal sacrifices.We have an illustration of this in 1 Sam. 15 : 22,where it is recorded that Samuel said to Saul,"Hath the Lord as great delight in burntofferings and sacrifices as in obeying the wordof the Lord ? Behold, to obey is better thansacrifice, and to hearken than the fat of rams."We have a parallel to Micah 6 : 7 in Isa. 1:11."To what purpose is the multitude of yoursacrifices unto Me ? saith the Lord : I am fullof the burnt offerings of rams and the fat ofbeasts ; and I delight not in the blood ofbullocks, or lambs or of he-goats."No ; God delights in obedience, and regardssin offerings as being regrettable substitutesfor sinlessness.# # #"The statutes of Omri"(Micah 6 : 16)These statutes are coupled with "all theworks of the house of Ahab."We are not told in the Old Testament whatwere these "statutes of Omri," but they werealmost certainly connected with idolatry, andwith the immorality which seems always to havebeen associated with idolatry.It is, however, recorded in 1 Kings 16 : 26that Omri "walked in all the ways of Jeroboamthe son of Nebat, and in his sin wherewith hemade Israel to sin," and to provoke the LordGod of Israel to anger with their vanities."The reference to their vanities indicates thatthe people of Omri practised idolatry on a widescale, and Micah 6 : 16 laments that thisdebasement of the true religion had spread tothe southern kingdom of Judah, and thattherefore Divine punishments would shortlycome upon the people of Judah.# # #"Nahum the Elkoshite"(Nahum 1:1)It is probable that this means that Nahumwas a native of Elkesh, but nobody seems toknow where Elkesh was, except that it wassomewhere in Galilee.This uncertainty about the site of Elkesh,or even whether or not it ever existed, hasgiven rise to the suggestion that "Nahum"(comforter) might be a nom de plume, but thistheory is quite devoid of evidence, and neednot be accepted.* # #" Thou art of purer eyes than to behold evil"(Hab. 1 : 13)The text does not actually say so, but theevident meaning is that God cannot beholdevil, and remain unmoved by it; hence theprophet's appeal that God should punish theevildoers, and so vindicate Himself.We know from Scripture that God does"behold evil." We know that God "saw"that the wickednesss of man was great in theearth before the Flood ; we know that He"saw" that the inhabitants of Sodom andGomorrah were vile, and that as a result ofHis "seeing" He determined to destroy them.He saw mentally David's secret sins in thematter of Uriah.We cannot therefore think that God doesnot "behold" evil. We must (as we havesuggested) interpret Hab. 1 : 13 as meaningthat God is so righteous that He cannot remainunmoved by human vice.* # #1 ' God came from Teman''(Hab. 3 : 3)The prophet does not appear to be referringto any historical incident, something whichreally happened sometime in the past. Perhapsa better rendering of the Hebrew is that "Godshall come from Teman," and some Biblestudents have concluded from this verse thatwhen Jesus returns to intervene in humanaffairs, he will come from Teman, to the southof Palestine.# # #"Those that leap over the threshold"(Zeph. 1 : 9)The allusion is almost certainly to thepractice of idolaters to leap over the thresholdwhen they enter an idol temple.This practice seems to have originated inthe temple of Dagon, the Philistine god. We

3-4 The TESTIMONYread in 1 Sam. 5 : 5, "Therefore neither thepriests of Dagon, nor any that come intoDagon's house, tread on the threshold ofDagon in Ashdod unto this day."Thenceforward, so it would appear, leapingover the threshold became a ritual wheneveranyone entered a heathen temple.# # *"A pure language"(Zeph. 3 : 9)The usually-accepted interpretation seemsto be correct. The human race had a commonlanguage until God confused the language atBabel in order to secure the migration of thepeople to other parts of the earth. And sowe have the explanation for the varied languagescurrent today.This dispersion having been effected, andthe variety of languages having been maintainedduring the existence of different nations, it islogical that when all people are united underone king, and when each nation goes yearlyto worship the same God, there should againbe a common language.But why "pure" ? The intention seems tobe to contrast the common language, madefit for the worship of Yahweh, with that whichis impure or unclean by reason of its formerimpious associations.Purification is one of the processes by whichthe redeemed are to be "made white" (seeDan. 12 : 10).We may have confirmation of Zeph 3 : 9 inRom. 12 : 6, where we read, "... that ye maywith one mind and one mouth glorify God."# # #"Because of Mine house that lieth waste"(Haggai 1 : 9)This chapter tells of a severe drought whichwrought havoc with the agricultural effortsof the people who returned to Judea after the70 years captivity in Babylonia.The drought was Divinely sent because thepeople had not commenced to rebuild theTemple, but we read nothing of this mark ofGod's displeasure in the Book of Ezra. Infact, the impression we get from Ezra 3 isthat there was no avoidable delay in commencingthe work, and it needs the prophecy ofHaggai to correct this impression.# * #"Satan standing at his right hand to be hisadversary"(Zech. 3 : 1)It is legitimate, and quite in keeping withearlier verses, to believe that this was a mentalvision, and not an actual incident. And perhapsour first thought is that the angel of the Lordof Zech. 3 : 1 became "the Lord" in verse 3.Joshua, the high priest, is of course the"Jeshua" of Ezra 3 : 2 and "the brand pluckedout of the fire," was of course Jerusalem, the"fire" being Babylonia.Who the "Satan" was, we cannot say. Theword means "adversary," of course, and theappearance of "Satan" before God is probably adramatisation of the actual opposition of anopponent of the projected rebuilding of theTemple.We are reminded of a very similar statementin Psa. 109 : 6, and again we do not take itliterally. "Set Thou a wicked man over him,and let Satan stand at his right hand"* # #" There shall be no more a Canaanite in the houseof the Lord"(Zech. 14 : 21)The context of this verse seems to indicatethat "Canaanite" here refers to an alien orunbeliever, and appears to teach that in thenew Temple which is to be the central shrineof the restored nation of Israel, non-Jews(proselytes excepted, apparently) will not beadmitted.In Ezek. 34 we read, "Thus saith the LordGod : Ο ye house of Israel, let it suffice youof all your abominations, in that ye havebrought into My sanctuary strangers, uncircumcisedin heart, and uncircumcised inflesh, to be in My sanctuary," and we go onto read that, in the future, "no stranger,uncircumcised in heart, nor uncircumcised inflesh, shall enter into My sanctuary" (verse 9).This seems exactly parallel to Zech. 14 : 21.* # #"My covenant might be with Levi"(Mai. 2 : 4)"Levi" denotes, of course, not Levi personally,but the tribe of Levi, and more particularlythe priests of Israel who were alldrawn from the tribe of Levi.It is common knowledge that God earmarkedthe tribe of Levi for priestly and other sacredduties, the tribes being retained at "twelve"by the inclusion of the sons of Joseph (Ephraimand Manasseh) instead of their father.The special treatment of the tribe of Leviis narrated in Num. 1 : 50-53, and this seemsto be the "covenant" made with Levi to whichMai. 2 : 4 refers.A good man. does not parade his good works in any sense, but that of doing them.

The TESTIMONY 35P.H. (Bristol) writes :In the September Testimony you say :"Thus Gehazi after he became a white lepercontinued in Elisha's service." As an effectiverejoinder to that assertion, I take the liberty ofquoting from a commentary in my possession."Thus Gehazi is stigmatised, and carries themark of his shame wherever he goes ; he loadshimself and his family with a curse which shallfor ever perpetuate the remembrance of hisvillainy."In the light of that authoritative statement,it is unthinkable that Gehazi should haveremained in Elisha's employ. Don't youagree ?Reply.We submit that the opinion of a commentatordoes not mean that it is necessarily an"authoritative statement." A commentator issometimes right and sometimes wrong, but inany case we do not accept him as an "authority,"but merely as an uninspired, and therefore,fallible, theologian.But the real question is, did Gehaz' "continuein Elisha's service" ? 2 Kings 8 : 4 seemsdecisive on the point (unless we are preparedPROBLEMSThe Leprosy of Gehazito assert that chapter 8 comes chronologicallybefore chapter 5, and for this there is noevidence at all).CasselVs Bible Dictionary says of Gehazi :"He is chiefly remembered for the fraud bywhich he obtained presents from Naaman, andthe leprosy with which he was in consequencesmitten. He afterwards appears narrating tothe king of Israel the miracles of Elisha".Incidentally, there is nothing in the commentaryextract which conflicts with this inany way. And—as we ourselves see it—therewas no reason whatever why Gehazi shouldnot have remained in Elisha's service after hebecame a white leper. The punishment forGehazi's crime was that he should become aleper, and not that he should also be dismissedfrom his employment.Further, we would again point out thatGehazi was told that "the leprosy of Naaman"would be transferred to him, and this whiteleprosy did not debar Naaman from acting asthe commander-in-chief of the Syrian army.Why then, should it debar Gehazi from actingas the servant of Elisha ?P.H.A."He that hath no sword..."T.A.S. (Hertfordshire) writes :I have read in the December 1959 Testimonyyet another explanation of this command, butI do not agree with it.I think the difficulty is in the word "sword."We read in Jno. 18 : 10 that Peter "drew hissword, and smote the high priest's servant."Now I do not believe that a humble fishermanwould carry a sword at his side, and certainlynot a follower of Christ. I believe that it was akind of knife, like a butcher's knife, with whichPeter cut his fish, but quite capable of giving avery nasty wound.Jesus was preparing his disciples for ajourney, and telling them to take literal thingssuch as shoes, purses, etc. What more necessarythan a knife to cut their meat ?I see no more reason to spiritualise theword "sword" than the words "shoe" or"purse". I am perfectly sure it had nothingto do with protecting themselves.Reply.This is a very simple "explanation," which—it if could be accepted—would end thecontroversy which has raged round this versefor centuries.But was the sword which Jesus advised hisdisciples to buy simply a "knife," intendedfor peaceful and entirely lawful purposes ?The record in Matt. 26 : 52 says that Jesus saidto Peter, "Put up again thy sword into hisplace : for all they that take the sword shallperish with the sword". It would seem to bedeprived of its meaning if we read that "allwho take the butcher's knife shall perish withthe butcher's knife." Besides, it would not betrue !

36 The TESTIMONYThe Greek word translated "sword" ismachaira, which is always rendered "sword"and never "knife." Examples are :"/ came not to send peace, but a sword."(Matt. 10 : 34). It would seem absurd tosuggest that Jesus said, "I came not to sendpeace, but a butcher's knife.""He killed James . . . with the sword" (Acts12 : 2). It is most improbable that Herodkilled James with a butcher's knife."... escaped the edge of the sword" (Heb.11 : 34). Not the edge of the butcher's knife,surely !Swords, not butcher's knives, were obviouslywhat Jesus counselled his disciples to buy, andthere appears to be no evidence at all to justifyour correspondent's claim that the weaponwhich Peter used in Gethsemane was only abutcher's knife.Nor do we know on what grounds T.A.S.says that "Jesus was preparing them for ajourney." When he was preparing them for ajourney he expressly told them not to takemoney or scrip or staves (Matt. 10 : 10), for,he said, "the workman is worthy of his meat."or—as Luke gives it—"the labourer is worthyof his hire."The solution to this problem, we are afraid,is not so simple as our correspondent suggests,but must be sought elsewhere.P.H.A.On the same subject W.F.T.S. (Nottingham)writes :It would appear that there were two reasonsfor this statement:-(1) To test Peter's faith when brought intoopposition to armed force ;(2) To demonstrate the fulfilment of Isa. 53,"He is brought like a lamb to the slaughter... he hath done no violence."Jesus said to his disciples, "Did you lackanything when I sent you without purse, scripor sandals ?" "No," they replied. Thereforehe said to them, "But now he who has a purse,and a provision bag, let him take it, and hethat has not (a purse) let him sell his garrrent,and buy a sword."What was the purpose ? Certainly not tofight the armed forces soon to confront them.Therefore we must look for another explanation.The sword was the symbol of lawlessness.It was that which could be employed toestablish evil by the wicked, or good by the"minister of God" (Rom. 13 : 4). But it hadbeen written that Christ would not resist the"powers that be." It was no part of hismission to make use of the sword in the defenceof the Gospel.Jesus therefore condemned the attitudedisplayed by Peter, and established for alltime that the way to eternal life could not beobtained by the sword, but only by submissionto the will of God.This episode exhibited the readiness ofPeter to trust in the arm of flesh, but Jesussaid to him, "When thou art turned aroundin thy faith, strengthen thy brethren."Reply.We seem to be getting nearer to a solutionof this problem. If we interpret our correspondentaright, the command to buy swordswas only for the purpose of testing the disciples'faith.Yet it seems to us (we do not know how theywould react, of course) that the command tobuy swords, coming as it did from their Master,would encourage the disciples to use them.But Jesus was more far-seeing than we are,and so chose what seems to us an unusualway of teaching a lesson.P.H.A.BORROWED PENSThe doctrine of justification by faith is the record of Paul's personal experience reduced to a generalprinciple. Paul had, on the lines of his Pharisaic education, in the first half of his life zealouslysought to be justified by works, and had found out his mistake.—(Bishop Gore, in his book, TheEpistle to the Romans.)EDITORIAL NOTICEWe regret to announce that our colleague Mr. P. H. Adams will be unable to continue his laboursfor some time ahead, owing to illness. All correspondence for "First Steps and Problems" shouldbe sent until further notice to A. E. JONES, 41, THORNE PARK ROAD, HIGHER CHELSTON,TORQUAY, DEVON.

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iVol. 31 No. 362 FEBRUARY, 19*hoto by courtesy ofLeslie Gee . i x u a u. SNOWDROP WOODS, WOLD NEWTON VILLAGE, LINCAll Hesh is grass, and all the goodliness thereof is as the flower of the field." (Isa. 40 : V

38 The TESTIMONYEdited byJ. MITCHELLThe Pilgrimage of Jesus(60) Ο WOMAN, GREAT IS THY FAITHJohn MitchellΠΓΗΕ Lord Jesus had been undergoing a*•* period of considerable strain in Galilee.Even when he said to his disciples, "Come yeapart and rest awhile," they found no harbourof peace, but were followed by the multitudesand spent the day ministering to them. Thenthey returned during a sleepless night across thestorm-tossed Sea of Galilee, only to find thecrowds waiting for them again, and the hostileScribes and Pharisees dogging their steps, andseeking ever to discredit Jesus with theirsophistries. Once more however, the opposers'arguments were shattered like waves against theimpregnable Rock. It is not surprising however,that after a hard day on the plains of Bethsaida,a night in prayer in the mount above, and thecrossing of the sea by night, followed by such"contradiction of sinners against himself,"Jesus should seek quietness and rest. "Hearose from thence and went away into theborders of Tyre and Sidon. And he enteredinto a house, and would have no man know it."Jesus and his disciples travelled as far northas they could, without going outside the boundsof the land of Israel. While the crowds wentsouth to worship in the Temple at Jerusalem,which man had built, the true Temple whereGod dwelt above His beloved Mercy Seat, wentnorth. The time of the Passover was at hand,and it was to eat the Passover which foreshadowedhis own death, that Jesus seems tohave made the journey into near-Gentileterritory.He wanted to stay unrecognised, "but hecould not be hid." Can the glory of God everbe hidden ? Doubtless it can to those who arelost. Multitudes of Jews had now had theopportunity of seeing the Lord's Christ, butthey had not perceived him. He came unto hisown, but his own received him not. Theylooked upon him for the most part, with theeye of flesh, and held him to be of no account,and so condemned themselves as being unworthyof everlasting life. They who claimeddescent from Abraham after the flesh, despisedthe opportunity of becoming children ofAbraham by faith, and so lost this pricelessprivilege to others whom they regarded asGentile "dogs."The process was already at work during theministry of Jesus, though the full tide of it wasto come later. We saw its beginnings with thewoman of Samaria, and with the centurionwhose servant was sick. And now it was tohappen to a woman whom the Jews regardedas being quite beyond the pale. She was aSyro-Phoenician by birth. If the Jews had doneas God instructed them when they first enteredthe land of Palestine from Egypt, then the wholeof this woman's race would have been destroyed.Moreover, as regards her religion, she was aheathen.Yet such was the fame of Jesus, that even inher spiritually barren homeland, she had heardof him and of his wonderful works, and havinga daughter who was demented, she determinedto crave his healing powers upon her. Whereexactly she came from, we do not know, orwhether her journey was long or short. If itwere short, she still had to leave her homelandbehind to find Christ, and if it were long itwould surely seem short for the love she boreher child. What we are told is that she "cameout" from those borders, to seek Christ in his

The TESTIMONY 39lodging place. And immediately we begin tosee how typical she is of us all. Not only do wehave to seek if haply we might find the LordJesus Christ, but we also have to come out fromamong our natural habitat, and be separate, ifwe are to be granted his friendship. Thewoman however, had still a long way to go inher trial of faith before she could receive herheart's desire.Evidently she first came upon the Lord Jesusand his disciples in the street, and she cried out,"Have mercy on me, Ο Lord, thou Son ofDavid ; my little daughter is grievously vexedwith a devil." But he answered her never aword, and moved on. Perhaps taking their cuefrom this, the disciples who were feelingincreasingly embarrassed at the scene that wasbeing created, besought the Lord to "send heraway ; for she crieth after us."They had mistaken the import of the Lord'ssilence. This appears to have been two-fold.First to draw her on and thus test her faith.Second, it also appears that the woman hadapproached the Lord Jesus in the wrong way.As a heathen Syro-Phenician woman, she hadno claims upon the Lord as the "Son of David"and no right to address him as such. "The titlemight be most rightfully used, if the promisesto David were fully and spiritually apprehended,not otherwise. If used without that knowledge,it was an address by a stranger to a JewishMessiah, whose works were only miracles, andnot also and primarily signs ... In her mouththen, it meant something to which Christ couldnot have yielded. And yet he could not refuseher petition. And so he first taught her, in suchmanner as she could understand, that whichshe needed to know before she could approachhim in such manner, the relation of the heathento the Jewish world, and of both to the Messiah,and then he gave her what she asked." #When therefore, Jesus did speak, he beganwith the primary purpose of his ministry—"Iwas not sent but unto the lost sheep of the houseof Israel," he said.The advantage of the revelation of God stilllay with the Jew, to whom had been committedthe holy oracles, to whom pertained the adoption,and the covenants, and the giving of thelaw, and the service of God, and the promises ;whose were the fathers, and of whom as concerningthe flesh, Christ came. This woman hadno claim upon any of these things. She was analien from the commonwealth of Israel, astranger from the covenants of promise ; shehad no hope and was without God in the world.Realising from what the Lord Jesus had saidthat she could ask nothing except his mercy,she came and fell down at his feet, and worshippedhim saying, "Lord, help me." She usedno titles now except that of "Lord," and becamea suppliant in the most touching and submissivemanner. Again we see the likeness in ourselves.None of us has any claim upon the Lord'sChrist. "By grace ye are saved through faith ;and that not of yourselves : it is the gift ofGod."But the battle of this poor woman's faith wasnot yet over. For Jesus then said to her, "Itis not meet to take the children's bread and castit to the dogs." How harsh that sounds at first!particularly when we remember such otherpassages of Scripture as, "Give not that whichis holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearlsbefore swine," and "Beware of dogs, beware ofevil workers, beware of the concision." Butif the words which Jesus spoke sound harsh, itis the fault of the translators, and not of theLord. For the word he used was not "dogs"(kuon) but "little dogs" or "puppies" (kunaria);and by the use of the diminutive he not onlysoftened what he had to say, but opened the wayof hope, and gave the woman the opportunityof the magnificent response which she made.For there was a great difference in the Eastbetween the usage of the dog, and of theselected puppy. Dogs were the object of contempt,being the scavengers who did much ofthe work of the roadsweepers of today. "Theseanimals are never individually owned or caredfor, but roam the cities and the villages in wildpacks, huge mongrel curs, many of whom areliterally half-bred wolves and jackals. Theirvery name is one of contempt, and they are onlyjust tolerated because they act as scavengers,devouring by night the offal thrown by thewomen into the streets, and also as nightguardians to keep away strangers or wild beasts.They are regarded as vile and unclean, and theill-usage they receive drives them out by dayinto the open country.""Dogs are never allowed into the houses,never stroked by the master or cared for by thechildren. When quite young however, as littlepuppies, these otherwise hated and ill-usedanimals are carried indoors, and are fondled andfed by the children, but only when they arequite young. This our Saviour knew, and so didthe poor much-tried Syrophenician fellahhah."f"Yes Lord," she said. "Yet the puppies eatof the crumbs which fall from their masters'*Life and Times of Jesus, The Messiah, Edersheim.•\ Every day Life in the Holy Land, Neil.

40 The TESTIMONYtable." In an age when knives and forks andnapkins were not in use, it was the custom forthe guests to wipe their fingers during the mealon the soft part of the bread, which was thendropped beneath the table, where no doubt thelittle dogs were keenly awaiting such tit-bits.Similarly with this woman, it was not a fullmeasure of his power that she asked. She knewthat even a fragment would suffice her need.In this she placed herself alongside the centurionwhen he said, "Lord I am not worthythat thou shouldest come under my roof, butspeak the word only and my servant shall behealed," and the woman with the issue of bloodwho thought within herself, "If I may but touchthe hem of his garment I shall be made whole."All that any of us need is a little of Christ. Heis all-sufficient, and of his fullness may we allreceive. There is enough and to spare, as thispoor heathen woman well knew. Just a littleshe asked—but with what bounty and praisewas she rewarded ! For Jesus answered andsaid unto her, "O woman, great is thy faith :be it unto thee even as thou wilt." And herdaughter was made whole from that very hour.The lessons of her encounter with the LordJesus may be learned with profit by us all.Firstly we see that however far removed we mayhave been from Christ and from the people ofGod, there is hope if we will but "come out"from among our natural ties and be separate.Secondly, we see that the basis of any adoptionwe may have in Christ is not that of race, but offaith. In fact, both Jew and Gentile can onlybecome the children of God and the recipientsof His grace, by faith. Moreover, we see thathalf-hearted faith will never get us anywhere.It was the earnestness and persistence of thispoor woman that gained her the reward. WhatChrist has to offer must be as valuable to us asit was to her : so valuable in fact that nothingwill daunt us, or put us off its attainment. Havewe a faith like that ?"For the just shall live by faith : but if anyman shrink back My soul shall have no pleasurein him. But we are not of them that shrink backunto perdition : but of them that believe to thesaving of the soul."AndrewF. E. MitchellYV7E are so accustomed to the idea that Jesus** called his disciples to help him with hispreaching that it comes as a surprise to realisethat although this was one of the reasons fortheir call, it was not the first one. Mark informsus that "he ordained twelve that they should bewith him, and that he might send them forthto preach, and to have power to heal sicknesses,and to cast out devils." λIt is clear, therefore,that he valued their companionship, and thatthere was something that the disciple could giveto his Lord.It is a valuable thought that the twelve, inspite of their limitations, could help Jesus withtheir fellowship, and that their presence madeit easier for him to face the immense difficultieswhich he overcame. In fact, their associationwas a partnership in which the devotion of thedisciples, misdirected as it sometimes was,repaid in some measure his services to them.The development of the band of men whowere afterwards to carry the Gospel throughoutthe world, was one of the supreme achievementsof Jesus. The insight with which he realisedtheir good points, and the skill with which hedeveloped these qualities until they came to fullfruition, are among the noblest manifestationsof his grace. His care for them is instanced bymany occurrences in the Gospel stories whichshow his peculiar ability to bring the best outof them."WHAT SEEK YE?"Although there are not many references toAndrew in the Gospels, the few that exist areeloquent of his development under the hand ofJesus. We first read of him 2as a follower ofJohn the Baptist, and are told that in companywith another disciple he was standing by on theday when Jesus passed by, and John the Baptistwas led to exclaim, "Behold the Lamb of God !"As Jesus moved away, Andrew and hiscompanion followed him. To their surprise,Jesus turned round and addressed them :"What seek ye ?" to which, in their apparentembarrassment they could only reply : "Master,where dwellest thou ?". They received thegracious reply : "Come and see."Taking Jesus at his word, they went with himand spent the rest of the day with him. WhatMark 3 : 14, 15.2John 1 : 35.

The TESTIMONY 41transpired during their visit we are not told,except that it is clear that Andrew became convincedthat Jesus was the Messiah. The resultof it however, gives us our first index to hischaracter. He had heard during the day thingswhich had convinced him that Jesus was evengreater than his previously adopted leader, Johnthe Baptist. The news to him was glorious.It was such as could not remain locked up inhis own breast. He must share it. With whomshould he share it ? Why not begin at home ?His brother Peter was a warm-hearted man, andthese tidings would seem good to him also.Andrew therefore, "first findeth his ownbrother Simon, and saith unto him. We havefound the Messias." To his joy, Peterresponded, and he brought him to Jesus.Doubtless Andrew in later years performedmany services for Jesus, but never one greaterthan his first. Who shall measure the gain tothe Christian movement because Andrew'swork started at home ?There seems to have been a wide differencebetween Peter and Andrew. The former was abrilliant man, able to sway multitudes by hiseloquence, and from time to time to haveintuitions which led him to speak words which,once said, could never be forgotten : "Thou artthe Christ, the Son of the living God," said he,and Jesus replied that man had not told himthat, but God.There is no evidence that Andrew had thesegifts. He seems to have been cast in a quietermould, and the call of Peter shows his abilityas a quiet introducer of the Gospel message.If he could not emulate the public deeds of hisbrother, he was not jealous of him. In his ownway he could yet with quiet charm, reasonprivately the value of the things which he hadlearned of Jesus. This phase of his characterhas been well expressed by the poet:"A brother's heart had Andrew, joy beyond,All joy to him the promised Christ to find,But heavenly joy may not be duty blind :He cannot rest, his bliss is incomplete,Till Simon sits with him at Jesus' feet,His brother then by more than natural bond."Although Andrew and Peter had thus becomeacquainted with Jesus and had accepted hisMessiahship, it does not appear that theyrealised at this stage the full nature of thedemand he was to make on them. They continuedto ply their trade of fishing in the sea ofGalilee, until the day when Jesus came to themand said, "Come ye after me, and I will makeyou to become fishers of men." The preliminarywork of Jesus had had its due effect on them ?and Mark is able to say that straightway theyleft their nets and followed him. 3A RETURN VISITIn the same chapter Mark recounts 4 howJesus returned the visit previously paid to himby Andrew, and went to the house jointlyoccupied by the disciple and his brother inCapernaum. He arrived at an opportune time,for Peter's mother-in-law was in need of hisaid, being ill with fever. The healing hand ofJesus was soon applied, however, and soeffective was it that she was able to help in theentertainment of the guests, who includedJames and John. Tidings of what had happenedspread quickly into the city, and as the sun wassetting, a large concourse of people, many ofthem ill and diseased, surrounded the door.Jesus did not fail them. A fountain of healingwas opened, and numbers had cause to bethankful for the friendship which had beenformed between Jesus and Andrew and Peter.Another side of the character of Andrew isshown by a later event, which is described in thesixth chapter of John. On the slopes of amountain near the sea of Tiberias, Jesus and hisdisciples were surrounded by a huge companyof men and women, anxious to see him performsome sign. As was his wont, Jesus had a carefor the physical needs of those who followedhim, and turning to Philip he asked wherebread could be obtained to feed the people.Being a native of the neighbouring city ofBethsaida, Philip might be expected to knowwhere food could be bought. Philip failed toperceive that Jesus was testing him, well knowingwhat he was about to do, and exclaimedthat much more would be required than theresources of the disciples could afford. Andrewwas standing by however, and his watchful eyehad seen the lad with his five loaves and twofishes. He drew attention to the supply, perhapswondering whether Jesus would perform amiracle, but as if half afraid of his temerity,immediately added, "But what are they amongso many ?" His desire to be helpful however,was not in vain, for his suggestion was themeans of providing the basis for the feeding ofthe whole company by Jesus.TACTFUL HELPFULNESSIn this case Andrew appears as a man standingby, looking for an opportunity to be of use.Such men and women of tactful helpfulness areof the utmost value to any cause or company, and? Mark 1 ; 17, Mark 1; 29,

42 The TESTIMONYwe~may be sure that the quality which Andrewdisplayed on this occasion was often manifestedin the day-to-day life of Jesus and his colleagues.The poet again has drawn attention to this sideof the disciple's character :"Quick eye had Andrew. He it was amidThe thronging multitudes that marked the lad,And what his basket, and how much it had.Two fishes small, and loaves of barley five,Rewarded eye, to trivial things alive,In that poor basket, what rich mercy hid !"Almost the last incident in which Andrewappears as a leading figure is also recounted forus by John. 5A number of Greeks had come toJerusalem for the Passover, and having heard ofJesus, they desired to meet him. ApproachingPhilip they said to him, "Sir, we would seeJesus." This apparently simple request putPhilip in a difficulty. He and all his colleagueshad observed the heavy strain which was imposedupon Jesus by his constant labours. Theirleader was at every man's beck and call, and nosincere enquirer was ever sent away empty.Solitude, even for prayer, was denied him,except in the hours of the night. Devoted to himas they were, the disciples could not but beconcerned at his heavy burden, and be desirousof sparing him as much as possible. If therefore,the desire of the Greeks was idle curiosity,Philip would wish to keep them from Jesus.On the other hand, if their request was sincereand serious, he knew that Jesus would not thankhim for failing to introduce them to him. In hisdifficulty, to whom did Philip turn ? Andrewwas the one who he thought would be able tohelp him. To Andrew he went, and after discussion,the two of them told Jesus. Thenarrative does not say that Jesus saw the Greeks,but the nature of his discourse makes it almostcertain that he did so. What he said about thedeath of the wheat was calculated to appeal tomen who being Greeks, would probably havesome acquaintance with the Greek naturemystery religions.In this incident Andrew exhibits both hispeculiar qualities ; as a tactful helper and anintroducer of men to Jesus, he enriches theoccasion.ENCOURAGEMENT OF LOWLINESSIn many ways, Andrew is the most encouragingof the disciples from the standpoint of theordinary follower of Christ. None of us can hopeto achieve the power of Peter, or to acquire thatfull sympathy with the Saviour which Johncame to enjoy. When however, we think ofAndrew, it is immediately apparent that hisqualities are in some degree at least, within ourreach. Rejoicing as he did, in the Master beyondcompare, we can surely find the means to conveythe secret of our rejoicing to others, not perhapsin public words, or even in words at all, but bythe quiet confidence and joyousness of our lives.Moreover, who, having known the fellowship ofJesus, can fail to have the desire to find somesmall sphere in his service, in which he cantactfully help forward the work either of theindividual or of the body of believers as a whole ?However humble we may be, we can if ourdesire for the fellowship of God and of Jesus issincere, find comfort and encouragement in theexample of Andrew.Thus is community of interest and serviceestablished between the man who was one of thefirst two disciples, and the disciple of moderndays.' Ό happy they with Andrew's eye to seeA lad and his scant business in the throngNor try high scorn to do his efforts wrongAnd happy they with hearts that will not restTill in their bliss another too is blessedWhat joy a Peter to the Lord to lead !"s John 12 : 20." ONE RECEIVETH THE PRIZE." (1 Cor. 9 : 24)If but one the prize receiveth, shall we then have run in vain ?No ! for who in Christ now liveth, will in him the prize obtain.All are one, both Jew and Gentile, male and female, bond and free ;If in Christ we run with patience, we shall share his victory.Let us every weight abandon, we no longer are our own,And "To each who overcometh, he," says Christ, "shall share my throne."Alice E. Bijoux (S. Africa).

The TESTIMONY 43Edited bv V. H. ADAMSThe Prophecy of Joel (2)A. Akeroyd/CHAPTER TWO, verse twelve, we read the^ day of the Lord will be "very terrible"for the wicked, for them that know not Godand that obey not the gospel of our Lord JesusChrist, "Therefore saith the Lord, turn yeeven to Me with all your heart," "for He isgracious and merciful, slow to anger and ofgreat kindness." That true repentance willbring divine forgiveness is indicated in severalverses of the second chapter. Joel 2 : 18 andthe following verses have a predominantlyfuture application. The Lord will be jealousfor His land at the time when He pities Hispeople. Zechariah provides a parallel passage,in which he says, "Thus saith the Lord ofhosts, I am jealous for Jerusalem and forZion with a great jealousy". This is becauseGod has declared that He will dwell in themidst of Jerusalem (Zech 8 : 2) and becauseit is "the mountain of the Lord of hosts andthe holy mountain" whence destruction proceedsupon God's enemies, but whence alsopeace will yet "flow like a river." Then willthe Lord pity His people, for says God throughIsaiah, "In My wrath I smote thee, but in Myfavour have I had mercy on thee."The nineteenth verse of Joel, chapter two,is similarly descriptive of this future time ofrestitution when no more devastation will takeplace, but when there will be an abundance ofcorn, wine and oil, when the "desert shallrejoice and blossom as the rose," and no morewill God's people be a reproach among thenations ; no more a byword and a hissing. Atthis same time the words of verse twenty willhave their fulfilment, for God will remove fromHis land and from His people "the northernarmy", or as it is alternatively rendered, "thenortherner," "the northlander," "him from thenorth," "because he hath done great things,"or as the margin gives it, "because he hathmagnified (himself) to do great things," andverse twenty-one must be read in conjunctionwith this expression "for the Lord (also) willdo great things." God will magnify Himself,whereas the northerner will meet the fate bestdescribed by Ezekiel (Ezek. 39 :1-5 ; 39 :11-13;39 : 21).Thus when Gog, the northerner comes likea storm and a cloud out of "the north parts""against My people of Israel—in the latterdays" God's fury will come up in His face sothat the northerner will "fall upon the mountainsof Israel" and God will "give unto Gog aplace there of graves in Israel." The result ofthis divine intervention will be joy and gladnessfor the children of Zion who will rejoice in theLord their God (verse 23). Who are "thechildren of Zion" who are here exhorted to beglad and rejoice in the Lord their God ? Theyare the very same "children of Zion" mentionedby the Psalmist in Psalm 149 where occur thewords, "let the children of Zion be joyful intheir king." Recognising that Jerusalem "isthe city of the great king" ; that upon Hisholy hill of Zion, God will set His king(Psa. 22) ; that the righteous will appearbefore God in Zion (Psa. 84) ; that therein Zion the redeemed will sing the "newsong" of Psalm 149 and the song of Mosesand of the Lamb, our thoughts are directedforward in time to the day when the saints arejoyful in glory, when God has beautified themeek with salvation, when the high praises ofGod are in their mouth and a two-edged swordin their hands, These "children of Zion" aretherefore, it is suggested, the redeemed of theLord who come with singing unto Zion ; theyare the Bride, the Lamb's wife. A furtherreason for this identification will appear whenconsidering verse thirty.It is noticeable that in this picture of restorationin verses 21-27 of Joel, chapter two,the land, the beasts, the trees and the peopleare all partakers of the blessings in the day ofthe Lord. If the locusts or locust-like armies

44 The TESTIMONYhave caused tremendous desolation, God willdo "great things" in restoration ; so muchso that restitution will by far outweigh all thatwas done by the palmerworm, the locust, thecankerworm and the caterpiller, whether thoseagencies of destruction are literal, or symbolicof the nations that harassed God's land andpeople from the days of ancient Assyria tothe present time of the latter-day Assyrian,Gog, the prince of Rosh, the northlander(verse twenty). Incidentally, Ellicott gives anote to the effect that the patronymic syllableto the word "northern" indicates a native ofthe north, hence precluding the possibility ofits having reference to literal locusts.Truly "the day of the Lord" is great andvery terrible, and who can abide it ? Obviouslythis is possible for those who are exhorted asfollows (verse twenty-three), "Be glad yechildren of Zion, rejoice in the Lord yourGod, for He hath given you the former rainmoderately, and He will cause to come downfor you the rain, the former rain, and thelatter rain in the first month." It should benoted that the word "month" is absent fromthe original manuscript and could be read,"the latter rain as at the first," which, if weare referring only to natural phenomena,indicates that at the time of the day of theLord, at the time when "the Lord will do greatthings," the climate of the land that has laindesolate so long, will be divinely improved andthe rainfall will be restored "as at the first,"that is, as it was when the land flowed withmilk and honey.In a booklet entitled Zionism, written about1920 by W. H. Barker, we read these words,"I think Dr. Masterman will bear me out whenI say, that ever since the Jewish colonies havebeen in the Holy Land, the rains have come ina much more regular way. Whether it is thebeginning of a new cycle, I cannot say ; at anyrate it is a fact that cannot be doubted." Wordsof the prophet Isaiah (62 : 4) are here appropriate,"Thou shalt no more be termed forsaken; neither shall thy land any more betermed desolate—for the Lord delighteth inthee," and that" is doubtless the reason why therains, since Zionism began, "have come in amuch more regular way." "For the desolateland shall be tilled—and they shall say, Thisland that was desolate is become like thegarden of Eden, and the waste and desolateand ruined cities are become fenced and areinhabited," and some of this has been fulfilledin our own days.Verses twenty-four to twenty-seven of Joel,chapter two, indicate distinctly the divineblessings following the giving of "the latterrain" ; threshing floors full of wheat; vatsoverflowing with wine and oil; God's peoplepraising Him ; God Himself dwelling in themidst of Israel in the final phase of Hiskingdom."And it shall come to pass afterward, that Iwill pour out My spirit upon all flesh." (versetwenty-eight). Peter makes use of these wordsof Joel, in his sermon on the day of Pentecost,when "they were ALL filled with the HolySpirit." Doubtless that word "all" has referenceto the true believers who were gatheredtogether for the purpose of worship. Itcertainly did not mean every one there presentat Jerusalem for we read, "Others mockingsaid, These men are full of new wine." Thisoutpouring of the Spirit was the former rainof the Spirit, given moderately, given at thefeast of Pentecost which is the feast of thefirstfruits of the harvest, the feast of firstfruits.This outpouring of the Spirit was but for alimited time, and only upon "all flesh" in thesense of being poured out upon men or believersof all nationalities, Parthians, Medes, Elamites,Mesopotamian Jews, Cappodocians, men ofPontus and Asia, Phrygia and Pamphylia,Egypt and Libya, Cyrene, Rome, Crete andArabia.But Joel's prophecy is capable of dualapplication and most certainly has referenceto a time still future, to the time when in thefullest sense, God's Spirit will be poured outupon ALL flesh.The only other great feast of Israel followingthe feast of Pentecost was the feast of Tabernacles,the feast of the final ingathering of thefruits of the harvest. It is a feast that typifiesthe final ingathering of redeemed saints intoGod's kingdom and glory; that wholesaleaddition of righteous nations of which Zechariahspeaks in these words, "And many nations shallbe joined to the Lord in that day, and shall beMy people."Dr. Thomas says, "Between the two Spiritrainperiods, Zion's sun will be turned to darkness,and the moon of her ecclesiastical heavensinto blood, before the great and terrible dayof Jehovah should be revealed upon Israel'senemies whose destruction shall proceed fromMount Zion and Jerusalem, in which shall bedeliverance for the remnant whom Jehovahshall call."Peter could see a dual application of Joel'swords and, introducing the phrase "in the lastdays," made use of the prophecy of the Spirit's

The TESTIMONY 45outpouring to apply it to his own days ; "thelast days" of the Jewish dispensation ; dayswhich themselves witnessed "blood and fireand pillars of smoke" literally at the siege ofJerusalem in 70 A.D. This outpouring of theSpirit at Pentecost in Peter's day was thegiving of the "former rain moderately" ; itwas given for, the perfecting of the saints, thework of the ministry, the edifying of the bodyof Christ. Paul said that prophecies shouldfail, tongues should cease, knowledge shouldvanish away, which teaches that the HolySpirit power was given only for a limited time,and having accomplished its purpose, waswithdrawn.NOW, the Scriptures are "able to make uswise unto salvation."NOW, the Scriptures are "profitableforinstruction in righteousness that the man ofGod may be perfect, throughly furnished untoall good works."This possession of the Holy Spirit power atPentecost was but an "earnest" ; a tokenpossession ; a moderate possession, styled bythe apostle Paul, "an earnest of our inheritance,until the redemption of the purchased possession"a "taste of the powers of the worldto come" (Heb. 6 : 5). Obviously this wasbut a foretaste of that which belongs to thetime of our redemption ; the time of ourimmortalisation ; the time of the establishmentof the kingdom of God, when the outpouringof the Spirit will, upon the immortals,have an absolute fulness. This .will be theseason of the "latter rain" of Joel's prophecy." mind is an intricate organisationof matter. In so far as the organisationcan be remembered and reproducedthere is no such thing as (permanent) death.If ordinary atoms of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen,nitrogen, etc., could be fitted together intoexactly the structural organisation of Homer,or of Titus Oates, then these individuals wouldcome alive again exactly as they were originally.The whole issue therefore, turns on whetherour particular organisation is remembered insome fashion. If it is, there is no (permanent)death. If it is not, there is complete oblivion."Professor Fred Hoyle—Nature of the Universe."Then they that feared the Lord spake oftenone to another : And the Lord hearkened, andheard it, and a book of remembrance wasRESURRECTIONwritten before Him for them that feared theLord, and that thought upon His name.And they shall be Mine, saith the Lord ofHosts, in that day when I make up My jewels ;and I will spare them, as a man spareth his ownson that serveth him." Malachi 3 : 16, 17."Oh that Thou would'st hide me in thegrave, that Thou wouldest keep me secret, untilThy wrath be past, that Thou wouldest appointme a set time, and remember me ! If a mandie, shall he live again ? All the days of myappointed time will I wait, till my change come.Thou shalt call, and I will answer Thee ..."Job 14 : 13-15." . . . the righteous shall be in everlastingremembrance." Psalm 112 : 6.per G. Ε. M. Jones."FEAR NOT" Luke 8:50Probably the most comforting words of the Bible are these two—"fear not." All down the centuriesthey have reassured many thousands, for they have divine power behind them.Fear has killed millions, and put many thousands in the mental asylums. Others have their livesmade miserable through haunting fears, most of which only existed in the imagination.Fear's twin brother is worry, for they live together and make sla\es of millions. Many people makethemselves wretched and miserable in anticipating troubles. They imagine all sorts of complicationsover the simplest of things.The fear of losing health, of position, of loved ones, is an ever present worry. If you have a problem,it is quite simple. First, do all you can to solve it, then leave it to God in prayer. God's power islimitless. He made man, and He made the mind. Our fears, our worries are never as great asdivine power, and that power is always available to us. Unburden yourself and leave the load withGod ; has not Jesus said, Come unto me all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give yourest" ? {Matt. 11 : 28). C, H. F.

46 The TESTIMONYTitus, The Man and The BookLeonard F. CoxEdited by E. WHITTAKEB'ΤΉΕ information we have about Titus isscanty and scattered, and we have no wordsof his to supplement it by giving us a directinsight into his mind ; yet he is far more thana mere name. The scraps of information we dopossess help us to guess at answers to the questionswe should all like to ask, "Why was it thisman was in charge of the Cretan Church ?" and"Why was Paul able to speak to him in such aforthright style ?" I doubt whether Paul everfound it easy to moderate his expressions ofopinion, though he tried very hard in some ofhis Epistles, but here he obviously feels no needto be other than direct and forceful. What thenwas the man to whom he could write in thisway ?Probably Titus was one of Paul's own converts: at least he called him his "own son afterthe common faith", 1a phrase very similar tothat he used of Timothy, who is also reckonedto have been a direct convert of Paul. WhereasTimothy had strong Jewish connections, Titusdoes not seem to have had any. Gal. 2 : 3insists that Titus was a Greek, not perhaps anative of Greece, but certainly a Gentile, andthat there was no need for him to imitateJewishness by being circumcised. This remarkcomes at a point where Paul is discussing theGreat Conference held in Jerusalem about suchmatters, the Conference described in Acts,chapter 15. Paul tells us that he took with himto Jerusalem, Barnabas who was a Levite andtherefore a Jew of the Jews though a very enlightenedone, and Titus. There is nothing tosay whether Titus went just as an observer orwhether he took an active part in the discussion,but one,thing is certain : Paul would choose anexample of non-Jewish Christianity who wouldreflect credit on the movement.Titus is also mentioned in 2 Cor., chapters 7and 8 ; from chapter 8, verse 6 we learn that hehad been to Corinth collecting, perhaps finishinghere a task already begun in Macedonia.This no doubt was a task which needed bothvigour and tact, and both these qualities Titusseems to have possessed. In verse 16, Paulspeaks of the "earnest care" he had shown forthe Corinthians. The next verse suggests evenmore ; "of his own accord he went unto you."He needed no pushing into this job ; at theleast it means that he volunteered ; it mighteven suggest that it was his own idea to go thereand that Paul merely approved it. As usualwith a job well done, Titus enjoyed his visit.Chapter 7, verses 13-16 gives the reactions ofboth sides. The Corinthians met Titus withfear and trembling, clearly recognising in him aworthy representative of Paul's authority, butin the end Titus was able to rejoice because hisspirit was refreshed by them all. It rather looksas though he went to do more than collect; butwhatever he went for, his mission was happyand successful.Corinth and Crete were not the only placeshe visited; the old, rather lonely Paul of 2Timothy, tells us that Titus had gone toDalmatia. Although this allusion begins with acriticism of Demas who had forsaken Paul forthe world, I am sure there is no need to carryover this criticism to Titus. 2It seems farmore likely that he had gone there on missionaryor episcopal work. Perhaps again it was hisown idea ; certainly he was not always to befound where Paul expected him; once Paularrived at Troas, apparently expecting to findhim there and was very distressed at not doing12Tit. 1 : 4 (but see R.V.).2 Tim. 4 : 10.

The TESTIMONY 47so. 3 Then Paul left Troas and went to Macedonia,where in the midst of much suffering hewas comforted "by the coming of Titus."Clearly then, Titus was an active, vigorous,trustworthy brother, and moreover one forwhom the Apostle and others could feel realaffection. It is all summed up in Paul's descriptionof him in 2 Cor. 8 : 23 ; others are messengersof the Churches and the glory of Christ,but Titus is Paul's "partner and fellowhelper,"someone whom he can put on a levelwith himself. As we read the Epistle to Tituswe may be appalled by the task which facedhim, but we are not surprised by the directstyle of the advice Paul gives him ; and we feelthat if any man could overcome such difficultiesthen, with God's help, Titus could.So let us turn to the Epistle and see what thetask was which Paul set this man. As usualPaul starts by giving his credentials, and in sodoing tells us that God promised eternal life"before the world began." 4 Now the R.S.V.translates this merely as "ages ago," but evenif we accept the wording of the A.V. the phrasecan be understood without pretending that"world" only refers to some particular "dispensation"within known time. It indicatesthat even before anything had actually beendone to create this world out of the void, it wasalready God's intention that it should praiseHim through immortal lips—He had promisedHimself it should be so.In verse 5 Paul turns to the purpose of theEpistle, beginning with his reasons for leavingTitus in Crete. The first reason was that heshould set right the things lacking ; clearlyCrete was a slack place—slack in the things thatmattered, although some of its members couldbe fussy about those that did not, as becomesclear later on. Titus was also to appointsuitable elders—remember that Paul did notexpect him to stay there indefinitely and someonewould be needed to carry on the good workhe was to start. One interesting point arisesfrom this : Titus is told to appoint elders inevery city, which means that the Christiancommunity in Crete was not one isolatedChurch, but was well represented in every townon the island. It would be interesting to knowwho had preached so effectively there, butunfortunately the only other Biblical referencesto it are in the record of Paul's journey toRome 5 so we cannot really know.To return to these elders ; verses 6-9 giveadvice on the sort of people he was to chooseand there are two points in the descriptionwhich sum up all the test. The first is that thebishop can be compared to a steward ; now asteward's task was an important and responsibleone. Abraham sent his steward Eliezer to finda wife for Isaac, and Potiphar entrusted everythingto the hands of his steward Joseph, butboth these stewards were slaves and in Paul'sday the office was still frequently held by aslave. The officers of the Church are itsservants, not its masters. The second point isthe use of the word "temperate"; a modernterm which might be preferred is "self-controlled"or even "self-disciplined." Being ableto discipline oneself is a prerequisite to beingable to exercise discipline over others.From verse 10 onwards we have a picture ofthe bad side of Crete. Trouble was beingcaused by "vain talkers" of the circumcisionparty whose object was to gain filthy lucre.How they made money is not clear, but it wasprobably by getting credulous people to keepthem in ease, in the belief that by helping such'holy' men they would store up credit for themselvesin the eyes of God. These deceiverssubverted whole houses, which fits with theidea of religious hypocrites worming their wayinto households and living there like parasites.The reference to whole houses also reminds ushow much the idea of family life is built intoChristianity : God is our Father, Jesus ourelder brother and all of us brothers and sistersone to another. In such a close community badinfluences can spread as quickly as good ones.So these people are to be rebuked sharply.Here we see the forthrightness so characteristicof this Epistle ; Paul clearly believed that therewere times when plain speaking w r as the best,if not the only, remedy. It needed the right manto do it, but Paul had chosen Titus with this inview. It also needed to be done for the rightreason, expressed here in the words "that theymay be sound in the faith"; the purpose is notrejection, but rescue."Unto the pure," Paul goes on, "all thingsare pure." There can be no doubt that theimpure are those whom Paul has just beencriticising, people who had a lot to say for themselves,professing to be very good and alwaysseeking to impress others. Now one of theeasiest ways to impress the gullible is not to saypositively how good you are, but to pick holesin other people and to leave your listeners tomake their own comparisons. It is so easy topick holes in other people—the Pharisees andSadducees managed to pick plenty in Jesus—to their own satisfaction. Jesus' attitude was3 2 Cor. 2 : 12-13.4 Tit. 1:2. Acts 27.

48 The TESTIMONYvery different; to the most obvious of sinners,the woman taken in adultery, he could say,"Neither do I condemn thee."If these critics in Crete wanted to prove theirsuperiority, it should be by deeds rather thanwords ; but says Paul their deeds (A.V. works)are abominable. This theme of the superiorityof action over speech is one to which Paulreturns frequently in this Epistle. However atthis point Titus, having acted by appointingelders, is told to continue by preaching "thethings which become sound doctrine". 6 Toall classes he is to commend temperance (orself-control) and sobriety. There was anobvious need for such advice ; when Titus istold to bid the elderly women not to be slavesto drink, we realise to what depths somesections, at least, of the Church had sunk.These were the people who should have beensetting a good example, teaching youngerwomen how to act, so that "the word of Godmay not be discredited." 7 It is easy to imaginewhat outsiders would say of a communitywhich preached such high ideals and acted insuch an ignoble way. If outsiders did say harshthings of God, the reproof would be mostdeserved by those who gave rise to suchsayings. Yet preaching cannot be enough onits own ; and in verse 7 Paul is back to thetheme of example in deed as well as in word.Again he is thinking of those who were alwaysready to criticise "those of the contrary part"and tells Titus that they must not be able tofind anything evil to say of him. This was anexceptionally high standard, but it was necessaryto set it, at least as an ideal, in order to savethe Church.Then comes a reference to slaves (A.V.servants). One can imagine that this element inthe Church would not be very popular with thecritics, and that this would result in a reactionamong the slaves towards taking things easily.It was a natural thing for slaves to pilfer—asnatural as it is today for business men toexaggerate their expense accounts. Such anattitude was to be frowned on severely, but thiswas not "putting the slaves in their place."Paul adds that if they would, slaves could"adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour." Onewonders what some of the critical Judaizersthought of the suggestion that slaves couldadorn the Church !Why should Christian slaves, or anyChristians for that matter, be so different fromtheir pagan contemporaries ? This is thequestion answered simply and forcefully inverses 11-14. God's grace has appeared withthe message to turn from this world to looktowards the coming of Christ. So Christianityis no one-sided matter ; if men must give upsomething for Christ it is more than counterbalancedby the way in which Christ "gavehimself for us." And when Paul adds "that hemight redeem us," one realises that in realitythe convert to Christianity gains all and givesup nothing worth having.Chapter 2 ended with the injunction to Titusto make these things absolutely clear to hisflock and not to allow them to despise him.Paul himself had been a very energetic youngman, and possibly at the stoning of Stephenirked at regulations which turned him intonothing more than an observer and sympathiser;yet he made up for it as soon as possible by avigorous campaign against Christians in Damascus.So Paul said to Timothy "Let no mandespise thy youth" and it may well have beenthat he thought some would despise Titus onsimilar grounds. Within the Church it is notseniority that counts, but Christian qualities.But outside the Church there are certain otherfactors that have to be taken into consideration.So not only should the Cretians respect theapostolic authority vested in Titus, but theyshould also submit to those external authoritieswho are in reality of so little importance. Theidea is not that respect should be shown to theirworldly office, which in many cases may havebeen a thoroughly bad one which could notexist in a Christian community, nor to thequality of the people who held office, for theCretians are told to "speak evil of no man"without distinction of whether he deserves it ornot. The point rather is : "Who are you, whois any Christian, to speak disparagingly ofanyone ?" Not so long ago you—or rather Paulincludes himself and we must include ourselves—not so long ago we were no better than thesepeople we are tempted to despise and condemn.The fact that we are now in a better position isnot due to anything we have done, but becauseof what God has done for us.This must have been a difficult lesson to getover to the "unruly and vain talkers anddeceivers" in the Church, but even that was notthe end of the lesson. If this part is realised,there is a natural reaction towards feeling thatsince one is utterly dependent upon God, thenone can do nothing that is worth while. Yetas Paul insisted in verse 8, good works areprofitable and must be maintained. Theworld sees few enough of them as it is, and if6 Tit. 2 : 1. Tit. 2 : 5.

The TESTIMONY 49even those who are best fitted to do them gaveup, it would be an even sorrier place. Thefact that the little good we can do in the worldwill make no appreciable difference to the sumof human woe is no excuse for not doing it.But the works must be truly good and not thesort of thing he lists in verse 9—genealogies,strivings about the law and the like. It is thesethat too often lead to the heresies of which hespeaks in the next verse. People make such afuss about their pet ideas, forgetting that thereis nothing new under the sun and that everythingworth saying has been said long ago. Theyrefuse to admit that there is anything wrongwith their ideas, and criticism only makes formore stubbornness in their defence. Whensuch "unruly" people persist, there is reallynothing that can be done but to reject them;for they have really done the rejecting themselves.Once again Paul had felt that to Titushe could speak plainly and straightforwardly,knowing that his reader was capable of interpretinghis words correctly.The Epistle ends with the usual personalmessages, including the phrases that show usPaul did not intend Titus to stay indefinitely.But among these messages is a final insistenceon "maintaining good works," reminding usagain that here is a man of action writing toanother man of action.We may thank God that many of thecriticisms levelled at the Cretans would hardlyfit our community today, but there are manyfaults in which Paul is willing to include himself,so we dare not stand very far off ; and theEpistle also abounds in positive lessons whichare just as necessary for us today as for thoselong-dead "sinners."The Book of Job (2)Cyril TennantThe ManTHE CURTAIN rises, the story of Job·*· begins, and on the stage is seen the man,the most perfect man of his day, around whomthe drama is cast. His position in society, hiswealth, his large household, and his godlycharacter make him the greatest personality ofthe East, and indeed, of the whole world. λSociety holds him in highest regard as he sitsin the gate, a judge of his people. The youngmen shrink from his presence as his keen eyesearches out their vanity, the aged rise withdeference, the princes and nobles hold theirpeace, whilst the poor, fatherless and widowsrejoice to know him as their deliverer. At homehe is attended by a large retinue of servants,and with the revenue of his vast farm, on whichroam thousands of sheep, camels, oxen andasses, he lives secure in the splendour of hisOriental luxury. 2When the spotlight of the narrative picks outJob, it is not to accentuate his social achievementsand wealth ; instead it falls with dazzlingcommendation upon his character, and thisremains the dominant feature in the first fewscenes. Throughout, he is an exemplary father,ruling his house well ; and in no fewer thanthree instances does God say that Job is perfectand upright, Godfearing, and one who eschewsevil. 3Surely this emphasis on Job's characteris not without significant reason, and we shalltherefore do well to consider him more closelyin this light before proceeding further.Any one part of this fourfold testimony wouldin itself be high commendation, coming as it didfrom the mouth of God, but here is a characterso outstanding that all four aspects must becombined to contain it. The word which is heretranslated "perfect" is in the Song of Solomontranslated "undefiled"; Job was untarnished byhis surroundings. 4Such a man would havebeen described in the New Testament as "beingin the world but not of the world." When he issaid to be "upright" the word used is onecommonly translated "righteous" in the OldTestament. There is therefore no doubt aboutthis man's standing even before God. The nextclause, however, penetrates into the secret ofthis great life—"he feared God." Here is a lifebeyond the power of imitation, a life which isitself no mere copying of some external patternbut which seeks its direction and power fromGod Himself : a life lofty, and consistently so,for we read "... and thus did Job continually."In view of the above it is not surprising tofind odd incidental references appearing in thefabric______of the drama, which show Job to_be_a2Job 29 : 7-123 Job 1 : 1, 8 ; 2 : 3• Cant. 5:2:6:9

50 The TESTIMONYpractical demonstration of the power of God ina life in which self has been destroyed. We seehim delivering the poor and the fatherless—doing in fact what the Apostle James some 1600years later offers as a definition of * 'religion pureand undefiled." 5Not only is Job's purse seento be opened to minister unstintingly to theneeds of the poor, but his heart opens with itto weep for those in trouble. 6Surely here in itsradiant excellence is the life of one who prefiguresthe Master, upon whose shoulders wereto fall not only the sins but also the Job-likesorrows and suffering of the world.The character of Job as he is first introducedto us, cannot be over-emphasised. It is truelater in the book he stands in need of repentanceand is shown to have much yet to learn,nevertheless the following facts are establishedin this first scene :1. Job was perfect (undefiled) and upright(righteous) when first introduced. God saidso.2. Job's affliction was in no way a punishmentfor sin ; indeed God clearly states He had nocause to destroy Job. 73. When the three friends charged Job withsecret sin they were wrong.4. When Job insisted upon his innocence he hadreason to !It must be noted here that Job does not claimperfection in the absolute sense and thereforehis righteousness should be thought of as"blameless" in the relative sense claimed by theunconverted Paul, in his obedience to the law ofMoses. 8Secondly, as there was no judicialneed for God to afflict Job, we must find anothercause ; and without anticipating too much atthis stage, it might not be unreasonable tosuggest Job had been chosen not merely for hisown instruction but that through him great andenduring truths might be revealed to all God'schildren in later times.Jas. 1 : 27Job 30 : 25 :Job 2 : 3Phil. 3 : βIsa. 53 : 4Out of the DustΠΓΗΕ issue of the Palestine Exploration·** Quarterly for July—December 1960 containsseveral notes of interest to Bible lovers.More Dead Sea ScrollsIn Israeli territory, west of the Dead Sea,are several almost inaccessible caves. In thesewere found recently two small fragmentsinscribed with Exodus 13 : 1—16, and asmall piece containing parts of seven lines ofPsalm 15. Arrow-heads and shafts, Romanlegionary cult vessels, and a Jewish coin ofthe time of Bar-Kokhba (about 130 A.D.)were also discovered.Ancient Hebrew LetterIn January 1960 an ancient fort, south ofTel-Aviv, was excavated. Fragments of aHebrew letter written in ink on potsherdswere found. These are dated to the latterhalf of the seventh century B.C., the timeof King Josiah. When put together the sherdsmade up 14 lines of writing. The letter isan appeal from a peasant to his lord for thereturn of his cloak, which has been seizedfor non-payment of a debt (see Ex. 22 ; 26, 27).The date and location of the letter suggeststhat Josiah had recovered the country roundGleaningsAshdod, which, earlier had been an Assyrianprovince.Moabite InscriptionExtant Moabite inscriptions are few, themost important being the Moabite Stone.Mr. G. Lamkester Harding, however, recentlycame across, in the Amman Museum, Jordan,a piece of an inscription, which mentions ahitherto unknown king of Moab. Perhaps thisdiscovery is the precursor to other Moabitefinds.DothanAn American archaeological expedition,which has been working for seven years onthe site of ancient Dothan, well known inOld Testament times for its good pastures,(Gen. 37; 17, 2 Kin. 6; 13), unearthed a3,000 year old tomb, containing more than900 objects. It may have been the tomb ofa warrior of the times of the Judges. Therewere also signs that an earthquake had disturbedthe site. This upheaval may be theone mentioned in Amos 1:1. Ancient writingabout 3,000 years old, was found on a potsherddug up during the present season.F, Ε, M,

The TESTIMONY 51ofDustGleaningsFrankincense, Myrrh and CinnamonF. E. MitchellΠΓΗΕ September 1960 issue of The Biblical*- Archaeologist contains an article dealingwith the substances referred to above, whichare all mentioned in the Scriptures. Thearticle, which was written by Guy W. VanBeek of the Smithsonian Institution, is mostinstructive and it is felt that a reiteration ofsome of the facts set forth therein will be ofinterest to readers.Frankincense is a fragrant gum resin. Itvaries from pale yellow or green to yellowishbrownin colour. It is translucent whengathered and in freshly cut sections, butbecomes semi-opaque when pieces rub againstone another, producing a fine white dustwhich covers its surface. It burns readily,giving off a sooty, slightly scented, blacksmoke. When the flame is extinguished, itsmoulders for a considerable time and yields awhite, delicately aromatic smoke. Frankincenseof commercial value is produced bytrees of two or three species of the genusBoswellia. The product is native to only twoparts of the world, Southern Arabia andNorthern Somaliland.Myrrh is reddish brown in colour. It burnsreadily, giving off little smoke and no soot;and when smouldering, it emits a white, slightlypungent smoke, not nearly as aromatic as thatof frankincense. It is obtained from BalsamodendronMyrrh. The myrrh tree is in foliagefor only a short time after the rainy season,i.e. about the end of August or the beginningof September, and when its serrated greenleaves decay, long thorns appear on thebranches. Like frankincense, myrrh is nativeto only Southern Arabia and Northern Somaliland.Edited by F. E. MITCHELLBoth substances are obtained from the treesby tapping, that is by cutting and peeling thebark for a distance of about five inches inseveral places, which permits the gum resin toexude. It hardens on contact with the air andforms globules and irregular lumps of varyingsize, sometimes called "tears."Cinnamon is the aromatic inner bark of alaurel tree ot Ceylon.It will be recalled that when Jesus was born,the gifts brought to him were gold, frankincenseand myrrh. The nature of these presentsillustrates how values change with the times.No one in modern times would regard frankincenseand myrrh as being specially suitablefor royalty. The substances were, however,in great demand in ancient times, being usedfor many purposes, some of which are referredto in Scripture. The Roman historian Plinystates that so valuable was frankincense that atfactories where it was worked up for sale, aseal was put on the workmen's aprons : theyhad to wear a mask or a net with close mesh ontheir heads ; and before they were allowedto leave the premises, they had to take off alltheir clothes. Mr. Van Beck estimates that,according to our values, a pound of frankincensewould have cost between £32 10s. and£65 according to its quality.Frankincense was chiefly used as incense toproduce a fragrance when burned, particularlyin religious rites. It was one of theingredients of the blend of incense, holy forthe Lord, not to be counterfeited on pain ofdeath, which was laid up before the testimonyin the Tabernacle. x When used, it was1Exod. 30 : 34.

52 The TESTIMONYdestroyed by fire on the altar. Frankincensewas laid on the meal offering of the first fruits,green ears of corn dried by the fire, and thememorial of it was consumed on the altar. 2It was also placed on the shewbread whichwas set before the Lord on each Sabbath. 3 Incertain offerings, particularly those relatingto the forgiveness of sins, the use of frankincensewas forbidden. Apparently frankincensewas the symbol of praise to God, and until aman had obtained forgiveness, he was not in aposition to praise the Lord.Jewish writings as late as the first centuryA.D. show that frankincense was still beingused in offerings.The substance seems also to have been usedas incense in the countries surrounding Israel,notably in Babylonia, Assyria and Egypt. Ballsof incense were found in the tomb of Tutankhamenand analysis caused them to be identifiedas frankincense. The Greeks and Romansused it. Pliny states that a whole year'sproduction of frankincense was used for thefuneral of Poppaea, the wife of Nero.Frankincense was also occasionally used asa perfume. Solomon, coming from thewilderness, is said to be perfumed with myrrhand frankincense. 4The substance was used by the Greeks andRomans for medical purposes, for stoppingbleeding, healing wounds, promoting suppurationand cleansing. Records indicate itsadoption as an antidote for hemlock and otherpoisons ; in prescriptions for pains in the sideand chest; haemorrhages from the mouthand throat, bruised and broken heads, paralysedlimbs, bruises, ulcerations, and abscesses.MyrrhThe use of myrrh for medical purposes isnot clearly referred to in Scripture, though itis possible that the mixture of wine and myrrhwhich Jesus refused just before he was crucifiedwas intended to deaden the pain. 5 AsMr. Van Beck points out, however, it was2 Lev. 2 : 15-16.3 Lev. 24 : 7.4 Song 3 : 6.s Mark 15 : 23.THE BOOKOF THE DEADOF PINUDJEMAFTER IT HADBEENUNROLLEDAT THEBRITISHMUSEUM.EXAMINING ITARE SIR FRANKFRANCIS,DIRECTOR OFTHE MUSEUMAND MR. I. E. S.EDWARDS,KEEPER OFEGYPTIANANTIQUITIESWith acknowledgments to THETIMES

The TESTIMONY 53extensively used in Mesopotamia and theGraeco-Roman world. In Mesopotamia it wasused in making poultices for the head and forblains and chilblains ; it was prescribed forear, eye, and nose ailments. In Graeco-Roman remedies it was used for many complaintsincluding dropsy, fever and eye diseases.It was also used as an antidote for poisoningand as a pain reliever. It was probably thereforealso extensively used in Palestine.The use of myrrh for cosmetics and perfumesreceives much testimony in the Bible. Inconjunction with other spices it was used tomake the fragrant holy anointing oil. 6It wasemployed to perfume royal garments; 7toscent beds; 8 and also the human body. 9Oil of myrrh was regarded as helpful forbeauty treatment: Queen Esther had sixmonths treatment with this oil before beingpresented to King Ahasuerus. λ ° Outside theScriptures there are records of gifts of myrrhand oil of myrrh from the Kings of Mesopotamiato the Pharaohs of Egypt, while Egyptianinscriptions at Deir El Bahari state thatHatshepsut, princess of Egypt, who may havebeen the lady who took Moses from the Nile,rubbed myrrh on her legs to impart fragrance.As the Gospel of John shows, myrrh wasused in preparing bodies for burial, for Josephof Arimatheaa brought a mixture of myrrhand aloes, about 100 pounds in weight, to bewrapped in the linen which enfolded the bodyof Jesus. 11It was also used in Egypt duringthe process of mummification.As frankincense was used as an emblem ofpraise to God, so myrrh seems to have beenused as a figure of sacrifice, expecially thesacrifice of the Lord Jesus.CinnamonTogether with myrrh, cinnamon was aningredient in the holy anointing oil, * 2and itwas also used, with myrrh and aloes, forperfuming bed tapestry. λ 3With frankincenseit is included among the merchandise ofcorrupt Babylon, the mother of harlots. 146Exod. 30 : 23. ? p sa. 45 . 8.8Prov. 7:17; Song 3 : 6.9Song 1 : 13; 5 : 5. 10 Esth. 2 : 12.1* John 19 : 39-40. ** j. 30 23.E x o c :13Prov. 7 : 16-17. 14 R ev. 18 : 13.The Book of the DeadThe Times for December 17th reported thepresentation to the British Museum of anunopened papyrus roll inscribed with theBook of the Dead by Pinudjem, High Priestof Amun (or Amen) under King Siamun{circa 1000-984 B.C.) Siamun was mostprobably the father of the Egyptian princesswhom Solomon married (1 Kings 9-16).The papyrus was bought at Luxor in 1874by Sir Archibald Campbell (afterward LordBlythswood) who died in 1908, and has hithertoremained unopened. It is written in thehieratic or priestly script of ancient Egypt, akind of shorthand of the original hieroglyphicor picture writing.Pinudjem and his wife Neshkons wereburied at Deir el-Bahri (on the west bank ofthe Nile opposite Luxor) in a rock tomb whichwas originally constructed for a Queen namedInhapi. The tomb lies in a very inaccessibleposition at the bottom of a shaft 40 ft. deepand 6 ft. 6 in. square. In the tomb weregathered, probably by Pinudjem himself, themummies of many of the famous Egyptiankings whose own tombs had been despoiledby generations of robbers.There they remained undisturbed untilabout 1871, when the tomb was discovered byArabs who disposed of some of its moreportable objects, including this papyrus. Tenyears later it was excavated by Sir GastonMaspero on behalf of the Egyptian government*and the discovery has come to be known asthe Deir el-Bahri Cache."The papyrus has now been unrolled withthe exception of a small portion at the endwhich proved too brittle to unroll withouttreatment. A damaged illustration was revealedat the beginning of the roll, but so farno further illustration has been found. Thepapyrus is a fine, well-preserved piece ofcalligraphy, containing some thirty pages*which average about twenty-one lines to thepage. About twenty feet have been unrolled,leaving probably not more than another footto be revealed. Possibly there may be a finalillustration on that.The Book of the Dead was a sort of passportto ensure the dead man's admission to thenext world. In this case the preliminaryillustration shows the owner, Pinudjem, burningincense before the god Amun. F.E.M.

54 The TESTIMONYWhen Will Christ Come ? (2)F. WhiteleyEdited by F. WHITELEYAS previously remarked in our foreword** to this review, the above is the title of abooklet which reached us a little while ago.It was written by Mr. A. R. Scrivener of NewZealand, now deceased 1 . The headline onthe outside blazes forth the promise, "If I(Christ) go .... I will come again." Pendantto the title is the indication of the contents,"Evidence concerning the Time of Resurrection; Time of Christ's Entrance intoJerusalem; Time Millennium Begins." Atthe foot is placed the author's basic conviction(in which we heartily concur), " Daniel'sProphetic Time Periods to be unsealed inTHIS time of the end (Dan. 12 : 4. 9)."The writer plunges forthwith into his subjectand comes to grips with the questionas to when the various prophetic time periodsrevealed in the Book of Daniel begin and end.He is convinced that "the Time of the End"must run from the time when they first beginto run out, to the time when Daniel and allthe saints (the true witnesses of God) standin their inheritance or lot "at the end of thedays ; " that is, the Millennium or reign ofChrist and the redeemed on the earth.He asserts that the first ending of any ofDaniel's prophetic periods was undoubtedlythe French Revolution of A.D. 1789/94,Which he sees as the beginning of a latter-dayjudgment upon the last phase of the Kingdomof Men : the Roman Papal phase. Stressingthat : the great theme of Daniel's Book is theKingdom of Men versus the Kingdom of God,he cites four passages from that book whichshow the ultimate triumph of the latter ; thedivision of the former into ten being a featurein Daniel, and the parallel of this being foundin The Revelation, which also typically representsthe downfall of Papal power m the maintenth, France. He supports his assertion byreference to the work of God's "Two Witnesses"who were re-animated and exaltedto the political heaven of this tenth, in "theearthquake," itself typical of the greater onestill to come. He sees the Papal system tohave been the principal sufferer and theRevolution as undoubtedly contributing largelyto the fall of the Pope's temporal power in1870, at the end of 1260 years from A.D. 610.His fourth and final reason is that the eventsof 1789/94 took place exactly 1260 years fromthe time when "the saints" were given intothe hand of the Papacy, when the Romanlaws were reconstituted under Papal influenceunder the Justinian Code of A.D. 529/34.The joint testimony of Daniel and Christ'sown Apocalypse to John indicate this veryimportant date, which saw the first upriseof "the abomination" of Daniel ; and which,moreover, is the halfway mark of the "seventimes" of Daniel 4 : 16 and Leviticus 26 : 24etcİn this connection the author informs usthat he has found, by working backwardsfrom clearly fulfilled prophecy and reliablehistory, that the overall periods of Dr. Thomas'sChronology are verified, and in consequencehe uses them in his exposition. Nay, further>he claims they were verified in a way of whichDr. Thomas himself was unaware on account ofa mistake in detail which he made when arrivingat 697 B.C., in his Chronikon Hebraikon, as thedate when the Kingdom of Israel was abolished.He shows how the slip was made, and it issurprising that neither he nor later writersseem to have noticed this error. As to Dr.Thomas himself, the result was that "thesignificance of the ending of the 'seven times'1 When Will-Christ Come} by A. R. Scrivener,• No price stated. Postal address should be ignored.For further copies apply (Sis.) Mrs. N. W.Lean, Hemi Street, Hastings, H.B., New Zealand.

The TESTIMONY 55in the French Revolution was lost to him."But for us, once the adjustment is made andthe date of Israel's carrying away by Assyriais found to be 726 B.C., it becomes clear thatfrom that time to the above mentioned dateof A.D. 534 is 1260 years (half "seven times"). 2Thus, the author holds that the full "timeof the end" is from 1794 to the Millennium.Turning then to the prophecy in Daniel'sfourth chapter respecting the hewing downof the Babylonian tree phase of the Kingdomof Men, he notes that Cyrus (a "type" ofChrist) accomplished this remarkable feat in542 B.C. by entering Babylon from the bedof the dried-up river Euphrates (a "symbol"of Turkey). We may say at this point, ifreaders who may be as yet little acquaintedwith these marvels of the Word of God,will turn to Revelation 16 : 12, they will seethe parallel which the author doubtless hadin mind, for under the outpouring of thesixth vial (or bowl of God's wrath) the greatriver Euphrates is again (this time, symbolically)"dried up" preparatory to Christ's Coming.Of this Coming we may be certain, for hehimself inserts the parenthetic whisper to thewatchers, "Behold, I come as a thief. . "The evaporation of the Euphratean Powerfrom Palestine enabled a nucleus of Israelto gather in the dried-up bed, from whence,soon now, when the prophetic clock strikesout, "It is done," will come the doomof "the great city" : that autocratic spiritualSystem styled by Jesus, "Babylon the Great" ;and he himself, the latter-day Cyrus, whosehand God will hold, will suddenly strike atthe roots of this tremendous tree of greatage — and great will be the fall of it! Howgreat is signified by that pregnant repetitionin the R.V. of Revelation 14: 8, " Fallen,fallen is Babylon the great . . . ", at whichcry of "the angel," "they that have beenpurchased out of the earth" will rejoice atthe remarkable feat of the Lamb from theMount Zion. And before the reader takeshis eyes off the last mentioned chapter, lethim note well that the "redeemed" havebeen gathered, judged, immortalised andmarried to the Lamb, PRIOR to this CyruslikeConquest of a Blasphemous Christendom,and it is specially stressed that these are theywho were not defiled by spiritual intercoursewith any of the "women" styled in Revelation17:5, "MYSTERY, BABYLON THEGREAT, THE MOTHER OF THE HAR-LOTS AND OF THE ABOMINATIONSOF THE EARTH"; that is, not attractedby the regal splendour, wooed by the spiritualsorceries, or intoxicated by the doctrinalconcoctions of either the "Mother" Church,or any of her (ever-feebler-"Protestant")offspring. In returning to our booklet, therefore,let us keep well to the front the factthat those who are found virgin-pure in theApostolic doctrine and practice will be takenaway to meet the Lamb at some time beforethe very near date which Mr. Scrivener isseeking to establish by this interesting antitype!He notes that from his date 726 B.C. ofIsrael's first going into captivity, to the date542 B.C. of Babylon's fall, is a span of 184years. The "seven times" of Leviticus 26 : 24(= 2520 years 3 ) we have seen run out at theFrench Revolution, say 1794. The author,now, with reference to the "seven times" ofDaniel 4: 16,23,25, takes the same span of2520 years from the date of the tree-falling,542 B.C., and so finds the end of this applicationto be 1978 A.D.! Sufficiently near torouse any drowsy one of us to rub our sleepyeyes, and to recall Paul's rousing exhortationwhen dealing with this coming of "the Dayof the Lord" as a thief in the night in 1 Thessalonians,chapter five : "Ye are all the childrenof the light, ..." (and is not a knowledgeof how the Divine Hand is spanning the"times" of the children of the night, a mostvaluable and stimulating part of that precious"light" ?), "so then let us not sleep as dothe rest, but let us watch . . . Whereforeexhort one another, and build each other up."Assuming that the author's date for theexploit by Cyrus is correct, then so far from2To be exact, the author himself overlooks asmall point which is rarely taken into account,namely, that as there is no year "nought" inthe reckoning, it follows that from, say, Jan.B.C. 1 to Jan. A.D. 1, is 1 year only, not 2 ;and from any point in 2 B.C. to the same point3in 2 A.D., is 3 years, not 4. Therefore from50 B.C. to 50 A.D. is not 100 years, but 99 only.Thus, when adding B.C. and A.D. dates togetherit is necessary to subtract 1 year; and whensubtracting either B.C. or A.D. dates from acombination of both, it is necessary to add 1year.Note for beginners : A frequently used scaleis found to be 1 day = 1 year ; and nominalJewish year = 360 days. Key which unlocksmany secrets is, a "time" = 360 such "days"= 360 years ; so "seven times" = 2520 years.Half this span is met with as, "a time and timesand half a time" (Dan. 7 : 25 ; 12 : 7 ; Rev. 12:14),i.e., 1 4- 2..+ i = Η "times" = 3J χ 360 ^1260 years. The shape of the key is confirmedby the alternative expression, "forty and twomonths" (Rev. 13:5), i.e., 42 χ 30 "days" =1260 years.

56 The TESTIMONYhaving any fault to find with this demonstrationthat the days of, even, "the time of the end"are fast running out, we have set out ourreasons above as to why, personally, we think"The Coming of the Lord" might well beexpected at any moment now. Mr. Scrivenerobserves, "But this reaches only to the timewhen the antitypical Cyrus and his sanctifiedones (Christ and the saints) enter the antitypicalBabylon or Kingdom of Men andestablish their capital at Jerusalem. Therewill still remain the execution of judgmentupon the Beast and his image (Papal Rome),and the subjection of the whole world." Sothen, even on the author's finding, the timetaken for resurrection and ingathering, selectionand the partaking of the Divine Nature andof the Marriage Supper of the Lamb, mustbe subtracted from 1978, thus bringing theComing of Christ, by so much, still nearerto the present time ! But, further, if it shouldbe that the antitypical Cyrus date is that ofChrist's destruction of the modern "Babylon"(and not his preparatory Enthronement inZion), then, in the light of Revelation 14,we may expect the date of the Master'sthief-like Coming to the Household, to beeven nearer still, by that amount of timewhich may be required for that final displayof Divine mercy in the preaching of an aioniongospel (glad tidings of the Age immediatelyto begin) when, "with a great voice" the"messenger" (perhaps "the redeemed firstfruits"themselves ?) shall proclaim the lastpre-Millennial love call, "Come," from "theSpirit and the Bride," in the words, "FearGod, and give Him glory ; for the hour ofHis judgment is come : and worship Himthat made the heaven and the earth andsea and fountains of waters." And neareryet by whatever time may be allowed forpossible response to that invitation ; afterwhich, there follows the immediate "Fall" solong foretold. When it is possible for the timefor all these events to have to be subtractedfrom 1978, it would be unutterably foolishto think, "My Lord delayeth His coming;"much rrore ^o to suggest that time is wastedin studying (ever more keenly) both the "signsof the times" and the "times" themselves.How different from this dangerous discouragementand how ennobling the exampleof Daniel himself who, though he faintedand was sick for days at the realisation of thefact-that another of his visions was also tobe shut up for a very long time, yet he searchedand profited by his studies ; and concerningone span at least he says, "I, Daniel, understoodby the books the number of years."It is to these matters of Daniel 8 and 9 thatour author next turns, in a section on "TheEvening-Morning Period of 2300 Years." Hebelieves that both this period and the spanof 490 years (70 weeks of years) run from thesame commencement, 456 B.C., the latterending with the confirming of the Covenantby the Crucifixion in A.D.34* and the formerwith the granting of religious tolerance tothe Jews in 1844. This latter date, he claimsis the end point of three prophetic periods.He sets out, too, an interesting parallelbetween three outstanding events at the endof God's Kingdom over Israel and three othersat the end of the Mosaic age ; the mid-eventof the former being Josiah's great passover,and of the latter, the crucifixion and resurrectionof the Christ, the antitypical passoverLamb. The parallel extends to the two shortspans of time involved in each series of threeevents, namely, 98 + 36 = 134 years, whichspan, when added to the third and latter-dayfigure of 1844 brings one again to 1978 A.D. ;to which date, his consideration of the 2520and the 2300 prophetic periods has led.Curious as to whether these types andparallels of periods would extend ev^en furtherhe found they did—in the shape of an additional26 years span. 2 Kings 25 : 27 indicates theend in the first instance : an uplifting of theDavidic heir, 26 years after the destructionof Jerusalem. The sending of the Apocalypseconcerning the Coming of Christ and theKingdom, by Jesus to John, indicates the endin the second instance, 26 years after the Fall ofJerusalem ! He believes that a like periodwill also follow 1978, so that from the deliveranceof the same city, to the full overturningof the Kingdom of Men, would point to A.D.2004 for the actual bringing in of Peace onEarth by the Prince of Peace.The reader will find how the 1260 spanhas applied to the Papal period, and that +98 and -f- 36, in this connection yield 1968and 4004. The former date, the author isconvinced, will be the year of RESURREC-TION. For confirmatory evidence he considersZionism or the Restoration of the Jews,taking as a type the decrees and events connectedwith the partial restoration under Ezraand Nehemiah. It is certainly exciting to watchthe corresponding endings as they indicate# See additional note as to this date on page 62.(A. E. J.)

The TESTIMONY;57in turn, Zionism beginning in 1896; God'spurpose with Jerusalem confirmed in 1914 ;Palestine delivered in 1918 ; (continuing nowto what is almost due in antitype) Appointmentof subordinate Rulers [this time deathless)in 1967/8 ; and the Repair of Jerusalem, etc.,(following the ravages of Gog) in 1980.The section on The 1656 Years, we believe,will be found by the reader to be (as the authorsays he found the application of this periodto be): "intensely interesting . . . remarkable. . . ASTONISHING/' For the unsealingof the prophetic periods of the Bible, the"day for a year" and the "day for 1000 years"scales are well known; some special scalesto which rarer cases respond, perhaps lessso,— not to mention matters "lunar" and"solar." But the method used by the author,of fixing his dividers, as it were, to span somehistorical time, and then moving his instrumentforward in search of repetition, is perhaps,as he says, "comparatively unknown" ; thoughin regard to disclosed "dates" no doubt hewould agree, of course, that we see the advancingfixed-divider-distance principle in the 1260spans of Daniel and Revelation clearly workingout in the Divine Architect's hand, fromdifferent starting points, across the historicpage.He sees in Scripture two demonstrablecases of the birth of an Age : the span of 1656years, then judgment, salvation and a freshstart. His first is creation to Flood. His second(of which the first becomes a "prophecy")is Israel's birth as God's national son in 1586B.C. under Joshua, to its fearful end in A.D.70—1656 years ! 4 He invites us to look ata third :— From the birth of the "man child"(Constantine) of Revelation 12 : 5, (whichcommenced the dispensation of Church-Stateunion in sinful, apostate misbelief), to the endof a third such span of 1656 years, bringsus once more, by this entirely different route,to 1968 A.D. ; a flood of awful judgment forsome; Salvation (with all that the gloriousterm involves) for those found truly in theantitypical ARK, Jesus; and a New Ageto follow !Nor is this all. There is a section on Noah'sPreaching which takes up the point whichused to exercise some of us in the 'teens,when Allenby entered Jerusalem, thus dryingup the Turk from ImmanuePs Land. Wewondered whether there would be a latter-dayparallel to the length of time during whichNoah preached before the Flood came ? Inother words, would the words of Jesus, "Asit was in the days of Noah," include alsothat time period of 120 years 5preliminarywarning ? We confess we (selfishly, no doubt)hoped it would not be so long ; and eventswere moving fast! But the longsufTering ofGod has been salvation for many more, and"whether we live or die, we are the Lord's." 6Mr. Scrivener points to the latter day revivaland preaching of the TRUTH by Dr. Thomas,quoting Eureka vol. 2, p. 671, "In 1847, theGospel of the Kingdom and Name was oncemore proclaimed for the obedience of faith ...In that 'wonderful year,' 7A.D. 1848 .... he(the Dr., referring to himself) re-importedthe testimony into his native land—a landof Bibles, whose truth was buried undermountains of tradition for want of a livingwitness to exhume it, and to set it intelligiblybefore the people." Also "in 1848 Dr. Thomaswrote Elpis Israel, giving us the first permanentvolume containing a comprehensive expositionof THE TRUTH or Ή0ΡΕ OF ISRAEL'."1847/8 + 120 = 1967/8 !What wonders prophecy will yield to lovinghearts humbly searching among its DivinePatterns ! Who would have thought that inthe words of Jesus in John 2 : 19 : "Destroythis temple, and in three days I will raiseit up," anything more was involved than thehidden allusion to his own crucifixion andresurrection ? As applying to the temple inwhich he stood it would seem to the disciplesalmost as absurd as it did to the Jews whohad asked for a sign. In fact John explainsthat Jesus spake of the temple of His body,and also records that after the resurrectionthe disciples recalled the saying and weredoubtless satisfied that they had been privilegedto plumb the depth of a matter mystic ! Butwe have learned to look for still new beautiesin the Word of the Great Designer Whoseeyes span the great loom of the ages andWhose fingers weave pattern within patternas undiscerning man shuttles his days away,heedless that he plays any part in the greatProvidential Purpose.One passes from that early stage of slight456Dr. Thomas, in placing this date (p. 16 of Chron.Hebn.) could never be accused of accommodatingthis application, for he never dreamed, whendating his preface in 1865, that pre-Millennia Ireference would be made to it 90 years later !Gen. 6 : 3.2 Pet. 3:15; Rom. 14 : 8."The famous year of revolutions," (Scrivener)."Signalised by the terrible shaking given to theKingdoms of the Great City by 'the Earth',"(Dr. T.).7

58 The TESTIMONYscepticism experienced when one begins tohear of "types" and "shadows", to the riperrealisation that nothing is too marvellousfor Him Who made the worlds and breathedthis Word. Yet we caught our breath whenthe author took Dr. Thomas's date for thelaying by Solomon of the foundation of thefirst temple in Israel, in 1022 B.C. ; remindedus that Solomon was unquestionably a typeof Christ; added to that date "three days"of 1000 years each, and so brought us oncemore to A.D. 1978—the date already indicatedas the time when the Multitudinous Christin immortality enters Jerusalem : a Templein pre-Millennial manifestation, raised up inThree Days by the "Greater than Solomon !"There is also a section on "the generation"of Luke 21. The fig tree budded into theState of Israel in 1948. Dr. Thomas reckoneda "generation" in prophetic time to be 30years. Yes, reader, we are back to the samepoint: 1978 ! Fiveexamples follow, of historicperiods of judgments on the the world, whichwere of 26 years duration ; which, it is claimed,significantly verify A.D. 2004 as the end ofChrist's judgments on the world.Judgments and Events of the ImmediateFuture is an eight page Supplement to theabove booklet, which we received later, whereinMr. Scrivener extends the examples of periodsof judgment, each of 26 years duration, toten, including the one which he expects torun from 1978 to 2004.He considers in some detail the interestingperiod of 10 years, from his Resurrection yearof 1968, to 1978, when he expects Christand the Saints to enter into Jerusalem. Weagree with his view that the judgment of"the responsible," notwithstanding the renderingof an "individual account," need not be oflong duration, for the reasons he gives ; andwith the point he makes on the unlikelihoodof any of those who all appear before theGreat Judge in MORTALITY, being keptin that state for long.He discusses difficulties of date arisingfrom points in Revelation 14, which we raisedabove, and his view is that whilst Elijah isat work in Israel, as promised through Malachi,the accepted and immortalised saints, basedon Sinai, will engage in their Mid-Heavenpreachingof the "aionian good news,"BEFORE the overthrow of Gog (which hetimes for 1978, as the beginning of hostilitiesby Christ and the Saints), and before theuplifting of the Throne of David in Zion.He "irons out" an inconsistency foundin Eureka respecting the timing of the midheavenmission ; considers the antitypes ofthe "blowing of trumpets" in both Testaments,and places (as we have long contended) theoutpouring of the Seventh Vial in the future.The Supplement concludes with a Summaryof the times in relation to the years, 1968,1978 and 2004, and we regret our inabilityto grasp the very last item listed, howsoeverwe approach it. We have every confidencethat there is a time of 6000 years plus 1000years, perfectly analogous to the Days ofCreation. We know also that the date, B.C.4089, is the date for Creation given in Dr.Thomas's Chronikon Hebraikon. We takeit that the "56-year epoch commencing A.D.1948" and terminating in 2004 is the sumof a generation of 30 years reckoned fromthe budding of the Israelitish fig tree in 1948plus the final appearance of a 26 year periodof judgment on the nations from 1978 to 4004 ;but 6000 years does not span from B.C. 4089to 1948. This matter could perhaps be clarifiedtogether with a few misprints we noted, inthe event of any further printing.The author's answer to his own question,"When will Christ come ?" is, as it must be,that "the day and hour of that return willbe known neither to friend nor foe in theearth. His friends, however, will know thatit will be not long before the Resurrectionin 1968, for this (Resurrection) is his firstwork after establishing himself in Sinai. Asfor the world, his coming as a thief will beginwhen he returns unknown to it just beforethe Resurrection, and completed, after thepreaching of the 'everlasting good news,' bythe opening of the judgment written."Truly, the cry now is not "How long, ΟLord ?", but rather "How short, Ο Lord,how SHORT the time till we see our Saviour ?""WHEAT ANDTARES"Christ likens the kingdom to a net cast into the sea, which draws all manner of fishes both good andbad ; therefore, we must not come into the community drawn together by the preaching of thekingdom with the idea that it is a perfect human thing.

The TESTIMONY 59ENCEEdited by D. A. B. OWENA City Fenced AboutD. A. B. OwenΤ Τ is doubtful if the most rabid rationalist**• would quarrel with the general dictum thatin the world of engineering the more complicatedthe machine, the higher the intelligenceneeded to design it. Yet when faced with oneof the most complicated and intricate machinesin existence, the human body, he sets his faceas a flint against the suggestion that intelligenceis responsible for any feature of it. He isprepared to leap-frog over difficulties, and toclose his eyes to discrepancies, shouting all thewhile that the Bible is full of both. He deniesto the prophets and apostles the normal rightsof authors, at the same time endowing chanceor natural selection or innate urges with all thefaculties and powers of intelligence.Rationalists boast that their beliefs arefounded on fact and reason. Does the intricatehuman body support them in this ? Or does itshow that they have fled from reason to a blindfaith which has no foundation other than anardent desire to reject The Great Designer—The Lord God Himself ?The Hostile EnvironmentWe believe the facts show that the Earth wasprepared for life—a fit environment forcreatures of flesh and blood to inhabit. Butlooking more closely at the relationship betweenhabitat and inhabitant, we are equally certainthat in detail the environment is now hostile toman, due, at least in part, to the curse pronouncedby God on creation.A number of man's bodily structures appearto be directed towards passively protecting himfrom the dangers of this hostile environment.They prevent injury by sheer mechanicalprotection, as for example the hard skull encasingthe delicate brain, the rib cage hiding thelungs and heart, and the thick bone of thevertebrae, backed by ligament and muscle,shielding the spinal cord. Others are continuouslyactive in providing for the body'sneeds—the lungs, the heart, the stomach andmany more : these keep life in the body. Some,the sense organs, act as look-outs and informers ;they scan the environment to advise the bestcourse of action. And over all presides thenervous system, with its trigger points andthermostats, to see that the parts work togetheras a whole. A close study of any of these structurescan bring the seeker after truth nearer tothe Almighty. In this article and the one tofollow however, we are going to sidetrack themore obvious aids to the preservation of lifeto look at some of the shock troops, the reservesheld in readiness for an emergency, whichspring into action automatically when thenervous system advises the need.Life is full of hazards from the earliest age :the air we breathe is full of dust and deadlybacteria ; the infant can cut or abrade itself inthe very adventure of living ; children's explorationsand men's work can bring them intomany situations with attendant breaching of theprotective skin. But most creatures do notperish from a simple cut or inhalation of dustand bacteria. Obviously the body has meansof protection against the results of injury andcontamination or we should all have perishedin infancy.Careful and painstaking investigation bymany seekers after medical truth has brought tolight the wonderful mechanisms which control

60 The TESTIMONYthe internal organisation of the body and fightoff assaults from without. The story is one ofwonderful and intricate co-operation betweenmany distinct tissues and parts of the body ;it is the sort of story explicable if we postulatea Designer, but quite incomprehensible if wepretend that design and purpose are absent.The First Lines of DefenceThe living tissues of the body are separatedfrom the outside world by a layer of deadmatter. On the exterior of the body there is theupper layer of the skin, and on the interiorsurfaces a liquid layer. Inside this protectiveenvelope the body functions go on. Every oneof the countless billions of living cells needsnutriment; most of them produce wasteproducts which must be eliminated before thesystem is poisoned. These two fundamentalneeds are met by the blood, which reachesalmost every part of the body. This preciousfluid takes life to the remotest cells, and carriesaway death from them. It is a profoundscientific truth that "the life is in the blood."If life is to be sustained the blood must bedefended.The skin and mucous membrane are the firstlines of defence against the hostile environment.The skin is a comparatively tough, dry, imperviouslayer enclosing the flesh. Clean skinappears to have slight antiseptic propertieswhich prevent bacteria congregating in largenumbers on its surface. Nevertheless a singlenoxious bacterium may be sufficient to causetrouble : in favourable conditions their rate ofmultiplication is so rapid that in a matter ofhours millions of the minute organisms couldbe carried by the blood to every part of the body.They must be kept out.The mucous membrane is one of the moreobvious traps for bacteria. It lines all the passagesand cavities which have to be kept moist,and it has a thick slimy coating of mucus whichtraps bacteria and dust as a flypaper traps flies.The natural reflexes of the breathing system thenforcibly expel the intruders and their coating ofslime in sneezing and coughing. The layers ofcells which form the mucous membrane themselvesact as a protective barrier against anythingwhich penetrates the mucus.Guarding the Breath of LifeIt is of paramount importance that the lungsare able to do their work properly. If they areclogged with dust or invaded by bacteria, lifeis endangered. A very important line of defenceis found in the main breathing passages. Themoist surface here is covered with minutehair-like cells called cilia, which lash quicklyin one direction and return slowly to the other.If they all lash in one direction, particles in themucus layer are slowly swept in that direction.If the ciliary motion happened to be downwardsin the breathing passages it would assist foreignparticles to reach the lungs. If the cilia lashedrandomly—some one way, some another—theywould have no protective effect. But in actualfact, the millions of cells are co-ordinated inmotion to sweep away from the lungs. A luckychance ? No ! A wonderful design. It is notknown what mechanism causes the cilia to actthus, but control seems to be vested in granularcells at their base. We feel that we can confidentlyassert that they act in this manner, forthe express purpose of guarding the lungs againstthe entry of minute foreign bodies, such as dustand bacteria.The reflex action of coughing probably savesthe life of everyone at some time or another.If sneezing fails to expel the invaders, theyreach the larynx. This organ is extremelysensitive to touch or irritation, and coughing isthe natural way of expelling foreign matterfrom the lower breathing passages. It is aneffective means too of expelling excess fluid,often caused by bacterial infection, from thelungs. It is a clinical fact that if the nervousactivity of the larynx is suppressed or destroyed,pneumonia is inevitable.Coughing illustrates the overruling power ofthat part of the nervous control system whichis always on guard to protect the body. One ofthe most automatic muscular actions of thebody—breathing in—is instantly and dramaticallyreversed, a split second after, say, a speck ofsawdust tries to pass the larynx ! And thespeed of the air in a cough or sneeze cansurpass 100 m.p.h. !The wind pipe and gullet openings are veryclose together, and the danger of bacteriacontaminatedfood being carried into the lungswould be very real if it were not for anotherclever piece of co-ordination, again controlledby the central nervous system. At the commencementof the act of swallowing, breathingautomatically stops, and the air passage entranceis partially closed. How many unfortunatecreatures climbing the evolutionaryladder choked to death, before one of theirfellows was lucky enough to be favoured withautomatism ?Protection for the EyeAnother striking example of protective

The TESTIMONY 61devices is found in the eyelids and tear glands.The surface of the eye must be preservedintact; this is achieved by several means.First the slightest touch gives pain and resultsin the natural reflexes of jerking away andblinking. Then the act of blinking tends tosweep away foreign objects, and the tear glandspour out fluid to help wash the surface clean.This fluid is a powerful antiseptic and innormal health is quite able to cope with anybacteria present.Control of the BloodMany, perhaps all, of the bodily functionsand reactions have a chemical basis, the roots ofwhich are still further down in the mysteriousunknown. Because of this chemical aspect, itis not surprising to learn that the concentrationlevel of certain vital substances in the blood isvery carefully controlled. It is as though a hostof sentries keep vigilant watch for any deviationfrom the norm; immediately any changeoccurs, the various units of the hidden armyspring into action. It is the acme of automatism: its devising required intelligence ofthe highest order : there is no room for haphazardselection here. Three substances (thereare others) which must be the subject of suchcontrol are water, salt and sugar. All are necessaryfor life ; all are taken into the body inquantities greater than needed. How is thesurplus dealt with ? and how are these substancesmetered into the blood ?Before making any attempt to answer thesequestions let us be quite sure of the need foreffective, rapid and foolproof control. Wateris the vehicle in blood and lymph which conveysnutriment, oxygen and heat to all parts of thebody, and transports waste materials to theirexit points. If the blood were to thicken withevery temporary reduction of water intake,circulation and all the processes dependent onit would be slowed. The extremities and mostdistant capillaries would become reservoirs ofstagnant blood, poisoned by waste and withoutoxygen. The heart would have to work harderand the blood pressure would rise. If, on theother hand, excessive water intake diluted theblood, the rate of chemical exchange in the lungswould be reduced at the very time when itneeded to be increased to make up for thedilution ; all the bodily activities would needto increase in speed (yet be unable to do so) tosupply sufficient oxygen and nutriment to keepthe organism from collapse. Similarly, toomuch or too little water in the lymph or thebody cells would give rise to disturbing symptoms,and have a damaging effect if the conditionwas prolonged. The amount of waterallowed into the lymph and body cells is controlledby the salt content of the blood, whichmust be kept at a constant level not only forhealth, but for life itself.So these two vital substances, water and salt,must be under tight control, otherwise the bodywill die. The controlling devices are thekidneys. It is commonly supposed that theseorgans are associated merely with the eliminationof surplus liquid and dissolved salts.Nothing could be further from the truth. Thekidneys are surprisingly sensitive to the waterand salt content of the blood, and by means oftheir microscopic tubules they filter out waterwith dissolved sugar and salt and then reabsorbwhat is necessary to preserve the balance ofthese substances. When there is a shortage ofwater, reservoirs of the precious liquid, storedmainly under the skin and in the muscles, giveup their surplus to the blood. It is believed thatthe thyroid gland has some control over thesestored reserves. The storage tissue is a spongynetwork, and holds not only water but dissolvedsalts and sugar, also kept in reserve foremergency. Stored fluid is given up comparativelyquickly when needed, but it is alwaysseeping out and being replaced so that it doesnot become stagnant.If salt intake is high, the kidneys ignore thesurplus and it is excreted. If the intake is toolow, the kidneys permit no more than a traceto escape to waste. The constancy of the saltlevel in the blood indicates storage reserves ;these are found chiefly in the tissue beneaththe skin, and are released when the need arises.Without these controls it would be impossibleto engage in anything but the lightest exercisewithout the risk of exhaustion and collapse.Sugar likewise is stored in the skin and elsewhere.Any excess eaten either passes to wasteor is turned into fat or stored as glycogen. Theliver has the power to reconvert glycogen tosugar when required. It appears that the concentrationof sugar in the blood is kept at itsoptimum level by two opposing factors—adrenalin (a potent chemical secreted by glandsjust above the kidneys) which releases stored-upsugar into the blood, and insulin (secreted bycells in the pancreas) which reduces the concentrationwhen it rises above the normal.Perhaps the most remarkable chemicalcontrol applied to the blood is that whichregulates its acidity between very close limits.To live, we must move about and exercise ourmuscles in working—"in the sweat of thy face

62 The TESTIMONYshalt thou eat bread" was the pronouncement.But as soon as the muscles begin to work, achemical reaction occurs which could be antagonisticto life. Muscle contraction produceslactic acid. If the exertion is long and hardsome lactic acid will be caught up in the blood.With sufficient oxygen intake through deep andrapid breathing (another automatic result ofexercise) the lactic acid is 'burnt' to the volatilecarbonic acid, which is broken down in thelungs with the expulsion of the acid part ascarbon dioxide. If however, the exertion isviolent and long-continued, the 'burning'process may not be able to dispose of the lacticacid quickly enough to prevent dangerous lossof important alkaline sodium salts throughneutralisation. Another automatic reactiontakes care of this danger ; ammonium salts,normally excreted, are discharged into the bloodto neutralise the acid. The resulting productis later filtered out through the kidneys.DesignThese brief descriptions are a great simplificationof the action of a few of the multitudeof interacting factors designed—yes ! designed—to protect the life-giving blood from disturbinginfluences.Without these various automatic devices lifewould be hazardous in the extreme, and ofshort duration. They come into action at birth,and continue unceasingly maybe for seventyyears or more before one or another falters, andthe watching death leaps in.We stand in awe before the design. How thenshould we reverence the Designer ! "For sincethe beginning of the world the invisibleattributes of God—His eternal power anddivinity—have been plainly discernible throughthings which He has made."REVIEWSWhen Will Christ Come ?ADDITIONAL NOTE (See page 56, col. 2, lines 6, 7 and 13).F. WhiteleyRegarding the exact date of the Crucifixionof Christ, our references to the views of theauthor of the booklet in the terms, "he believes"and "he claims," signify our own detachmentat this point. It has long been accepted that thebirth of Christ, affecting this crucifixion date,was some years earlier than was afterwardsfixed as the beginning of the Christian Era.5 B.C. is popularly held. Sir Wm. Ramsayheld 6 B.C., but later favoured 8 B.C. He wasaware of the fact that "there was a system ofperiodic enrolment in the Province Syriaaccording to a 14 years cycle, and the firstenrolment was made in the year 8/7 B.C."[Christ Born in Bethlehem, p. 170). Then, in1907, in his preface to The Magi, by G.Mackinlay, (who reached 8 B.C. "by a totallydifferent line of reasoning,") he explains :"Such was the rule ; but in the carrying out ofsuch an extensive and novel operation in theRoman world, delays sometimes occurred, forthe distance of a province from Rome, andother reasons, prevented the immediate fulfilmentof a regulation ; and an example ofsuch delay for about two years (as revealed bya recent discovery) is quoted in my subsequentarticle 'Corroboration' in the Expositor, Nov.1901, p.321 f. Accordingly I concluded that'the enrolment in Herod's kingdom wasprobably delayed for some time,'viz., untilautumn 6 B.C. (C.B. in B, p. 174). While sucha delay is possible, however, it has against it thedistinct testimony of Tertullian that the enrolmentin Syria at which Jesus was born wasmade by Saturninus, who as we know governedthe Province 9/7 B.C. The evidence whichdetermined me to favour the date 6 B.C. asmore probable, is distinctly slighter than thatwhich supports the date 8 B.C."We are aware also, that the author seems tooverlook that Messiah was "cut ofT," not at theend, but halfway through the 70th week (Dan.9 : 27 R.V.). But our object is to stimulatestudy, and the effect of adjustments arising isto bring the probable date of the Saviour'sReappearing ever nearer !One may profitably read again the article,Prophecy, Signs and Times, by our colleagueH. W. C. in Dec. 1959 Testimony, p. 421. Also,The Year of Christ's Birth, by A.E.J., p. 424.

The TESTIMONY 63Edited by H. W. CRADDOCK"Power As Kings For One Hour"Hubert W. CraddockOUT OF THINE OWN MOUTH WILL I JUDGE THEE'IMPERIAL ROME—Sitting on SevenHills. Coin struck in A.D.68 showingimage of Emperor Vespasian.rΙΉΕ younger generation of students of•*• prophecy, anxious as their forebears wereto understand aright what the Spirit hascaused to be apocalypsed through the mediumof the pens of the prophets, particularly Danieland John, may sometimes confess to pardonableconfusion when reading the frequently involvedand complicated figures of speech which theBible presents, and then endeavouring to relatethem to the political developments of our ownday.The "deep things of the Spirit" are not meantfor the superficial mind. The invitation extendedby the Revelator is to "him who has anear to hear what the Spirit says to theChurches." That ear hearkens to "instruction'swarning voice"; it is attuned to "hearing aVoice from heaven." The Revelator's appeal isonly to that mind which has wisdom in the.Ways of God,PAPAL ROME—Mother of Harlots.Medallion struck in A.D. 1825 (LeoXII). Showing Papal "Queen"holding intoxicating cup of apostateabominations.By the simple process of Bible analogy, bythe well-tried method of comparing Scripturewith Scripture, the student finds that much thatis apparently inscrutable and enigmatic has nowbecome plain. For example, throughout theBook of Revelation references are made to acertain female figure whose unlovely characteristicsare in exact opposition to that of thevirgin Bride, the Lamb's wife, a somewhatcolourful but easily understood latter referenceto that vast assembly of redeemed and immortalisedSaints who are to be associated withtheir Lord throughout eternity. The apostateWoman is, on the other hand, described as"Jezebel," again an elementary figure of speechin which analogy is drawn with the characterof the wicked wife of Ahab, king of Israel, whohimself was utterly apostate in the sight of God.The perfidious power which this "Woman*'prefigures is described as "the great City, which

64 The TESTIMONYspiritually is called Sodom and Egypt"—not adirect or geographical reference to a literaltown or country, but an allegorical allusion toa spiritually wicked system of Cimmeriandarkness. In the 17th chapter of the Book ofRevelation, this metaphorical female creature isrightly condemned in uncomplimentary languageas a libidinous, lewd, licentious Wanton.She is scripturally denounced in what would besurprisingly scathing terms to the fastidiouslyminded as "The great Whore that sitteth uponmany waters." Shocking language, is it not ?But then, the Bible is intended by God toshock !The apostle John gives another drasticdescription of her as "Mystery, Babylon theGreat. The Mother of Harlots and Abominationsof the Earth." One is left in no doubtwhatsoever as to the identity of this system ofapostasy by the explanation recorded in the 18thverse : "The woman which thou sawest is thatGreat City, which reigneth over the kings of theearth." It is of course, the PAPAL ECCLESI-ASTICAL SYSTEM, as can be adduced byother points of identity made obvious in theScriptures.This figuratively unchaste female, abhorrentin the sight of God, is revealed to John as ridingastride a scarlet-coloured beast. Just as theequestrian controls the movements of the steed,so the Roman religious ruler is disclosed asdirecting the progression of "the beast." Whatcivil or civic commission does this "beast"portray ? What may seem to be a puzzling,perplexing conundrum at first may be furthermystified by the eleventh verse of this samechapter : "Even he is the eighth (head), and isof the seven."The "hidden mystery" is solved immediatelywhen the historian reminds us that Rome, builtupon seven hills on the banks of the Tiber, hadSEVEN different systems of government,ending with the brief "Gothic" or German headof state, which violently disappeared in the 6thcentury A.D. As far as western Europe wasconcerned, political anarchy was disciplined andtranquilised with the establishment of the HolyRoman Empire following the Papal crowning ofCharlemagne in A.D. 800 ; ("Not Holy, norRoman, nor yet an Empire"—vide Voltaire).This "Holy Roman Empire," however, wasnot the eighth head of the apocalyptic beast, butwas a loose German confederation of westernEuropean states which lasted for a thousandyears until overthrown by Napoleon. The ramshackleFrankish empire finally expired with thefall of the dynasty of the Hapsburgs after the1914-1918 war, but the corpse is being resuscitatedin these 6th and 7th decades of ourtwentieth century in what we currently see as theEUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY.In what is colloquially called "The CommonMarket" by this commercial age of ours, webelieve that we are witnessing the growth of the"Ten Horns" on the head of the scarletcolouredbeast of the Apocalypse—ten horns orpolitical powers who, while "hating" the Papalsystem, will nevertheless agree to give theirkingdom unto the "beast."The historical development of the "eighthhead" of the Roman political system is imminent,but still in the womb of the future. Thecontext of its development lies itself in the factthat Roman Catholicism is not only a religion,it is virtually a political state. Its rule will ofnecessity be brief, i.e., for one apocalyptic hour.Its destiny is plainly marked out: "The beastgoeth into perdition"; he is to be "cast alive intoa lake of fire burning with brimstone." Its veryexistence is conditioned by the fact that the TenKings give their dominion unto him. He will beappointed and controlled by the Roman Papalpower, for since Pope Gelasius imposed thefirst Roman crown, successive Pontiffs havealways claimed that as God's earthly vicar, allthings are theirs by Divine right, and mustalways continue to be so. In this manner, thecenturies old relationship of Church and Statehas been created and maintained. Rome neverhas lost the vision of divine, universal Christiandominion, established on the majestic dualityof World Empire and World Religion. Thewhole fabric of mediaeval Christianity restedupon it. Its post-Advental presentation is toend in its utter destruction at the hands of himwho is called "FAITHFUL AND TRUE."# # *The sceptic may dismiss this aspect of oursubject with the assertion that we now live ina more intellectually advanced and sociallyemancipated age. One might urge that becausePope Leo III crowned Charlemagne in A.D. 800as Holy Roman Emperor, it was only becausethe age of that historical event was the year 800."This is 1961," they argue, "and for all theeminence of apostolic authority which thePapacy has gathered unto itself, no Pope couldtake such drastic, secular action in moderntimes."We make rejoinder, "May he not be empoweredto do so in the coming years by theexigencies of the times of Gentile finality,before all earthly authority, spiritual andsecular, is broken up and vanishes with the

The TESTIMONY 65Advent of the Melchizedec Priest who also isKing of kings and Lord of the whole earth ?"The prophetic symbology of the 17th Revelationleads to the inevitable conclusion and convictionthat such a union of Church and State is toarise, and in fact, has even now begun to makeits appearance in the "Earth" territory ofwestern Europe. The "Ten Kings" begin toassemble for the receiving of their power for oneapocalyptic "hour" with the beast. At thispoint, let us trace the uprising of this league inthe facts of history over the past 90 years.# # #Commencing with the Franco-Prussian conflictin 1870, Europe has thrice undergone theordeal of war, in each case at the instigation andprovocation of Germany. The hostilities ofnearly a century ago brought to a head the dissensionsand differences between France andPrussia, and ended with the ignominious defeatof France, and the welding together of thevarious heterogeneous Germanic principalitiesinto an imperial Bismarckian Empire.The first World War of 1914-1918 dethronedBritain from her proud position of Number Oneworld power. The second global conflict unmistakablydethroned Europe as then constituted,as leader. An exhausted war-tornBritain and continental Europe were no longercapable of performing a major part of politicalimportance in any significant area of the world.Europe's struggle in the post-war years hasbeen an endeavour to rebuild herself withoutsufficient means in manpower and money to doso. Meanwhile, Russia and America commencedplotting out the pattern of presentEast-West controversy.Europe's stupendous problems since 1945were (and still are) political, economic, technological,and, until very recently, financial. Noamount of nationalistic jingoism could find away out of the labyrinth. The North AtlanticTreaty Organisation, born of the pangs of war,is primarily a shield and sword against thedepredations of Russia. The economic urgencyof the hour was inter-European co-operation,and the uncertainty lay as to the form that suchco-adjutation could take. The primary aim wasto settle the distrust, the rivalry and the strugglefor supremacy between France and Germany.In the judgment of Paris, it was deemedimpossible for France and Germany ever toattack one another again should their respectivebasic industries be brought together under acommon control and supervision. In May 1950,'the revolutionary conception of a supranationalcommon market for steel and coal wasagreed upon between France, Germany, Italy,Holland, Belgium and Luxemburg. So successfulwas this step, that the famous Treaty ofRome was signed in 1958 by which the signatorynations solemnly agreed to integrate progressivelytheir respective individual policies. Sowas born the "European Economic Community,"or what is colloquially called "TheCommon Market", an historic conception thatis primarily political. In this same conceptionwe believe, lie the seeds of The Federation ofthe Ten Kings, familiar to the readers of theBook of Revelation.The "Common Market" has come intoexistence on the continent of Europe as a newpolitical and economic "closed shop." Britainis outside it, and this editor believes, has noprospect of either joining as a fully-paid-upmember, or of achieving other than very limitedcommercial access to it in the foreseeablefuture—certainly not as a political integer orleader.Britain's interests lie in the Commonwealth,in the "dollar area," and in Europe, in thatorder. And yet she faces a cruel dilemma byremaining outside this sensational development.The foreign policy of Britain has always been toprevent the ascendancy of any political rival onthe Continent, and where she has failed bydiplomacy in days past to "divide and rule,"she has been prepared to take up arms to subdueher potential conqueror. Napoleon's adventuresare a classic case in point.Not only Britain, but America also realisesthe significance of "The Six." Close co-operationon her part from the outside is an answerto the frightening challenge, both economic andmilitary, of Soviet Russia, against which she canthus build up a wall and a bulwark in Europe.The U.S.A. has a justifiable claim on Europeantrade activities, for did she not in the post-waryears render munificent aid in the form of loansand generous grants to help restore Europe'seconomy ? While Europe appreciates theseobligations without which she never could havesurvived, she is very loth to let the U.S. tell herwhat she may or may not do to direct her steps.France, that keystone of European politicsover the centuries, regards the Common Marketas an instrument for the advancement of Frenchinfluence and position in the European Community,rather than following a more disinterestedstrategy. As to the immediate future, thiswriter expects the political activities of "TheSix" to become more in evidence, particularlyas regards mutual co-operation in foreignpolicy. An almost certain development will be

66 The TESTIMONYMACMILLAN'SMIDSUMMERNIGHT (MARE)DREAMAcknowledgmentstotheLONDONEVENINGSTANDARDthe setting up of a European "Senate," comprisingMinisters appointed by each country,who will integrate and promote the idea of onesupra-national Authority. Rome will rear its"eighth head" for the world to wonder after !Decisive steps are being taken by our rulersin Westminster to prevent commercial disintegrationthreatening the West by the Frenchdictatedexclusiveness of the "Common Market"to the detriment of the British-engineeredrival organisation, the "European Free TradeAssociation," or E.F.T.A. as it is colloquiallycalled, and which was hurriedly set up in 1959.The Continent today is literally at "Sixes andSevens" !The Six regards the Seven (which comprisesBritain, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Austria,Spain and Switzerland) as a none too solidstructure. This writer has discussed thisparticular phase of the subject with several menof informed opinion, and their consideredjudgment, including that of a member of theDutch Parliament, is that E.F.T.A. is insignificantpolitically. One wonders if and whatmembers may change sides ? Possibly Austria(the remnant of the old Holy Roman Empire)and Catholic Spain may be among the numberwho will throw in their lot with the present"Six." Time alone can clarify the issues and itis not profitable to indulge in speculation.There are numerous indications meanwhile that"The Six" do not welcome the accession of anymore new members to their club at present.Will Britain stay aside ? We believe, "Yes !"even though it means inevitably that Britainwould be relegated to second rank in WesternWorld conclaves. Whitehall and Westminsterhave been foolish and slow of heart to believeand to appreciate the importance of much thatis happening across the Channel. The bluntfact is that constraining forces headed up by theFrench President just do not want this country.And Britain, once the "proud ruler of thewaves" will have to get used to the idea ofexercising her part in world affairs outside ofEurope.The present idea of a bridge between The Sixand The Seven has been derided publicly as "abridge of sighs." Should some sort of span beset up to surmount the existing division,Britain would then have to share with the otherEuropeans the benefits of her preferences whichshe enjoys in her Commonwealth countries,and let it be borne in mind, the British Commonwealthof Nations is the largest and mostfavoured trading area in the world. Britaincannot expect the best of both worlds, and evenif there should come into being some link-upor trading advantage, a political alliance or unityis out of the question. The "Six" will neveraccept Britain as a member unless she isprepared to sign the Treaty of Rome and acceptits political principles in their entirety to herdetriment. General de Gaulle has made thisquite clear. In answer, Mr. Selwyn Lloyd,when Foreign Secretary, stated publicly and

The TESTIMONY 67precisely that "to go into the Common Marketunconditionally would be completely irresponsible... it would cut the House of Commonsdown in size to members of a EuropeanFederal Parliament."As above indicated, the U.S. Government inWashington has given almost unqualifiedapproval to the policies of "The Six," includingtheir proposals for promoting a EuropeanFederation. This attitude of America, which isdirected primarily against Soviet Russia, mayhave an unfortunate effect on perpetuating therift between Britain and her "Seven" group,and the major countries on the Continent. Thenew President-elect, John F. Kennedy hasalready indicated staunch U.S. support to theCommon Market community. It hardly seemslikely that the U.S.A. would ever participatepolitically with or in this area of "The TenKings," but it will be fascinating to observefuture relationships between a Catholic-ledAmerica with the Catholic-dominated EuropeanCommunity. The exigencies of the times willprovide the spur.# * *When General de Gaulle, President ofFrance, published his War Memoirs in 1959, hegave the world a vision of a community ofEuropean nations distinct from the Englishspeakingand the Soviet divisions of the globe.He describes this United States of Europe as"the Third Planetary Power," and in his thirstfor personal gloire, the General emphasises thatit is essential to unify Western Europe, urgingthat "as soon as possible" a formal referendumbe held throughout the countries of "The Six"for the purpose of launching a new PoliticalDirectorate having periodic deliberations in anAssembly formed of Senators appointed bytheir respective national Parliaments. We havealready referred to this above, as its appearanceto the Watchman takes on the form of thenucleus of the "Ten-horn" organisation whichis to receive "power as kings one hour with thebeast."Statesmen of wide and world perspective likeJean Monnet of France and Paul-Henri Spaakof Belgium have long since agreed as to themajor political principles, and an historic movetowards European unity was made when thememorable Treaty of Rome was signed inMarch 1957 in the Hall of the Horatii andCuriatii. So was initiated a truly revolutionarychange in Europe's history, the consequencesof which—commencing with a "cultural andeconomic grouping between states, organisedfor action, progress and defence"—is beginningto fulfil its prophetic destiny of an imposingpolitical confederation, eventually to be alliedin organised co-operation under Papal leadership.The student of prophecy can see in these trulyexciting contemporary developments the visible,miraculous workings of the Hand of God.Statesmen believe they are creating a new andessential economic force in Europe. Actuallythey have formulated the new political confederationrequired by the urgent pressures ofprophetic fulfilment. It is no trick, no accident,no fortuity.A German, Professor Walter Hallstein, nowsits as President of the Common Market Commission.He is a political genius, and wasformerly State Secretary of the Federal GermanForeign Office. A fervent idealist, he believeshis mission and destiny is to create a supranationalParliament of Europe. Anothereminent German, Dr. Konrad Adenauer,President of West Germany, is one of the chiefprotagonists and has a personal passion forFranco-German rapprochement within theEuropean Community. In the light of thebalance being achieved between the renascentFrench political power and Germany's newfoundeconomic strength, one may post thequestion once more : "Who, in the long run,will hold the key to the vast reservoir of poweras located in this Common Market ?"General de Gaulle believes that France is tobe the keystone of the arch of Western Europewith himself acknowledged as the ruler. Mr.Harold Macmillan, Prime Minister of Britain,has submitted privately that while admitting themiracle of Franco-German reconciliation, thatFrance, after all, may prove to be too weak tomaintain leadership. It is his fear that sooneror later, the sceptre may pass to Germany. Mr.Macmillan's view finds much support inWashington, which thinks that anyway, whetherFrance or Germany, the political integration ofWestern Europe is to be a primary aim ofAmerican policy. On present evidence, thescales have come down hard in favour ofGermany being firmly tied to the West in theeyes of both British and American diplomacy.We refer again to our former query, "Who inthe long run will hold the key ?" and answer ourown question. It will be neither France, nor* Germany, nor even yet America. From thestandpoint of the Scriptures, there is one answeronly. It will be THE PAPAL POWER !Ever since A.D. 494, the Catholic ideal, thebasic Catholic doctrine was, and still is, that theCatholic-directed State acknowledges the

68 The TESTIMONYunique supremacy of the One True Church (soself-described). This basis was promulgated byPope Gelasius 1 in his letter to the ByzantineEmperor Anastasius 1 in these terms :"Two there are, august Emperor, by whichthis world is ruled on title of original andsovereign right—the consecrated authority ofthe priesthood and the royal power."In practical application throughout the succeedingcenturies, the spiritual forces strove tolimit the powers of secular government andimposed instead the moral concensus of asuccession of Popes upon the Emperors. Thistemporal authority of the Papacy remainedunchecked in the main, until its suppression bythe French Revolution which placed Churchaffairs almost entirely under the control of thecivil government. Lovers of the Scriptures inthe 19th century rejoiced when they witnessedin 1870 what they mistakenly thought was thedownfall of the Papal power. The TemporalAuthority of the Papacy was compelled tosubmit, not to imminent extinction, but to aretarding of its earthly sovereignty until theRoman beast could attain to its "eighth head"manifestation nearly a century later, madepossible by the giving of a kingdom unto theTen Horns.This generation has seen to its shame and lossa spiritual vacuum growing like a cancer at theheart of humanity. The decline of faith andmorals ; the collapse of religious influence ; thelanguishing of conscience ; the revealing of"ruthless, senseless, faithless, heartless man" inour modern generation ; the post-war rise ofthe Soviet Architect of Chaos—all these are thefactors that contribute to the counter-revolutionwhich is elevating Rome once more to her predestinedposition of absolutist Primacy in theselatter days. Papal renaissance dramatises thefact for the Watchman that a newly-revived erahas begun in the history of Church and State.We are witnesses of the civic machinery bywhich the "Ten Horns" and the revived"Eighth Head" are becoming increasinglymanifested. We stand in the presence ofhistory.By way of postscript to our remarks whichhave appeared in this and the two previousissues of the magazine, the following briefobservations may be evocative of further investigationboth as regards the resurgence ofRoman Catholic influence in world affairs andthe resuscitation of the political power of theRoman "beast,"1. The author of Eureka states in volume 3,page 623 that: "The eighth head is the HolyRoman Empire" and that "its secular Emperorruled in Vienna." Reflecting on the politicaldevelopments of the past 100 years, are not ourdeductions more correct that the "eighth head"is NOT the old Holy Roman Empire whichfinally expired as a result of the First WorldWar, after a lingering death since receiving itsconge from Napoleon ? The dominion of the"Ten Horns," however, which give their powerand strength unto the beast, does correspondapproximately with the former western Europeanterritory of Charlemagne's empire. The"eighth head," equivalent to the scarletcoloured beast of Rev. 17 : 3 is now an imminentpolitical development.2. On page 626 of the same volume ofEureka, the author writes : "The judgment ofthe Great Harlot as pertains to her pre-adventualconsumption etc." Surely the judgmentof the "Great Whore" is />osi-adventual, havingreference to that "War with the Lamb" inwhich Harlot. Beast and Ten Kings aredestroyed. The preparation of this unholy threeis pre-adventual as we have endeavoured toshow in our submissions, and when in finalmanifestation, they go forth to withstand theLamb in the battle of that great day of GodAlmighty. As we read the Scriptures, this"gathering together" is Armageddon. (Lecturersplease note : the Rosh-Gogian conflictportrayed in Ezekiel 38 is NOT Armageddon.This term is loosely used, especially by picturesquenewspaper writers as descriptive of anymajor martial fray).3. A Coventry correspondent urges that theworld's last warfare will see ALL countries andcreeds allied in a new and final organisationwhich recognises The Pope as its one Head ;such a union to include both America andBritain, in fact, the entire world. We reply thatthe Biblical reference to "all the nations of theearth" might well be regarded as relative in itsapocalyptical appositeness and not in an absolutesense, indicative of the whole globe. Itcould with justification be limited to "all nationsof the (Roman) earth," or habitable . .While appreciating the point of E. A. G.'searnest argument, it seems somewhat paradoxicalto this editor that the 650-millionChinese and the 400 millions of India, to citebut two non-Christian empires, wouldacknowledge the Pope of Rome immediately andunquestioningly as their leader. Whatevercircumstances may develop, Time's unfoldmentwill make known to us the matter,

The TESTIMONYThe Holocaust of Hamon-GogCharles J. Hall/CONFRONTED with staggering events that^ signal the end of Gentile times, thispresent generation is peculiarly involved withthe remarkable prophecies of the 38th and 39thchapters of Ezekiel. It is increasingly apparentthat the long awaited Gogian exploitation andseizure of the Middle Eastern area is imminent,the general scheme and result of which isgraphically revealed in Ezekiel's record. The39th chapter contains a symbolic description ofa catastrophe of such magnitude that it mustgive pause even to those of the household ofGod, and it is our duty to give heed to thesepredictive messages so that we may benefitourselves and others in gaining a reasonable andrealistic assessment.For the purposes of this specific study it willbe assumed that Gog, the leader of the hordesover-running the Holy Land, represents theSoviet Russian political communistic revolutionarybloc. There are other versions of theidentity of this latter-day invader, but there canhardly be objection to the fact that the descriptiongiven in the initial verses of the 38thchapter is that of an ethnic family whosehistorical and present area of occupation is Asiaand Eastern Europe. It is no accident of historythat virtually all of the pagan, atheistic countriesand peoples of the world are to be found withinthe embrace of, or are being inexorably drawnto the Communist octopus. Present Russianpolitical philosophy is officially and avowedlyatheistic, and it is therefore not surprising thatsuch countries as China, India and similarAsiatic cultures, sunk in the mire of ranksuperstition and ignorance, should also bedrawn into alliance with those of close ideologicalaffinity. While the prophecies of theBook of Revelation deal with the judgments ofGod upon the world of Christendom of Westerncivilisation, the predictions of Ezekiel pertain tosimilar judgments upon pagan Eastern peoples,headed up in these last days by the SovietSennacherib. The fate of the ancient Assyrianwill be illustrative of that to befall his Russiancounterpart.As the 39th chapter of Ezekiel is the objectof this treatise, we will dispense with detailedanalysis of the 38th, as that section has receivedconsiderable attention and exposition by manycompetent students. The general theme andsignificance is unmistakable. All current developmentsattest the veracity of expectationthat the present Russian Government is soon tomanifest its ancient ambition of occupying thosestrategic lands comprising the Arab-Israelidomain. Occupation of Israel resulting indevastating Divine intervention is obvious tothe serious searcher of Truth. x It is thepeculiar, indeed unique, nature of this devastation,and the identity of the participantsinvolved, which is the topic of this anticipatorystudy.Obviously the contention is between YahwehHimself and those human forces which haveresisted His ways and befouled the earth withtheir beliefs and actions. It hardly requires adetailed survey of Asiatic behaviour and cultureto establish the justice and necessity of Divineretributive judgment, yet it is not only suchpassive, self-stupefying iniquity that provokesthe righteous wrath of the Almighty. Followingthe ever valid principle that "he that touchethyou (the Jew) toucheth the apple of His eye," 2it is the attempted crushing of the state ofIsrael that evokes the opposition of God. Asignificant factor must be taken into account.No certain agent on behalf of the power of Godis named in the implementation of the terrificpunishments meted out. Whilst other propheciesrefer pointedly to the Jews themselves asthe "battle-axe" of the Almighty or to Christand his divinely empowered brethren as executantsof the judgments written, 3 there is noindication in Ezekiel's record of such directagency. The reason for this perhaps may bediscerned in the concluding verses of the 38thchapter where internecine strife and confusionis described. The purpose of God is accomplished,although not on the conventionalbattle-field. But this is no conventional battlefield,as we shall see. At some time during theunfolding of these crucial political phenomena—and who can be dogmatic as to the preciseperiod ?—the Messiah returns to begin theseries of events preceding his acquisition of thereins of world dominance. Although the Lionof Judah and his favoured flock are not seen asdirect participants on behalf of the Divinecause, it is still possible and probable that theywill deflect the weapons of the adversaries backupon themselves.Ezek. 38 : 14-16.Zech. 2 : 8.Ps. 141): Rev. 19: etc.

70 The TESTIMONYWho are these adversaries who turn their"swords" upon one another in blind rage andfrenzy ? Gog of course is their leader and mainstrength. The military might of the U.S.S.R.consisting of battalions of highly-trained Redsoldiery armed with all the atomic accoutrementsof modern warfare, is probably the greatestmilitary force ever assembled in terms ofsheer mass and destructive power. But Gog isnot alone. Giving frightening support to thisSoviet spearhead is the combined alliance ofthose Asiatic powers who will have come underSoviet sway. These myriad Oriental hordesare described in succinct manner . . . "thou andall thy bands and many people with thee."How better to illustrate briefly the innumerableChinese and their racial neighbours than as"many people" ? It is a truly meaningfulphrase. # Thus, in this first of the two-phasescheme to overthrow the Gentile kingdomsprior to the establishment of the throne of Davidunder Christ, we see all the pagan, atheisticelements of humanity welded together for theirdetermined destruction upon the mountains ofIsrael. The second major phase, the eliminationof pseudo-Christian Western political influence,takes place years after the events now understudy. Even the appalling annihilation of theGogian host will fail to enlighten those of theWest as to the meaning and gravity of the times,just as the successive plagues levied against theEgyptians in the days of Moses failed to instilin the Pharaoh the proper respect and awarenessof the ways of Yahweh.There can hardly be any question, from arealistic standpoint, but that the predictedstrife will be one of employing the most advancedand powerful weapons known ; that is,nuclear warfare. The verses of the 39th chapterreferring to "shields, bucklers, bows andarrows," etc, are transparently symbolic,couching prophetic vision in contemporaryterminology. A superb example of the same isthe 9th chapter of Revelation where the use ofartillery and associated military paraphernalia,incomprehensible to first century Christians, isdescribed in remarkable metaphorical language.Dr. Thomas's treatment of this in the pages ofEureka should suffice as to the validity of suchinterpretation. The indiscriminate use of thesehorrifying atomic weapons will result in wholesaledestruction implied by Ezekiel's prophecy,and similar testimony by other seers.Although it is impossible to give a preciseprognostication of the events and movementsthat immediately precede the inevitable decimationof the Gogian army, we may speculatereasonably as to the probable course of action.This student and watchman finds muchScriptural evidence for believing that the ultimatecrisis will be occasioned in an attack by theencircled Israelis upon the state of Jordan.This aggressive move, necessitated by increasingpressure and animosity from the predatoryArab Republic, will give the Soviets an excuseto thrust themselves boldly into the FertileCrescent on pretext of aiding and protectingtheir Arab proteges from Jewish "imperialism."With Israel branded as the aggressor, the UnitedNations will be legally bound to condemn theyoung State and unable, and probably unwilling,to help. Following the pattern ofKorea, thousands of Russian "volunteers" mayrush to the aid of the Arab Confederacy whoare unable to stand before the onslaught of theskilled Hebrew army. Infuriated by thestubborn resistance of the Jews, the Redgenerals call forth a mighty force composed ofelements of all their satellite minions. Withoverwhelming power and number they smashthe opposition and flow over into the HolyLand.All appears irrevocably lost for the Jews, andit may temporarily seem that Israel is doomed.(Ezek. 38 : 14-16). It is at this point that thelong withheld, pent-up fury of God breaksforth against those who persecute His people.At the height of their successful campaignsome dissension occurs within the motley ranksof the besieging army. Possibly it is a sharp re-*Editor's Note.a. Our contributor's reference to ''myriad Orientalhordes" and "innumerable Chinese" participatingin the Great Gogian Confederacy is not supportedby the Scriptures. The member-nations of Gog's"bands" are specifically named by Ezekiel.China (or Sinim) is omitted.b. Relating Daniel 11 to Ezekiel 38, it would appearthat certain "Tidings out of the East" trouble theAggressor causing him to redouble his destructivemania.We showed in The Testimony (Jan.-Feb. 1960)that these troublous tidings could well be militaryopposition from China. All present politicalevents indicate a sharp cleavage between Mao'sChina and Kruschev's Russia. We personallydo not agree with the very slender evidence putforward by our contributor that China will beallied with Russia against Israel.c. The self-annihilation of the Syrian hosts beforeJehoshaphat may be a prophetic parallel of thearmies of Gog destroying themselves, i.e.,(Ezek. 38 : 21) "Every man's sword shall beagainst his brother." We believe, however, thatthe modern counterparts of "Sheba and Dedan,the Merchants of Tarshish with all the younglions" will do more than lodge a protest, "Artthou come to take a spoil ?" H. W. C.

The TESTIMONY 71currence of the friction between Russia andChina, a deep-seated jealousy and mutual distrustwhich could burst forth at such a time ofstress. Perhaps the disruptive influence isexcited by the unstable, mercurial Arabs whofind to their dismay, that the Bear who came toassist them is reluctant to loosen his grasp ofthe Palestinian region. Whatever it is, and thesolution is not far in the future, an internal conflictis ignited that quickly erupts into a dreadfulinferno. With their ancient propensity forwholesale bloodshed and disregard for life, theyturn their fearsome weapons upon one anotherin a struggle for domination. The resultingcarnage will be without parallel in the annalsof warfare. The massed millions of invaderswill wilt like scorched grass under the rain ofhail-like missiles and atomic artillery. The useof terms such as "fire'' and "brimstone" are nodoubt symbolically designed to predict thequality of destruction inherent in the weaponsof this nuclear battle—intense, incredible heatbeing the chief characteristic of the nucleardevice.The 9th and 10th verses of chapter 39 are ofespecial interest, as they, in archaic terms, seemto predict a strange yet very logical development.The annihiliation of the Magogian massaccomplished, the remnant of the living withdrawnto their own areas, there remains on thebattlefield a tremendous amount of the usualmilitary equipment, machines, weapons andsupplies. These all fall as spoil for the Jews whowill have emerged as the only relatively intactand favoured people. Jesus and his brethrenwill be on the scene, though not obvious to thewatching and wondering world. Israel willsomehow have emerged fairly unscathed fromthe melee and the tiny state will begin to pick upthe pieces of the shattered picture in the MiddleEast and to fit them together into a pattern mostfavouring itself. The Unseen Hand guidingthese motions will of course, be that of theMessiah on earth again. At the helm of thenew-born, repentant Israeli ship-of-state 4 hewill launch it on to the stormy sea of nationswhose surface will be calmed into a glass-likestate before it is anchored for the Millennium.^ Zech. 12: 10-11.(To be continued).On his nomination as the 100th Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Arthur Ramsey,Archbishop of York, announced his aims. He said :"I would love to meet the Pope.The union of all the Christian Churches, including the Roman CatholicChurch, is a slow process.It is no use hurrying it or being impatient, but it is a process I intend toserve to the best of my powers."GENERAL SECTIONWho Are The Christadelphians ?AN endeavour is made to place a copy of** The Testimony in every public libraryin Great Britain, and those who read it willnaturally wonder who the people are whoplace it there. What do they believe ? Whyhave they such a peculiar name ?Dealing with the name first. The sectarose originally through the efforts of a medicaldoctor in America (although he was an Englishman)called John Thomas. For quite a whileJames Carterits members were called " Thomasites " untilduring the American Civil War it was necessaryto have a proper name, so finally the name"Christadelphian" was chosen. Dr. Thomasbelieved in the absolute inspiration of theWord of God, accepted whole-heartedly itsteachings and fearlessly taught them to others.His exposition of Scripture was vastly differentfrom any other, because so many (as is stillthe case) believed doctrines which cannot be

72 The TESTIMONYfound in Scripture. (Even the late Dr. Templeadmitted that the doctrine of immortality ofthe soul was not found in Scripture, but rathercame from pagan sources). He disentangledthe Truth from all the debris which had grownup around it, and passed it on to his followers."Thomasites" therefore, were those whofollowed Dr. Thomas and believed the doctrineswhich he taught from the Scripture.The name "Christadelphian" literally means" Brother of Christ," and is based upon themany passages of Scripture which imply it.Christadelphians, therefore, are those whobelieve what the Thomasites believed beforethe name was changed, and the Thomasiteswere those who believed the teachings of Dr.Thomas and followed the practices which heenjoined, both teaching and practices beingbased upon sound Scriptural interpretation.Now to give an illustration. The Wesleyanswere and are those who followed the teachingsof John Wesley ; and if any departed from histeachings, then they could no longer callthemselves Wesley ans. The same applies tothe Thomasites, or the Christadelphians.Only those who adhere to the teachings ofDr. John Thomas have any right to that name ;and if they depart from any of those teachings,then all they can do is honourably to withdrawfrom that body. This is quite a logical position.If a member of, say, Jehovah's Witnessesbegan to believe and teach something differentfrom their recognised doctrines, they wouldbe expected to separate themselves as theycould no longer consider themselves accreditedJehovah's Witnesses. The same with theLatter Day Saints, The Brethren, The Master'sHousehold, or any other modern sect. Itwould not be honourable to continue to associatewith them once their views had changed.The Christadelphian platform is for thepromulgation of Christadelphian teachings,as are also the various Christadelphian publicationswhich are issued.In order to emphasise their separatenessfrom other sects, they do not call their assembliesby the English word " Church," but bya Greek word, "Ecclesia," which means"called out ones." When anyone appliesfor baptism, the elders of the ecclesia holda conversation with them in order to be surethat the applicant believes the necessaryScriptural doctrines and does not believeany error otherwise their immersion wouldnot constitute baptism in the sight of God.After baptism, in some ecclesias the new membersigns the register (which is carefully keptweek by week) to signify their completeacceptance of Christadelphian doctrine withoutany mental reservations. If subsequentlytheir beliefs alter, and they begin to havereservations, then the honourable action isto withdraw r from the body with whose doctrinesthey are no longer in full accord.Wherever you find a Christadelphian ecclesia,they meet at some convenient time on theSunday for the " Breaking of Bread," (orCommunion) to which service all accreditedChristadelphians are welcome. Usually, also,in the evening a public lecture is given so asto pass on the Truth they have received toany others who will listen.Christadelphians are regular Bible readers.By means of what they call The Bible Companion*(a tabulated course of regular Biblereading), they read, year in and year out,once through the Old Testament and twicethrough the New Testament in the courseof tw r elve months. Since it is the wholly-inspiredWord of God for instruction in righteousnessthey also study it carefully and prayerfully, inorder that they might "assimilate the mind ofGod" as the preface to the Bible Companionexpresses it.Naturally they believe in doing good worksto the best of their ability. They try to belaw-abiding and peaceable in all their ways.They pray for the rulers that they may beguided aright, and they try to conduct themselvesas a people who appreciate the redemptionwhich is in Christ Jesus.Such, then, very briefly, are the Christadelphians.If there is one of their ecclesias inyour town, why not pay them a visit on Sundayevening, in order to acquaint yourself firsthand, as to who they are and Whom theyserve ? It will cost you nothing, but you willgain much ; in fact, finally, the gain can be"life for evermore."*A copy will be gladly supplied on application tothe Secretary-Treasurer of The Testimony, whowill also be happy to direct readers to theirnearest Christadelphian ecclesia.Poetry is emotion put into measure.acquired by art.The emotion must come by nature, but the measure can beThomas Hardy.

IMPORTANT NOTICESTHE TESTIMONY RENEWAL SUBSCRIPTIONSThe Testimony Committee wish to thank all subscribers for their loyal support inthe past and (God willing) look forward to a renewal of subscriptions for 1961. Therewill be no increase in subscription rates.most arcepiabk giftYour relatives and friends would appreciate your kind thought by receiving aregular copy of The Testimony each month. The readable and reliable contents of themagazine keep all readers fully informed on the various and valuable phases of Scripturestudy by its concise and objective presentation.A year's subscription to The Testimony makes an ideal gift. Every time a copy isdelivered by the postman, the recipient will quite naturally think gratefully of you.It is a present that lasts all the year round, and will give much interest, understandingand enjoyment.PUBLIC LIBRARIES, Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., AND OTHERPUBLIC READING ROOMSFor a special annual subscription of 5s., we are prepared to post the magazineregularly direct to any of the above institutions, provided permission has been obtainedfrom the Librarian and/or Secretary in charge.The New Year presents a splendid opportunity to commence this service of witness.ALL communications regarding the above to be addressed to the Secretary/Treasurer :Mr. Frank Grant,Parklands, Stoughton Lane,Evington, nr. LeicesterBINDINGThe printers of The Testimony will be pleased to receive copies for binding in yearlyvolumes. Any year, blue cloth, gilt lettering, at 21s. 6d. each, post paid back.Copies for binding must be sent direct toPhilip Palmer Press Ltd.,101/105 Kings Road, Reading, Berks.enclosing name and address in BLOCK LETTERS, and stating if the monthly coversare to be bound in or omitted.

THE TESTIMONYAnnual Subscription : SEVENTEEN SHILLINGSpost paid to any part of the British Commonwealth exceptCanada. From Bookstalls l/3d per copy.In U.S.A. and Canada, THREE DOLLARS post paid.PUBLISHED ON 15th OF EACH MONTHDEVOTIONAL :ASSOCIATE EDITORS OF THE TESTIMONYJ. MITCHELL, 48, Bargrange Avenue, Shipley, Yorks.HISTORY and PROPHECY : J. CARTER, The Bungalow, Friendly, SowerbyBridge, Yorks.REVIEWS : F. WHITELEY, 1, Calmlands, Meltham, nr. Huddersfield.THEOLOGY : E. WHITTAKER, 83, Elizabeth Street, Elland, Yorks.ARCHAEOLOGY : F. E. MITCHELL, 50, Butter Hill, Wallington, Surrey.SCIENCE : D. A. B. OWEN, 216, Walmley Road, Sutton Coldfield, Warwickshire.^WATCHMAN" : H. W. CRADDOCK, Felstead, Coombe Lane, Kingston-on-Thames, Surrey.FIRST STEPS IN STUDY—AND PROBLEMS : P. H. ADAMS, 21, GoddardHall Road, Sheffield, 5.GENERAL PRODUCTION AND FINAL EDITING : A. E. JONES, TreeTops, 41, Thorne Park Road, Higher Chelston, Torquay, Devon.Copies are obtainable from appointed Agents or through Ecclesial Bookstalls,or by post from the Secretary-Treasurer.All remittances should be made payable to " The Testimony Magazineand correspondence should be addressed as under :Account"SUBSCRIPTIONS AND BUSINESS MATTERS :Mr. FRANK GRANT, Parklands, Stoughton Lane, Evington,Leicester. (Tel. : Oadby 2273).U.S.A.—Mr. Ε. Ε. TURNER, 61, River Road, South Meriden, Conn.CANADA—Mr. T. C. LYNCH, 6, Belmore Avenue, Scarborough,Ontario.AUSTRALIA—Mr. L. E. CRESSWELL, P.O. Box 37, MoorabbinS.20, Victoria, Australia.VISUAL AID SERVICE : Films, Filmstrips and SlidesMr. L. LLOYD, 16, Chamberlain Crescent, Shirley, Solihull,Warwickshire.Published on behalf of The Testimony Committee (Christadelphian) byA. E. Jones, Tree Tops, 41, Thorne Park Road, Higher Chelston, Torquay, Devon. Tel. Torquay 07645Philip Palmer Press Ltd. (W. H. Jackson, Manager), 101-3-5, Kings Road, Reading


CONTENTSTHE QUIET MOMENT . . . .HaroldTennantPage73THE PILGRIMAGE OF JESUS :(61) THE FEAST OF THE GENTILESTHE SERPENT AND THE DOVEJOHN WYCLIFFE AND THE ENGLISH BIBLEJohn MitchellC\ MoxonBeryl A. Rowley747780THE PROPHECY OF JOEL (3)A.Akeroyd83THE WATCHMEN OF THE RED RIVERD. A.B. Owen85THE BOOK OF JOB (3)CyrilTennant88OUT OF THE DUST :THE BRITISH MUSEUM IN I960 AND 1961BIBLICAL MANUSCRIPTSGLEANINGSF. E.Mitchell9.093REVIEWS :A STRANGE FACTOR IN WORLD AFFAIRSWATCHMAN :RED STAR OVER CHINATHE HOLOCAUST OF HAMON-GOGNOTES ON THE DAILY READINGSF. Whiteley 94. Hubert W. Craddock 96Charles J. Hall 102{James Carter 104Edward Whittaker 108Full Editorial endorsement applies to all articles except those of anon-fundamental nature.Articles from contributors of either sex will be welcomed for considerationby the Editors.

TheTESTIMONYFOR THE STUDY AND DEFENCE OF THE HOLY SCRIPTUREVol. 31, No. 363 March, 1961THE QUIET MOMENTAgapeΟ Love Superb, that ever shines,Like Central Sun to distant climes ;That sends a light and radiance forth,To warm and cheer the lonely North.So hast Thou shone within my heart,To influence each kindred part;Filling with light my barren day,When all was cold, austere, and grey.Thus hast Thou willed, and ever sought,To permeate my inmost thought;Seeping within my thwarted mind,When I was foolish, vain, and blind.Coming unseen, as I through sinWas void of hope, and dark within ;Thou gav'st Thine Only Son to bleed,Ere yet I felt my soul's sore need.Perfect and Pure, Thou lovedst me,Before I knew or e'er loved Thee ;Thou gav'st it free, and unreserved,Unasked, unsought, and undeserved.Harold Tennant

74 The TESTIMONYEdited byJ. MITCHELLThe Pilgrimage of Jesus(61) THE FEAST OF THE GENTILESJohn MitchellΛ FTER his encounter with the Syro-**- Phoenician woman on the borders ofTyre and Sidon, the Lord Jesus Christ and hisdisciples made their way south-eastwards,skirting the far shore of the Sea of Galilee,passing through the barren country where theLord had earlier met and cured the dementedmen among the tombs, and coming into theborders of the region known as the Decapolis,or Ten Cities. This was a highly Grecianisedarea containing a mixed population of Jews andGentiles, but predominantly of Gentiles.As they went on their way, Jesus healed aman who was both deaf and had an impedimentin his speech, with the result that his fame wasnoised abroad among the populace of theneighbouring cities, and multitudes poured outto meet him. Not only so, they brought withthem their lame, blind, dumb, maimed andmany other sick folk whom they laid at his feetfor him to heal. To the handful of discipleswho had been with him from the beginning,it must have been a rather poignant reminderof that evening at the commencement of theLord's ministry when the sick of Jewry aroundhim lay. And now the Great Physician andhealer of all men's woes was performing thesame mercy to the Gentiles.Small wonder then that this (Gentile)multitude "wondered, when they saw the dumbspeaking, the maimed whole, the lame walking,and the blind seeing : and they glorified theGod of Israel." None of their own heathen godsof wood and stone conferred upon them suchbenefits as these, or showed them such condescensionor merciful loving kindness. Eversince their ancient forefathers had left off theworship of the One True God they had beendeaf, like the man whom Christ had first healedamong them, to the Word of the living God,and their spiritual speech had been impeded.But now the Lord was opening their ears, andunloosing their tongues so that they might speakplainly to glorify the God of Israel.Yet greater wonders were in store to confirmto them that there was a blessing for the Gentileas well as for the Jew in the Lord Jesus Christ.For is his Father "the God of the Jews only ?Is He not also of the Gentiles. Yes, of theGentiles also," affirms the Apostle Paul.For three days the multitude continued withthe Lord Jesus Christ. It was summer time,and they would be able to encamp in the openfields. Their tenacity was a mark of theirspiritual hunger for that which only the LordJesus could provide. But when their stores offood ran out, and hunger began to assert itself,it was obvious the time had come when theymust disperse, and return to their homes amongthe ten cities of the Decapolis. Their necessityprovided an opportunity, in a beautiful andmeaningful way for the compassion of the Lord."I would not send them away fasting," he said,"lest haply they faint in the way.""Whence shall one be able to fill these menwith bread here in a desert place ?" asked thedisciples, apparently forgetting the previousoccasion when Christ had fed the 5,000 on theplain to the north where the River Jordanentered the Lake of Galilee. Or did they viewthat first miraculous feeding as an isolated andglorious occurrence, not likely to be repeated ?

The TESTIMONY 75The Lord Jesus however, summoned themback to the practicalities when he asked them,"How many loaves have ye ?" "Seven," camethe reply, "And a few small fishes."First, Jesus commanded the multitude to sitdown, no doubt in companies as on the formeroccasion, for the easier serving of the food.Then he took the seven loaves, and when hehad given thanks, he broke them and gave tothe disciples, and they to the multitude. Alljoined in the feast, and the hunger of all wassatiated. Nor was that all. When the feast wasover, the disciples took up seven baskets full ofthe fragments that were left.This was indeed a signal illustration of thefulness of Christ to the Gentiles as well as tothe Jews. Certain critics have propounded thetheory that the feeding of the 5,000 and of the4,000 are one and the same. Besides being atravesty of the Word (hardly any of the detailscorrespond when the two accounts are examinedside by side) their theory, if true, would also bea terrible blight on the hope of the gospel forthe Gentiles. Indeed, the significance growsand grows, the more the two feasts are compared.It is obvious that the Lord Jesus Christ cameprimarily to the Jews during his ministry. Onlyrecently he had reminded the heathen womanwhose daughter he had healed that he was notsent "but unto the lost sheep of the house ofIsrael." Yet again and again during his ministrythere flashed that beam of hope that lightenedthe darkness of the Gentiles also. For "he thatcometh to me, I will in no wise cast out," hadbeen the affirmation of our Lord. Hence it waspeculiarly fitting that the feeding of the 5,000Jews should be enacted first in the ministry ofJesus. The Jews had the bridegroom withthem, and they feasted sitting on the greengrass, carpeted with springtime flowers, besidethe blue Lake of Galilee. But by the time theLord had travelled north to the borders ofSidon, and returned to the verge of theDecapolis, the sun, climbing higher towards itssummer zenith, had risen many times "with aburning heat" and the grace of the fashion ofthe springtime grasses and flowers had perished,and they had withered away. So when the turncame for the Gentiles to feed upon the bountyof the Lord, they could only sit upon the hard,inhospitable ground in a desert place. Whichthings are surely an allegory, corresponding tothe days when the springtime of the Lord'sministry was over, and the bridegroom wastaken away "And then shall they fast in thosedays." But when these Gentiles had sanctifiedthemselves for three days by contact with theLord, and had separated themselves from theirown evil surroundings, they fed just as fully asdid the Jews. There was again enough for alland to spare of the living Christ, even in theGentile wilderness.How many loaves had they ? The Jews, fortheir feast had mustered five, typical of theBread of Life contained in the n\t books of thelaw. But the Gentiles had seven—the numberof perfection, "for when that which is perfectis come, then that which is in part shall be doneaway." So the Gentiles had the richer symbolicfeast. To them was given both the Old and theNew Testaments on which to feed, the completerevelation of the Word of God, which hadbecome flesh and dwelt among us, full of graceand truth. To both Jew and Gentile then,whether in the Law, or in the completed Word,Christ is the "savour of life unto life"—and soboth feasts included the savoury fishes.When the feast of the Jews was over, thedisciples went round the company with theirsmall luncheon baskets (Kophinos), and filledthem with their fragments. These twelve smallbaskets correspond to the twelve tribes ofIsrael, from whom the "fragments of Christ"will be gathered and brought to him when theSon of Man shall return from heaven to beglorified in his saints. In that day however,many shall also come from the east and thewest, the north and the south to sit down withAbraham, Isaac and Jacob in the Kingdom ofGod. For these "fragments of Christ'' biggerreceptacles are required to typify that multitudewhich no man can number who have washedtheir robes and made them white in the bloodof the Lamb. And so when the disciples wentto collect the fragments after the feast of theGentiles they took with them, not their luncheonbaskets, but hampers big enough to holda man. Of these they filled seven, to bring thenumber of the fragments of Christ to perfection,and to represent his harvest among the Gentileswhen the great day of the feast of ingatheringshall come.All these things lend to the feast of the 4,000a meaning which far transcends the possibilitythat the two incidents have been confused.Moreover, there is in the record of the Acts ofthe Apostles a beautiful little story that roundsoff the significance of the fulness of Christ tothe Gentiles.It concerns a young man, who at the timewhen the multitude was fed, may w r ell have beensitting at the feet of Rabbi Gamaliel, in Jerusalem.He was a zealous, sincere young man,

76 The TESTIMONYwhose religion was his very life. Indeed, he wasalmost a fanatic—so much so that when, afterthe death of Christ, the gospel began to turnthe world upside down, he took a leading partin trying to suppress it, haling men and womenwho believed in the Lord to prison, andwreaking havoc among the Church. He excelledso much in this that the High Priest decided tosend him to Damascus to perform similarpersecution among the believers there. But theLord Jesus Christ forestalled him, revealinghimself in the way, and saying "Saul, Saul, whypersecutest thou me ?" After this shock of hislife, Paul was led blind into the city which hehad proposed to enter as a persecutor, and madeto rely on the very people whom he had intendedto imprison. When told to go and minister tohim, Ananias, the believer, protested, "LordI have heard by many of this man, how muchevil he hath done to thy saints at Jerusalem :and here he hath authority from the chiefpriests to bind all that call upon thy name."But the Lord said unto him, "Go thy way :for he is a chosen vessel unto me, to bear myname before the Gentiles."So Paul, when the scales of his own blindprejudices had fallen from his eyes, became theApostle to the Gentiles. Immediately hepreached Christ in the synagogues that he wasthe Son of God, with the result that the Jewsdecided to silence this turncoat for ever. Theytook counsel to kill him, and lay in wait at thegates of the city day and night for him. But thedisciples were aware of their plot, and so theytook him by night, and let him down by the citywall in a basket—not a kophinos, which couldnever have held a man, but a spurts, such as thedisciples used to gather up after the feeding ofthe four thousand.And it surely augured well for such as we,who are not Jews by nature, that Christ sentPaul the Apostle to take the Bread of Life to theGentiles in the very basket that typified theirfinal triumphant ingathering.BORROWED PENS"INTOLERANCE"As there is only one God, so there can only be one gospel. If God has really done something inChrist on which the salvation of the world depends, and if He has made it known, then it is a Christianduty to be intolerant of everything which ignores, denies, or explains away. The man who pervertsit is the worst enemy of God and men ; and it is not bad temper or narrowmindedness in St. Paulwhich explains this vehement language—"Though we or an angel from heaven preach a gospel toyou contravening the gospel which we preached, let him be anathema"—it is the jealousy of Godwhich has kindled in a soul redeemed by the death of Christ a corresponding jealousy for the Saviour.It is intolerant only as Peter is intolerant when he says, "Neither is there salvation in any other"or John, when he says, "He that hath the Son hath the life ; he that hath not the Son of God hathnot the life" ; or Jesus himself when he says, "No man knoweth the Father save the Son, and he towhomsoever the Son willeth to reveal him." Intolerance like this is an essential element in the truereligion ; it is the instinct of self-preservation in it; the unforced and uncompromising defenceof that on which the glory of God and the salvation of the world depends.The Death of Christ—James Denney."THE LORD'S PRAYER"The Lord's prayer remains for ever the one perfect model, the summary of the whole gospel. Hencethe great theologians who have written on prayer have delighted to dwell upon this theme.They regard it rather as an outline and model of what daily prayer should be, than as a sacredformulary to be repeated as if the words had in them some magic charm. Undoubtedly the prayerwhich addresses the Father in the very words of His own Son must be peculiarly dear to Him. TheMaster, who foresaw all our human needs, gave us in the Lord's prayer an example of the mannerand the spirit in which we might make known to God all the petitions arising out of the variednecessities of our lives.But there is something far more acceptable to God than the mere repetition of any number ofPaternosters, namely the translation of this prayer of our Lord into the daily life of the Christian.The Early Years of Christianity—E. de Pressense.

The TESTIMONY 77The Serpent and the DoveC. MoxonBehold, I send you forth as sheep in the midstof wolves : be ye therefore zvise as serpents andharmless as doves.— Matthew 10 : 16.Τ Ν sending the twelve Apostles out into the-** world to preach the Gospel the Lord JesusChrist gave them specific instructions on howthey should conduct themselves in the face ofthe many vicissitudes with which they would befaced, and amongst them was the injunctionwhich heads this article.To the twelve this would seem to be thecombination of seemingly impossible andopposite qualities : but Christ knew that in thetrue intellectual development of character theideal balance is attained by using opposingelements. Character to be complete must berounded off, showing no undue development onany one side and being perfectly poised amid allthe warring forces which are met in the fightagainst human nature. The difficulty in life isto live, truly and completely, making the mostof one's self and developing the highestcharacter that is possible. The practicabilityof combining these two opposites is duty to selfand duty to others, that is, to be wise for ourown self-protection and simple in our relationswith men both in and out of the world. It iseasy to be one-sided. It is easy to specialise, toplease self, to think of self, to pamper self, todevelop a one-sided attitude at the expense ofthe other.Christ in his instructions was not giving tohis followers a paradox when he told them to"be as wise as serpents and as harmless asdoves." He demanded it from them as anecessity for the work he had entrusted to theircare. As followers of Jesus and as witnesses forthe gospel they were to proclaim, they were tobe naturally simple and guileless in heart. Thatwas to be their kind of life and the characterthey were called upon to manifest to the worldinto which they were to go. This was theirbusiness, as reformers to overturn the world, tomeet the world's wisdom with wisdom that wasgreater. They were faced with odds whichwere both great and terrible as sheep facingwolves ; and if he, their Shepherd, was himselfas a sheep led to the slaughter, what were they,his feeble flock ?The words were uttered as a warning tobeware of men, with all the hatred, the maliceand the prejudices common to the heart. Butlike most of the words spoken by Christ, theyhave an application far beyond this particularoccasion. Here is given, not only a rule for theguidance of the disciples in their first missionaryenterprise, but the practical ideal for characterfor all times of probation.The two qualities, prudence and simplicity,wisdom and innocence, seemingly opposite andalmost irreconcilable, need the practical reconciliationnecessary for a truly successful life ;and their union is also a necessity to form thehighest type of character to befit a candidatefor the honours to be bestowed by God throughChrist at the coming of his Kingdom and Glory.But, unfortunately they are seldom met in dueproportion in most human beings, for there aremany mistakes made which would not occur butthrough want of either of these two qualities.A true disciple of Christ must first of all havethe harmlessness and the simplicity of the dove.He "walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly,standeth not in the way of sinners, sitteth notin the seat of the scornful"; and to present thisway to the world is the chief function, becauserighteousness always faces the foe, so long asthere is a foe to fight.The Christian faith is the religion of theheart which is hid from the worldly wise andthe prudent and has been revealed to babes.The babes are simple in heart and can keep Godwith them ; they understand that the Gospeldoes not make its way by mere power, but bysimple faith, generous love and by weakness.But for all this, there is still another element ;for "in Christ are hid all the treasures ofwisdom and knowledge" which underlines theidea that disciples must not for ever remainbabes except in the knowledge of sin. "I wouldhave you wise unto that which is good, andsimple unto that which is evil," says Paul to theRomans.Christ-ones must face the world, meet withits conditions and overcome them ; and to dothis prudence, discretion and forethought areprovided in the Gospel as the policy to beadopted. The difficulty which the disciples hadin the reconciliation of these two opposites intheir missionary work corresponds in someform or other to what we all have to face in ourlives. We are all individuals, thinking for ourselves,standing up against tendencies of ourown individual worlds, acting and deciding forourselves ; and we have to arrange unflinching

78 The TESTIMONYhonesty with necessary self-interest, with anindependence of conscience and will, where wecan say, "No, everlasting no," on some subjectsand enticements.The same rule which applies to business lifeis also applicable to religious life. The sameproblem must be solved in the combining ofprudence with absolute truthfulness. Moreover,it must have its motives not in crankiness ofmind, not the love of singularity, nor the displayof individuality, but must have its roots in alove of truth for its own sake. "So did not I,"said Nehemiah, "because of the fear of God";and his attitude was the fruit of principlebecause God's law was so present within himthat he could not act contrary to it. It wasbecause he was so consumed with the desire toplease God that he never thought of pleasinghimself. His heart was fixed and so his feet tookthe path of God's commandments, God's lawbeing his rule, he found it easy to deny himself,for the fear of God cast out all other fear.In the moulding of the individual character,in some shape or other, the same problememerges—how to be simple in heart and purein aim and at the same time be able to display awary caution to walk with steps that do notfalter, and to live truly in the sight of God.How to be generous to others and yet be wise ingenerosity, so that evil is not done instead ofgood ; how to keep ourselves unspotted fromthe world and yet to use the world withoutabuse ; how to be careful and discreet withoutthe display of cunning, to be wise withoutselfishness and to be good without foolishness,to be simple without the manifestation of weakness—allthis is the making and the keeping ofa perfect balance and harmony so as to avoidthe temptation of extremes, the weldingtogether of heart and head.To have too little heart or head results ininstability and leads to an ultimate weakness ofcharacter ; for clear intellect which is onlyambitious, force of mind which is used selfishly,leads sooner or later to a character which becomesunlovely and can lead only to failure inthe things which it has undertaken. Yet "cooing"innocence and sweetness of nature with allits best intentions, have often neutralised goodworks by the want of a little sense ; and thisdove-like simplicity must not be allowed toclose our eyes to the ever present existence ofevil. There is no good in weakly ignoring facts,either in life or work, for we need always toremember that there is still evil in the worldwhere wolves still menace the sheep.There is a lack of balance which is often metin the world today, all prudence and sagacitywithout purity of heart and simplicity of mind,where the serpent in men swallows up the dove,where success, as the world counts success, hasno qualms of conscience, where there is noproblem of reconciling simplicity with prudence,where men escape the problem by theomission of one of the factors, where underpublic opinion they are turned out as pure gold,but the time will come when they are provedto be made of base metal. Such men smili atthe notion that they may be too clever and thatthey can have too much of the serpent's wisdom.They smile at any suggestion that they haveanything to learn from the simplicity of thesimple whom they despise, that they haveanything to learn from the harmlessness of thedove-like propagator of simple truth. They arenot aware that the foolishness of God can bewiser than men.Our Lord did not expect his disciples to makeany mistake about this. He did not look uponthem as wolves who had to learn from the sheep,nor as serpents to learn from the dove, butexactly the opposite. His object was to warnthem against the world's lack of balance and touse the necessary carefulness required in themto build up both their characters and their work.The danger they were warned of was that ofbeing foolishly simple, too confident and foolhardyin courting failure by expecting theimpossible to happen.The warning applies equally well today,since there is a danger of divorcing our religiouslife from the actual needs and the facts oflife, where religion is made a mystical thingwithout basis of reason and consequently withno outcome in practice.There is reason in the command to be readyto give good grounds for the faith that is withinus. We may neglect this and only possess whathas been styled a "coward's faith and a sluggard'strust," and think that we are not calledupon to devise means and work our brains, butleave all things to God's good pleasure. Wisdomis needed to do God's w r ork and it is requiredto guard our own faith, to protect our ownsimplicity of heart and to save our ownChristian characters. If there is not a manifestationof the prudence of the serpent we shall notkeep the harmlessness of the dove very long.Well-meaning people and "good sorts" are oftenfoolish and blundering and can contrive to do agreat deal of mischief in the world whereignorance is no excuse for mistakes. Usefullives in God's service need strong character anddisplay of wisdom, and there cannot be an

The TESTIMONY 79excuse for the neglect of seeking it.In some forms of literature, mawkish sentimentalismseems to make goodness synonymouswith silliness and even Charles Dickens, who isrecognised to be a master in his art, often makesmany of his good characters border more or lesson sheer lunacy since they become nearly alwaysgullible and impossibly foolish in a delightfulsort of way, where their folly in some way issupposed to enhance their goodness. Inpractical life one does not need to have a softhead in order to avoid having a hard head ; andall such conceptions are due to false notions ofthe Christian life. If this life in Christ isserious, then we shall know instinctively thatevery power must be devoted to attain andmaintain it. If the fight of faith is really a fightand not merely a parade, if it is a real warfare,then we shall appreciate the value of strategy.If Christ's work is an earnest aim of our heart,we shall be careful to extend it, and if the Christlikecharacter is a passion, then we shall be aswise as the serpent and refuse to be temptedaway from our desire.Paul's advice given from a sane and levelhead, echoes the words of our Master, "Brethren,be not children in understanding ; howbeitin malice be ye children, but in understandingbe ye men." Paul's own life was an illustrationof his words, his combination of zeal andknowledge, his unwavering faith and greatstatesmanship, his ingenious character andplans to bring men to Christ, his simplicity andsincerity in the face of opposition during hiswise and prudent life. It is men like Paul whorun the risk of being misunderstood, becausetheir simplicity is treated as duplicity, and theirwisdom is called cunning, and their innocenceis deemed design ; and the world seems not tocomprehend the highest unity of their complexcharacters.Christ himself is our greatest example, for hecombined both factors in perfect harmcny, andthere are given to us instances of his wisdomwith the combination of purity of purpose andinnocence of heart and perfect uprightness oflife. He is the perfect man, wise and simple,strong and tender, winsome in integrity andgraceful in strength with a depth of nature andcharm of manner never surpassed.The true Christian should not be satisfieduntil Christ lives in him and he looks at lifethrough Christ's eyes, needing not to betroubled by conflicting elements which go to thebuilding of character, for he knows that it isChrist's desire and purpose for him to grow ingrace and knowledge and Christ-likeness untilhe finds the unity of opposites in union with hisLord. If we surrender our will to the will ofGod, we shall learn that true simplicity is thetrue wisdom and that purity is the trueprudence ; and giving our lives to goodness,we shall use all we have as gifts from God andinstruments for God, not only for the triumphof goodness in ourselves, but for the coming ofChrist's Kingdom and the culture of a characterworthy to inherit it.Christ the great reconciler, the Prince ofPeace, reconciles man to God and man to man ;and life in him is harmony, giving the balanceto all our powers ; for this is needful for thetrue culture of the soul. If we give ourselves toChrist in full submission we find peace—not only peace with God, but also the rarerpeace within ourselves. If we are true to ourallegiance, Christ can make it possible for us tobe wise as serpents and harmless as doves forthere we have our practical ideal."THE KITCHEN HYMN"Lord of all pots and pans and things, sinceI've no time to beA saint by doing lovely things, or watchinglate with thee,Or dreaming in the dawn-light, or stormingheaveris gates,Make me a saint by getting meals and washingup the plates.Altho' I have Martha s hands, I haveMary's mind,And when I black the boots and shoes, thysandals, Lord, I find.I think of how they trod the earth, whattime I scrub the floor ;Accept this meditation, Lord, I haven ttime for more.Warm all the kitchen with thy love, andlight it with thy peace,Forgive me all my worrying, and makeall grumbling cease.Thou who didst love to give men food, inroom or by the sea,Accept this service that I do, I do it, Lord,f or thee ! (Author unknown).

80 The TESTIMONYHISTORYEdited by JAMES CARTERJohn Wycliffe and the English BibleBeryl A. RowleyTDERHAPS, like me, your knowledge of-*· English history during the thirteen hundredsis somewhat scanty and vague. You may rememberfrom your schooldays Edward III andthe Black Prince or the victorious battles ofCrecy and Poitiers. Perhaps you recall theterrible scourge of the Black Death in 1348,which we are told reduced the population byabout one third, thus creating a labour shortagewhich resulted in the Peasants' Rising of 1381.Yet it is difficult to assess the work andcharacter of the man John Wycliffe who livedthose 600 years ago, unless we see him againstthe backcloth of his own environment—bothsocial and political—but most important of allagainst the ecclesiastical background of histime.What then was the picture of this "greenand pleasant land" in the fourteenth century ?We find that the Monarch, if he was strongenough, was still supreme in the political fieldbut since the signing of Magna Carta, he did notwield such great power as in earlier centuries.The dukes, earls and barons were powerful indeed; they each held their own territory, ownedtheir serfs and even private armies as well, but asin any mediaeval period, the Church was ofequal importance with, or of even greater importancethan, the State ; and in England at thattime there was a most elaborate Church hierarchy.There existed both the regular clergy, suchas canons, monks, and friars and the secularclergy—priests, prelates and clerks of all types.These secular clergy owed allegiance to thebishops, who were in turn appointed by theCrown, but the regulars did not; and thefriars in particular held their authority directfrom the Pope. The bishops of the day werenotorious for their preoccupation with theaffairs of State rather than those of the Church ;and as they owed their appointment mainlyto the whim of the king, x they were for everlooking after their own interests. Some ofthem had no qualifications at all for the bishopric,and it is a matter of history that in 1360Edward III appointed a man to this officewho could neither read nor write.The secular clerks (from whence comes theidea of a cleric or clerk in holy orders) wereroughly equivalent to the civil servants oftoday. They held appointments from theChurch because it was only those who hadbeen taught by the Church who had sufficienteducation to carry out the business affairs ofthe nation. Even the parish priests, althoughpoorly paid, were appointed with a view tothe support they might give to their ecclesiasticaloverlords, and, in order to gain furthermonies, a priest often undertook to look afterseveral parishes at once, with the result thatfew were properly controlled.The monks on the other hand were entirelycut off from the rest of the nation, and themonasteries, together with the universities,held the monopoly of scholarship at that time.Although there are records of isolated goodmonks, the monasteries had grown rich with therevenue of the land and tithes which had beenpaid to them for many centuries, yet manyof them gave out only the bare necessities ofcharity when called upon to alleviate theBishops not only held the high secular offices ofChancellor, Treasurer, and Justiciar of the realm,but also at times fulfilled military duties. Forexample, the Bishop of Durham was always anaccomplished soldier and a highly trusted baron toprotect the North of England against suddenScottish invasion. The King at Westminster wastoo far removed to deal with such attacks immediatelyor adequately ; hence the Bishop of Durhamacted for him as vicegerent, was counted as a princeand ruled as a kinglet within his own region. SirWalter Scott consequently described DurhamCathedral as "... half house of God, half bulwarkagainst the Scots."(A. E. J.)

The Τ Ε S Τ Ι Μ Ο Ν Υ 81suffering of the poor, sick and needy. As tothe friars, they might be described as itinerant,free-lance priests, who roamed from place toplace—not staying anywhere long enough tosee the results of their labours. They perambulatedthe country, and with the Pope's authority,gave absolution for sins at a cheap price : thenotorious Friar Tuck in the story of RobinHood would not appear to be an overpaintedpicture of this branch of the Church.This, then, briefly was the England intowhich John Wycliffe was born in the early1320's—a land of tyrannical power, spiritualwickedness in high places and moral decadence,which required an outspoken scholarly man,such as Wycliffe, to sow the seeds of reformin men's hearts.He was brought up in the Richmond districtof Yorkshire, but as quite a youth was sentto Oxford, where the scholarly life attractedhim for many years, and he became in turnMaster of Balliol and Warden of CanterburyHall. His reputation as a scholar graduallyincreased, but it was not until he was nearlyfifty that the country at large heard muchconcerning him. From 1363 onwards he wasa parish priest in various places, and by 1374he finally received the living at Lutterworthin Leicestershire, a place that has for ever beenassociated with his name.By his devoted study of the Bible (which hecould read and understand in Latin as wellas you or I can in English) and from his readingof the works of the "Early Fathers" of theChristian Church, he slowly came to the conclusionthat the Church of his day was worldly,slothful, lacking in moral fibre and for themost part quite unable to give spiritual guidanceto the common people.His demand that a true Church should beentirely separate from the political life of theState came before his denouncement of Catholicdoctrines. To disendow and disestablish bothmonasteries and Church offices, would, he felt,ensure that only those whose gifts lay inspiritual leadership would be placed in positionsof authority.Before long came his attack on the doctrineof Transubstantiation, which doctrine he wasable to prove from his studies had not alwaysbeen the teaching of the Church, and hadonly been defined in the eleventh century.He was not slow to point out that the Masswas a false miracle, invented by the prieststo secure obedience from those to whom theyministered.He did not shrink from the storm whichthis denouncement produced. John of Gauntwho had patronised Wycliffe (for his own ends)withdrew his support from the reformer, butit made Wycliffe realise that he must notsacrifice his ideas for the sake of expediencyor he would become a mere bond-slave tothe political set-up which he so despised. Hewas driven from Oxford and lost his honouredposition in scholarly circles—yet history recordsthat he had few regrets : he was not a sensitiveman but a pious ascetic—a man of aggressiveargument even in his youth—and the truthwas always more dear to him than peace.Once he had started on these denouncementsof the existing order, he attacked other pointsof doctrine. His views on penance, extremeunction and holy orders were becoming farremoved from accepted Catholic ideas. Herightly claimed that each person should havedirect access to God through prayer, 2and notuse the medium of priests, saints and imagesto help him. Against intoning and singingin church services he quoted the words ofAugustine, "As oft as the song delightethme more than that which is songen, so oft Iacknowledge I trespass grieviously."By this time he had gathered a small bandof followers around him at his Lutterworthparsonage, who later became known as theLollards and they set up what later came to bea Protestant form of worship—independentof priest or church, and often they met inwoods and caves. Their insistence was onpreaching rather than ceremony, for Wycliffehad urged a form of sermon which wouldarouse men to a sense of their responsibilityto God. Absolutions, penances and masses,he declared, were ways of keeping real responsibilityout of their minds.Naturally his views on Apostolic successionwere most heretical—"If they say that Christ'schurch must have a head here on earth—sooth," he declared, "it has—for Christ ishead and must be here with his church tillthe day of doom." He refused to believe thatthe mere canonisation of saints at Rome eithermade or marred their sainthood. Every manwas judged by Heaven and not by the opinionof Popes or cardinals. He often exposed Papalfallibility and when in 1378 (upon the deathof Gregory XI) there was the Great Schism2While it is true that the individual has no need foran "ordained" priest through whom to have accessto God in prayer, yet it is equally true that truebelievers themselves, have.no direct approach toGod in prayer except through His Son JesusChrist, the "one mediator between God and man."(A. E. J.)

82 The TESTIMONYin Papal succession with the anti-Pope Clementset up at Avignon, Wycliffe denied once andfor all that the successor of Peter had anyauthority over men.All WyclifiVs attacks on the Roman Churchwere based on his accurate and detailed knowledgeof the Bible. The positive basis whichWyclifFe set up in place of the Church's authoritywas that which we as Christadelphians claimtoday—the Bible. His devotion to the literaltext was as great as it was in later years amongthe Puritans. He realised above all men of histime that until the common man could hearand read the Bible in his own native tongue,it would never be known or understood. Hedeclared that many parish priests of his daywere totally incapable, because of ignorance,of interpreting the Bible to their flock. Wycliffetherefore determined that an English translationof the then known Vulgate 3 should beundertaken. Modern scholars are a little uncertainas to how much of this work, commonlyknown as Wycliffe's Bible, was actually completedby him ; but there can be no doubtat all that his influence was behind the effortmade at translation and we may say that thewhole of the last ten years of his life was spentin trying to make the men of his day see thesimple truth of the Bible and to act upon it.The date of the completion of the first translationis usually given as 1382, just two yearsbefore his death ; but by then he had begunto suffer from weakness in health. This workwas such a literal rendering of the Latin, thatit was very nearly unreadable in English ; anda second translation was begun in order toimprove on the stilted style ; using the commonspeech of the people, yet retaining the accuracy.This second work definitely did not appear untilafter Wycliffe's death. It is always presumed tobe the work of John Purvey, who was for manyyears Wycliffe's faithful secretary and disciple.Some parts are also associated with NicholasHereford ; but as he was banished from thecountry in 1382, not all of this translation couldhave been completed by him.There can have been few men in historywho raised such controversial issues as Wycliffeand yet remained so aloof from the strife thathis theories created—and for the most partindifferent to the passions which he was arousing.His devotion to seeking truth at all costshad the disadvantage of never making hiscause a popular one.It has been suggested that the reason hewas not actively persecuted during his lifetimewas that he was so great a scholar that no onein the length and breadth of the land couldeffectively gainsay him. Those who tried torefute his so-called heresies came up againstso great a reasoning mind, that they weredumbfounded by his scholarship against whichthey had no argument. John Wycliffe wascontent to leave matters thus, believing ashe said that in the end "truth would conquer."He was not a reformer who was fired withthe idea of converting the world, but alwaysfelt that his ideas and writings would eventuallyfind a place in the life of the nation,which in a matter of two centuries they did.The Popes from time to time vindictivelyissued bulls or decrees against Wycliffe, butthese had little effect on him personally ashe had earlier rejected all Papal authority.There was however the strange trial at St.Paul's in 1380, when he was attacked by BishopCourtenay, yet defended by the powerful Johnof Gaunt, and it all came to nothing.As we might expect, many abusive epitaphswere written after he died from a stroke atLutterworth on the last day of 1384. Evenduring his lifetime, few of his enemies couldresist the pun on his name, and he was oftenreferred to as John "Wickedbelief." But itwould seem that it was after his passing thatthe main attack on Lollardry was made andhis followers were persecuted and fled thecountry, whilst many of Wycliffe's books andtranslations were burned. Fortunately for ushis written works were preserved among theHussites in far off Bohemia, where they servedto inspire later reformers, such as MartinLuther.Although at the time of his death, Wycliffehad not been officially excommunicated fromthe Roman Church and was therefore buriedin consecrated ground, with such measure didthe hatred of his work grow that some yearsafterwards his bones were dug up, burnedand the ashes thrown into the River Swift.How then shall we sum up this man whodeclared so often, "I believe in the end truthwill conquer." ? Like the Apostle Paul, hesat at the feet of the Gamaliels of his day, infact at one time he might have been calledthe Gamaliel—though not a Pharisee of thePharisees he was a Catholic of the Catholicsin his early life—not for him the dramaticThe Vulgate is the Latin translation of the Biblefrom the Hebrew and Greek, made by Jerome inthe 4th century A.D, It is still regarded as the"official" version of the Scriptures by the RomanCatholic Church, " (A, E» J.)

The TESTIMONY 83conversion of a Damascus road, but a slowrealisation of the errors of his church throughlong and painstaking study that led him inhis later years to declare : "The Bible is sufficientfor all men's needs : give them the truthof the Bible and they shall be free."{Reproduced by permission from THE MUTUAL MAGAZINE)The Prophecy of Joel (3)A. AkeroydΤ Ν JOEL 2 : 23 and 26, the children of Zion-*• are shown to be those who at the timeindicated, eat in plenty and praise the name ofthe Lord ; those who (in verse twenty-six) aretermed by God "My people" and who at thattime will "never be ashamed" (or derided)because they are redeemed of the Lord;THEY are the recipients of God's Holy Spirit."And it shall come to pass afterward, that Iwill pour out My Spirit upon all flesh.""Afterward," and certainly not before, Goddeals w r ondrously with them (verse twenty-six),but as verse twenty-nine states, "in those days"or at that time of dealing wondrously withthem."And I will shew wonders in the heavensand in the earth, blood and fire and pillars ofsmoke." (verse thirty).Here we are looking forward to future events,events transpiring at the time when God dealswondrously with His Spirit-invested people."Blood and fire and pillars of smoke." Theorder of those items may indicate the order ofevents ; the order of the wonders in the heavensand in the earth. Letting Scripture interpretScripture, let us examine Isa. 4 : 2-5, wherethis very time of wondrous dealing is underconsideration, where blood and fire and pillarsof smoke come into the picture of the timewhen the Branch of the Lord is beautiful andglorious, when the fruit of the earth is excellentfor them that are escaped of Israel, that is, forthe "remnant," the holy flock, the redeemedof the Lord, "when the Lord shall have washedaway the filth of the daughters of Zion, andshall have purged the blood of Jerusalem fromthe midst thereof by the spirit of judgment andby the spirit of burning," doubtless at thehands of God's seraphim. So THERE, isthe "blood" of Joel 2 : 30, purged and washedaway from any who at that time approachZion.THERE too, is the "fire" of Joel 2 : 30, inthe spirit of burning which effects the purging.And the "pillars of smoke" of Joel 2 : 30,find explanation in Isa. 4 : 5. "And the Lordwill create upon every dwelling-place of MountZion, and upon her assemblies, a cloud andsmoke by day, and the shining of a flamingfire by night; for upon all the glory shall be adefence" or as the margin gives it, "a covering."What kind of a covering can this be ? In theoriginal Hebrew, the word "defence" representsa canopy, actually a "marriage canopy" ; so,above all the glory of the Lord as exhibited inthe shining of a flaming fire, shall be a marriagecanopy. Again it may be asked, why ? Becausethose who are escaped of Israel, asIsaiah terms them, those who survive thetime of the spirit of judgment and of burningat the judgment seat, will be married to theBridegroom, for they constitute the Bride,the Lamb's wife ; they are the ones who can"abide" the "great and terrible day of theLord" ; these are they who can dwell with"the devouring fire" and with "everlastingburnings." (Isa. 33 : 14). They will havepassed, not only through the furnace of mortalaffliction, but through the refining fire of divinescrutiny when the Lord suddenly comes toHis temple, and henceforth they will abideunder the protection of the marriage canopy,the pillars of smoke of Joel 2 : 30, the"defence" mentioned in Isaiah's prophecy.This section has reference to the redeemedwho are delivered in mount Zion and inJerusalem for they are "the remnant whomthe Lord shall call."The words of verse one of Joel, chapterthree are being partially fulfilled at the presentday, for God has brought again the captivityof Judah and Jerusalem, that is, He hasrestored again their prosperity, or restoredagain the fortunes thereof; and in the dayswhen these conditions of restored prosperityobtain, God intends to "gather all nations" and

The TESTIMONY"bring them down into the valley of Jehoshaphat."It is said that history repeats itself,and this appears to be true of Scripturalhistory, for in 2 Chronicles, chapter twentythere is described an incident which symbolisesin many respects the occurrence foretold inJoel 3 : 1.More than eight hundred years before thebirth of Jesus, king Jehoshaphat of Judahgained a great victory over the allied armies ofMoab, Ammon and Edom, who had unitedagainst Jerusalem. Jehoshaphat (whose namemeans "God judges") had been assured ofvictory by Jahaziel (whose name means Godsees) and upon whom came the Spirit of theLord, impelling him to say, "The battle is notyours, but God's." Jehoshaphat led his armyin person and songs of praise preceded andfollowed the victory. The victory was completeand decisive, for all they of Edom,Moab and Ammon were "dead bodies" and"none escaped"; for these peoples had thoughtto oppress the people of God, but God seesand God judges, and the valley of decision onthat occasion was called Berachah, whichmeans "blessing." So there was destructionfor the allied forces of Edom, but blessing forthe people of God and they went again toJerusalem with joy.Similarly, here in Joel, chapter three, Godgathers all nations against Jerusalem to battle,into the valley of Jehoshaphat and "pleads"with them there because of His people ; Hisheritage whom these powers have scatteredamong the nations.God will contend with the offending nationsthere, passing sentence on them ; God judgesthem, for God sees as in the days of Jahaziel.Jahaziel's words will still apply to the contestantsin the valley of Jehoshaphat in days tocome, "The battle is not yours, but God's."And as Jehoshaphat was in the forefront of hisarmy, so will the Lion of the tribe of Judahlead his immortal army in person, marchingwith the flock of Bozrah from Teman inaccordance with Micah's words, "the Lordon the head of them." Songs of praise willfollow the victory, for the victors will say,"Thou art worthy to receive honour andglory ..." It is obvious from other parts ofScripture, that the Gogian host will be "alldead bodies" fallen upon the mountains ofIsrael ; fallen on the open field ; given therea place of graves in Israel; there shall theybury Gog ; seven months shall the house ofIsrael be burying of them, and the valley ofdecision, the valley of Jehoshaphat, the valleywhere God judges shall still be called Berachahwhich means "blessing," for the Lord will bethe hope or harbour of His people and thestrength of the children of Israel. He will roarout of Zion for their salvation. What have yeto do with Me Ο Tyre and Sidon ? (Joel 3 : 4).What are ye to Me ? How worthless and despicablein My sight ! Tyre and Sidon aresingled out as offenders against God and Hispeople. Tyre had been in Eden, the gardenpf the Lord and had "walked up and downmidst the stones of fire," says Ezekiel, that is,they had been in the Holy City where God'spresence dwelt between the cherubim. Theyshould have been a help to Israel, but gloriedin Israel's calamities."Proclaim ye this among the Gentiles :prepare war—let the nations be wakened andcome up to the valley of Jehoshaphat—for theday of the Lord is near in the valley of decision.""Thither cause Thy mighty ones tocome down Ο Lord." (verse eleven). Presumablythese are the angels who excel in strength,who do God's bidding hearkening to the voiceof His word, and they will include both cherubimand seraphim. The command is sentforth to put in the sickle for the harvest ofwickedness is ripe. "Multitudes, multitudesin the valley of decision, for the day of theLord is near in the valley of decision." This isthe time when "God's fury comes up into Hisfaces" (Ezek. 38 : 18). His faces are at thattime His glorified saints, partakers of thedivine nature, and the instruments of Hispower. Doubtless the fury in those faces willbe exhibited in the form of a glowing withSpirit Power, like the glowing of the angel atthe burning bush, or the glowing of the Lordwhich blinded Paul on the road to Damascus.The Lord then fights against those nations aswhen He fought in the day of battle. He roarsout of Zion. He utters His voice from Jerusalem.He pleads against those nations with pestilenceand with blood. The king of the North, thethe Northlander, comes his end with none tohelp him."Therefore," declares God Almighty, "Theday of vengeance is in My heart and the yearof Mv redeemed is come."There is no trace in the Talmud or elsewhere that it was a practice of the Pharisees to send a trumpeterbefore them when they distributed their alms. The expression "do not sound a trumpetbefore thee" is merely a graphic touch for "do not do it publicly and ostentatiously."—Dr. Farrar.

The TESTIMONY 85ENCEEdited by Ό. Α. Β. OWENThe Watchmen of the Red RiverD. A, B. Owen*T3ECAUSE the life is in the blood, this^ precious fluid must be protected at allcosts. We have already glanced at some of themeasures adopted by the body to ward offattack ; they work on the principle that preventionis better than cure, that it is preferableto keep bacteria out of the body than to fightthem within. But what happens once the citadelis breached ?The body has many features in common witha mediaeval city under siege. The skin is thewall acting as a protective rampart. Picture thecity attacked by enemy forces from without.Inside, the citizens are prepared, armed to theteeth. Barriers are to hand to seal off the streetswhich lead deep into the heart of the city.Building material is stacked at strategic pointsto thrust into any breach which may occur.Outside, the battering ram hammers at thegates ; miners dig under the wall ; missileshurtle through the air, seeking entry throughsome flaw in the defence. On the wall, lookoutsreport where the enemy activity is fiercest; thecity governor concentrates his men in thoseplaces ready for any breakthrough. And when abreach is made, thousands of the citizens rushto confine the attackers within narrow bounds,some fighting them hand to hand, others barricadingthe streets leading off, still others tryingto repair the damage even while the battle rages.Deep in the city, the tempo of things is steppedup by the over-ruling power : the smiths workfuriously to beat out more swords and spears ;the fletcher feathers countless arrows ; thewomen prepare food and drink to encourage theweary ; others take up the corpses, and tendthe wounded,While the city works as a whole under thedirection of a guiding mind, there is hope thatthe attackers may be driven off. But once letirresponsible elements refuse to co-operate, andall is lost.The city must be whole. So must it be withthe body. Some of the most curious and disturbingailments are those which come uponpeople, whose several parts are not co-ordinatedby a united guiding force. The apostle Paulsaid truly, "Now are they many members, butone body . . . God hath tempered the bodytogether . . . that there should be no schism inthe body, but that the members should have thesame care one for another/'What happens then when the citadel of thebody is breached ? A simple cut, for example,breaks through the protective skin, and the finenetwork of lymph vessels and capillaries isfractured : blood oozes out, bacteria move in.If the bacteria once establish themselves in thebloodstream, invasion of the body is muchsimplified and the invaders will be more difficultto destroy.Immediately the flesh is cut, a messageflashes to the controlling centre, and means areset in motion to seal the wound. There is atwo-fold purpose in this ; to stem the loss oflife-bearing blood, and to prevent furtheringress of dirt and bacteria. The mind does nothave to think out a plan of campaign or devisemechanisms to defeat the invaders. Thesethings have already been done by the Master* The author is largely indebted to two books byexpert medical men—W. B. Cannon's The Wisdomof the Body (1939) and The Machinery of the Body(1953) by A. J. Carlson and Victor Johnson,

86 The TESTIMONYMind of the Creator. There is no waste oftime, no fatal delay ; the reaction is immediate,the means are at the ready.Patrolling the bloodstream are innumerableworkers and warriors, prepared for split-secondaction, prepared to die for the body they serve.The first task is to conserve the life by sealingthe wound. This is the duty of microscopicbodies called platelets which cause the plasma(the liquid part of the blood) in the vicinity of awound to clot and form a jelly-like plug ofthrombo-plastin—a very effective seal. But itsvery effectiveness could prove disastrous ifthere were no other means of defence. Quitelikely the tool or weapon carries bacteria deepinto the wound. What happens now ? Theenemy is sealed into an ideal environment;warmth, moisture, darkness are ideal for therapid reproduction of bacteria. Soon, very soon,millions could be available to penetrate thepulsating channels of the red river of life. Butthe body is aware of the danger. No ! that isuntrue. The body behaves as though it is awareof the danger ; it acts as though a definite purposeis in view, as though it knows the end tobe striven for.Even while platelets and plasma co-operateto plug the wound, other cells are hastening tothe scene. Not only must the escape of bloodbe stemmed, but the infected area must besealed off to prevent an internal break-throughinto the main channels of communication. Howlike human warfare ! The confining of thebreach and the guarding of the ways preventthe enemy from enlarging his foothold ; closethe lines of communication, and all will be well.The invading bacteria are cut off behind by thesealing of their way of entry ; they must goforward or perish. The defences of the bodyare determined that they shall perish. Theminute tubes, the capillaries, which feed thearea have already constricted, so reducing theflow of blood to make it easier for the plug tobe fixed. Now the many cells surrounding thewound start to swell to help close the lymphpassages. The blood supply to the area increases,carrying with it millions of warriorsprepared for death : these are the white corpuscles,the phagocytes, which attack thebacteria by enclosing and killing them, themselvesdying in the process. The plateletsextend their sphere of operation around thewound, transforming plasma into jelly, thusimpeding bacterial movement, and the wholearea is surrounded by fibrous connectivetissue. When the seat of infection is effectivelysealed off, further chemical changes occurwhich break down the skin and allow the deadcontestants and the surrounding fluids to beexpelled as pus. Should the area near theaccess point fail to hold the invasion, otheradjacent areas will put up inflammationbarriers.If this defence mechanism were absent, aboil would be as dangerous as polio. If therewere no defences at all against bacterial invasion,a boil would be as lethal as the headsman'saxe.Occasions arise when the blood does becomeinvaded by bacteria. Further defences are thencalled into play. The phagocytes occur in theirmillions throughout the tissues, they wanderalong the arteries and veins, sometimes againstthe stream ; they frequent the capillaries andlymph nodes, they line the blood channels ofliver and spleen waiting to pounce uponbacteria that try to pass. Wherever they meet abacterium it is ingested and destroyed, andanother marvellous system disposes of theresulting corpses. The lymph nodes and thenetwork of vessels radiating therefrom areprofusely distributed in all parts of the body,especially in those places where entrance ismost easily effected, such as throat and intestines.These nodes are filled with largephagocytes, eager to repel any attack. So busymay they become that the node painfully swells.While all these 'hand to hand' combats arein progress, the controlling power busies itselfwith the body as a whole. Chemicals, notablyadrenalin, are poured into the bloodstream tohelp increase the tempo of all the bodilyprocesses. Temperature rises to fever heat, theheart beats faster thus increasing the speedwith which reinforcements (phagocytes) can behastened to the danger zones, and increasingthe rate at which poisons are eliminated. Theactual production of red and white blood cellsis speeded up to provide replacements for thecasualties. The increased temperature of theblood helps to weaken the bacteria.Over and above all this, in many infectionsthere comes into play "one of the most extraordinaryand beautiful processes of naturaldefence in the organic world." 1 The bodyreacts to the presence of foreign bodies orchemicals in the blood by the production ofantibodies or antitoxins which wage warfare onthe invaders. There are various types of antibody: some work hand-in-glove with thephagocytes by altering the bacteria so that the1 W. B. Cannon, The Wisdom of the Body (1939)p.225,

The TESTIMONY 87phagocytes can deal with them more effectively ;others cause the bacteria to agglutinate or clingtogether in masses thus reducing their effectivenessand making them easy prey for the whitewarriors of the blood and the filters which standsentinel. Some dissolve the bacteria ; somedisable them so that another substance occurringnaturally in the blood, can give them thecoup de grace ; some prevent the bacteria frommultiplying. The antitoxins do not usuallyattack the bacteria, they are concerned withneutralising the poisons which some bacteriapour into the blood.Both antibodies and antitoxins are highlyspecific and will effectively deal with only onekind of infection. Sometimes they remain inthe bloodstream after an attack for the rest ofthe lifetime ; and so effective are they that asecond attempt at invasion by the same sort ofbacteria has no hope of success.Such then are some of the wonderfulautomatic defences to be found in the humanbody, which obviously (yes ! why should notwe be as dogmatic as the rationalists ?) havebeen designed for the very purpose of protectingthe red river of life from contamination.Another equally extraordinary series ofdevices comes into play to prevent excessiveloss of blood from a severe wound. When suchan emergency arises it is vital that immediateaction is taken to counter it. How importantthis is can be better realised when we learn thatif the effective blood supply to the brain andheart falls below a certain minimum for morethan nve to ten minutes, serious and permanentchanges may occur in the cells of those organs,resulting in insanity or chronic heart trouble.Before a first-aider has time to feel in hispocket for means to improvise a tourniquet, thebody's defences have leapt into action. Theinjured blood vessels contract locally, and theplatelets and plasma begin the difficult task ofattaching thromboplastin jelly to the sides ofthe wound. It is rather reminiscent of hordesof workmen throwing bags of sand and cementinto a breach in a river bank through whichwater is pouring. It is obvious that moredrastic measures will be needed to stem theescape of life. Rapid loss of a third of the bloodfrom the system will cause death. As the dangerlevel is approached, extra emergency measuresare brought into play. The greater the amountof blood lost, the more readily that whichremains is able to coagulate, until the stage isreached when clotting is practically instantaneous.This remarkable and almost miraculouseffect is believed to be due to the action ofadrenalin releasing a powerful coagulant fromthe liver, although in the absence of adrenalinthere is still some increase in the speed ofclotting.This is not the only extraordinary reaction ofthe body to preserve sufficient blood for thelife of the creature to continue. There is acontraction of the vascular 2 system to thelower volume of the remaining blood so that itremains filled. This contraction is highlyselective : the parts feeding those organs whichwill suffer permanent damage if their supply ofblood is much lowered—the brain, heart,diaphragm etc.—do not change. Chance canget no foothold here.Then there are the reserves held in the spleen,a reservoir of enriched blood containing morethan the usual number of red cells : as bleedingprogresses, so the spleen contracts and forcesthis rich blood into the system to help makegood the loss. In extreme cases the spleen maycontract to a fifth of its normal size. And whenthe breach is sealed and the centres of life madesafe, other structures and devices begin workingovertime to bring the volume of the blood backto normal, and to effect permanent repair ofthe damaged tissue.All these fully automatic reactions aretriggered off by the sensitive nerve ends in thecarotid sinus, situated in the neck near the baseof the skull. These nerve ends are highlyresponsive to slight but sudden change in theblood pressure.When we are confronted by facts such asthese, we have to perform mental acrobatics toimagine that they could have arisen by chance.To let such imagination petrify into belief, onehas resolutely to depose reason from its primeplace in the mind, and set up magic on itsthrone. Logic becomes a figment, chance asolid reality.Like all living irrational things, the bodystructures shout praise for the Mind whichdesigned them and which sustains them inbeing. Those that we have described are butfew among the many. Everywhere we look wecan find that a Master Mind has been therebefore us. Truly we are "fearfully and wonderfullymade."2 The vascular system is the whole arrangement ofarteries, veins and capilliaries which contains theblood.The belief in God is the foundation stone of religion Dr. J. D. Jones

The TESTIMONYThe Man PreparedHPHE next scene is one startling in its action ;*- there are skirmishes, violent thunderstormsand whirlwinds ; and in a very shorttime all Job's cattle and goods are either stolenor consumed by the violence of the storm. Hisservants are slain by robbers, his children areburied beneath the debris of their eldestbrother's house, and Job, bereft of all, is seensitting upon a heap of ashes, covered with boilsand scraping himself with a potsherd. Satanhas been at work.We shall not pause here to consider in detaileither Satan or the problems which he presents ;this will be attempted later ; but we shallnotice however, that God is the moving forcein this great drama. He has complete control.God first raises the question of Job's character ;He then controls the stages through which Jobis made to suffer and even the extent of hissuffering.It is sometimes thought that this great epicarose through some casual remark made by oneof Job's contentious contemporaries, but this isnot so. There is nothing casual or accidentalabout the suffering of Job, it is God's doingand is planned with an end in view ; Satan isused as a tool in the hands of a Craftsman, onlyto be laid aside when the work is finished.Notice at this stage what God accomplishesthrough this Satan, as it is infinitely moreimportant than an attempt to identify him.During the opening scene, it was difficultfrom the historical facts recorded, to assessreliably or even to verify for one's self God'sestimate of Job's character, because his innerlife was obscured by his activities as judge "inthe gate," and his absorbing interest in homeand farm life. 2 Could it possibly be that Job'speace of mind was a serenity derived from aThe Book of Job (3)Cyril TennantEdited by E. WHITTAKEFwell-stocked larder ? Or that his show ofliberality was no more than an ostentatiousthrowing of crumbs from the rich man's table ?Was Job's life rooted more in his goods than inhis God ? Or in God because of the goods Heprovided ? All these and many similar questionsmight still have been asked, had not Satan beenmade to voice them early in the drama. Thatthere may be no doubt, God's testimony isheavily underlined—Job is perfect and upright,one who fears God and eschews evil !Satan then is used to remove the things bywhich Job is surrounded and which might wellobscure our true understanding of him. Allthose things which tend to mean so much to usand which might therefore have prejudicedour opinion are taken away—his cattle, hisgoods, his servants and even his family. Nowwe can really see the man and estimate hischaracter for ourselves. Now we know that innone of these things, of temporary and mundanevalue only, is the secret of Job's life to bediscovered. On the contrary how noble is thischaracter whose religion is so completelydetached from the things of this life, that withoutthem he can still fall upon the ground andworship God. 3 Even when Satan is allowed totake away Job's health, so that he sits upon theashmound scraping himself with a potsherd, hisgrief very great, 4 Job sins not with his lips. Itis indeed true greatness when a man reduced tounutterable frailty believes he can still remainsecure in God.Significance is seen by some in the statementthat "Job sinned not with his lips," as if hemight alreadv be sinning in his heart. Thissubtle distinction however, falsifies the wholepurpose of this scene which is intended to1 Job 1 : 6—2 : 13.2 Job 29 : 7.Job 1 : 21-22.Job 2 : 10.

The TESTIMONY 89establish Job's righteousness. Surely it is wiserto accept God's declared estimate of Job andHis later teaching through the Apostle James,that "If any man offend not in word the sameis a perfect man, and able also to bridle thewhole body." 5Here then is the grand stirring setting of theBook ; the finest man of the time has beenchosen and stripped of all material things andwell-nigh life itself so that his character as a"perfect" man might shine in all its untarnishedbeauty.The man has been chosen and prepared.The Man Hedged In"And the Lord said unto Satan, behold he isin thine hand ; but save his life." 6In examining this verse it will be appreciatedthat when viewed from the different standpointsof God, Satan and Job, it can have a separatesignificance for each.Firstly then from God's standpoint ! WhenGod gave this order He had Job's future inmind. Job was not to die until he had seen "theend of the Lord." 7God had a purpose in whichgreat things were not only to be revealed to Job,but through him to all 'Christian' posterity.Yes, Satan was given power, but God was incontrol, Satan being merely an agent used toset the stage, and this done he disappears ; butJob must remain—his life must be saved.Second, we adopt Satan's perspective. If thisstatement shows Satan's limitations, it showsalso his licence, his only prohibition being thetaking of Job's life. The story of Job's sufferingreveals how well Satan did his job and how nearthe limit he approached. So acute was thissuffering that Job was driven to cry in despair"... I am escaped by the skin of my teeth . . .the shadow of death is upon mine eyelids." 8Although the account of Satan's work isgiven in the first two chapters one does notappreciate the extremity of Job's suffering untilhis persistent groanings have been heardthrough the entire Book. Chapter 2 leaves uswith a Job distorted beyond recognition, hisgrief intense, but it is the remaining chapterswhich show how that grief builds up to anunbelievably distressing climax.There we see a man whose irrupted flesh isloathsome with worms and clods of earth, mademore gruesome as his emaciated body revealsthe skeleton-like frame beneath. 9So wretchedis the trial, that Job sees all the terrors of Godset in array against him ; God is seen as theenemy whilst Job feels like an animal whosebody is brought low almost to lifelessness bythe hunters' poisoned arrows. 10In his distresshe likens God to some great giant who rushesupon him to take him by the neck and shake himto pieces. * λEven when, throughout the book of Job,allowance has been made for the somewhatextravagant use of metaphor occasioned by theliterary style, it is evident that Job's sufferingfrom the sickness was very acute ; and to thismust be added the accusations of the threefriends, the jeers and taunts of "the children offools and base men viler than the earth" whosmote his face and spat upon him. λ 2Already it will have been seen that the sufferingof Job significantly approached very nearto that of Jesus both in extent and kind, andthat there is even a marked similarity oflanguage used to describe them.Third, the handing over to Satan of Job'sown person, was supremely challenging to Jobhimself. It meant the cutting off of his retreat;he was now hedged in ; there was no way ofescape, not even in death. λ 3How often did Jobwish that he had never been born or that Godwould take away his life, but no ! That way wasclosed. It was as though Job had been placed inan arena with the enemy and the only escape forwhich he could faintly hope could come by thedefence of endurance, a quality in which Jobwas not lacking ; in fact, it is Job who is singledout as an example of this very quality by theApostle James when writing abouttribulation. 14The perfect man, prepared, is now hedged in.In short, we have a remarkable opportunity tostudy the reactions of Job under the inescapableconditions in which God has placed him.56789Jas. 3 : 2.Job 2 : 6.Jas. 5 : 11.Job 19 : 20 and16 : 16.Job 7 : 5.I 0I II 2I 3I 4Job 6 : 4.Job 16 : 2-14. 1Job 30 : , 1 8, 10.Job 3 : 23; 19 : 8;3 : 3 ; 6 : 8-9.Jas. 5 : 1 1. R.V.We, ignorant of ourselves,Beg often our own harms, which the wise powersDeny us for our good,Shakespeare

90 The TESTIMONYOut of the DustEdited by F. E. MITCHELLThe British Museum in 1960 and 1961IMMEDIATELY to the right of the entrance**· hall of the museum, past the bookstall, isthe Grenville Library, containing printed booksbequeathed to the museum in 1847 by the Rt.Hon. Thomas Grenville. These include choiceilluminated manuscripts, English, French,Flemish and Italian, including exhibits ofBiblical interest, such as the WinchesterPsalter, or Book of Psalms of the 10th century.This rcom gives immediate access to theManuscript Saloon and on the right is a doorleading to the Middle Room, reserved formanuscripts of special importance, including acopy of Magna Carta. The two most interestingexhibits from the point of view of the Biblelover are the basic manuscripts, the CodexSinaiticus and the Codex Alexandrinus, whichare displayed in the same case and slightly tothe right of the entrance. These are two of thethree earliest and most important Biblicalmanuscripts in existence, the third being theCodex Vaticanus, which is probably the mostancient of the three, and has been in the VaticanLibrary in Rome for at least four or five hundredyears. It is known as Codex B, a codex being amanuscript volume or book as distinct, forinstance, from a scroll, which is in roll form.Of the two codices in the museum, theSinaitic, known as Codex Aleph, is the older,dating to the fourth century A.D. The Alexandrian,known as Codex A, is a centuryyounger. All three are written in uncialcharacters, that is in capital letters without anydivision between words, as : THEBOOKOFTHEGENERATIONOFJESUSCHRIST.Later writing was called cursive. This waswritten in a running hand like our writing. Thefact that a manuscript is written in uncials isevidence of its early date,BIBLICAL MANUSCRIPTSF. E. MitchellEach of the manuscripts in the BritishMuseum has a history. Sinaiticus was foundby a German scholar, Dr. Tischendorf, whodevoted his life to the discovery and study ofancient Bible manuscripts. In May 1884 hevisited the Convent of St. Catherine at the footof Mount Sinai. In the middle of the great hallof the library he found a basket full of oldparchments. The librarian told him that twoheaps of similar documents had been burnt. Oninvestigation he found a number of old sheetsof a copy of the Septuagint (Greek) OldTestament. The convent authorities gave himabout forty sheets, but he showed so muchsatisfaction that they became suspicious of thevalue of the documents and refused to gwe himany more. He took the forty sheets home toGermany where their appearance caused agreat sensation in the literary world. He didnot disclose where he had found them. TheEnglish Government sent out to the East ascholar to buy up any valuable Greek manuscriptshe could find, but he did not visit theconvent. Tischendorf made further efforts topersuade the monks to yield the remainingpages without success, though on a second visithe did obtain a sheet containing eleven lines ofthe Book of Genesis. He continued his effortsfor fifteen years. In 1859 he visited the conventagain, this time armed with a commission fromthe Emperor of Russia. At first he could notfind anything of value, but as he was about toleave, disappointed, a monk showed him in acell a bulky bundle wrapped in red cloth. Theparcel contained the fragments he had seenfifteen years before and also other parts of theOld Testament, the New Testament complete,and some of the Apocryphal Books. Concealinghis joy this time ? he managed, through the

The TESTIMONY 91CODEXSINAITICUSGreek BibleVellumJohn 21 : 1-25Fourth Century[? ; *****^3Reproduced bycourtesy oftheBRITISH MUSEUM*». J,Tsar's influence, to obtain the precious documentsand they were stored in the Library ofSt. Petersburg, as Leningrad was then called.In 1933 the British Government purchasedthem from the Russians for £100,000, and theyhave since been housed in the museum.Originally the codex probably had at least 720leaves : now there are only 390, of which 242contain a great part of the Old Testament and148 contain the whole of the New Testament,with some New Testament Apocrypha additions.43 leaves of the Old Testament are inLeipzig, and there are three fragments atLeningrad. The remainder are in the museum.The leaves are 15 " by 13J-".The Codex Alexandrinus, so called from theone-time residence of the donor, was presentedto Charles I by Cyril Leuchar, Patriarch ofAlexandria, and then of Constantinople, inA.D. 1628. It was at once used for a completerevision of the Authorised Version publishednext year at Cambridge. The codex was givento the museum in A.D. 1753. Only ten leavesare missing from the Old Testament part butthe New Testament is much more defective,having lost twenty-five leaves from the beginningof Matthew's Gospel, two from John'sGospel and three from Corinthians. It iswritten two columns to a page, the Vatican andSinaitic codexes having respectively three andfour.The two codices are written on parchment,i.e. the skin of calves, sheep, goats, etc., preparedfor writing. This surface, being moredurable, had by this time superseded papyrus,which was made from a species of reed. Theink used was made from charcoal, gum andwater.None of the three codices was available tothe translators of the 1611 A.D. AuthorisedVersion of the Bible.VersionsLeaving the Middle Room and turning rightin the Manuscript Saloon, the visitor willperceive on his right, in the corner of the saloon,a small room called the Bible Room. This isused from time to time for special exhibitions,but at the time of writing it is occupied by casescontaining, amongst other things, examples of

- .^.-,.........-.....-.-.•.--..-.... • .•-·..· ·•••• ••• ·.'^^••••'ϊ92 The TESTIMONYCODEXALEXANDRINUSGreekVellum2 Peter 3 : 16 - end1 John 1:1-2:9FifthCenturyReproducedby courtesy oftheBRITISH MUSEUMEnglish versions of the Scriptures. It is necessaryto distinguish carefully between manuscriptsand versions. The former are copies inthe original tongue. The latter are translationsinto other tongues.The cases furnish material for a brief considerationof some of the stages of the developmentof the English Bible. The cases are numbered,starting in the middle of the rear wallwith number 71 and going round the room in aclockwise direction until number 88 is foundnext to number 71.One of the earliest contributors to the progressof the Book was the Venerable Bede whowas born at Wearmouth about A.D. 674 andbecame a monk in the monastery of Jarrow. Hetold the story of Caedmon, a cowherd at themonastery of Whitby who was inspired to singof the beginning of created things in a poemwhich is still extant, In the spring of A.D, 735Bede lay dying. He was struggling to finish atranslation of the Gospel of John. At last thescribe, who was writing amid blinding tears,was able to say, "It is finished, master." Itwas the end for the master too, for, his workdone, he died. In case 79, immediately to theright of the entrance door, is a letter from Bede'sdisciple, Cuthbert, describing graphically thelast moments of his master's life.Later, King Alfred the Great (A.D.849-911),made a translation of the Psalms. The earliestform in which the Psalms and the Gospelsappeared in English, or rather Anglo-Saxon,was in the shape of word-for-word translationswritten between the lines of Latin manuscriptsand known as "glosses." An example is seen inthe Lindisfarne Gospels, written about A.D.687 by Eadfrith, Bishop of Lindisfarne. Afacsimile of this production is seen in casenumber 80,

The TESTIMONY 93For some hundreds of years after the time ofAlfred the Great, not much progress was madein bringing the Bible, or parts of it, to thecommon people. Since there was no uniformlanguage into which to translate it, owing tothe numerous dialects in the country, it wasvirtually impossible to produce a Book w 7 hichcould be read by all. By the early 14th centuryhowever, the difficulty had been overcome andthe way was open for a great step forward.About A.D. 1320 John Wycliffe, the first of theEnglish Reformers, was born. He and hisfollowers, known as the Lollards, attacked theabuses of the Church. They asserted that everyman ought to have the right to study theScriptures, "Goddis Lawe," for himself. They,therefore, began to translate the Bible into -English from the Latin and in A.D. 1382 theirtask was completed. In 1378 Wycliffe had beentried for heresy at Blackfriars Monastery,London. At a critical point in the trial, themonastery and city of London were shaken byan earthquake. Although his accusers wereawed, the trial proceeded and Wycliffe wascondemned but not excommunicated. Nevertheless,he was allowed to return to his(To be continued).parsonage at Lutterworth, where he was ableto complete the version of the Scripturesin the language of the people. In 1384 hedied, after a fit, to the great joy of hisfoes who regarded the seizure as the judgmentof God on him. Forty years later, by a decreeof the Council of Constance, his bones weredug up and burned and the ashes thrown intothe river Swift, which flowed by his Church atLutterworth. As has often been said since, "theSwift bore them into the Severn, and theSevern into the narrow seas, and they again intothe ocean, thus the ashes of Wycliffe are anemblem of his teaching, which is now dispersedover all the world." The revised version ofWycliffe's Bible was completed four years afterhis death.In case 72 are copies of the New Testamentin the later Wycliffe version, dating to the early15th century ; copies of the Gospels of Matthewand Mark in the earlier version ; and also atranslation of the Apocalypse with commentaryattributed to Wycliffe. In the case in the centreof the room nearest the door is a copy of theearlier version of the Bible in English, preparedby Wycliffe's adherents.TVTE are once again indebted to C.B. of** Seaford for various cuttings, and fromthese, the following matters of interest arise :Flowers In The BibleLecturing recently to the Palestine ExplorationFund on the plants of the Bible, Mr. F.Nigel Hepper made some surprising identificationsof flowers mentioned in the Scriptures,as suggested by modern botanists. He urgedthat, owing to mistranslations and misinterpretations,the Bible presented its modernreaders with images of flowers which were veryfar from the truth. He stated that the roses ofEnglish gardens were unknown in ancientPalestine, and suggested that Solomon's Roseof Sharon was more likely to be what we shouldcall a tulip. Isaiah's statement that the desertwill blossom as the rose, really had reference tothe daffodil or the narcissus. The lily to whichSolomon was likened in his glory was probablya scarlet anemone. The palace, Shushan,belonging to Ahasuerus of Persia, was mostlikely named from this flower, the Hebrewterms being the same.GleaningsThe Babylonian willows, on which the Jewsin exile hung their harps, was a very differentkind of tree from the English weeping willow.Mr. Hepper suggested that the fruit of the Treeof Knowledge in the Garden of Eden was anapricot.In these matters we are very much in thehands of the experts, but the suggestions madeare interesting.Discoveries In PalestineThe Jewish Department of Antiquities hasrecently excavated an ancient cemetery atAzor, near Tel Aviv. In one of the tombs,Philistine pottery vessels were found placedaround the head of the deceased, a young man.On his throat lay an Egyptian scarab, representingthe Nile god Hapi, surrounded by threecrocodiles. The scarab belongs to the time ofthe Philistines in Palestine.Recently a young Hebrew University studentdiscovered near the Convention Centre, wherethe Zionist Congress was held, the most ancientcoin ever found in Israel. It was minted inAthens at the time of Ezra and Nehemiah.F. Ε. Μ.

The TESTIMONYEVIEWSEdited by F. WHITELEYA Strange Factor in World AffairsF. WhiteleyWe are indebted to our friend, Mr. David R. Whitehouse of Burnham-on-Sea, Somerset,for a copy of The Weekly Reviezv, α dated August 26, 1960. This publication startedin 1938 under the sponsorship of an influential group of U.K. Members of Parliament.A permanent staff now maintains this information service in the form of "A summaryof political and economic intelligence for business men and advanced students of worldaffairs," under the editorship of Kenneth de Courcy.Mr. Whitehouse observes, "The issue contains an article dealing with Israel's growingawareness of their destiny as foretold by the prophets. Coming from a journal dedicatedto assisting financiers with their investments, it forms a strange and powerful testimonyto the Truth."We thank him, not only for bringing it to our attention, but also for obtaining permissionto reproduce the article in The Testimony. Our grateful acknowledgment isalso hereby expressed to the publisher of The Weekly Reviezu. We are sure that, for allwho, after the spirit, have embraced "The Hope of Israel," 2such unsolicited testimonythat Israel, after the flesh, herself senses that "The Most Dramatic Event of All Time"is almost upon her, will not only serve to confirm their faith and expectation, but willalso spur to a prompt response to that ringing charge of the prophet, of which we catchthe echo across twenty-seven centuries of time—not now in anger and rebuke, but inurgent exhortation : "PREPARE TO MEET THY GOD, Ο ISRAEL." 3—F.W.Λ MONGST the strange signs of our times,none is more significant than the evolutionof Israeli thinking about world affairs.Drawn from all parts of the globe, the Jewsin Palestine are in the most vulnerable militaryposition imaginable. Many (though by nomeans all) have abandoned comfort and securityelsewhere to place themselves in a position ofextreme danger.This extraordinary adventure has beenbacked by the financial aid of a communitygenerally inclined to think more of profit thana mad adventure. Israel is the outstandingphenomenon of our times.One detects amongst the Israel Jews agrowing number of people who are developinga kind of exultation. Indeed there is a growingsense of a prophetic mission. More and moreIsrael Jew r s now see themselves as fulfillingancient Biblical prophecies. More and moreJews in Palestine believe that no matter whatthe military odds may be Israel is fore-ordainedto both the inevitability of battle and victory.There are, of course, very many who holdno such opinions. Agnosticism and down toearth considerations remain widespread—butnothing like as widespread as ten years ago.The overall trend is towards belief in a propheticmission and Divine protection.1The Weekly Review is an 8 p. leaflet, 8J by 5^ in.,published by The Weekly Review Ltd., AlderbourneManor, Gerards Cross, Bucks., England.By private subscription only. Copyright in all23countries. Acts 28 : 20. Amos 4 : 12.

The TESTIMONY 95Influence On PolicyThis is very important because it influencespolicy. These beliefs make many influentialJews far more ready to face unpleasant factsin a way which we in Europe and Americawould not dream of. We are without any senseof special protection and fear of war makesus exclude it from our thinking to a largeextent.In Israel where the conviction of war,protection, and actual victory is now so widespreadthere is a growing tendency actuallyto look for signs of a coming conflict ratherthan as in the West to do the opposite.Our observers have been much struck bythis. We find in Israel an outlook totallydifferent from that anywhere else to be seen.Many in Israel are convinced of four thingswhich we in the West cannot bear to consideror if we do largely disbelieve.Israel believes in (i) the certainty of w r ar ;(ii) the certainty of victory ; (iii) protectionfrom the popularly envisaged consequences ofnuclear war ; and (iv) a future order of societyunder actual Divine rule—a Messianic era.An Unique AttitudeIndeed it is perhaps true to say that a newthinking has grown up in this strange countrywhich is totally at variance with western thinking.If religious thinking in Europe andAmerica is largely ethical, in Israel it tendsmore and more to belief in actual supernaturalism.This is the kind of belief whichsay Moses had—that is to say belief in theactuality of Divine intervention in worldlyaffairs, totally upsetting the calculations andphysical powers of a secular state.A large part of Israel deeply and sincerelybelieves that world events are not finallydecided by men. We face in this small countryan opinion which is actually Biblical and weknow of no other country where policy isinfluenced by a mystical concept regardlessof any human or physical factor whatsoever.It is partly because of this that either theArab continent or Russia must back down orthere must be a clash. The opinion held inIsrael being as we have described, Israel herselfwill never do so. No Government in Israel coulddo so even if it so wished. If Communism is adriving force, Zionism in its present form isa far, far greater one. It is the only one of itskind on the side of the West. We may agree ordisagree with it—but its exultation is absoluteand forms an influence in world affairs whichmay prove of the greatest possible significance.Israel believes that her testing time lies notfar ahead, and expects that when it comes,regardless of how powerful Russia may be orwhat alliances she may have, an actual interventionby God will destroy every humancalculation and Israel will be saved.The Promised LandNot only is this believed, but a growingnumber of Palestinian Jews believe that theywill finally inherit the whole of the originalarea of the Promised Land and will be supremein world affairs as the leaders of world religiousand cultural thought. Many believe that thiswill occur as the result of the coming of apersonal Messiah who will not only makeIsrael the world's leading nation, but will bethe true physical descendant of King David.That such views should emerge from animmigration largely agnostic in origins is astriking fact of which we in the West havefar too little knowledge. Too little becauseit is a conviction of very great influence onpolicy in a vital area.It is in light of these convictions that manypeople in Israel have recently heard of Egypt'sdemands upon Turkey and Persia. Thesedemands are believed by Israel to have beendictated by Russia and to be a sign that Israel'sordeal does not lie far away.LOVE OF THE WORLD AND LOVE OF GOD''Nothing doth amaze and astonish me so much as to see many witty and ingenious men of mostprofessions so industrious and diligent in pursuing their worldly and temporal advantage and sonegligent and remiss in what concerns their eternal good, when every day we see that all we grasp atis vanity and vexation and that nothing but the love of God can fill and satisfy the heart of man."King James II—Private Diary (1686).What an exalted honour to have Christ mention your name at last with approbation in the presenceof a countless assemblage of his approved brethren from all ages, and myriads of attendant angels !"

96 The TESTIMONYRed Star Over ChinaHubert W. CraddockEdited by H. W.CRADDOCKΛ Ν entirely new political connotation has**· obtruded itself into world affairs duringthis last decade of the Kingdoms of Man.Previously, this nation we have under consideration,was deemed to be too remote in its emptyvastness to hold much of interest to Westernpoliticians. Its trade was an affair of "BigBusiness." Its national dress was regarded asbeing more fitted to the music-hall and lightopera entertainment. Occasionally, stories ofbanditry and competing local power rivalriesfiltered through to make transient items of news.History books chronicled the turbulent annalsof a long past age, where tyrants whose misdeedswere made picturesque by the receding perspectiveof antiquity, scourged the Easternworld with savage ferocity. But a twentiethcenturymenace ! The very sensationalismsurrounding the idea seemed to discount seriousconsideration on anyone's part.In particular, students of the Word of God,professing especial interest in the subject ofProphecy, could find no accommodation whateverfor the subject or assess for it any part orplace in the Divine programme. Few, if any,commentators had made reference to it in thepast. The very name of the nation is mentionedonly once in the Scripture, and then under avague bygone nomenclature. Obviously then,it is of great profit for the "Watchman" to getan accurate and unbiassed picture of developmentsin modern "Sinim" and, by a thoughtfulappraisement of events as they unfold, to givedepth and accuracy to current occurrences inthe light of prophecy fulfilled and fulfilling.We turn the pages of the calendar back toOctober 1st, 1949. A new order of things wasborn in the Far East marking a Revolutiondestined to play a part in world affairs of equalimportance to that other "October Revolution,"that of Russia's in 1917. After twenty years ormore of civil strife and the successful spread ofCommunist strength and influence, a smallclique of ruthless revolutionaries led by a remarkablepeasant-organiser, Mao Tse Tung,seized the heaven-sent opportunity of thetermination of the war with Japan, and in theresultant confusion arrogated supreme powerfor themselves. Their country was ripe for anew birth and a new programme, and theirMagna Carta was proclaimed by Mao inauguratingthe People's Republic of China before amadly cheering multitude of 200,000 RedChinese in the square of "The Gate of HeavenlyPeace" in Peking. By virtue of the sameproclamation, incidentally, the choice of Pekingwas approved as the official capital of China,and the Western Calendar was formallyaccepted in conformity with the rest of theworld.A new balance of power in the Far East hadarisen. Red China has emerged as a greatcontinental sovereign dominion in Asia. Ledby a totalitarian government, the new China ishere to stay and is growing in power at a remarkablerate. Already, the Red Colossus is exertingvast influence on the stage of world affairs, andthe pace of her industrial and economic developmentis little short of spectacular according tothe verdict of informed, responsible visitors.A great deal of unreliable partisan adulationhas been published by superficial sympathisersof the 10/14-day tourist variety who have beenallowed to see and hear only what the nativepropagandists have chosen to disclose and theyhave repeated on their return home the obviouslyinspired statements prepared as official"handouts" for the credulous.Of great concern to the peoples of the worldis this impact of Red China's rise and sudden

The TESTIMONY 97TROUBLOUSTIDINGSFROM THENORTHAND THEEAST(With acknowledgmentstoU.S. NEWS)WBmtransformation from a divided sub-colonialheterogeneity into a strong and modern WorldPower. A disturbed world is only just beginningto realise that, taken together, the Red Chineseand Russian revolutions are the crucial politicaldevelopments (save that only of the establishmentof the Israeli republican State) of the 20thcentury—each holding calamitous portents ofthe violation of the peace and safety of the 60s.The sea and the waves of Communist democracyare roaring !The magnitude of the danger and the challengeio seen in the ever-increasingly importantrole now being played by the Red ChinesePeople's Republic in the counsels of theCommunist world, and are supplementing—ifnot actually rivalling—Soviet efforts to spreadCommunist dogma especially throughout theindependent nations in Africa and LatinAmerica. The sickeningly familiar pattern ofpenetration in these vast important areas isbeing conducted by "trade and aid," backed upby intimidating military menace.It is interesting to read The Times diplomaticcorrespondent reporting that the Chinese areadopting large-scale "friendship links" andstudent exchanges. They are actually outdoingthe Soviet Union in radio broadcasts and visitsof official delegations. For example, twice-daily60-minute programmes go over the air inEnglish to each country throughout the continentof Africa. Are readers of The Testimonyaware, for example, that China and Russiabetween them are broadcasting as many as 300hours each week in fifty-five languages in theirCommunist propaganda efforts to win the battlefor men's minds ? It is tragic how few areaware of, and how many ignore the warningsignal from the land of the "Yellow Peril."In less than twelve years since Mao Tse Tungand his revolutionary band seized power inPeking, they have set up a Chinese-AfricanFriendship Association and are planning anInstitute of African Affairs. Diplomaticembassies have been established in Cairo, theSudan, Morocco, Ghana and Guinea. On theprinciple that there is no substitute for personalcontacts, 25 Chinese delegations visited Africancountries in 1960, while no less than 84 Africandelegations made diplomatic trips to China inthe same period, where "red carpet" treatmentwas accorded them.# * *Following Mao's announcement of theformation of the People's Republic of RedChina, a vast internal reconstruction period wasset in motion, this being supplemented by thefirst of the "Five-Year Plans." It was in"l957that the Red rulers issued a decree inviting thenative "intelligentsia" to criticise freely theregime, and Mao personally made an astonishingappeal for freedom of thought. "Let a hundred

98 The TESTIMONYflowers blossom and a hundred schools ofthought contend," he invited. For three or fourmonths the hundred flowers bloomed and thehundred schools of thought contended againstauthority. The Communist leaders got all thecriticism they asked for—"pressed down andrunning over." By June, the hundred flowershad been stamped upon and the hundredschools ferociously reduced to one once more,i.e., the original official party line. Opponentsof the regime had rashly revealed themselves infour fateful months, and were promptlyliquidated for taking a Communist at his word.Arising, however, from these airings of differences,a new policy was evolved, resulting in the"Great Leap Forward" of 1958.We have already given in The Testimony(Jan.-Feb. 1960) an accurate account of therevolting details of this "Great Leap Forward"project as it can be authoritatively obtainedwhen translated into terms of the sheer indifferenceof a brutal totalitarianism to the humandeprivations and suffering of regimented,hapless, helpless, inarticulate, indistinguishablemasses of peasantry and artisans. In his book,The Chinese Communes, the author, RichardHughes, describes how the quivering flesh andthe ragged bodies of 250 millions of humanbeings are herded together to work, eat, sleep,procreate and die without any escape from theindignities of their barbaric strait-jackets.Under the totalitarian system, it matters notwho gets trampled upon provided the objectiveis attained.One is profoundly moved into speculating ;"How can such loathsome despotism exist thatdenies elementary liberty of body and mind tohundreds of millions of fellow humans ? Howcomes it that the phenomenon of these emancipated(?) 60s is the occasion presented to andtaken by ruthless men to seize the reins ofsupreme power ?" These autocrats plunder andpillage, they waste, ravage and despoil allspiritual, moral and material effects and assetsof their fellow members of society. They areantagonistic to all forms of religion. They areconscienceless atheists who worship only at theshrines of their idols of materialism andsovereign might. Solemn promises givenyesterday are violated with cynical treacherousnesstoday. How true is the Word of the Lordthat the basest of men are set up in the kingdomof men. A godless atheism reigns supreme overmore than a thousand millions of the earth'sinhabitants. "O God, how long shall theadversary reproach ? Shall the enemy blasphemeThy Name for ever ?"Meanwhile, the world position continues todeteriorate. Who can deny but that the oldorder changeth and the old fabric is breakingup ? Students of the Scriptures know that thewoes of the world are incurable by humanagency. The millions of those who have somefaith in God, however inapposite, avow abelief in the * tightness" of moral teachings asfound in the Bible. Where such exists, thereis recognised—perhaps inarticulate or unexpressed—anobligation of man to man, andman to his Maker. There is no desire tothreaten or destroy and to kill, but rather a wishto live and let live ; to keep faith with ideas andideals.While adhering to all that we have written inrecent issues of The Testimony regarding thegrowth of an authoritarian Catholic Church,this writer would like to quote here some aptwords addressed by Pope John XXIII in Romeon 16th January : "The point has beenreached when the sweet name of Peace isabused, so as to be like an instrument—not forpromoting harmony of minds—but for fomentingrivalries and divisions."# # #In addresses which this Editor has beeninvited to give in various parts of the countryon the subject of the significance of our times,we have frequently posed the interesting problemas to the reasons whereby the shifts ofworld power over the centuries invariably takethe direction of the diurnal course of the sun.The subject holds great fascination for thestudent of affairs as to reasons and results ofthe ever-westward power-shifts of the nations.Commencing in the 7th century B.C. withthe empires of Assyria-Babylonia and Persia inwhat we know as the Middle Eastern area of theglobe, the historical developments of worlddominion have always traversed in a westerlydirection. Greece, Rome, Western Europe,Spain, Britain—all of them arose supreme intheir time, and then declined. Within the lifetimeof this generation, world power hascrossed the Atlantic, and the United States nowholds unchallenged the Number One positionin the comity of nations. The sun fails not inits diurnal course, taking all the evidences ofcoming ascendancy in human affairs with it;and already the tremors announcing the forthcoming arrival of shifting world power aremaking themselves felt across the Pacific Ocean.A truly marvellous phenomenon ! Futureworld dominance—which Asiatic power is toprevail, China or Russia ? Readers of the Bibleare privileged to know the answer. It is neither.

The TESTIMONY 99$1,SiϋΐMM.9fl!ΡfmIA RIFT HASRECENTLYTAKEN PLACEBETWEENTHE TWOGREATCOMMUNISTPOWERSOF THEEASTERNWORLDTHE CRACK IN THE WILLOW-PATTERN(With acknowledgments to THE DAILYMAIL)It is the Lord Jesus Christ to whom all powerin heaven and in earth has been delegated by theCreator, "Whose universal sway the known andunknown worlds obey."We might then sum up this fascinating phaseof our subject with the thought that were theLord to delay his Coming (which God forbid !)the centre of world dominion would continueto travel westwards to arrive eventually at theMiddle East, its original starting point. But theDivine Architect of world dominion hasdecreed otherwise.# # #An apprehensive world has been anxiouslyawaiting the result of the Communist InternationalConference held during November andDecember of last year in Moscow. 80 leadersfrom 45 countries attended and a report hasonly recently been issued after long and tortuousnegotiations. After one has wadedthrough a mass of verbiage only does the centralfact emerge, and that is a directive to Communiststhroughout the world to step up inevery way the war against individual freedomand liberty, and to use all weapons ranging fromdiplomacy to armed revolution.One certitude emerges also, namely, thatrenascent China is developing a pattern diversefrom that already evolved in Russia. No longeris Soviet Russia to be regarded as the Supremoaccording to guarded reports leaking from EastGerman and Polish sources. Recognition of thisleadership previously exacted from the satellitestates is now conspicuously absent, and instead,the Red Chinese Colossus is exerting vast andincreasing influence upon the global chessboardas an equal and a compeer. Albania, that pygmyamong the Marxian giants, chose to line upwith China during conference divisions againstKruschev with the result that Russian suppliesof material goods to her have since mysteriouslystopped !Mao and Kruschev now jointly preside liketwo impious Cenobites at the blasphemousBlack Mass of Marxian Communism. Thereare two "Popes" on the chair of Lenin, both of

100 The TESTIMONYthem rivals for the leadership of the Communistworld. Sooner or later, either the Dictator ofRussia or the Dictator of China will lay claimto the Red Empire, and the prospects arisingfrom the recent World Communist Conferenceindicate a progressive deterioration betweenMoscow and Peking. However clever thecamouflage by papering over the cracks, majorstrains are apparent in the Soviet-ChineseAlliance, and it is not wishful thinking tosuppose that tensions may increase progressive-The dividing issues are few, but fundamental.China, with her teeming millions of manpower,and total disregard for human life or comfort,clings to the doctrines of Marx and Engels as tothe inevitability of conflict between the Communistand Capitalist orders of things. Mao isdiametrically opposed to Kruschev's policy ofdetente towards the West, and is demonstratinghis disfavour by intruding into the recognisedexclusive Soviet preserves. Red China is givingmoral and material help to the emergingchrysalis states of Africa and encouragingmilitary aggression in territories east of theIndian Ocean. Not for nothing has there beenthis curious turn of events that Red China hasgrown to be such a strong military power.Infiltration, intrigue, espionage, subversion,invasion—the pattern is disturbingly identical.The ultimate aim is the same ; both leaderswish to erect the Babel Tower of one worldCommunist State. The difference lies in thestrategy to be adopted, namely, the means ofcompetition for world supremacy ; while thecrux of the conflict lies in the mutually opposingtactics. Kruschev contends that global warfareis not inevitable and that Communism willtriumph by beating the Western nationsindustrially, scientifically, economically, and bywinning the battle for men's minds. Should theLord Jesus remain away, this Editor must admitwith the greatest human apprehension that timeis on Kruschev's side, and utters a prayer thatGod will prevent it!Mao's attitude is rocklike in diametricopposition. · He claims that Communism canwin only through armed conflict against capitalist-imperialism.He calculates that by sheerweight of population, China will survive theworst, and is quoted as having said that hiscountry could afford 300 million casualties andstill survive. Another radical reason for Maodesiring early war is that it would destroy boththe U.S.A. and Russia, leaving China thestrongest power extant in the world.No longer is there the ineptitude of a centurynow gone, but instead there is the ambition tomake Red China the leading power in Asiaduring this decade. Mao is mounting a massiveoffensive against all Eastern lands from the Seaof Japan to the Indian Ocean. Shown here onthe map are his targets of attack. There hasbeen the aggressive expansion into Koreachecked only by prompt American militaryintervention ; the entry of massive numbersinto North Vietnam in an attempt to wincontrol of all Indo-China—a military move thatmay yet place Malaya and Thailand in intolerablejeopardy ; there has just been the abortiveeffort to influence overlordship of Laos ; thereis an attempt to subvert the Philippines ; therehave been ferocious attacks on the north Indianborder.The extermination of religion and culture inThibet has been accomplished, with 65,000Thibetans killed and 1,000 monastries destroyed,according to the exiled Dalai Lamahimself. Tens of thousands have been imprisonedand thousands more have vanished,some presumably having fled the country.There is a tremendous military build-up and anaked show of force directed against all Asiawith its vast material resources and geographicalstrategic salients. Mao's next supreme movemay be his most important, as it concerns thesimple matter of geography. The Sino-Sovietborders meet and march parallel for thousandsof miles and the Red Chinese rulers have madeit abundantly clear that their mission does notstop short as acting as a counterweight on theSoviet behalf with antagonistic America on theleft hand and a militaristic Japan on the right.Mao will never be content just to imitate themurderous Mongol rapines of Tamerlane andGenghiz Khan on the idol-loving illiterates ofthe Pacific archipelago. Moscow and Pekingare gambling for heavy stakes !# # #But now an entirely fresh consequence, grimand sombre for all, has emerged, which canchange the balance of power suddenly andabsolutely, and which may advance the attainmentof the Red Star's destiny from two or threedecades ahead to a much nearer and: closerfocus. Intelligence reports have disturbed theWest reaching from Japanese espionage sources,so we are given to understand, that Chinesescientists have been pressing forward with their"crash" programmes of nuclear physics to thepoint that they now expect to explode their firstatom bomb later this year, possibly in the vastisolation of the Gobi Desert on the borders ofMongolia, If this be so, the imminence of

The TESTIMONY 101China's possession of such a devastating weaponwill alter the entire political balance for Russia,America, Europe—in fact, the entire world.The time schedule of the World CommunistProgramme could be brought forward by adecade, enabling the Yellow suzerains to seek aswift solution with startling suddenness, suchas characterised the catastrophic conclusion ofWorld War II at Hiroshima.Through the kind consideration of anAmerican reader of The Testimony, we receiveda copy of the Saturday Evening Post magazinefollowing the publication of our article,"Tidings out of the East." In this famousweekly journal, a thesis was published from thepen of that well-known commentator on FarEastern affairs, Mr. Harrison Salisbury, Moscowcorrespondent of The New York Times,whose despatches are always avidly read by thiswriter. In his assessment of the mountingtension between the two Communist camps theauthor states :"To understand the world today you mustsee China. The speed of development isterrifying. China is a terrible threat to theworld. The Russians recognise that it is athreat to Russia as much as to the rest of theworld.The key factor in the timetable of worldrelations today is the date on which Chinaobtains the atomic bomb. When that momentoccurs, the world balance of power willchange irrevocably . . . this prospect wasalready affecting Kruschev's policy. Theworld at large does not know when Chinawill become a nuclear power, but Kruschevprobably does."In a despatch to another magazine, HarrisonSalisbury refers to "incompatibles and conflictswhich will grow rather than lessen." He writes :"The giants are jealous. Might not China standat the head of almost all of Asia's teeminghundreds of millions ?" Summarising theauthor's four major themes, we see at a glancethe fear which haunts Russia's rulers :a. China's population increasing by 25 millionsevery year, to reach 1,000 millions by 1975.b. Industrial capacity now equal to Russia's onthe eve of World War II.c. A standing army estimated at 3 million menplus a call-up of more than a million conscriptsduring 1960.d. Early possession of long-range nuclearweapons.These authentic details of the spectre hauntingMoscow and the rest of the world areconfirmed by another authority on Chineseaffairs, Mr. Desmond Donnelly, Labour M.P.for Pembroke. Reporting on his most recentvisit, Mr. Donnelly says :"We may be within a year or 18 monthsof China exploding her first nuclear weapon.The Chinese also are creating a territorialarmy equal to one third of their populationby the mid 60s. It will be the greatest andmost dangerous force militarily that the worldhas ever known."One does not even like to think what direevents are in store for the world prior to theComing of the Prince of Peace and might echothe prayer of Habakkuk ; "When I heard, mybody trembled, my lips quivered : I trembled inmyself, that I might rest in the day of trouble."The inescapable fact emerging from lastNovember's World Communist Conference isthat China is challenging the primacy of SovietRussia. When two jealous giants meet, they donot readily come to blows, because the outcomespells ruin to both. Russia is established as amajor power with an industrial growthapproaching that of the U.S.A. China is overstrongin manpower, but will long lag behindRussia industrially for years ahead. She ismaking great strides in this sphere, but hermain asset remains agricultural. In this latterfield, the Chinese People's Republic is nowmeeting catastrophic reverses. Her harvest hasfailed for two successive years due to floods andother disasters of Nature. Famine—the severestfor a century—stalks abroad and in consequencea major switch is taking place in the life of theCommunes ; men, women and children beingforcibly drafted in droves from factory to farm.The thought prompts us to write : "Is it notof God that such things be ?" The timeschedule for open conflict between the CommunistTitans may not be just yet in the Divineprogramme. Present incompatibilities may notdegenerate into open opposition speedily, butall indications tend to the belief that—possiblyexacerbated by inexorable population pressures—the fate of mankind, humanly speaking, is tobe sealed in the years of near approach. Theprivations of famine now ravaging the Chinesecountryside may be a providentially orderedputting of the clock back until the hour ofDivine intervention is ready to strike, so synchronisingwith the prophesied Gogian invasionof God's land. The student of the Word mustbe prepared to "wait" as well as to "watch."His daily invocation is, "Come, Lord, and tarrynot, and bring the looked-for Day."

The TESTIMONYRelating the prophecy of Ezekiel 38 to thatof the eleventh chapter of Daniel, vv. 40-45,which we personally hold is reasonable,rational and Scriptural, might it not be thatChina's centuries-old xenophobia for all whiteforeigners, soon to be furbished with theconsciousness of possession of the ultimate,atomic weapon, is to shatter the twilight trucebetween the Russian and Chinese apprehendingsof Communist doctrines ? We again submitfor serious consideration that such asituation may prove to be those evil "Tidingsout of the East" that trouble the latter-dayDesolator of Israel's Land, causing him to "goforth with great fury to destroy and utterly tomake away many."Should these conclusions be proved correct,and they are offered in all humility for theprayerful consideration of our readers, then ourwaiting time may not, after all, be so protractedas would appear when scanning the proximatepolitical horizons. Any advancement of theprophetic time schedule which is to mark theannihilation of the enemies of God at the handsof Jesus and his heavenly host, will also coincidewith that "time of trouble such as never wassince there was a nation." To what extent theservant of the Lord will be involved in thisremains unrevealed, but we rest on the Divineassurance that "they that be wise shall shine asthe brightness of the firmament."Let readers take encouragement from theexhortation quoted here from a Watchman whowas ever valiant for the Truth :"The signs of the times tell us that we arerapidly nearing the time when God shall givereward to His servants the prophets : whenall who fear His Name, small and great, shallawake together to the joyful celebration ofHis praise, and the execution of His judgmentupon the nations.The ear that can hearken, hears the voiceringing through the world, 'Behold, I comeas a thief.' A little more waiting for God ; alittle mDre patience ; a little more enduranceof evil and continuance in well doing ; andthe hour will arrive. The moment will behere when we shall suddenly be confrontedby the great fact that the Lord is in theearth."That particular counsel and encouragementwas given over eighty years ago. The Watchman'sname was Robert Roberts. But how aptit is in the year of our Lord, 1961 !The Holocaust of Hamon-Gog (2)Charles J. HallΤΉΕ inhabitants of the cities of Israel go forth•*- to the site of the divinely inspired holocaustthat saved them, to the graveyard of themultitudes of Gog. For what purpose ? Toengage in disposition of useful materials ? No,they are making a singularly logical and practicalexpedition. The implication of the 10th and11th verses is that by using the remains of Gog'sweaponry, Israel is relieved of the necessity ofcutting wood for fuel. All this is, naturally,related in language appropriate to the time ofwriting. Let us transpose intelligently thisfigurative language into terms relevant toconsistent interpretation. No-one can seriouslybelieve that the coming battle will be foughtwith literal bows and arrows. What then is it,that can be converted into long lasting fuel andenergy source for the growing state of newIsrael. Even a generation ago it would havebeen impossible to answer that question—butcan we fail to see it now ? Among the mass ofdebris left by the destroyed invaders will be aconsiderable amount of atomic material, unusedand damaged weapons, machines of many kindsand other items containing material necessaryfor the production of nuclear energy. Theapplication of Jewish genius to this capturedtreasure of potential power will result inelements designed for military purposes beingconcerted into atomic reactors and put to workfurnishing Israel with free, lasting fuel. "Theywill make fires of them for seven years" . . .they shall burn the weapons with fire"; this isbut marvellous metaphorical description of theprocess of converting machines of atomicwarfare into peaceful energy sources that willobviate the need for the usual, conventionalfuels. Whether "seven years" is a literal periodor one of greater significance, the conclusion isinescapable that the new fuel source is ofconsiderable duration and output. The useful,productive life of an atomic reactor—even atthis present crude stage of development—iswell-known to be of a length far surpassing that

The TESTIMONY 103of ordinary fuels.What a remarkable provision have we herefor the needs of Israel, an entirely realisticcircumstance within the principles of reason andpurpose of this technical world whose deviceswill be applied in their most beneficial wayunder the guidance of Christ and his royalofficers. The oft misguided inventions, andscience of present government will be directedalong lines of supreme efficiency and applicationby those to whom power over the nations willbe entrusted. The nucleus and initiator of thispolitical transformation will be the State ofIsrael under the direct government of the Sonof David, once more and evermore establishedin Jerusalem.There is additional evidence in the descriptionof the burial of Gog's forces of the nuclearnature of the disaster. The elaborate provisionsfor the interment of the Oriental multitudeshint at something more than mere commemorativeritual. The Israelites are to be some sevenmonths in clearing the land from the defilingpresence of pagan remains, appointing specialparties to make regular surveys of the blastedarena to espy any uncovered remains. All ofthis certainly conveys an unforgettable impressionof the awful scope of the fate awaitingthose who are destined to fall under the wrathof the Lord of Hosts. Is the fact that it takes solong to bury them all due solely to the enormousnumber of the slain, or is there some othercontributing factor ? Why the pains taken toensure that each bone and piece of the victimsare covered ? Obviously to protect the passerby.No member of the present generation needsto be told of that deadliest byproduct of nuclearfission or fusion. Radioactivity, the word whichholds the same terror for the citizen of thiscentury as "plague" did for the inhabitants ofmediaeval times. All manner of horrificpossibilities and pictures have been conjured upwith the mention of this consequence of atomicwar, giving feelings of dread to those sorrymillions who seek the wisdom of man instead ofthe comforting knowledge of God ; knowledgethat reveals to its possessors the true destinyof the earth instead of hopeless, frighteningflights of morbid fancy. If the field of Hamon-Gog is, indeed, an atomic wasteland, we canunderstand the practical design of the recordedburial instructions. #The length of time required for the unpleasantduty is due to allowance made for the decayof radioactive potency. Since it is death toapproach a strongly contaminated object, it isnatural that precautionary delay of some weeksbe observed before the process of burial is evenbegun. Once the radioactivity has diminishedto a safe degree, the Jewish parties will be ableto proceed with reclaiming what is usable andburying what must return to dust. Hence alsothe necessity for periodic examination of thescene in order that some item still lethallyradioactive shall not become uncovered, ahazard to any mortal in the immediate vicinity.This, Hamon-Gog, the world's first atomicburial ground, will serve as a ghastly monumentto the irresponsibility of men who rely on thearm of flesh, especially those who seek tothwart the purpose of the Almighty by destroyingHis chosen people who remain as thenational vehicle of His movement to glorify theearth for those who love and believe Him.The picture presented in the 39th of Ezekielis not pleasant to a devotee of the philosophythat man is a creature of dignity and inherentrights but this philosophy is foreign to thatfound in the Bible. The seeker after Truth seesin these just and necessary judgments thesobering facts that man exists solely for theintention of glorifying his Creator. If he failsto apprehend this duty, yea privilege, he mustmake way for those who do. The wicked mustbe cleared away so that the righteous mayflourish. The beneficent Father has declaredthat all the earth will one day be filled with Hisglory. His people are His glory. This is themagnificent goal toward which all historypoints. The unpleasantries of the means will befully eclipsed by the bright glory of the end, butonly a few will attain that end. Let Hamon-Gogbe a reminder that the way of the "many ormultitude" (Hamon) is to finish in the dust ofthe Valley of Death as will Gog in the contaminatedsoil of the Valley of Travellers. Theseevents are near at hand. Let us soberly thinkand watch. He comes quickly.# Our colleague Mr. Edward Whittaker observes :"The chapter speaks of all the people of the landburying the enemy, and that as bones becomeexposed they would be buried. All this surelyclashes with the precaution that would have to betaken if radioactivity was present." (A. E. J.)The lilies to which Christ alluded (Matt. 6 : 28) are either flowers generally, or perhaps the scarletanemone or the Huleh lily—a beautiful flower which is found wild in this neighbourhood—Dr. Farrar,

104 The TESTIMONYNotes on the Daily ReadingsArranged {pro tern.) by A. E. JONESWe regret that through continued indisposition, our colleague Mr. P. H. ADAMSis unable to resume work in this section. Our co-editors, Mr. JAMES CARTERand Mr. EDWARD WHITTAKER have therefore kindly provided someuseful notes. A. E. J.James CarterLEVITICUSThis book deals with the various enactmentsof the Law, the sacrifices which hadto be offered, the purification which had tobe performed, and the various feasts whichhad to be kept in their appropriate seasons.* # #The Sacrifices (Lev. Ch. 1)Nothing would bring home to the one whowas offering the sacrifice the "exceedingsinfulness of sin" so much as the fact thatthe one seeking atonement had himself to slaythe sacrifice. This would make him realisemore than anything else could, that withoutthe shedding of blood there can be no remissionof sin. Once, however, the animal was slain,then the priests, the sons of Aaron, had tocomplete the work by sprinkling the bloodetc. as distinctly specified. Thus were theytaught part of the "etiquette of Heaven," andthe high priests in this mediatorial capacityforeshadowed the work that ultimately Jesuswould do in this great work.God's Law Through Moses (Lev. Ch. 6)If legal action is taken today when a mandefrauds his friend or neighbour and in anyway appropriates his property, the offendermay be sentenced to a term of imprisonment,but usually the loser obtains no redress beyondwhat meagre satisfaction he may have in seeingthe offender punished. How different wasGod's law through Moses ! In similar circumstancesto those outlined above, not only hadthe offender to restore that which he hadtaken, but in addition he had to "add the fifthpart thereto." In this way, not only was thesinner punished but the loser had both hisproperty restored and also an addition madeunto it, which would compensate him for allthe worry and anxiety to which he had beensubjected. This was, of course, additional tothe various sacrifices the sinner had to makebecause of his transgression.# # #"/ will be sanctified:' (Lev. 10 : 3)One of the principal purposes of the Lawwas to teach the Children of Israel the Holinessof God and that consequently, seeing they wereHis people they were required to be holy also.An unforgiven sinner cannot acceptably approachGod. As the prophet said later, "Itis your sins which separate you from God."Sin has to be recognised, repented of, andforsaken, and then, and not until then, is ourapproach to God acceptable. As Cain wastold long before, "If thou doest well, shaltthou not be accepted, and if thou doest notwell, sin lieth at the door," — that is, at the doorof the sheep-fold he would find an animalwhich he could offer as a sin offering.These requirements of God are emphasisedin Leviticus Chapter 10. To vaporise the incenseoffered before the Lord, the censer hadto be filled with burning coals from the brazenaltar and the incense sprinkled on them afterthe censer had been put on the altar of incense.The fragrant cloud of incense would then bewafted over the veil into the Most Holy Place.(The incense represents prayer, as in Rev. 8,3-4; the altar represents Christ; and thewhole foreshadowed the work Christ is doingin presenting the prayers of the saints to theFather in Heaven). Nadab and Abihu werenegligent in their observance of these requirements.They offered incense with "strangefire,"—that is, fire obtained other than fromthe altar. The answer of God to this negligencewas immediate. "There went out fire fromthe Lord and devoured them, and they died

# # • #The TESTIMONY 105before the Lord." Then Aaron was told,"This is it that the Lord spake, saying, I willbe sanctified in them that come nigh Me, andbefore all the people I will be glorified."Immediately after this tragedy, Aaron wastold that he and his sons must not drink winenor strong drink when they went into theTabernacle "lest ye die." It is possible,therefore, that Nadab and Abihu had beenpartaking of strong drink prior to offeringincense, which would account for their failureto observe God's explicit commandments, withthe dire consequences which followed.# # #"Clean and unclean'' (Lev. Ch. 11)Here are given the laws regarding clean andunclean foods. While no such restrictionsapply at the present time, for Paul said, "Ihave been persuaded by the Lord Jesus thatnothing is unclean of itself," there may stillbe wisdom in profiting by the distinctionsgiven in this chapter. Hygienically the distinctionis sound. Speaking generally, inmany cases the unclean are scavengers, whereasthe clean are not. Other considerations ofcourse apply.Chapter 12. This is the shortest chapter inLeviticus, but one of the fullest in meaning !When a man child was born the mother wasunclean seven days, and then the child wascircumcised. (Surely this points forward tothe man, Jesus, and because he was born andwas obedient in all things, at the end of seventypical days (7000 years) the flesh will be cutoff and in its place God will be "all and in all,"spirit nature being supreme and complete.)Then the days of purification had to continuefor a further 33 days—again pointing forwardto the 33 years of the life of Jesus, spent inmortality. Although he was sinless, he hadour nature, which is unclean in God's sightand needed to be cleansed. The third dayafter he was crucified God raised him fromthe dead, and in his case mortality was thenswallowed up of life. As Paul says, "Godbrought again from the dead that great shepherdof the sheep, through the blood of the everlastingcovenant."But why 14 days, and then 66 days, in thecase of a maidchild ? Is it not because sherepresents the bride, the Lamb's wife ? Notonly is she the possessor of mortal nature,but in addition she has personal sins andtransgressions of her own which Jesus has not.Hence she requires a double cleansing and notmerely a single one as in the case of her Lord.LUKE'S GOSPEL"From the very first." (Luke 1 : 3)This phrase is from the Greek wordanothen and really means "from above."The veil of the temple was rent "from thetop to the bottom," and "from the top" isanothen in the Greek. What Luke is claimingtherefore is, that his gospel is superior to"many" because he has obtained his "fromabove," in other words he claims that he hasreceived his gospel by divine inspiration andnot, as is so often suggested, from conversationswith Mary (Jesus' mother), the disciples, andothers.The Virgin Birth. (Luke 1 : 26-35)Earlier in the chapter the angel had toldZacharias, "Thy wife shall bear thee a son,"and so it came to pass. Later he gave his songof thanksgiving. (Note particularly vv. 72-73 :John = mercy ; Elizabeth = the oath of God ;and Zacharias = Jehovah will remember. "Toperform the mercy promised to our fathers,and to remember His holy covenant, the oathwhich He sware to our father Abraham.")Mary, however, was told, ". . . that holything which shall be born of thee shall becalled the Son of God."It was not Joseph who sang the song ofthanksgiving when Jesus was born, but Mary,who sang the Magnificat, "My soul dothmagnify the Lord etc." Indeed so far fromJoseph being the father of Jesus, when herealised how things were he could only think,"This is a child of sin" until the angel assuredhim, far from that being the case, "He shallsave his people from their sins," and consequentlyhis name was to be called "Jesus."With the angel's assurance, Joseph was wellsatisfied.% # #The Writing Table (Luke 1 : 63)This is really the diminutive and shouldbe a writing tablet, which becomes very understandable.Similarly, the "tables of stone"on which God inscribed the Ten Commandmentswere not huge things like tomb-stones,but rather "tablets of stone," which again ismuch easier to understand."Cyrenius, Governor of Syria" (Luke 2 : 2)The sceptic has been very critical of theaccuracy of Luke, both in his gospel and inActs ; but whenever the sceptic criticisesScripture, sooner or later—usually sooner—hehas to retreat. And so it is here. Actually

106 The TESTIMONYCyrenius was "governor of Syria" on twooccasions, the first at the time Jesus was born,the second some ten years later. For a longtime the critic knew only of the second occasionand charged Luke with inaccuracy ; whereasLuke's accuracy is of the highest order.# # #"A Saviour, Christ the Lord" (Luke 2:11)When the angel was speaking to Mary onlythe Kingly aspect of Jesus was mentioned.When Joseph was being assured that all waswell, only the Saviour aspect was mentioned,but both are combined when the jubilantangels told the shepherds, "To you is bornthis day, in the city of David, a Saviour, Christthe Lord."# * #"My Father's Business" (Luke 2 : 49)It is interesting to note, that while in Luke2 :48 Mary refers to Joseph, (speaking toJesus) as "thy father," Jesus immediatelyreplies, "Wist ye not that I must be about myFather's business ? " At the age of twelve,Jesus clearly understood that God was hisfather. An alternative reading of "My Father'sbusiness" is "My Father's house," therebysuggesting, "Why did you seek for me sorrowing,for did ye not realise that you would findme in my Father's house and nowhere else ? "# # #"God is able of these stones to raise up children toAbraham" (Luke 3 : 8)When we go back to Joshua 4:9, we findthat "Joshua set up twelve stones in the midstof Jordan, in the place where the feet of thepriests which bare the ark of the covenantstood : and they are there unto this day."It can be proved that these stones were stillin existence in the days of Jesus and, of course,because of their historical associations, wereheld in high esteem by the Jews. It is veryprobable, therefore, that the "stones" to whichJesus makes reference were the actual stonesplaced in Jordan by Joshua so many hundredsof years before !# # #The Temptation (Luke 4)The book of Deuteronomy has been unjustlysubjected to more criticism than perhaps anyother, as being not written by Moses. Thetemptation of Jesus was one of the majorcrises in his life. He possessed the Holy Spiritwithout measure, but it was not that whichsustained him. It was the word of God onwhich he relied, and with appropriate quotationsfrom the book of Deuteronomy heovercame successively the lust of the flesh,the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life.* # #"They . . . led him to the brow of the hill . . .that they might cast him down headlong"(Luke 4 : 29, 30)The Jewish method of putting to death wasby stoning. Beneath the brow of a hill a largestone was let into the ground. The one sentencedto death was flung down on to thisstone. Usually that was sufficient to effectdeath. If not the witnesses had to drop furtherstones on the mangled body until life wasextinct. When Jesus gave his address in thesynagogue at Nazareth, consequent upon thereading of Isaiah chapter 61, this aroused theirwrath and they proposed to stone him ; buthe "passing through the midst of them wenthis way." His power to "hold men's eyes"was not restricted to after his resurrection—hehad that same power before.* # *Sabbath Day Miracles (Luke 4)We have records of at least six miracleswhich Jesus wrought on the sabbath day, todemonstrate that he was "Lord of the Sabbath"and they were typical of what he will do inan infinitely greater way when he will, as Lordof the Sabbath, rule the world in righteousness,resulting in a diminishing of sin during theMillennium. He cured Simon's wife's motherof "a great fever" before the sabbath expired,"when the sun did set." When the sabbathhad expired they brought unto him "any sickwith divers diseases, and he healed them."* # #The Choosing of the Twelve Apostles(Luke 6 : 13-16)To remember the names of the twelveapostles, note the following :—Peter ")Andrew I ^ .r, .Tames Γ ° P airs °* brothersJohnJMatthew "|Thomas Ι . . ,ψ c £ρ^·|· > Iwo pairs of friendsBartholomewJJamesJudasSimonJudas(Iscariot)Two pairs of fathers and sonsPeter always heads a list of the twelve, andJudas Iscariot is always the last one.

The TESTIMONY 107"In the Plain" (Luke 6 : 17 and 20-49)While this is a very similar address to the"Sermon on the Mount." it was given on adifferent occasion. As Jesus went roundpreaching, he must often have said the sameor similar things to different people. Thisparticular address was given "in the plain.""He that is Least" (Luke 7 : 28)These words have given rise to muchspeculation as to their meaning. Actually theGreek reads, "He that is the lesser in theKingdom of God is greater than he." All thepeople esteemed John to be a prophet, and tothis opinion Jesus added his eulogy that therewas not a greater prophet than John. ButJesus is also emphasising that great as theyall esteemed John to be, he, Jesus, would bemuch greater. "Lesser" implies the smallerof two. In the Kingdom of God, obviouslyGod will be first, but His well beloved Sonwill be second—that is, he (Jesus) will be the* 'lesser" of the two. It is rather significantthat in this chapter Jesus again refers to himselfin terms whose meaning has to be ponderedover to be understood. In verse 35 he refersto himself as "wisdom" who is justified of herchildren. This was consequent upon hisshowing that the Pharisees and lawyers whorejected his counsel against themselves werelike petulant children, who were not willingto play at either weddings or funerals. Theywere alike critical of both John and Jesus—onewas an ascetic—he was wrong, and the othercame "eating and drinking" and he was wrongalso ! And to be a friend of publicans andsinners was the limit!# # #" Virtue hath gone out of me" (Luke 8 : 46)We are apt to conclude that Jesus performedhis miracles without any expenditure of nervousenergy, but this verse removes any doubt onthat point. We read, when he was at Jacob'swell, that he was "wearied with his journey," ;and as Jesus slept, crossing the lake when thestorm arose, we can well imagine that it wasthe sleep of a very tired man.The Transfiguration (Luke 9 : 28)Here was a miniature representation of theKingdom of God. Matthew says, "after sixdays." Luke says "eight days." One is theJewish method of reckoning time and the otheris the Gentile way. There is no contradiction ;both are correct. Alternative interpretationsof this incident have been given. We commendthe following :Six days typifies 6000 years of man'sdominion.Elijah He never died. He representsthose in Christ who are alivewhen Christ returns to theearth.Moses He had died, but was thereeither actually or in vision ;so he fittingly represents thosewho have died and who areraised from the dead at thereturn of Christ.Jesus The King of the ComingKingdom.All the above were glorified.Peter, James Represent the subjects of thisand John coming Kingdom.His "decease" The word translated "decease"is the word "exodus." Thistakes us back to the Exodusfrom Egypt, with the associationof the Passover Lamb,of which, of course, Jesus isthe antitype, and in this casedeals with a greater deliverancethan that from Egypt—that from mortality and death.# # #"Appointed other seventy also" (Luke 10: 11)Just as twelve immediately associates withthe twelve tribes of Israel, similarly seventyat once associates with the Gentile nations ofwhom in Genesis there were seventy. Thefact that these seventy were sent out is aforeshadowing that the gospel would finallybe taught to the Gentiles, even as Jesus said,"Other sheep I have which are not of this fold,"and "The Kingdom . . . shall be taken fromyou and given to a nation bringing forth thefruits thereof."# # *The Good Samaritan (Luke 10 : 30-37)This is a parable of redemption. Jesus isthe Samaritan, "Thou art a Samaritan andhast a devil," said his enemies. Priest andLevite (the Law of Moses) were unavailingto give help to those who are dying (spirituallyand literally) ; they "pass by on the otherside." Jesus, when he came, could at oncealleviate suffering, and the two pence he leftwith the innkeeper was the Roman equivalentof the half-shekel redemption money underthe Mosaic Law. What is needed more (thegiving of immortality) Jesus will completewhen he "comes again."

108 The TESTIMONYPsalm 116E. WhittakerTHE sickness of Hezekiah, and the invasion•*· of the land by the Assyrians which coincidedwith it, λform the subject and backgroundof many of the Psalms, notably theSongs of the Degrees. Verbal correspondencesbetween the historical narrative in Isaiahchapter 38 and Psalm 116, which is not oneof the Songs of the Degrees, leaves little doubtthat this one also relates to the same situation.Hezekiah, the writer, recalls the threat ofdeath : "The sorrows of death compassed me,and the pains of hell gat hold on me." Thenational peril, and the knowledge that he wassoon to die without heir to the throne broughtoverwhelming "trouble and sorrow." But Godheard and answered his prayer : "Thou hastdelivered my soul from death, mine eyes fromtears, and my feet from falling." The rescueof Hezekiah's faith was no less wonderful thanthat of his very life.Now significantly he adds : "I believed,therefore did I speak : I was greatly afflicted."God sent Isaiah with a message of hope :"He asked life of Thee, and Thou gavest ithim." When Hezekiah asked for a sign of hispromised recovery and fifteen years extensionof life, Isaiah was sent to tell him the sundialof Ahaz would go back ten degrees. "I believed,"the king now tells us, and therefore"I spoke" in the confidence of faith revived :"I will walk before the Lord in the land of theliving."Verse 11 is difficult: "I said in my haste(or alarm), 'All men are liars'." The lastphrase is quoted in Rom. 3 : 4 to describeJewish unbelief in the righteousness of Godin Christ. God's righteousness and holinessremain unaffected by man's unbelief, thereforein the clash of relations, God stays eternallytrue, says Paul, though man becomes the liar.This inspired use of verse 11 provides the keyof interpretation for the Psalm. When thesign of the sundial was announced in the royalcourt by Isaiah, Hezekiah believed and disclosedhis belief in the words : "I will walkbefore the Lord in the land of the living."The courtiers who stood around—and perhapswe might even venture to name some of them—scoffed and disbelieved. The path of faithis a lonely one, and there is little doubt Hezekiahfound it to be so too, apart from the companionshipof the very small "remnant" who savedthe city by their prayers. 2The Psalm is therefore Hezekiah's ownthanks to God for his extension of life. Thatit should appear in the Canon of inspiredScripture is explained by the fact that he wasa prophet who gave spiritual instruction toIsrael at the direction of God. 3In a threefolddeclaration, repeated later in almost identicalterms, he promises God he will use his remainingyears in joy and thankfulness for thegreat salvation; in prayer continually; and now,no longer sick unto death, pay his vows and singhis inspired songs in the presence of the peoplein the Courts of the Lord's House. 4"Precious" indeed, as Hezekiah says, "inthe sight of the Lord is the death of His saints."God does not allow His people to slip unobservedinto the cold oblivion of death ; onoccasion He intervenes, as He had done inthe case of Hezekiah, for purposes of grace,to give His servant extended opportunities ofservice and faith.Finally, Hezekiah assures God that as hismother had been faithful as God's "handmaid"—Abijah, daughter of the worthy prophetZechariah who exerted a strong and goodinfluence on Uzziah—so her son would nowlive to be faithful as His "servant."The typical nature of Hezekiah's life asthe suffering "Servant of the Lord" undoubtedlyjustifies the application of the Psalm toChrist, and this can be done verse by versewith little difficulty if the background ofHezekiah's experience is borne in mind.The quotation of verse 10 in 2 Cor. 4 : 13may seem to be curious, but its applicationis consistent with the interpretation we havegiven. The Risen Lord was the apostolic signof faith : Paul believed it and like Hezekiahpreached it confidently, "having the samespirit of faith . . . knowing that he whichraised up the Lord Jesus from the dead, willraise us up also by Jesus." In effect, Paul wasusing precisely the sentiments of Hezekiah :"I will walk before the Lord in the land ofthe living," even if death by martyrdom shouldsupervene.1234Isa. 38 : 6Isa. 1 : 62 Chron. 29 : 15 ; Isa. 38 : 20So in Isa. 38 : 20

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noThe TESTIMONYNALEdited byJ. MITCHELLThe Pilgrimage of Jesus(62) BEWARE OF THE LEAVEN OF THE PHARISEESJohn MitchellUROM the first glimpse we have of the Lord**· Jesus Christ in touch with the Gentiles,there appears always to have been a greaterreadiness on their part to receive him than therewas among his own people. And how true it isto life, and especially in religion, that there isoften more suspicion and distrust betweenthose whose path is supposed to be in the samedirection, than there is between those whomeet only at the crossroads. The contrastbetween Gentile readiness to receive Christ andJewish refusal to do so is heightened by whatimmediately followed the feeding of the 4,000,which must have been a predominantly Gentilefeast. Having given them a taste of the Breadof Heaven, the Lord Jesus sent them awayhome to the cities of the Decapolis, whilst heand his disciples made for the familiar shores ofGalilee. There they took ship and came intothe borders of Magadan, which Mark describesas "the parts of Dalmanutha." There has beena difference of opinion as to the exact whereaboutsof this district, but it seems likely thatthe region was at the southern end of the lake.At any rate it appears to have been thoroughlyJewish territory, for when Jesus and his disciplesset foot on land again there came to meethim a deputation of the Pharisees and theSadducees.Great was the controversy that was raging inJewry regarding Jesus. The common peoplewere listening to him gladly. On every sidethere was living evidence as to his miraculouspowers—the blind saw, the maimed walked andthe lepers were cleansed. Many of the peoplebelieved on him and said, "When Christcometh, will he do more miracles than this mandoeth ?" But the disturbing feature from thepoint of view of the religious leaders of the Jewswas that Jesus did not fit into the pattern whichthey had presupposed. He came neither inmight nor magnificence ; he consorted notwith those whose presence pervaded a sweetodour of sanctity (of the human kind), butrather with humbler, even outrageous persons,such as publicans and sinners—and evenharlots. He acclaimed not those who had spenttheir lives maintaining the fence about the law ;indeed he denounced them as hypocrites forteaching as doctrines the commandments ofmen. The Pharisees and Sadducees were neveras uncomfortable in all their lives as when theystood in the presence of Jesus. Even the venerableNicodemus was stripped of all his nobleself-confidence as to race and to privilege whenhe came face to face with Jesus in Jerusalem.Quietly he was told that even he, a leader ofGod's chosen people, must be born again "fromabove" if he was to see the kingdom of God.Nicodemus was an exception among his classin that he was prepared to acknowledge thatJesus was a "teacher sent from God, for no mancan do these miracles that thou doest exceptGod be with him." But for the most part theremainder of the Pharisees found Jesus themost exasperating of men, for he demandedwhat they could never give, namely their pride.He wounded them sore, yet was as harmless asa dove ; he challenged their leadership, yetnever for one moment exalted himself; heperformed endless miracles among those whowere prepared to trust in him, but gave never

The TESTIMONY 111a sign on request from the Pharisees that he wasthe Messiah. Dearly they would have liked toignore him but they dared not. They could notlet him alone, but hovered pitiably betweentheir prejudices and the purpose of Godcentred in him. Why, oh why did he not givethem the final sign, the infallible clue . . . ?That, surely, is what all men want fromChrist. Unbelievers of every clime and timehave said, "He cannot be what he is claimed tobe, or else he would do thus and so" — theirwishes varying with their personal plight, or"right" as they see it. All they want of Christis that he shall lift from them their burden, orhelp them achieve their ambition, but they arenot prepared to submit to him. The last thingthey want is for the Lord Jesus to interfere withtheir way of life, for it is still every bit as uncomfortablean experience to stand in thepresence of Jesus, through the Word of truth,as it was when the Pharisees and the Sadduceescame to see him in Galilee. And it is still astrue as ever that "without faith (in Christ) it isimpossible to please God, for he that cometh toGod must believe that He is, and that He is arewarder of them that diligently seek Him."God will give to all men liberally, and will notupbraid them, sinners though they are, if onlythey will ask in faith. But as for him that is likea wave of the sea, driven with the wind andtossed, "let not that man think he shall receiveanything of the Lord."So it was with these Pharisees and Sadducees.They came to Jesus tempting him, and askedhim a sign from heaven. If he did not producethe sign, they hoped it would discredit him. Ifhe did give them the sign, they would like to befirst on the "bandwagon" in the procession topower and great glory. But they could nottempt the Lord Jesus with such chaff as this.His great triumph over the lust of the flesh, thelust of the eye and the pride of life in thewilderness, had prepared him for such lessertemptations as these on the road to Calvary.The Cross must come before the Crown, andon that depended the salvation of the whole ofmankind.The Pharisees and the Sadducees, inflamedwith the lust for power and for privilege couldnever have appreciated the road to Calvary. Theprophecy of God's suffering Servant in the 53rdchapter of Isaiah was an enigma to them, asuncomfortable as the Lord himself. Such signsas these from the Scriptures testified abundantlythat he was the Messiah, for the spirit of theLord was upon him, because the Lord hadanointed him to preach good tidings to themeek, to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaimliberty to those enslaved by sin, and theacceptable year of the Lord. On every handwondrous works declared that Jesus was theChrist of God, but the Pharisees and Sadduceescould not discern him, and so he answered theirrequest for a sign with :"When it is evening, ye say, It will be fairweather, for the sky is red. And in the morning,It will be foul weather today, for the sky is redand lowring. Ο ye hypocrites, ye can discernthe face of the sky ; but ye cannot discern thesigns of the times."Those in close contact with the elements,such as the farmer or the sailor, are weatherwise,and they read the sky for signs. Even thecity dweller knows the rhyme :"A red sky at nightIs the shepherd's delight;A red sky at morningIs the sailor's warning."As familiar then, and as recognisable in itsomens, as the sky is to the weather eye, soshould the fulfilment of prophecy concerningChrist be to those who know the word of God.It was therefore, not the paucity of the signs,but deliberate blindness on the part of thebeholders that stood in the way of recognitionof Christ as the Messiah. Those Pharisees andSadducees were putting their prophetic telescopesto blind eyes in order to pretend thatthe signs were not there, and for that the Lorddenounced them as hypocrites.Their attitude is paralleled by many of theChurches of Christendom today who pretendnot to see in the return of the Jews to their ownland, and the multiplying distress of nationswith perplexity, the latter-day signs of thenearness of Christ's return. When our Lorddoes come, we may be sure that their hypocrisywill also be exposed, and will be judged by himto whom all judgment has been committed."For judgment I am come into this world, thatthey which see not might see ; and that theywhich see may become blind," said Jesus to thePharisees on another occasion—at which thePharisees asked, "Are we blind also ?" Jesussaid, "If ye were blind, ye would have no sin ;but now ye say 'We see'; therefore your sinremaineth." And so will it be with all thosetoday who say "We see" concerning the thingsof Christ, and yet who cannot discern the signsof the times.The obtuseness of the Pharisees and theSadducees caused our Lord to "sigh deeply inhis spirit," for there is nothing sadder in thesight of Christ than to see the sinner inflexibly

112 The TESTIMONYsetting his course for oblivion. Like his Fatherhe "takes no pleasure in the death of the sinner,"but would rather that all came to repentance.God cannot however, save us in spite of ourselves.If a man is to be a creature of free-will,then the choice must rest with him. The truthsof the Word of God regarding our nature, oursin-stricken state, our need of salvation, theredemptive work of Christ, and the signs of ourtimes, are so self-evident as to be beyondquibble, and if any refuse to believe these thingsthey are just as much "an evil and (spiritually)adulterous generation" as the Pharisees and theSadducees. For to be evil is not just to be sinfulbut inclined to stay so ; and to be adulterous isto refuse to espouse the truth as it is in ChristJesus. For all such there remains the one finalinfallible sign—that of Calvary and the resurrectionof Christ—upon which hangs all theGospel. For if they believe not the Word ofGod, they will not believe though one rose fromthe dead.So with a parting reference to the great signof the prophet Jonah, the Lord Jesus left thosePharisees and Sadducees on the Dalmanuthanshore, and sailed away northwards with hisdisciples towards Bethsaida. As they sped overthe waves, he warned them to take heed andbeware of the leaven of the Pharisees. Thedisciples misunderstood him at first, for in theheat of their encounter with the Pharisees theyhad forgotten to buy bread, and they had withthem in the boat not more than one loaf. TheLord perceived their reasoning and rebukedthem for their lack of faith, recalling to theirminds his bountiful provision in the reeding ofthe 5,000, and of the 4,000, and the amountthere was to spare when all had eaten. Theyhad with them in the boat the One Loaf thatreally mattered—Christ himself, who was thebread of heaven, unleavened with the workingsof sin. If they fed upon him they would notonly inherit life for evermore, but all othernecessary things would be added unto them."Then understood they how that he badethem not beware of the leaven of bread, but ofthe doctrine of the Pharisees and Sadducees."For the Pharisees and Sadducees had no faithin Christ, but this little group of men, thoughrebuked by him, yet had that little faith whichbound them to their Lord. And as they sail on,we see in them another representation of thebelievers of all ages, in the boat with Christ,feeding upon their One Loaf, until theycome to their desired haven—the Kingdom ofGod."A Great Treasure"H. J. MillettΛ BOUT 2,500 years ago, a priest journeyed**•*" from Babylon to Jerusalem, carrying a greattreasure, for the service of the people. Travellingin those days was slow and dangerous,and because of the treasure he carried—goldand silver—a heavy responsibility rested uponhim. The faith that this man showed wastremendous. He could have asked the kingfor an armed escort, but this he refused to do,turning instead to God for guidance. Whathappened ? The course he adopted wasjustified. His faith was manifested, and thetreasure was brought safely to the House ofthe Lord. This task which Ezra undertookwas extremely dangerous, yet in faith hecarried on.We too have a treasure—the greatest treasurein the world—the Truth, the Word of theLiving God. We have this treasure in "earthenvessels," or in the earthy vessels of our weakflesh, and so our travelling is also very dangerous,with trials, difficulties, temptations, failures,and disappointments coming upon us,as we journey towards the Kingdom of God.The age in which we live, is the most wonderfulthis world has ever known—an age ofsatellites, rockets and nuclear bombs. Nowfor the very first time, mankind has the powerutterly to destroy itself. In the past therehave been wars, revolutions, and destructions,yet they have never been all-embracing; butnow, whatever the scientists may say, orhowever the politicians may argue, this time,the power in the hands of the human race isso great, that it could cause utter and completedestruction. It is of course possible that thiswill be the method adopted by God as a meansof cleansing this earth of all that offends, inpreparation for the establishment of HisKingdom, and a reign of righteousness andpeace.Very soon now, Jesus will again be in the

The TESTIMONY 113earth, and when he comes, the question arises,will he find faith ? As the custodians of theTruth, shall we have conveyed the treasuresafely ? Shall we have guarded that which hasbeen committed to our trust ? These arequestions of vital importance. We are livingin extremely difficult times. Present conditionsare a great challenge to us, and the peril ofwatering down the Truth was never greater.Today, "when many run to and fro," thereis little time for rest, we are all feeling thestrain; we are restless and uneasy both inbody and in mind, and this is a condition ofthe gravest order. The reading and study ofGod's Word is neglected, and while usuallythere is no outward sign of decay, starvationalways comes at the roots ; and this simplyleads to a complete indifference, in manycases a falling away into error, and a returnin some degree to the elements of darkness.So it is no idle warning that Jesus gives, "Takeheed to yourselves, lest at any time your heartsbe overcharged with surfeiting and drunkenness,and cares of this life, and so that daycome upon you unawares. For as a snare shallit come on all them that dwell on the face ofthe whole earth." Those words have becomevery very real, and it is natural that they should;for they follow the description of the time ofthe end, with its utter worldliness and godlessness.We are living in conditions exactly likethis, and so the nearer we get to the end, thegreater becomes the danger of losing thetreasure.The comparison which Jesus gave shouldbe ever before us—"As it was in the days ofNoah." We need little imagination to realisewhat happened at that time. "All flesh hadcorrupted God's way upon the earth." "Thewickedness of man was great, and everyimagination of the thoughts of his heart wasonly evil continually." The comparison withour day is very close. There were some whosefaith had compelled them to renounce thethings of the world. There were others whobecame weary and deserted Noah. Todayit is exactly the same. Noah must have beendiscouraged to see those, whom he thoughtto be friends, lose the treasure. Only eightpeople jealously guarded it. Will the sameproportion operate at the end of our age ?Will history be repeated ? Is the generationto which we belong any different from that ofNoah's day ? The answer can only be in thenegative, when we consider how Jesus comparedthe two, when we realise that conditionsare identical with what is foretold, and whenwe can see the evil that today is rampant inthe earth.Signs abound on every hand that the endis near; and so we are warned to "hold fastthe profession of our faith, without wavering,"for "when the Son of Man cometh, shall hefind faith in the earth ? Will the One Faithstill be in existence, or will it have been sowatered-down that it will have become amixture of truth and error ? Today the signsare clearly to be seen. Certain challengesto the work of the Truth are serious. Oldheresies are continually rearing their ugly heads.Articles of false doctrine are flooding thecountry. Are we guarding our great treasure ?Do we still believe those things to which wegave a good confession, and as a result ofwhich we were immersed into Christ's savingName ?The circumstances in which we find ourselvesare not peculiar merely to the age inwhich we live, but have always been in operation,and many examples are recorded aswarnings to us. In Paul's day, things werevery similar. He foretold how "of your ownselves shall men arise, speaking perverse things,to draw away disciples after them." In hisletters to Timothy we are constantly exhorted,"Till I come, give attendance to reading, toexhortation, to doctrine." "Take heed untothyself and unto the doctrine ; continue inthem ; for in doing this then shalt both savethyself, and them that hear thee." "In thelatter times some shall depart from the faith."But it is in his last recorded words that Paul'sgreatness is apparent. He had been rebuffed,expelled, stoned, mobbed, arrested, shipwreckedand imprisoned,—deserted by allthose who had fallen by the wayside, and yethe could say, "I have fought a good fight, Ihave finished my course, I have kept thefaith." He was a zealous guardian of thetreasure,—the One Hope, the One Faith, theTruth. Let us too, try a little harder to be morefaithful, and to treasure this great heritagewhich is ours. "Hold that fast which thouhast, that no man take thy crown." Let usstand fast for the purity of the Truth, for itis all that we have, and is the only thing thatwill be "able to keep us from falling," and itwill eventually, in the very near future, bethe means "of presenting us faultless beforethe presence of his glory, with exceeding joy."One of the first features of an excellent man's excellence is that he cares little whether anybody knowsit or not.

114 The TESTIMONYBalaamJames CarterEdited by JAMES CARTERT3ALAAM is one of the more obscure char-*** acters in the Old Testament, but rathersurprisingly he is referred to in no less thaneight books in the Bible—Numbers, Deuteronomy,Joshua, Nehemiah, Micah, 2 Peter,Jude and Revelation. The lessons of his lifeare as profitable today as when Peter, Judeand the Lord himself used and gave them inthe first century A.D. Parts of the story arevery well known, both by the critic who triesto pour scorn upon the record, and by thedevout believer who sees in the life of Balaamcharacteristics to be avoided at all costs.Balak was king of the Moabites, and he,along with his people, was sorely afraid whenhe realised the vastness of the numbers ofIsrael—so much so that he thought to impedetheir progress by the use of curses, thinkingto hire Balaam for this purpose. The recordin Numbers 22 describes how Balak sentmessengers with the request, "Curse me thispeople ; for they are too mighty for me," andthese messengers came "with the rewards ofdivination in their hand." Balaam told themto "lodge here this night" while he consultedwith God, Whose angel told him, "Thou shaltnot go with them ; thou shalt not curse thepeople : for they are blessed." And consequentlyBalaam returned word to Balak,"The Lord refuseth to give me leave to gowith you."Balak sent a second time, princes morehonourable, promising to promote Balaam tovery great honour ; but again Balaam assuredthe princes, "I cannot go beyond the word ofthe Lord . . . tarry ye also here this night,that I may know what the Lord will say untome more." This time God said (through Hisangel), "Rise up, and go with them" butnevertheless we read, "God's anger was kindledbecause he went." # We find here a most remarkableprinciple, to which we do well totake heed.A similar matter is referred to in Psalm105 : 15, where we read, God "gave them theirrequest ; but sent leanness into their soul."There are occasions when God grants ourdesires to our own detriment, and so it wasin the case of Balaam. He allowed Balaam togo, but his going evoked God's anger. Note :there is a vast difference between God allowingBalaam to go and commanding him to go !"As he went, God's angel stood in the way andwas seen by Balaam's ass, but not by Balaamhimself, resulting in "the dumb ass speaking"in protest against Balaam's threefold smiting.But when Balaam's eyes were opened, he, too,saw the angel who supplemented the ass'srebuke. How scornful the critic is ! Yetparrots can be taught to speak, and so can themodern "budgie" ? Undoubtedly a miraclewas performed by the angel, but it w r as anunderstandable miracle.In order that, if possible, the cursing couldbe accomplished, Balak took Balaam successivelyto three points, and this underlines thevastness of the number of the children ofIsrael. Each time he requested a curse, buteach time a blessing was given under thephrasing, "And he took up his parable, andsaid ..." In all we have at least five such"parables," and all are luminous. The firstbegins in Numbers 23 : 7. Balaam protested ;how could he curse whom God hath notcursed ? He further prophesied that Israelwill dwell alone and not be numbered amongthe nations—and this is fulfilled even to thisday. Then he expressed the desire, whichalone could be given under inspiration, "Letmy last end be like his," for the final end ofIsrael will be blessed indeed !# God had indicated a condition, "IF the men cometo call thee," (Num. 22 : 20), but Balaam did notwait for them to call him, (A. E. J),

The TESTIMONY 115After being taken to the second viewpointBalaam gave his second "parable," prophesyingthat God's promise to bless will not onlystand sure, but that finally Israel will rise uplike a lion and prove mightily victorious.Naturally at these repeated blessings Balakprotested, and then took Balaam to a thirdeminence, resulting in the third parable ofblessing. The "Agag" of 24 : 7 is none otherthan the Egyptian Osiris over whom, finally,Israel's king will be triumphant in the finalconflict with Rome, the latter day Osiris, whenthe "Lion of the tribe of Judah" takes up thechallenge.Balak then reminded Balaam how much hehad missed by giving blessings instead of thecurses which he had stipulated—not forgettingthat all the way through Balaam had protestedthat he could not go beyond the word of theLord ! Balaam had forfeited both great honourand also silver and gold, and Balak's wordsbrought forth yet another "parable" in Numbers24 : 15. The essence of the fourth blessingis in verse 17 : "There shall come a Star out ofJacob, and a Sceptre shall rise out of Israel,and shall smite the corners of Moab, anddestroy all the children of Sheth." The "Star"and the "Sceptre" of course refer to the LordJesus ; but what of the "corners of Moab"and the "children of Sheth" ? The "cornersof Moab" is a very unsatisfactory translationand comes from the Hebrew meaning "magi"or "priests." This couples up with the previousprophecy about Osiris which has re-appearedin the latter day Egypt Babylon which is, ofcourse, Rome (Papal). And who are the"children of Sheth" ? "Sheth" means "universalFather" and is a reference to Nimrodwho, with his wife Semiramis was responsiblefor the development of the apostasy, basedon the Serpent's lie, after the Flood. Whenthe Star arises out of Jacob—when the LordJesus returns—then apostasy in all its formswill be utterly eliminated and truth will prevail.The last of Balaam's parables begins inNumbers 24 : 23 with the query, "Alas, whoshall live when God doeth this ? " We canbut re-echo the query, and, if we are wise,take heed. "Who shall live when God doeththis ? "Joshua succeeded Moses as leader of Israel,and in Joshua 13 : 22 we are told of the endof Balaam. "Balaam . . . did the children ofIsrael slay with the sword." In Joshua 24 : 9,10 Joshua reminded the Israelites, "Balak theson of Zippor, king of Moab, arose and warredagainst Israel, and sent and called Balaam theson of Beor to curse you : but I would nothearken unto Balaam ; therefore he blessed youstill : so I delivered you out of his hand."Reference is made to Balaam in Nehemiah13 : 2, referring to the fact that Balaam washired to curse, but God turned the curse intoa blessing.The words in Micah 6 : 8 are well known."What doth the Lord require of thee, but todo justly, and to love mercy, and to walkhumbly with thy God." Yet how few recognizethat they are the words of Balaam ! Such,however, is the case, and as Micah 6 : 5 states,were part of Balaam's answer to Balak.The other three references are in the NewTestament, 2 Peter 2 : 15, Jude 11 and Revelation2 : 14. Peter refers to him as "Balaamthe son of Bosor, who loved the wages ofunrighteousness, but was rebuked for hisiniquity ; the dumb ass, speaking with man'svoice forbade the madness of the prophet."Jude makes a similar reference to those who "rangreedily after the error of Balaam for reward."In the final reference, in amplification ofNumbers 31 : 16, "Behold, these caused thechildren of Israel, through the counsel ofBalaam, to commit trespass against the Lordin the matter of Peor," the risen Christ warnsus, "I have a few things against thee, becausethou hast there them that hold the doctrineof Balaam, who taught Balak to cast a stumblingblock before the children of Israel, to eatthings sacrificed unto idols, and to commitfornication.These Letters to the Seven Churches areof application to our own day as well as tothe early churches. While we do not thinkthat the grosser aspect of "Moabitish women"has much, if any, application in our day,there is another aspect which requires to beguarded against very carefully. All the waythrough, God insists that His people shallnot be united to those outside. Alien marriageshad not to be contracted. "Be ye not unequallyyoked together," says Paul in one place ; and"only in the Lord" in another. The lesson isclear and explicit.While, therefore it is a long time sinceBalaam lived, this is one of those things whichhave been written for our learning; and ifwe are wise, we shall see to it that the writinghas not been in vain.Some people blow their own trumpets because nobody else will ; and the reason nobody else does itis because they haven't a trumpet worth blowing.

116 The TESTIMONYEdited by Ε. WHITTAKERMichael and the Body of MosesE. WhittakerYet Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil, he disputed about the bodyof Moses, durst not bring against him a railing accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke thee.ΠΡΗΕ problem presented by Jude verse 9•*· still awaits a convincing solution, butpending its appearance, an up-to-date appraisalof the position may not be without point andprofit.The verse is parenthetic, and cites an exampleof angelic restraint by comparison with thearrogant ambitions of godless men who hadcrept into the Christian Church to disrupt anddefile it.One interpretation finds the historical allusionin Num. chapter 16 which tells of the rebellionof Korah, Dathan and Abiram and 250 princesof Israel against the authority of Moses andAaron. The "devil" of Jude is held to refer tothe company of the rebels in the camp andetymologically this could be so. There is littledoubt that by the "devil" who was "walkingabout like a roaring lion seeking whom he maydevour," xPeter was alluding, with good reasonenigmatically, to the persecuting civil power ofRome. "The body of Moses" is understood torefer to the children of Israel although they arenever so named elsewhere, the closest parallelbeing when Paul says "they were baptised untoMoses in the cloud and in the sea." 2Finally,by the strangest mental convolution the term"Michael the arch-angel" is supposed todescribe Moses himself. Altogether theexplanation is a fearful expositional tangle, andthe only promising feature is the correspondencebetween the submissive attitude of Moses whoreplied to the rebels, "Tomorrow the Lord willshow who are His and who is holy," 3and thatof Michael's who said, "The Lord rebuke thee."Another interpretation which has had widespreadacceptance, regards the passage as anallusion to Zechariah chapter 3. It is generallyagreed that this latter chapter opens with asymbolic vision of the relations of the returnedJewish exiles to the Samaritans who opposedthem, and the part God's angel was actively,though not visibly, playing in clearing away theobstacles to the rebuilding of the Temple inJerusalem. Not unreasonably, the Satan ofZechariah 3 could correspond to the "devil"of Jude 9 to represent "the people of the land"who "weakened the hands of the people ofJudah and troubled them in building." 4Danielinforms us that the angel of Zechariah 3 was infact "Michael the Chief Prince" who workedprovidentially for the returning Jews. 5Whilstin Jude it is Michael who says to the opposition"the Lord rebuke thee," in Zech. 3 : 2 it was"the Lord," and not the angel, symbolicallyholding audience with Joshua and Satan, whoused the words. This objection might be overruledif "the Lord" and the "angel of the Lord"are the same person because the latter was theName-bearing Angel.The later verse 23 of Jude which reads :"Others save with fear, pulling them out of thefire : hating even the garment spotted by theflesh" is reminiscent of Zechariah 3:2: "Isnot this a brand plucked out of the fire ?" andmight be regarded as a supporting factor infavour of the interpretation now being con-131 Pet. 5 : 8.Num. 1G : 5. Ezra 4:5.1 Cor. 10 : 2.Dan. 10: J 3.

The TESTIMONY 117sidered. But even with so much that wouldseem to justify the application of Jude 9 toZechariah 3, our expositional sense and judgmentare taxed beyond reasonable limit whenwe are asked to believe that "the body of Moses"refers to the Jews at the time of the return fromExile. If the term could hardly apply to God'speople during the wilderness journey underMoses, much less was it likely to do so 1,000years later. Why, it might fairly be asked, doesthe Spirit deliberately obscure the passage inJude by not describing the Jews simply andliterally by that or some other name equallyunambiguous ?Attention can now be directed to a third andmuch less known explanation of the difficultpassage. It is an accepted canon of Biblicalexegesis that of two interpretations, literal andfigurative, apart from any other determiningfactors the literal is to be preferred and morelikely to be correct. We might therefore considerwhat claims could be advanced for thisline of approach. Already it has been shownhow Daniel reveals Michael as God's "ChiefPrince" of the Jews at the time of the Restorationunder Cyrus. In the closing prophecy weare told Michael was to "stand up" again at"the time of the end" on behalf of the "childrenof God's people" the Jews, in "a time of troublesuch as never was," and in the same epoch asthe Resurrection. 6This activity of Michael forthe Jews in events over 2,000 years apart is notunlike that of Gabriel who after announcing toDaniel the coming of Messiah the Prince to be"cut off" and "bring in everlasting righteousness,"appeared to Mary nearly 500 years laterto tell her of the impending birth of thePromised One. 7If the work of Michael couldextend far beyond Daniel's day, is it unreasonableto believe it might stretch backwardcenturies prior to his day ?When Joshua with the children of Israelbesieged Jericho, he was confronted by anangel who announced himself as "the captainof the Lord's host." 8The Hebrew term for"captain" is the same as that used in Dan.10 : 13 translated "prince." This angel whoappeared to Joshua is also referred to in Joshua6 : 2 as LORD (Heb. : Yahweh). It wouldseem likely therefore that the Prince or NamebearingAngel which accompanied Israelthrough the Wilderness and was later describedby Isaiah as "the angel of the presence" wasnone other than the Michael of Daniel's day.If we can be reasonably satisfied on this point, aliteral application of the Jude passage may notbe inconceivable.At once we recall that God interfereduniquely at the death of Moses by burying hisbody so that nobody could find it. It is extremelyunlikely the people would tolerate thisdisappearance of the body of their Great Leaderwho was "unto them instead of God" withoutat least some sort of vigorous protest. Alreadythe Israelites had with them in the camp thebody of Joseph brought up from Egypt at hisdying request. 9Why then should they not begiven the body of Moses as a similar posthumousexpression of his faith in the promiseof the Land ? Contention on such an issuebetween a rebellious party among the peopleand the Angel of the Presence would follow thepattern of similar incidents in the wilderness.If however, a brazen serpent could be veneratedby Israel later, λ ° the body of Moses mighthave been to a greater degree, and doubtless itwas for this reason that God wisely removedthe temptation of idolatry from His people.At this stage the writer is conscious that allreflective readers will unhesitatingly press theobjection that whilst the suggestion seemsinteresting, it can only be treated as fanciful inview of the complete absence of any referenceto the incident in the Old Testament. But arewe sure that "the Wisdom of God" requiresthat there should necessarily be a full record inthe Old Testament of every incident to whichallusion is made in the New ? Where in theOld Testament are we told that Jannes andJambres were the magicians in Pharaoh's courtwho opposed Moses I 11How do we explainwhy the New Testament more precisely and, asinvestigation reveals, still harmoniously tells intwo passages that the drought in the days ofElijah lasted three years and six months, whenthe detailed account in the Old Testament saysit lasted only three years ? x 2And more significantlystill because it occurs in Jude, howcan we believe the statement occurring only 5verses after our problem passage, that Enochwas a prophet, much less that he foretold thereturn of the Lord Jesus to judgment, whenthere is no such information about Enoch in theOld Testament ? Could not the prophets ofGod speak and write of events past with averacity equal to that of predictions of eventsfuture. If this fundamental principle ofinspiration is doubted, much in the Gospels of6Dan. 12 : 1-2.7 Dan. 9 : 24-26 ;Lk. 1 : 26.8Josh. 5 : 15.» Gen. 50 : 25.101Σ122 Kings 18 : 4.2 Tim. 3 : 8.Lk. 4 : 25 ;Jas. 5 : 17.1 Kings 17 : 1.

ISThe TESTIMONYunwitnessed incidents in the life of our Saviourceases to be trustworthy. In face of thesearguments therefore, any objection to theliteral interpretation because of completeabsence of reference to the incident in the OldTestament cannot be sustained.If the incident did in fact take place, therewould be good point in the Apostle Jude usingit to draw a striking parallel with the immediatesituation in the Church, but this could not besaid of the symbolic vision of Zechariah chapter3.The view is widely held that the dispute overthe body of Moses has been culled from anapocryphal work "The Assumption of Moses."This book is of Jewish origin, and according tothe Higher Critics who would be likely to giveit the earliest possible date, was composed in theFirst Century of our era. The single Latinfragment still preserved breaks off in the middleof a sentence at the point where Moses gives hisprophecy and is about to die. It would seemhowever, that some Patristic writers quote thebook and confirm it originally contained areference to a disputation between Michael thearchangel and the Devil ever the body of Moses.The Targum of Jonathan says that Michael wasappointed guardian of Moses' grave.All this external evidence is not impressive.A study of apocryphal works will sometimesreveal the psychological cause of their havingbeen written. The absence of specific referenceto the Jannes and Jambres of 2 Tim. 3 : 8 in theExodus account of Moses' visits to Pharaoh'scourt prompted some fertile mind to attemptto make up the lack by writing a Book of Jannesand Jambres which is mentioned by Origen.The mystery surrounding Paul's reference to aLetter to Laodicea λ 3(now generally believed tobe our Ephesian Epistle) was the cause, itwould seem, of the fabrication of the apocryphalBook of Laodicea known in the days ofJerome. The same "lying spirit" promptedmany other apocryphal works, and the writer isprepared to believe that the Book of Enoch, atleast in part, including the reference to "themerciful, the patient, the holy Michael," hadsome such sinister and unworthy origin.Our survey now draws to a close, and thereader is left to form his own judgment as tothe merits of the three interpretations outlined.The writer prefers the literal primarily because,in his opinion, it complies with accepted rulesof exegesis, and avoids involved and unnaturaluses of terms in the text. May the day soondawn when the Lord will come to dispelthe darkness of our ignorance on this and allother problems in the beams of his EternalLight.13Col. 4 : 16.HPHERE are no less than four Satan passages*> in the story of Judas, each of whichpresents a problem ; and when they are takencollectively the difficulty snowballs."And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold,Satan hath desired to have you, that he maysift you as wheat." (Luke 22 : 31)."Then entered Satan into Judas surnamedIscariot, being of the number of the twelve.And he went his way, and communed with thechief priests and captains, how he might betrayhim unto them." (Luke 22 : 3, 4)."And supper being ended, the devil having putinto the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son,to betray him." (John 13 : 2)."And after the sop Satan entered into him.Then said Jesus unto him, That thou doest, doquickly." (John 13 : 27).Taken at their face value these passagescertainly read as though a personal superhumanJudas's SatanH. A. Whittakerdevil is referred to ; and whilst it may bepossible here and there to urge various difficultiesand objections against such aninterpretation, it still seems rather lame to talkin a somewhat cloudy fashion about this Satanbeing "sin in the flesh" of Judas. If this is theonly idea which the language is intended toconvey, could not the gospels have made thismore plain by less ambiguous expressions ?It is the purpose of this study to suggest that inthese places (as elsewhere) Scripture is using thebest means of saying what it has to say.The first step in the investigation is to recallthat in other instances "Satan" rarely describesvague impulses of "sin in the flesh," but isusually an objective outward embodiment ofspiritual opposition. In other words, Satan ismore often a man's opponent, enemy or detractorrather than his own evil thoughts. Forexample : "Get thee behind me, Satan ; for

The TESTIMONY 119thou art an offence unto me." Peter was seekingto persuade Jesus to follow the wrong way, andby that very aim he became a Satan to hismaster. Again, Rev. 2 : 13 speaks of Satan'sseat being in Pergamos. The Satan here was,of course, the persecuting Roman governmentwith its provincial headquarters in that city.And most readers will recall how the angel whosought to hinder Balaam's evil intentions stoodin the way to be a Satan unto him.There is no lack of other examples. It is onthese lines that interpretation of these trickygospel passages should first be attempted.The first suggestion then, is that the Satanwho "desired" or, more accurately, "demanded"to have the apostles was none otherthan the chief priest himself, proposing incouncil that a careful attempt be made to "sift"these followers of Jesus of Nazareth, that is, toinvestigate quietly which of them might beprepared to change sides for the sake of worldlybenefit. It turns out that all the other "Satan"passages in this group are susceptible of thesame kind of explanation.The main difficulty in Luke 22 : 3 is theunfortunate A.V. rendering—which was madeby a body of men firmly convinced of theexistence of a supernatural Satan. A reading atleast equally good would be : "Then Satancame in unto Judas—." For the satisfactionof the reader, other examples of occurrence ofthe identical Greek words are given here : "Andwhen Paul would have entered in unto thepeople . . ." 1 "After my departing grievouswolves shall enter in among you, not sparing theflock." 2 Thus the second passage underconsideration presents the exciting picture ofan emissary of the chief priest making contactwith Judas at the psychological moment whenhe was feeling sore and displeased because ofhis master's rebuke of his mercenary and unspiritualoutlook, 3 with the result that Judas"went away and communed (conferred, talkedthings over) with the chief priests and captainshow he might deliver him unto them."Next comes the introduction to John'saccount of the Last Supper : "And supperbeing ready, the devil having already put intothe heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, tobetray him ..." The devil here could hardly bethe sinful mind of Judas, for the words make itclear that it was the devil who had already putthe sinister project into his sinful mind. Onthe other hand, every reader will recognise theease with which this verse dovetails with theexplanation already advanced.But what is to be said of John 13 : 27, themost intractable of them all ? "after the sopSatan had entered into him." Any abstractsubjective "sin in the flesh" explanation isparticularly weak here, in the light of verse 2 ;"the devil having already put into the heart ofJudas ..." It is to be observed first of all thatthe words "entered into him" are identicalwith those already met in Luke 22 : 3. Thetranslation suggested there is equally validhere : "After the sop Satan came in unto him."It seems reasonable to take this verse also ashaving reference to yet another visit from theemissary of the chief priest.The scene is readily reconstructed. "Judas,there is a man at the door asking to see you."The rest of the twelve promptly assumed thatit was some arrangement Judas had made concerningthe practical arrangements for theirPassover observance, for was he not thetreasurer ? Indeed it may well be that somesuch item was the pre-arranged "cover" for theevil purpose in hand. But Jesus, who so often"knew their thoughts," was not misled. "Thatthou doest, do quickly" would mean one thingin the ears of the eleven, but something verydifferent to Judas. Was Jesus asking Judas to"get it over quickly," rather in the spirit of afelon urging on his executioner in the last grimmoments ? Such a reading seems to be grosslyout of character. Can it be that he was reallyreaching out with a last desperate heart-stirringappeal to the son of perdition : "That whichyou are doing, have done 5 with it right away" ?But Judas went out, yielding himself ratherto the fellowship of the Satan who sought thelife of his Lord. And it was night.1 Acts 19 : 30.2 Acts 20 : 29. 3 j n 0 . 12 : 1-8.4 Deipon ginomai can hardly mean "supper beingended" and in any case this A.V. reading is shownto be wrong by verse 26.(The Emphatic Diaglott under the Greek text gives"And supper being done," but in the parallelEnglish translation renders it "And as supper waspreparing." A.EJ.)5 This imperative is an aorist."UNLESS YOUR RIGHTEOUSNESS EXCEED ..."We may pursue a certain straight and steady course of well-doing, in the sense of not doing wrong,and yet be deficient in the positive kind of well-doing that overcomes evil with good.

120 The TESTIMONYThe Book of Job (4)Cyril TennantJob's Three Friendsr T*O be fore-warned is to be forearmed ! It**· is well that we take God's estimate of thethree friends in advance so that we may be inno doubt regarding their characters ; "Ye havenot spoken that which is right. .." So plausibleare their arguments and so readily do theyquote Scripture that many have followed theircondemnation of Job and sought to detect hissecret faults, trying in some way to relate Job'spast life with his suffering. This we must notdo ; God had declared Job to be righteous andto be suffering without cause.The three men appear to have been men oflearning, and in all probability, like Job, theytoo were judges who sat in the gates of theircities. Tinctured with elements of Scripturetruth, their wisdom has not only an air ofplausibility, but even of authority. However,although they are misinformed these friendscertainly seem to be sincere ; for a whole weekthey silently observe Job's distress, and whenthey finally do speak it is with a delicacy whichdoes them credit: "If we assay to communewith thee, wilt thou be grieved ?" Nothing lessthan their religious concern would emboldenthem to speak. For his own sake Job must bereproved, and what they say is said to Job'sface rather than behind his back. Only whenJob refuses to accept their reasoning do theybecome bitter : their bitterness increases,however, until eventually they accuse Joboutright of accepting bribery in the gate andoppressing the fatherless and widows. Theseaccusations they must have invented. Man wasthe liar, however unconsciously, and Godremained true Who had proclaimed Job perfectand upright.Forewarned as we now are, let us sit backand listen to Eliphaz as he comes on to thestage making his first speech. (We remindourselves once more that we are listening to adramatic representation of something whichreally did happen, thus making allowance forthe somewhat extravagant language but criticallynoting the facts)." . . . Remember I pray thee whoeverperished being innocent ? Or where were therighteous cut off ? Even as I have seen, theythat plough iniquity and sow wickednessreap the same. . . . His children are far fromsafety, they are crushed in.the gate, neitheris there any to deliver them. . . . Happy isthe man whom God correcteth, thereforedespise thou not the chastening of theAlmighty : for He maketh sore and bindethup. He woundeth and His hands makewhole."Warned by God's estimate of the threefriends, we shall not be misled by thisimpressive speech and seemingly soundexhortation, but be able instead to detect itsweaknesses. First, it is based upon the wrongassumption that Job was an unworthy sinner.Second, there is abundant Scripture testimonyto show how often the righteous are cut offwhilst the wicked continue to flourish. Aglaring example, and one with which the threefriends must have been acquainted is that ofCain and Abel. Third, Job's children had notbeen destroyed because of his sin ; and fourth,there is no hint in the early chapters of the bookof Job that his suffering was intended to be inany way a chastisement or correction for sin.It is clear from this speech and the otherswhich follow, and which are all on the samepattern, that the three friends believed Godwould reward or punish in this life strictlyaccording to a man's behaviour. A very comfortingreligion for men who were princes !It was into the scheme of this legalistic conceptionthat they tried to fit Job, and very clumsily,for Job was of a spiritual stature too great for it.Building upon this wrong basis, it is notsurprising that these men failed to answer Job ;not only were they wrong in their application ofScripture, but they were blind to the true natureof Job's problem. They were living in a differentworld and speaking a different language !They served therefore, only to increase Job'ssorrow ; not only must he suffer the loss of hischildren, but be accused of being the cause oftheir death. The poor too, for whom he hadwept and whose needs he had always sympatheticallymet, were said to have beenwronged by him when he was alleged to haveaccepted bribery in the gate. We wonder whythere should be so much repetition in thespeeches of the friends, requiring a great dealof space, but as we shall see, Job's friendsprovided by this means a unique form of trial,a form very necessary in the development ofGod's revelation to and through Job. This can

The TESTIMONY 121perhaps be best appreciated in noticing thethree stages of Job's suffering and his reactionon each occasion.1. In suffering the loss of his family andpossessions, Job is quite prepared to acceptGod's hand in his life ; "The Lord gave andthe Lord hath taken away, blessed be the Nameof the Lord."2. When later he is made to endure acutepain and suffer almost complete loss of his bodywhich he describes as "as good as dead," Jobcan still recognise in it all the sovereign wisdomof God ; "What, shall we receive good at thehand of the Lord, and shall we not receiveevil ?"3. When, however, his friends seek to takeaway his character (his "righteousness") he isnot prepared to let it go. If all else goes, thatmust remain !The theme is unfolding. Job stands before usa man pre-eminent. As all temporal things arestripped away from him, he remains, leperthough he may be and hideous in the lonelinessof the ashmound, a man shining with all theradiance of a sterling righteous character. Thencomes the first assault, and his character, hislast surviving possession, is in danger. But thisJob will not allow to be taken—at least, not yet!"A BIBLE STUDENT"Apart from the three opening verses forming the introduction, the whole of Psalm 119 is a prayerby a man who was a Bible student. In all the 176 verses, with probably only one exception, he refersdirectly or by allusion to God's Word or Law. Yet his Bible was less than half the size of ours ;but he enjoyed it and was a tireless student of it.The Psalmist's sentiments about God's Word are very revealing. Without any reservations,it is true from the beginning, very pure. He studies it diligently all the day with his whole heart;he thinks about it at night, and cannot wait for dawn when he can go back to the text. He rejoicesin it as one that finds great spoil, and sings about it in the house of his pilgrimage. God's Word haskept him alive ; he has nothing else to live for ; it is as God's face shining on him. He stands inawe at the marvels of Truth it reveals, for it is a veritable Lamp of Light. He hides the Word inhis heart, because it gives him strength to combat temptation. Above all, the Word is a great comfortto him in his affliction ; indeed, the affliction helps him to understand it. He wants to speak of God'sWord before kings, and he asks for companionship only with those who enjoy it.All these thoughts are to be found in Psalm 119. The Psalmist is not insincere or deluded ;he really means what he says. His prayer reveals a man who has had a wonderful experience, andhe wants us to share it with him. But the same spiritual experience can only come to us if we applyourselves with the same diligence and reverence. "Great peace have they that love Thy Law, andthey shall have no stumbling block."E. W.REVIEWS NOTICE4 'WHEN WILL CHRIST COME?"The booklet bearing the above title, reviewed in our issues for January and February, is now obtainablefrom the daughter of its late author, Mr. A. R. Scrivener. Bound with it also into one booklet is thesame writer's "Judgment and Events of the Immediate Future." Copies, sold much under cost, maybe obtained at 1/-, post free, from : MRS. N. W. LEAN, HEMI STREET, HASTINGS, H.B.,NEW ZEALAND.A limited number of 25 can be obtained by the kindness of Mr. A. G. F. Smith, Greenhill, SeatonDown Road, Seaton, Devon, at the same price. When these are sold, all enquiries must be madedirect to Mrs. Lean in New Zealand,

122 The TESTIMONYMiraclesF. WhiteleyEdited by F. WHITELEYTHHE appearance recently, at less than aAquarter its previous price, of the workof the above title 1 by C. S. Lewis, definitelywarrants this further notice. His lively,challenging, sometimes too "popular" style,is well known. His witty work, The ScrewtapeLetters, in which one may laugh at (and thebetter resist) the "Devil's devices" as revealedin the letters received by young Wormwoodfrom his affectionate uncle Screwtape: wereviewed in the October issue of The Testimony,1942. His sincere and entertaining book,The Problem of Pain, by this former atheist,in which he finds a solution, sensible andsatisfying : we reviewed in the Novemberissue, 1944; and his practical Christian Behaviour,in the November issue, 1949. Theearlier publication, by Bles, of Miracles, at10/6d., was reviewed for us by R.T.L. in theAugust issue, 1947, the year it was first published.Its emergence, now, in the Collins2/6d. Fontana Books series, brings it withinthe reach of all, and we trust our further lookat this challenging work, after fourteen years,will extend considerably its field of helpfulnessamong our readers.Mr. Lewis uses the word "Miracle" to mean"an interference with Nature by a supernaturalpower." He is aware that this is notthe definition which would be given by manytheologians, and he adopts it not because hethinks it an improvement on theirs but because,"being crude and popular," it enables himmost easily to treat those questions which"the common reader" probably has in mindwhen he takes up a book on this subject.First of all he addresses himself to thequestion of which is right : those who for hispurpose he calls "Naturalists" because theybelieve that nothing exists except Nature,or the "Supernaturalists" who think that,besides Nature, there exists something else ?The Natural is what springs up, or comesforth, or arrives, or goes on, of its own accord ;. . . what is there already : the spontaneous,the unsolicited, the unintended. "What theNaturalist believes is that the ultimate Fact,the thing you can't go behind, is a vast processin space and time which is going on of its ownaccord . . . the Total Event . . . All things andevents are so completely interlocked that noone of them can claim the slightest independencefrom 'the whole show.' " Thereforeno thoroughgoing Naturalist believes in freewill ! The Supernaturalist, whilst agreeingthat there must be some basic Fact which isitself the ground or starting point of all explanations,does not identify this Fact with"the whole show." "He thinks that thingsfall into two classes. In the first class we findeither things, or (more probably) One Thing,which is basic and original, which exists onits own. In the second we find things whichare merely derivative from that One Thing.The one basic Thing has caused all the otherthings to be. It exists on its own ; they existbecause it exists. They will cease to exist ifit ever ceases to maintain them in existence ;they will be altered if it ever alters them."We consider that Mr. Lewis makes the issuecrystal clear by thus indicating the two pointsof view which compel respectively, either thedenial of, or the affirmation of, the possibilityof the occurrence of miracles. He meets therequirement of Aristotle's dictum on Metaphysics,which heads his own note on thescope of the book, that "Those who wish tosucceed must ask the right preliminary quest-1 Miracles : A Preliminary Study, by C. S. Lewis.Collins Fontana Books, I960, 190 pp., 2s, 6d,

The TESTIMONY 123ions." We deeply regret, however, that afterrecording a probability (see his brackets above)as between his "either . . . or," incliningtoward there being "One Thing" behind everythingincluding Nature, he later lapses to thenot only incomprehensible, but impossiblepluralities of Trinitarianism.Naturalism and Supernaturalism, as abovedefined, might be expressed, he says, bysaying that the former gives us a democratic,and the latter a monarchical, picture of reality.The one regards all events as equally dependenton the total system of things ; the other believesthat the one original or self-existent thingis on a different level from, and more importantthan, all other things. From this point in thebook, his treatment of Supernaturalism isconfined to that form which believes in oneGod ; partly because polytheism is not likelyto be a live issue for most of his readers, andpartly because those who believed in manygods very seldom, in fact, regarded their godsas creators of the universe and as self-existent.He also remarks in passing that a Naturalistwould not object to a sort of "God" arisinginside Nature from the whole process, ashuman mind (according to him) arises fromhuman organisms. The Supernaturalist, onhis part, believes that what he calls "Nature"may, or may not, be the only reality whichthe one Primary Thing has produced. Inthis sense there might be several "Natures."(He is not speaking of other solar systems,galaxies or "island universes," which would,of course, be parts of the same Nature as ourown sun ; all interlocked reciprocally in spatial,temporal and causal relation). Other Naturesmay not be spatio-temporal at all, but wouldbe related only by their common derivationfrom a single Supernatural source.Turning to the cardinal difficulty of Naturalism,the author rightly stresses that if the latterwere true, then every finite thing or eventwould be (in principle) explicable in termsof the Total System ; therefore reason musthave come into existence by a historical process—a process not designed to produce a mentalbehaviour that can find truth ! Natural selection,however, could operate only by eliminatingresponses that were biologically hurtfuland multiplying those which tended to survival."But it is not conceivable that any improvementof responses could ever turn them intoacts of insight, or even remotely tend to do so.Our physical vision is a far more useful responseto light than that of the cruder organismswhich have only a photo-sensitive spot.But neither this improvement, nor any possibleimprovements we can suppose, could bringit an inch nearer to being a knowledge of light! "In our own lifetime we have seen thematerialist's foundation melt beneath his feetinto something much more nearly resemblingspirit than he finds comfortable to contemplate.We find more than amusing, therefore, Mr.Lewis's sly dig in this chapter, at the Naturalist'sinsecurity in view of the posture of sciencetoday. Whilst refraining from building anyargument upon it, he does well to notice thatwhereas the older scientists believed that thesmallest particles of matter moved accordingto strict laws, some modern scientists seemto think that the individual unit of matter (itwould be rash to call it any longer a "particle")moves in an indeterminate or random fashion ;moves, in fact, "on its own" or "of its ownaccord." Each of the smallest visible bodiescontains millions of these units. "It would be,indeed, too great a shock to our habits todescribe them as super-natural. I think weshould have to call them sub-natural. But allour confidence that Nature has no doors, andno reality outside herself for doors to open on,would have disappeared. There is apparentlysomething outside her, the Subnatural ; it isindeed from this Subnatural that all eventsand all 'bodies' are, as it were, fed into her.And clearly, if she thus has a back dooropening on the Subnatural, it is quite on thecards that she may have a front door openingon the Supernatural—and events might befed into her at that door too." An aside, itmay be, but none more apposite to his theme !The chapter on Nature and Supernature isa little tedious, and in regard to the Truth ingeneral, sometimes on, and sometimes off,the mark. "When you are asked to believe inReason coming from Non-reason," says he,"you must cry Halt, for, if you don't, allthought is discredited." True. But whilstaffirming that he is "not in the least tryingto smuggle in an argument for the immortalityof the soul," why else does he at this pointclaim "a casual and unemphatic assent" bythe Christian documents "to the belief thatthe supernatural part of a man survives thedeath of the natural organism. But they arevery little interested in the matter." Wesympathise with his misunderstanding here,due in part no doubt to mistranslations bythose for whom Platonism coloured theiropinion of what the import was of certainpassages of Scripture. If he means post-Apostolic documents, then we are "very little

124 The TESTIMONYinterested" — save as noting evidence of earlyinfiltration of the oldest known lie ! Withhis immediate follow-up, however, we canheartily concur: "What they are intenselyinterested in is the restoration or 'resurrection'of the whole composite creature by a miraculousdivine act." Yet, even now perhaps, we havebeen a little hasty. If he means what we thinkhe means by that word "composite," thenboth Genesis and Jesus require its deletion.Leaving aside the miracle of resurrectionwhich anticipates his case, he has made hispoint that man's rationality is the little telltalerift in Nature which shows that there issomething beyond and behind her. Theconcept that a "cosmic mind" could be theproduct of a mindless Nature is absurd. Weagree, too, that "Dualism," whilst throughthe ages it has had a certain theological attraction,cannot be "thought out" to the end ;the attractive promise can never be kept ;"there are better solutions of the problem ofevil." But when he speaks of "the depth andoriginality of" the Genesis "Hebrew folktale," we are content to have the Son's seal onwhat was no "tale," but Truth ; originating,not in the mind of the Hebrew "folk," butrevealed to Moses in all its "depth" by HimWho, in the heights of Glory, is the Origin,both of the Son and of all Scripture.His chapter on A Further Difficulty inNaturalism exhibits how, after pronouncingMorality an illusion, it reappears "under newmanagement." But the damage is done.Having one day destroyed any SupernaturalSource for our ideas of good and evil, andwith it, conscience—valid only when an offshoot(we would prefer : enlightened reflector—F.W.) of some absolute moral wisdom,one cannot reasonably expect, next day, tofind morality venerated. Quite aside from hisargument, the author here puts his fingeron a prime cause of the earth's being filledwith violence, etc ; for idealism and generalwelfare will appeal to but few. The naturalman who knows no "right and wrong" asfrom the Great Lawgiver ("no fear of Godbefore his eyes") will do "what is right inhis own eyes," and, actuated by self-interestalone, will pursue his wayward course withoutregard or respect to person or property.There follow, chapters aimed at answeringmisgivings; disposing of "red herrings" ;relating miracles to the laws of Nature ; settlingthe rebellious emotional reaction which hehad at first, himself, against the conceptionof the fresh, free spontaneity of Nature beingseemingly reduced to a clock-work mousecontrivance, or in any way being the subjectof devising, manipulation or interference;and at antidoting the poisons which lurk inthe mind of anyone influenced early by suchas the satirical atheist, doting on the GoldenBough and living in a house stuffed withRationalist Press products, who helped fixa mental attitude in the author which, now,he has come to regard as a total misunderstanding.He attacks the view which is so congenialto the modern mind, of an indwelling spiritualforce of goodness, beauty and truth : a kindof generalised spirituality which is in fact apure abstraction, far removed from trueChristianity, whatsoever religious label begiven it. Put forward in succeeding ages asmore refined, more profound, more spiritualand more enlightened, these theosophicalspeculations, which are today nearly as strongas in ancient India or in ancient Rome, sofar from being the final refinement of religion,are simply a recurrent impulse toward Pantheism: the permanent natural bent of the humanmind. The Christian statement is refreshing,that he who does the will of the Father willknow the true doctrine. "One moment evenof feeble contrition or blurred thankfulnesswill, at least in some degree, head us off fromthe abyss of abstraction. It is Reason herselfwhich teaches us not to rely on Reason onlyin this matter." One must try experience."Oh taste and see ! " quotes he to the "EruditeLimpets.""An 'impersonal God'—well and good.A subjective God of beauty, truth and goodness,inside our own heads—better still. A formlesslife-force surging through us, a vast powerwhich we can tap—best of all. But GODHIMSELF, alive, pulling at the other end ofthe cord, perhaps approaching at infinitespeed, the hunter, king, husband—that isquite another matter. There comes a momentwhen the children who have been playingat burglars hush suddenly : was that a realfootstep in the hall ? There comes a momentwhen people who have been dabbling in religion('Man's search for God ! ') suddenlydraw back. Supposing we really found Him ?We never meant it to come to that ! Worsestill, supposing He had found us ? "On the propriety of miracles Mr. Lewis,as so often, uses a strong though simple similefrom everyday life. How often one finds thatthe beginner, who has just mastered the strictformal rules, is over-punctilious and pedantic

The TESTIMONY 125about them. Readers must often have encounteredthis characteristic in children ; butmaturity should bring the realisation that"there are rules behind the rules, and a unitywhich is deeper than uniformity." "All reality,"say some objectors, "must be inter-related andconsistent." True, but Nature must not bemistaken for the whole; it is but a partialsystem within Reality. "A miracle is emphaticallynot an event without cause or withoutresults. Its cause is the activity of God ; itsresults follow according to Natural law."The chapter on The Grand Miracle (knownto Christendom in general as the Incarnation)rightly places first things first; but as it isseriously and inevitably marred for the bulkof our readers by the close interweaving ofmany of the cardinal errors of apostate Christianity,we will not detract by enlargementupon that with which we disagree. The FACTof the miracle of God's being manifest in HisSon Jesus is the point paramount. The authorregards "the angels that sinned" as "powerfulnon-human beings, supernatural but created;a viewpoint integral with the pattern of traditionaltheology; but he sternly discourages"the morbid inquisitiveness which led to apseudo-science of Demonology."The brilliance of the writing is maintainedin the sections on the miracles of the OldCreation, and of the New, but like that of anytwilight driver the keenest sight under thoseconditions fails clearly to see true shape andperspective. That "it appears that the powersof redeemed Man will be almost unlimited"is true ; and how every waiting saint amongour readers yearns for "the spiritual body" !for the promise is, "We shall be like him."But the author is silent respecting the "GoodNews of the Kingdom of God" ; the Comingagain of him who ascended ; of the Restorationof Israel's Kingdom ; of the Judgment of thesaints, and Rulership with Christ for a thousandyears by those "blessed of the Father," in aworld at peace; and beyond, for all who"cannot die any more" : perpetuity of perfectionin blissful union unspeakable : "GodAll in all" !This book is no defence of the miraclemongeringwhich has always prospered amongthe unenlightened ; and which today, in theinterests of a religious system which hasalways fully exploited what the Scriptures call"lying wonders," is being pushed into thepress with ever-increasing frequency. Mr.Lewis makes the excellent observation, "Goddoes not shake miracles into Nature at randomas if from a pepper-caster. They come ongreat occasions : they are found at the greatganglions of history—not of political or socialhistory, but of that spiritual history whichcannot be fully known by men."Respecting his Appendix A, however, onthe words 'Spirit' and 'Spiritual,' the readerwould be far safer in going direct to Scripture ;and as to Appendix B, on 'Special Providences,'a little study of the illustrations abounding inthe Bible would save a lot of senseless speculationand be infinitely more worthwhile.The philosophisings, too, on Prayer are wildlyaway from what may be learned by the leastof Christ's little ones from the Word—beginningwith the Lord's Prayer ! At one pointthe line taken would even justify prayers forthe dead !Personally, we finished the book with thefeeling that many would not choose to traversethis type of material; that some would bebetter not to do so ; and that those who arealready convinced that in the Bible we havethe inspired account of wonders wrought bythe visible Hand of God, do not need to do so.But there are two possible channels of profitwhich could arise from its perusal. Firstly,those already persuaded by other means, ofthe truth of biblically recorded miracles,would be better equipped to convince others,(for whom miracles may be a barrier to theirapproach to the Bible), by the use of a littlephilosophy which is not "vain." ' Secondly,placed in the hands of a not too bigotedAtheist, Agnostic, "Naturalist" or Pantheist,Theosophist, Monist or Deist, it could providejust that irresistible mental kick-out-of-the-rut,which, in one form or another, for many of uswho were not born into the atmosphere of"The Truth/' was a means not despised bythe Spirit, in jerking our feet out of one orother of the various surrounding Camps ofFalsehood, onto some intermediate, if boggy,track toward Truth ; and thus finally, by themerciful and faith-begetting enlightenment ofHis WONDER-ful Word—into the Way ofLife.This review, therefore, is sent forth withthe prayer that through its initial instrumentalityGod may ultimately "satiate with truthand love" a few more lonely and hungry soulswho seek, through many a mist, His "springsabove."How lamentable is the spectacle of persons holding the truth, and yet uninfluenced by it in theirconduct,

126 The TESTIMONYWATCHMANNew Frontiers of Space (1)Hubert W. CraddockEdited by Η. W. CRADDOCKTLXI STORY is overtaking imagination. On·*"*· the 13th February—the day was aSunday—Soviet scientists succeeded in rocketinga robot Satellite weighing about half a toninto the spacious vastness of the Universe.Destination : the planet "Venus," approximately50 million miles away from our earth,but calculated to be during the month of May,26,000,000 miles distant. This fantasticjourney is estimated to take three months atan average velocity of 12,000 miles an hour.Packed with photographic, radar and signallingapparatus, the fearsome, electronicallycontrolledmonster was blasted off a firingpad in some secret recess of the Soviet Union.This Russian flying machine is actually aSpace station ; being launched on its journeyto the stars pick-a-back fashion and thenreleased by remote control—amazing newprodigy of human scientific achievement—from its parent "Sputnik" carrier whilstorbiting our Earth when 300 miles up.Itself known as "Venus," this man-madesatellite is the 51st to plunge successfullyupwards into the heavens since the spacerace between America and Russia began threeyears ago. Soviet scientists have typicallysuppressed all news regarding their undoubtedprevious failures, so that the psychologicalimpact of Russian successes upon the nationsof the world is correspondingly enormous.With greater democratic commendable candour,the U.S.A. has not only admitted to,but frankly published details of their spaceshots, those attempts which miscarried aswell as those for which tremendous successcould justly be claimed.The world's amazement will be recalledwhich attended Russia's accomplishment inputting into the earth's orbit the first artificialsatellite known as "Sputnik 1" on October 4th.1957. This was followed one month later by"Sputnik II," which carried an unfortunatelive dog, "Laika" ; poor "Laika" being crematedwhile possibly still living, by atmosphericincandescence as the satellite circledthe globe ever slower and lower, to be consumedfinally by fervent heat.Stung to emulation of the Soviet successes,America then accelerated her space programmeand between January 1958 and November1960 has successfully shot 39 satellites intoorbit, either around the Earth or around theSun. Men of the Soviet Science Academyhave, in turn, hurled twelve massive satellitesaloft with impressive results ; first, a moon"miss" which went subsequently into orbitaround the Sun ; first, a direct hit on theMoon ; first, the "reverse" side of the moonphotographed ; first, a live animal as passenger ;first, to launch and recover two dogs apparentlyunscathed from flight around theearth. Within a week of launching the "Venus"satellite, Russia then launched a 4J-ton spaceshipinto the earth's orbit carrying a dog,"Blackie" and other living creatures. "Blackie"made several trips around the earth circlingevery 90 minutes after which her argosyobeyed automatically an electronic "command"from the ground and landed safely on the spotprescribed by its technically dexterous masters !A new Soviet scientific marvel incorporatedinto the Venus satellite which became operativeas soon as it freed itself from its 6J-tonspace " 'bus" in the distance of the heavens,is a series of solar-cell panels to absorb thesunlight while in flight and to convert it toelectricity, thus keeping the radio batteries

The TESTIMONY 127fully charged. Radio messages should betransmitted automatically to earth every fivedays during the 90-day flight. The Russiansare "cagey" as to whether their ambition isto encircle Venus which is one of the nineplanets which revolve in our solar system, orto try and strike it squarely.Some detailed disclosures have been madeby Pravda, official mouthpiece of the Kremlin.They anticipate that the "Appointment withVenus" will take place by May 19th or 20th,and should orbit the planet within 62,000miles or thereabouts. Scientific data will begarnered as to temperatures and measurementsof the magnetic field. The complex radiotechnical equipment should be communicatingcontinually with a fleet of Russian shipsdeployed over the five oceans of the world,all equipped with powerful radio receptionand transmitting gear. It is not known howmuch, if any, scientific data will be revealedby the Russians.Their space station is known to be equippedwith guidance rockets to compensate for anydeviation of planned trajectory ; but shouldit be the intention to hit the planet, a numberof Soviet "Hammer-and-Sickle" emblems willbe thrown off by the violence of impact, suchas occurred with the Moon-rocket strike.Presumably, the idea is that at some futuredate the U.S.S.R. might lay claim to possessionof both the Moon and Venus (yes, seriously !)just as explorers centuries ago ran up theircountry's flag when landing on an unknownand uncharted shore and proclaimed possessionin the name of their particular sovereign.Undoubtedly, this is the greatest of theSoviet space feats, and no country in the worldhas endeavoured to minimise the vast importanceof this highly scientific achievement.Quoting President Kennedy's ungrudging admissionat one of his Press conferences : "TheSoviet Union made a significant breakthroughsome years ago, and they have continued tomaintain their lead." He added : "For thelong heavy explorations into space, the SovietUnion is ahead and it is going to be a major taskto surpass them." The deputy administratorof the U.S. Aeronautics and Space Administrationwas even more forthright. "The timelag," he observed grimly, "is a matter of someconcern. The U.S. will now just have tosweat it out.""A new stage in man's conquest of interplanetaryspace," was the triumphant boastof Professor Boris Kukarkin, leading Russianastronomer. "Travel routes will now beopened up in space to hitherto unexploredplanets," exulted Τ ASS, prominent Moscowdaily newspaper ; "Russia will control futurespace ships travelling tens of millions of milesfrom the Earth."According to her position in the skies, theplanet Venus is known either as the "EveningStar" or our bright "Morning Star." Wemight well ask, "Are the age-old secrets ofVenus, the mystery planet, soon to be solved ?"Venus, our Earth's "twin sister" of almostidentical size, is shrouded in dense impenetrablecloud, and her surface has never yet beenscanned by human vision.Separating fact from fantasy and propagandafrom progress, it has been demonstrated beyonddoubt that Soviet scientists have achievedmarkedly superior and spectacular resultsthan have Western technicans to date. Themalign implications are that Soviet strategyin this nuclear age might adopt massive interplanetaryblackmail as a major weapon in theCommunist armoury. Shall "cold-war" conflictnow be waged aloft in the heavens themselves} Please God, forbid and prevent it !Nigh on 500 years ago, a Genoese mariner,Christopher Columbus, voyaged into theunknown to open up the New World. Duringthe weeks inaugurating 1961, a New Frontierof Knowledge has been breached, enablingmankind to enter fresh fields of technicaladvancement. It all sounds like science-fiction"paperback" stones, surpassing the luriddescriptions of Kepler, Jules Verne, de Bergeracand others whose imagination was aheadof their time. Yet it is all too true that we arecontemporary with the most revolutionaryforce of our age, namely, man's increasingconquest and expansion of his environment.The world is standing—some of us ratherunwillingly—on the threshold of a new dimensionof human activity, possibly a new dimensionof armed conflict."For I dipt into the future, far as human eyecould see.Saw the Vision of the World, and all thewonder that would be ;"Saw the heavens filled with commerce,argosies of magic sails,Pilots of the purple twilight, dropping downwith costly bales ;"Heard the heavens filled with shouting, andthere rain'd a ghastly dewFrom the nations' airy navies grappling inthe central blue ;"Till the common sense of most shall hold afretful realm in awe,And the kindly earth shall slumber, lapt inuniversal law."

128 The TESTIMONYWhen Alfred, Lord Tennyson wrote LockskyHall in 1865, men scoffed in unbelief atthe ''impossibility" and "far-fetched idea"of aerial warfare. Those of us who enduredthe full fury of Nazi wrath in air raids overLondon, and watched with fascinated horroraerial enemies fighting in mortal combat "inthe central blue" can affirm as eyewitnessesthat Tennyson's remarkable anticipations wereno "far-fetched impossibilities." The thunderof the American and Russian rockets climbingtowards space in 1961 can raise man's aspirationsto declare the glory of God in thehandiwork of His heavens, or it could condemnhim, humanly speaking, to be numbered amongthe fossilized brontosauri and other unsuccessfulexperiments of Nature. But certainly itwill not be the "common sense of most" thatis to lap this kindly earth in "universal law."# # #The significant milestone of 1961 may markthe calculated flight of homo sapiens into anorbit in celestial space and his safe return tothe earth. The U.S. has now launched some39 earth satellites into the skies, and in orderto maintain her experimental space programmeduring the forthcoming twelve months hasvoted the astronomical sum of 965 milliondollars (about ,£345 millions sterling). Herastro-scientists have succeeded already inbringing back alive two monkeys and a chimpanzeenamed "Ham," unwilling stand-insfor man's rocket flight experiments. More"humane" than America or Russia, Frenchtechnologists have fired their first space rocket100 miles high over the Sahara desert, witha rat named "Hector" as a traveller in thecapsule.It was strongly rumoured at the time ofMr. Kruschev's visit to the United NationsAssembly last autumn, that Russian scientistsactually had attempted the launching of aliving man into space, and that the projecthad failed. September 27th 1960 had beenloudly proclaimed as "The Day of World II,"and during those momentous 24 hours, theRussians were proposing to record mankind'sactivities all over the globe. Judging byestablished precedent, the Russian Premiermight well have ordered some spectacularspace demonstration to win for him addeddramatic prestige before the Assembly, andto impress afresh upon the "uncommitted"nations Soviet superiority in astronautics.Some sources insist that the astral attemptactually was made, but was abortive, and thatthere really is a dead Russian astronaut aloftin a metallic coffin, doomed to circle spacefor eternity. The world will never know thetruth, because, as would be expected, Sovietscientists issued a denial that such a projectever was envisaged.# * #"Project Mercury" is the official soubriquetof the well-publicised proposed man-in-spaceprogramme aiming to put an American astronautinto orbit some time this year. The originaltime schedule has been postponed, but allactivities are being accelerated to anticipateif possible similar Russian action. Optimisticreports "leaked" to the Press suggest that aninitial rocket shot may be made to coincidewith the arrival of the Russian satellite intothe orbit of Venus.Three U.S. Service men of outstandingintelligence and physique have been shortlistedfrom a picked panel of seven skilledfliers. All have been in arduous training forthe past two years and have volunteered forthe epochal event for which they describethemselves as being "lucky to be around atthis particularly exciting time in history."One of the "lucky three" will be notified assoon as the first attempt is finally scheduled."Project Mercury" is designed with twodistinct objectives : first, a 15-minute rocketflight from the coastal station in Florida—flashing at a speed up to 4,000 miles an hourto an altitude of 120 miles over the Atlantic.Launches and naval vessels will patrol theseas ready to dash to the rescue of the humanoccupant of the rocket capsule. A previousexperimental 400-mile flight carried a chimpanzeenamed "Ham" one hundred miles intothe air, but who unfortunately had to endurea bad buffeting before being picked out ofthe ocean after three hours wallowing in thewaves. "Ham the Chimp" is now worldfamous,with his picture published in newspapersin practically all countries. DuplicatingHam's journey, a further test flight with anempty capsule was rocketed and temperaturemeasured at re-entry into the earth's atmospherewas a scorching 3,000° Farenheit, butconsidered to be well within an astronaut'scapacity to withstand the ordeal. Wisecrackedone of the three chosen fliers : "I guess we'renow halfway between Ham and Human ! "Objective Number Two of "ProjectMercury" will be a true space flight. Oneof the selected Space Men is to attempt a17,500-miles-an-hour orbit of the earth, circlingthe globe 3 times in 4 J hours ! Whatwill be the ultimate of this competition be-

The TESTIMONY 129"WHEN I SURVEY THY HEAVENS—WHAT IS MAN ?"Photo by courtesy of MOUNT WILSON and PALOMAR OBSERVATORIES, CAL., U.S.A.tween the two largest and most powerfulnations in the world ? Perhaps the answerto our question will have been answered bythe time this issue of The Testimony appears ;in any case, both Russia and America areconfident of initiating the dawn of the newspace age during 1961. Both countries haveannounced that their final target during thepresent decade of the '60s is to put a mannedflight around the Moon.A story of fantasy from the pen of Wernhervon Braun has been published, carrying thetitle, First Men to the Moon. Londonersespecially have little reason to like von Braun,Hitler's designer-in-chief of the V-2 rocketweapon which caused widespread death anddestruction in south-east England during thefinal stages of the Nazi War. Now a naturalizedAmerican, von Braun has transferred hisallegiance to the Allies, and claims that he candesign a practical rocket ship within ten years,which will transport men to the moon andback. His book is an imaginative but scientificaccount of man's first two-way moon voyage,a 239,000-mile flight taking 60 hours eachway. The publisher's terse comment is,"Today this story is space fiction—tomorrowit could come true ! "We pause to ask ourself, "Is it God's Willso to be, and to what extent ? " Truly theseattempts of man to establish new frontiers ofspace are identifiable with the "fearful sights andgreat signs in the heavens" which the Lordforetold as an evidence of the verity of hisNear Return.# * #=What is an accomplished fact, however,and which illustrates mankind's native, over-

130 The TESTIMONYweening arrogance and shameless audacityis the account reaching us from Paris of aseries of scientific meetings of experts on spacetravel during the first week in March. Allsessions of the International AstronauticalFederation are presided over by ProfessorLeonid Selov, leading Soviet rocket expert;and the Conference sessions of the Space LawInstitute, comprising legal brains from 15countries are under the chairmanship of Mr.Andrew G. Haley, an American lawyer fromWashington.The Agenda for March 6th is before usas we write these notes, and we quote herewiththe first four items, meanwhile contemplatingthe astounding Item 3 with pardonable infuriation.(1) "What is the legal status of a rocketvehicle travelling above the terrestrialboundaries of a sovereign country ? "(2) "What rights, if any, do nations have to'capture or to destroy' a rocket vehiclepenetrating such air space ? "(3| "What should be the legal status of thesun, moon and the planets ? "(4) What new situations in domestic laware created by space activities to whichexisting laws are not applicable ? "Can human pride and presumption go anyfurther ? Was it entirely coincidental that onthe following day (March 7th) our Daily BibleReadings plan included Psalm 115, where weread in verse 16 ; "The heaven, even theheavens ARE THE LORD'S : but the earthhath He given to the children of men ! "Students of the Word know that this earthalso is the property of its Creator with all itsfulness, but it has been given to men by thebeneficent bounty of its Owner.These clever ones, expert in the knowledgewhich man's wisdom teaches have the impertinenceto sit together and discourse uponan agenda headed (mark this well !) "TODISCUSS QUESTIONS OF SOVEREIGN-TY BEYOND THE BORDERS OF THEATMOSPHERE." How much further canthe haughtiness and vainglory of man's follybe extended ? How the Watchman wouldjust welcome the chance to proclaim publiclyin Paris the "Bible Answer" to Item 3 on theagenda. Four words only would suffice :THEY BELONG TO GOD !Is not the spirit of man that returns to hisearth lifted up in the boastings of Lucifer :"Thou hast said in thy heart, I will ascendinto heaven, I will exalt my throne above thestars of God : I will ascend above the heightsof the clouds ; I will be like the Most High."Interviewed upon his arrival in Paris, Mr.Haley observed, "Sovereignty on earth hastraditionally been claimed by the symbolismof turf and twig or by effective occupation."He added meaningly, "This latter was nowthe Great Criterion." He noted that Russiahad professedly disavowed claims of sovereigntyover the moon in connection with its lunarstrike, but he considered that such Sovietsuccesses marked a "dangerous tendency"in terms of long-range sovereignty issues withhis own country."Science" represents a threat and a menacewhen motives such as these are put forth inall seriousness. What is the prime factor whichis driving men into the cosmic attempt toadventure with dreadful finality into the unknownrealms of boundless space, much ofwhich is fiercely hostile to human life ? Itcannot be the need for more lebensraum,because there are still thousands and thousandsof fertile square miles in the undevelopedregions of terra firma. Is not the all-powerfulmotive expressed by the poet Swinburne inhis Hymn of Man in the sentiment : "Gloryto Man in the highest, for Man is the masterof all things ! "Here is the measure of man's questing, ofhis spirit of adventuring across the frontiersof new knowledge. So splendid. So transitory.So tragic ! His curiosity is the yardstick ofhis pride. He cannot bear to be tantalized byunsolved mystery. He must know what liesover the next hill. The spirit of enquiry is aGod-given talent, but the development ofwisdom does not keep pace with the acquisitionof knowledge. "Knowledge comes, butWisdom lingers."Sensible persons may be driven to theconclusion that perhaps we have learned morethan enough, technically speaking, about theUniverse in which we live, and that morespiritual application is desirable. There hasbeen much study, much research, muchwealth expended towards keeping man alivein space. Certainly there has been insufficientprogress among mankind towards living togetherin peace upon the earth !(to be continued)The truth does not shine in a man who is at home in the world.

The TESTIMONY 131"DOR the thorough-going rationalist, spon-* taneous generation of life from non-livingsubstances is a vital link in his chain ofspeculation. The attempts to explain how thisnon-miraculous thing happened have beengendered by necessity. The argument runsthus : If spontaneous generation did not occur,we must open the door to a Creator : but thereis no Creator : therefore spontaneous generationmust have occurred.With minds shackled by this necessity, manybiologists are so convinced that they are huntingfor a fact that they ignore the factual findingsof other branches of science which oppose it.The law of entropy 1 which is supported bycountless facts and deemed by the exactsciences to be universal, states in effect thatdisorder increases in every physical process. 2The result of applying this law to the process ofevolution is so disastrous that rationalists insistthat it is not applicable to living creatures ; atthe same time they hold that all organisms arebut manifestations of chemical and physicalreactions which cannot help but happenaccording to set laws, once the right conditionsexist. But even in hunting for the right conditionsthey are guilty of not taking into accountwell-known physical and chemical laws. Notfor them the straight paths of the exact sciences,but rather the tortuous ways which bypass theawkward facts. Fortunately, to ignore a factdoes not dispose of it : it remains like an unreducedimpregnable mediaeval castle, andfrom its walls defenders sally forth from timeto time to do battle.In 1953 Miller conducted an experiment, theresults of which have been hailed with delightOnce Upon A Time . . . ."D. A. B. OwenENCEEdited by D. A. B. OWENby the rationalists. He demonstrated that whena mixture of methane, ammonia, water vapourand hydrogen were subjected to a high-frequencyelectric spark for a week, smallquantities of various organic compounds (e.g.glycine, alanine, formic acid) were produced.In an article in the American journal Science,he gives his reasons for supposing that theprimitive atmosphere at one time resembled hismixture of gases 3 ; he says that the greatestsource of energy for such syntheses would havebeen ultra-violet light, but it is easier to workexperimentally with electric discharges.But Miller's experiment is no proof thatspontaneous generation of life is possible, letalone that it actually occurred in the remotepast. We make this self-evident point becausesome popular-science writers, and some men ofscience too, are making use of the experimentas though it settles, once and for all, the likelihoodthat life arose from non-living matter.Many things are possible when man controlsand guides chemical and physical forces.Practically the whole of our technologicalachievement is built on such orderly guidance.But without the guiding intelligence most of themarvels of technology would never havehappened.u We could observe the naturalworld till doomsday and never see a drop of1 A glossary of technical terms will be found at theend of this article. The law of entropy is alsoknown as the second law of thermodynamics.2 The business of science is to explain away themany apparent exceptions to this law. R. E. D.Clark, Darzuin : Before and After, p. 153.3 But says he 'that this was the case is not provedby our"arguments', Vol. 130, p. 245, 31 July 1959(Miller and Urey).

132 The TESTIMONYconcentrated sulphuric acid meet a piece ofzinc." 4 Yet such a meeting can be arranged atwill in the laboratory, because man has preparedthe acid and the zinc, and brings themtogether designedly.Now the basic substances of life as we knowit are much more complex than zinc andsulphuric acid. Life cannot (or at any rate doesnot in our experience) exist in simple moleculeslike ammonia and methane. The atoms mustbe built into something more complex—henceMiller's experiment to show how such mighthave been achieved. Even supposing thehypothetical atmosphere of suitable gases didexist, the amount of amino-acids producedwould be extremely small and widely dispersed.But the important fact that the speculators haveoverlooked is that the organic compounds whichmight be formed in the suggested manner bylightning or radiation are readily decomposedby ultra-violet light. There would thus be acontinual struggle between the new borncompounds and their destroyer. 5This aspect of the matter has been studiedby Dr. D. E. Hull. He examines the position ofone of the simpler amino-acids—glycine—reputedly synthesised in the stratosphere oflong ago, but his remarks apply with evengreater force to the more complex organiccompounds listed by Miller and Urey. He tellsus that a glycine molecule formed in the typeof atmosphere postulated would be immediatelyvulnerable to radiation up to 3000 Angstromunits 6 absorbing and being destroyed by raysfar more intense than those which produced it.Hull calculates that 97% would never reach thesurface of the primeval ocean."Miller and Urey hope to save the synthesisedproducts by removing them from thereaction zone in the atmosphere to the ocean.But even after the glycine reaches the ocean,the victory is not won. Abelson has discussedthe possible stability of simple amino-acidsthroughout geological time ; the importanteffect, however, is not thermal, but decompositionby ultra-violet radiation. The ultravioletreaching the surface would penetrate toa considerable depth. Today's sea watertransmits 10 per cent of light of wave-length2600 Angstrom units to a depth of 6 in., andfresh water, which may be more nearlycomparable to the primitive ocean, to asmuch as 3 ft. In the mixed layer . . . about100 metres deep, glycine would have a halflife7 to ultra-violet destruction of about twentyyears. Even assuming it to be mixed to thebottom of the ocean, with an average depthof 4 km., the half-life is only 1,000 years.These short lives for decomposition in theatmosphere or ocean clearly preclude thepossibility of accumulating useful concentrationsof organic compounds over eons oftime." 8The work of Groth and Weyssenhoff showedthat with a mixture similar in composition toMiller's hypothetical atmosphere exposed tointense ultra-violet radiation, the rate offormation of glycine was vanishingly small.They were barely able to identify it in theproduct. Hull concludes 9 :"even the highest admissible value seemshopelessly low as starting material for thespontaneous generation of life.Consideration of other sources of energy,although they are very much weaker than theultra-violet radiation, leads to similar conclusions.Thus, ionising radiation may formcomplex products from simple reactions, butthe more complex and highly organisedcompounds are more vulnerable to the sameagent than their simple precursors. . . .The conclusion from these argumentspresents the most serious obstacle, if indeedit is not fatal, to the theory of spontaneousgeneration. First, thermodynamic calculationspredict vanishingly smallconcentrations of even the simplest organiccompounds. Secondly, the reactions that areinvoked to synthesise such compounds areseen to be much more effective in decomposingthem.Further, it must be remembered that bothlines of argument become quantitatively ofan overwhelmingly greater magnitude whenorganic compounds other than the verysimplest are considered. . . . The values forthe simplest proteins must be unimaginablysmall. . . . The physical chemist, guided bythe proved principles of chemical thermodynamicsand kinetics, cannot offer anyencouragement to the biochemist, who needsan ocean full of organic compounds to formeven lifeless coacervates. . . . The fact that4 Discovery, July 1960, p. 279.5 Curiously enough Miller & Urey use the samesort of argument to dispose of a rival theory thatsynthesis of organic compounds was broughtabout by heat. Any extensive heating, they say,would result in decomposition of the compoundformed.6 Angstrom unit, used for expressing the wavelengthsof light. It equals 10- 8 cm,7 The period of time which would be taken for halfthe glycine to be destroyed.8 Nature, May 28, 1960, p. 693. 9 ibid, p. 694,

The TESTIMONY 133a chemist can carry out an organic synthesisin the laboratory does not prove that thesame synthesis will occur in the atmosphereor open sea without the chemist. The secondlaw of thermodynamics applies not only toinorganic gases in the atmosphere, but alsoto organic compounds in the ocean."Hull's brief article in Nature was of acharacter too challenging to the theory ofevolution to be allowed to stand without comment.Before publication it was shown toProf. J. D. Bernal, an ardent promoter of theidea of spontaneous generation. One of themost astonishing features of Hull's article isBernal's reply to it.He opens with disarming praise :"Dr. Hull's analysis of the production andstability of simple organic molecules in alifeless Earth is a valuable contribution to thediscussion on biopoesis. By introducing aquantitative discussion, he has effectivelynarrowed down the range of possibilities andthus presented a much more definite problemto be solved."Then he proceeds to show to his own satisfactionthat ways did exist in those far-off daysfor concentrating the almost non-existentmolecules for further unknown processes 10leading up to life."Even if we accept that small organicmolecules, a fortiori larger organic molecules,are likely to exist in an atmosphere and openocean only in very small equilibrium concentrations,it does not necessarily follow thatthe way of photosynthesis for the origin ofeven more complex compounds, or of lifeitself, is effectively barred. The fact thatMiller and others have produced such compoundsby radiation is, as Dr. Hull quiterightly points out, because these products areselectively removed from their zone offormation. It would seem to follow that ifcomplex organic molecules were ever producedon a lifeless Earth, something similarmust have occurred there. There must havebeen a process which removed a certainproportion of these molecules from theirzone of reaction. Further, the same oranother process must have concentratedthem to the extent where they could enterinto still more complex reactions."Leaving aside the illogical argument ofbasing Certainties' on the assumption thatspontaneous generation has occurred, what arethese things that 'seem to follow' ? And thisconcentration process that 'must' have been ?He suggests two : absorption into estuarineclay, and the action of wind on foam and spraydriving agglomerates of organic compoundsonto the shores. Regarding the latter there issome evidence that floating matter is thusconcentrated by the wind, but before we aretempted to concede a point to Prof. Bernal letus look closely again at the physics of theproblem. All of the compounds listed by Millerand Urey as produced in their experiment aresoluble in water, and so would be unaffectedby the action of the wind. This natural agencycan only concentrate floating matter, it does notand cannot concentrate a solution. Further, ifthe organic compounds were floating on or nearthe surface, they would have been continuallysubject to the destroying power of the ultravioletlight.Nevertheless Bernal tells us that the processesof concentration by the wind"would certainly have occurred in an abioticsea in which any mineral hydrocarbons ortheir oxidised derivatives were to be found."This is a masterpiece. Note the assuranceengendered by the word 'certainly'; and whencecame the mineral hydrocarbons (not listed byMiller from his experiment) and their oxidisedderivatives in a reducing atmosphere antagonisticto oxidation ?By the two processes of wind action andabsorption in clay"a relatively very small bulk concentrationof synthetic molecules can be turned into alarge concentration in specified areas."Nine lines further on Bernal takes thecertainty out of the word 'can' by saying"One way of verifying or negating thesehypotheses would be by extensive experimentationusing large volumes of very diluteorganic solutions and absorbing them on clayunder controlled conditions. Until this isdone, it is premature to accept any arguments,quantitative or qualitative, against 11the spontaneous formation of organisms,1 ° Oparin's hypothesis showing the steps towardsspontaneous generation is a typical example ofa rationalist's pipe dream. He visualises a compoundwhich grows in size by taking to itselfother compounds from its environment, and thensplitting into two or more fragments which repeatthe process. "Presumably," says Miller, "itwould develop the ability to split into fragmentswhich are very similar in composition and structure,and eventually a genetic apparatus would beincorporated which would make very accurateduplicates." Hence the living from the dead !And they all lived happily ever after ![ lWith equal logic we could substitute the word'for'.

134 The TESTIMONYindirectly if not directly, from the primitiveocean."Truly "the children of this world are in theirown generation wiser than the children oflight" !Abiotic : containing no life.Amino-acids : organic compounds (e.g. glycine),containing nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen,which have been called the building bricks ofproteins, the essential constituents of living cells.Biopoesis : life making.GlossaryCoacervates : clusters of particles.Entropy : (difficult to define without recourse tomathematics) simply it is a measure of the nonavailabilityof energy.Synthesis : the building up of a compound fromsimpler parts.It is a misfortune to our own selves if we have that feverish tendency to be critical which some exhibit—that unhappy nervousness about other people's failings. It destroys the happiness of the personconcerned, and sows bitterness and resentment among those so criticised.ARCHEOLOGY SECTIONTHELINDISFARNEGOSPELSCommencementof theGospelof JohnBycourtesy ofTHEBRITISHMUSEUM

The TESTIMONYJ35W-0Out of the DustEdited by F. E. MITCHELLThe British Museum 1960 and 1961BIBLICAL MANUSCRIPTS (cont'd)F. E. MitchellΠΡΗΕ next hundred years brought about a-*• great change. Some fifty years after thedeath of Wycliffe, John Gutenberg wasworking his printing presses at Mayence inGermany, and the Bible which took Wycliffe'scopyists ten months to write could, after thetype had been set up, be produced in a matterof minutes. In 1478 William Caxton set up hisprinting press at Westminster and in 1483William Tyndale was born. He became a goodGreek scholar. He determined that theScriptures should be translated, not from atranslation, such as the Latin, but from theoriginal languages. Like Wycliffe, he met withopposition, which led him to make his famousdeclaration, "If God spare me, I will one daymake the boy that drives the plough in Englandto know more of Scripture than the Pope does."In this endeavour, he began to translate theNew Testament from the Greek in preparationfor printing but met with determined oppositionfrom the Church. He found it necessary in 1524to go into exile in Germany. In Cologne heprepared, secretly, sheets of his quarto NewTestament and delivered them to the printers.His secret became known however, to a priestnamed Cochlaeus, who betrayed him anddemanded that the sheets should be seized.Warned in time, Tyndale recovered his sheetsand fled to Worms. Here, where Luther'sReformation was popular, he was in safety andproduced his printed edition of the NewTestament in English in a smaller size than theone originally intended. The printed bookswere sent to England in cases, barrels, in balesof cloth, in sacks of flour and in a few years theywere scattered throughout the country. Afteryears of poverty in exile, a villainous clergymannamed Phillips, enticed Tyndale in 1535 to aplace where he could be seized. He wasimprisoned in the dungeons of the Castle ofVilvorde. In 1536 he was strangled at the stakeand burned to ashes, his last prayer beingrecorded as, "Lord, open the King of England'seyes."Tyndale is well represented in cases 83 and84. Here are copies of his New Testament fromWorms (A.D. 1525 or 1526) ; his first andsecond revisions of the New Testament(Antwerp 1534 and 1535) ; a copy of hisPentateuch (1530) ; and his Book of Jonah(1531) ; also George Joyes' unauthorisedrevision of Tyndale's New Testament (1534).An evidence of the bitter opposition whichTyndale had to meet is in case 81, where thereis a copy of a Royal Proclamation of HenryVIII dated June 1530 condemning hereticalbooks and prohibiting possession of theScriptures in English, French or German.In case 83 is a record of a Constitution of theProvincial Council at Oxford dated A.D. 1408forbidding translation of the Scriptures intoEnglish without episcopal licence.Had Tyndale lived but three years longer,he would have seen a fulfilment of his prayer.King Henry had broken with the Pope. Apetition was made to him that "The HolyScriptures should be translated into the vulgarEnglish tongue by certain upright and learnedmen and delivered to the people for their instruction."In case 82 is a copy of an injunctionissued to the clergy by Thomas Cromwell in1583, ordering that the Bible should be set upin Churches, These Bibles were copies of the

136 The TESTIMONYGreat Bible, so called because its pages were13J ins. by 1\ ins. Reference is made to thisBible in the next paragraph.In 1535, the year of Tyndale's imprisonmentat Vilvorde, Myles Coverdale, who afterwardsbecame Bishop of Exeter, had published aBible. This Bible is sometimes called the' treacle Bible" from the translation ofJeremiah 8 : 22, "There is no more treacle inGilead." It was translated from Dutch andLatin into English, with the help of sundrytranslations. These included William Tyndale's,which Coverdale followed closely, especially asfar as the New Testament was concerned. In1537 "Matthew's Bible" appeared. This waspublished by Thomas Matthew, Chamberlainof Colchester ; the text was Tyndale's translation.In 1539 a revision of Matthew's Biblewas published by a layman from Oxford calledRychard Taverner, who is not represented inthe room. Coverdale was chosen to prepare aNational Bible, and in April 1539 the GreatBible was published and placed in Churches.This was largely a compilation from Coverdale'searlier Bible and Matthew's Bible, and in viewof the great use made by both translators ofTyndale's work, it was really little more than arevised edition of Tyndale. The King ofEngland's eyes had indeed been opened !In case 84 are examples of Coverdale's Bible,the first printed English Bible, and his Latinand English New Testament. In case 85 is acopy of Matthew's Bible, the second printedEnglish Bible, and in case 87 is a copy ofCoverdale's Great Bible. In case 86 is a copyof the Second Great Bible printed in 1540 byEdward Whitchurch.During the later years of Henry VIII and thereign of Queen Mary many Protestants fled tothe Continent and some of these settled inGeneva. When Mary died and Elizabeth Icame to the throne, they returned home bringingwith them a new version of the Bible,largely the work of William Whittingham,which they dedicated to the Queen, a dedicationwhich she accepted. This was a vernacularBible, more accessible to the ordinary man ofProtestant outlook than the ponderous andexpensive folio volumes of the Great Bible. Itwas published in 1560. It is sometimes calledthe "Breeches Bible" because of its translationin Genesis 3 : 7 that "Adam and Eve sewedfig-leaves together and made themselvesbreeches." A copy is on display in case 88.The Geneva Bible became so popular that itthreatened to oust the Great Bible and so arevision of the latter was set in motion byArchbishop Parker to counteract this tendency.This was published in 1568 and was known asthe Bishop's Bible, but it had no special merit.A copy of the first edition is in the case in themiddle of the room.In 1604 King James I appointed 54 learnedmen to make "a translation of the whole Bibleas consonant as can be to the original Hebrewand Greek." In 1611 the task was finished andthe Authorised Version of the Scripturesappeared, a Version which held its own for 270years and which is still the best loved of allEnglish Versions. A first edition copy is in case71.The remaining cases in the room displaycopies of parts of Scripture in various languagesand from various dates. In case 74 is a monotessaron,or Harmony of the Four Gospels, inEnglish, by Clement, Prior of Llanthony at theend of the 14th century.The Manuscript SaloonReturning from the Bible Room to theManuscript Saloon and turning left, in a casejust round the corner, a further copy of theLindisfarne Gospels is to be seen. Included inthis is a copy of a letter from EusebiusHieronymous, better known as Jerome, toDamasus, Bishop of Rome, written towards theend of the fourth century A.D., about a revisedtranslation of the Bible. This letter introducesus to a consideration of the Latin Vulgateversion of the Bible, helped by exhibits in casesat the other side of the saloon. Here are fourcases marked respectively Bibles I, WyclifiVsBible, Alcuin's Bible and Bibles II. Ourattention is first directed to the one markedBibles I.Among the earliest versions of the Scripturesare those written in "Old Latin," though whenand where they were made is not known.These versions were much in disagreementwith each other, and accordingly, Damasus,already referred to, invited Jerome to producean authorised Latin version which would bringorder into the existing chaos. The latteraccepted the charge. In A.D. 385 he producedthe New Testament and later translated theOld Testament direct from the original Hebrew.The full product was the Vulgate, destined tobe for more than a thousand years the parent ofevery version of the Scriptures in WesternEurope. In England, as we have seen, it wasused for the Lindisfarne Gospels, by Wycliffe,and by Coverdale. At first it was calledrevolutionary and heretical, and it was twohundred years before it had ousted all the Old

The TESTIMONY 137FRAGMENTS OF AN UNKNOWNBy courtesy of THE BRITISH MUSEUMGOSPEL—EGERTON PAPYRUS IILatin versions.In case Bibles I is a fragment, with Genesischapters 5-6 in the Old Latin version, dating to150 B.C. Side by side with it is a book of theGospels in the Vulgate Version dating to theend of the 4th century. Occupying the righthand side of the case are leaves from the OldTestament written in uncials (running capitals)from a copy of the Vulgate translated byCeolfrid, Abbot of Wearmouth and Jarrow(A.D. 690-716). Ceolfrid produced threeBibles, one of which is almost certainly theCodex Amiatinus, now in the LaurentianLibrary in Florence. It is so-called because itwas kept in St. Saviour's Monastery, MonteAmiati, near Siena, where it remained from theninth century until 1786, when it was broughtto Florence.In the same case are four leaves and a smallfragment known as the Egerton Papyrus II.They date to about A.D. 100 and are from theNew Testament. No earlier manuscripts ofChristian literature are known to exist. Thefull papyrus shows co-incidences with all thefour Gospels, notably the Gospel of John. Oneof the fragments describes a miracle performedby Jesus on the banks of the Jordan, which iswholly new.Next to the papyri is the second of the threefragments of the original version of a recordcalled The Sayings of Jesus which was found atOxyrhynchus in Egypt in 1897. In 1945 aCoptic (Early Egyptian Christian) translationwas found, which gave the title as The Gospel ofThomas. Altogether 118 sayings have beenfound. Some agree verbally with the NewTestament: others are reminiscent of theGospels or early Christian writings : and someare entirely new.Just round the corner, on the right, is a casecontaining a copy of Wycliffe's earlier version,made by his adherents from the Latin Vulgatebetween 1380 and 1384.Opposite is a copy of Alcuin's Bible. Alcuinwas born at York in A.D. 735 and educated atthe Cathedral School there. Later he went toRome, and in Italy he met the EmperorCharlemagne. Finally, he settled in the Abbeyof St. Martin at Tours. At the request ofCharlemagne he prepared a revised edition ofthe Vulgate, and the volume on exhibition is acopy of this Bible. Alcuin died in A.D. 804.Round the corner from the case containingAlcuin's Bible is the case marked Bibles II.This contains a copy of the Anglo-Saxon orWessex Version of the four Gospels dating to

•138 The TESTIMONYthe 12th century ; a copy of Leviticus and theGospel of John, in the Latin Vulgate version,made in Buildwas Abbey, Shropshire in 1176 ;a copy of the Gospels in Greek miniscules, orlater cursive style of writing, dating to the 11thcentury ; a pocket Bible in Latin of the 13thcentury ; and a typical English Bible of the13th century based upon the Vulgate.GleaningsPORTRAIT OF A JUDEAN KINGDRAWING ON A JAR FRAGMENTOF A JUDEAN KINGBy courtesy of THE LONDON ILLUSTRATED NEWSTRANSCRIPT OF DRAWINGΤ Ν a recent article published in the Illustrated-*· London News, (for the sight of whichwe are indebted to our colleague, H. W. C),Yohanan Aharoni, Ph. D. Instructor in Archaeologyat the Hebrew University of Jerusalem,described some of the results of theexcavation of a site at Ramat Rahel, betweenJerusalem and Bethlehem, the traditional placewhere Mary and Joseph rested by the well ontheir way to Bethlehem.The site proved to be a Royal Citadel, builton a natural hill about the eighth century B.C.The citadel was built as an exact rectangleand occupies about an acre. In the centre ofthe rectangle is a large courtyard surroundedby buildings on three sides, The building tothe north-east is a palace, among the finestof its period in Palestine. Amid the debrisin the courtyard are stones which undoubtedlyfell there at the time of the destruction of theTemple by Nebuchadnezzar. Here were alsolarge numbers of storage-jar fragments, manyof their handles having seal impressions. Onesuch impression was the inscription LMLK—"(Belonging) to the King."Another building excavated was a storehouse.Here was found a jar fragment onwhich was drawn a design in black and red.The paint is quite faint, but close scrutinyreveals all the details of a bearded man, withhair in curls, sitting on a high decorated chair.He wears an ornamental robe and holds hishands out before him. The drawing is in theAssyrian style of the 8th to 7th centuries B.C.Comparison with reliefs from Northern Syriamakes it clear that the figure is that of a king.Only royalty and gods are depicted in thismanner, the position of the hands being

The TESTIMONY 139characteristically with the right above the left.Dr. Aharoni has given us permission to reproducethe drawing and a transcript. Hethinks that the drawing may be the portraitof a Judean king, who lived in the citadel.What Judean king would build a palace forhimself outside Jerusalem on the way toBethlehem ? The Bible mentions one monarchwho resided outside the city for most of hislife—Uzziah or Azariah. Of him it is recorded,"And the Lord smote the king so that he wasa leper until the day of his death and dwelt ina several house. And Jotham, the king's sonwas over the house, judging the people of theland." 1Dr. Aharoni continues, "TiglathPileser III (of Assyria) mentions in his annals"Azriau from Judah," as being at the headof a coalition of Syrian and Palestinian kingswhich rose against Asshur. When the kingbecame sick in the middle years of his reign,he was forced to dwell outside the Holy Cityin conformation with the laws of the Bible. 2Just where was this "several house" in whicliUzziah passed many years of his reign ? TheBiblical name Beth Hahofshith is merely aterm for the place and not the actual name,as is known from the Ugarit tablets whereBeth Hahofshith is compared to the underworld; a man forbidden to dwell among theliving, together with his house was considereddead. Since we know that the citadel at RamatRahel was built in this period we may furtherconjecture that it is Beth Hahofshith, thepalace of King Uzziah, built just outsideJerusalem. Ramat Rahel's relatively smallarea agrees with this quite well; a king alonewith his personal retainers, needs little morethan this whereas the site would be far toosmall for an ordinary Royal court."There seems good reason to believe that thedrawing is a representation of King Uzziah.F. Ε. Μ.2 Chron. 26.2Lev. 13 and 14.Three CitiesJerusalemΛ C R. of Wembley has kindly supplied**· us with a copy of a recent issue of TheArchaeological Newsletter. The magazinecontains a report of a lecture given by MissΚ. Μ. Kenyon, the Director of the School,at the annual meeting of The British Schoolof Archaeology in Jerusalem. The lecturerspoke of the plans of the School. Excavations,she said, would be commenced in the Jewishquarter of the old city of Jerusalem in April.The quarter was destroyed in the fighting atthe end of the British Mandate in 1948. Thedestruction has provided an opportunity toexplore the area before rebuilding covers upthe remains of earlier cities on the site. Numbersof these, built one on top of the other,have been virtually destroyed. The remainsare therefore fragmentary and highly complicated,and, in particular, the position ofthe walls of the city at different periods isuncertain. Little is known about the Jebusitetown, which David captured, or of the citywhich he built. The city of Herod th^ Greatand the Roman town of Aelia Capitolina,constructed by the Emperor Hadrian inA.D. 135, after the revolt of Bar Kochba hadbeen crushed, are known only by tantalisingfragments,It is hoped that, by using more exact modernarchaeological techniques, our knowledge pfthis part of the Holy City will be much enlargedduring the excavations, which areexpected to last for five seasons or more.GathThe same issue contains a record of thefifth season of excavations, between 8th Mayand 15th July 1960 at Tel Gath (Tel Sheikhel'Arieni), now usually identified with theGath of the Philistines. The finds maderelated mainly to the Persian period (5thcentury B.C.), but a four-roomed house. Vpelongingto the 7th century B.C. (period "ofManasseh, Amon and Josiah, kings of Judah)was unearthed.CBabylonB. of Seaford has once again helped by• sending a selection of press cuttings.In one of them, from the "Daily Telegraph"for 24th February, Ian Colvin describes avisit from Baghdad to Babylon. He writesof the meanness of modern Babylon, "Partsof it look like a disused brick-kiln, or a siteon which the National Coal Board has discontinuedopen cast mining," and continues,"What remains ? Bricks and brick dust,

140 The TESTIMONYarches and walls and the paved Street ofProcessionsthe oldest street in theworld to be paved with bitumen."Referring to Nebuchadnezzar, Mr. Colvinwrites, "For these ruins show Nebuchadnezzarto have been the greatest baker of bricks theworld has ever seen. They lie about in greatnumbers, his royal inscription still perfectlyreadable upon each . . . They are the colourof cafe-au-lait, hard and smooth with fineedges. Indeed they resemble a dark limestone.Their size is approximately 16 inches squareand 3 inches thick. With the aid of a smalldictionary of the cuneiform script, you canread the royal signet, with its recurrent characters.Nabu-kudurri-ussurThe King, the Great ManOf the Gate of God,Beautifier of Esagila and Ezidda,First son of Nabu-apla-ussurKing of Babylon.How many of these bricks exist ? TheBritish School of Archaeology, which is nowgoing through digestive processes on someof its recent finds in Nimrud (the BiblicalCalah) tells me that the walls of Nimrudcontained 50 million bricks. Although storyhas exaggerated the size of Babylon, it musthave contained vastly more."Mr. Colvin expresses his agreement withthe view that the site of the tower of Babelwas in Babylon. He concludes, "The extentof Babylon's ruins is oppressive. Only themodern world could produce an eyesore of asimilar size."The only adequate comment seems to bethe almost 2,600 year old prophecy of Jeremiah,"Babylon shall become heaps." (Jer. 51 : 37).F. Ε. Μ.THE TEMPLE OF ARTEMISI sat amidst the fallen stones of Ephesus. Strewn about were parts of ancient columns and massivearchitraves. Clearly visible was the shape of the amphitheatre where Paul and his companions of longago had witnessed the fury of a mob. All was quiet now. The scene was oppressively still. Thenoise of men, their fanaticism, their hopes, their aspirations—how transient, how tragic.I could hardly believe that this quiet scene could once have been the site of a busy city thronged bythousands of people.Behind was the site of the temple of Diana, or Artemis. Hers was a wonderful edifice of whitemarble. Never was there such a glorious pile "whom all the world worshipped" and this wonderfultemple rose high into the sky ; its magnificence was known far and wide throughout Asia. H. V.Morton, "In the Steps of the Master," mentions the utter desolation of this temple site with only onestone in a stagnant pond, being the remains of its former glory. How different the position of thosewho sleep in Jesus. They will come forth to radiant life eternal. C. H. F.Behold the birds, Ο child of God,They do not reap or sow,They do not gather into barns,Because they seem to knowTheir Heavenly Father feeds them,They sing to Him above,They never doubt His kindly careOr ever-watching love.CONSIDERBehold the lilies of the field,Consider how they grow,They do not toil or spin, dear one,Why should YOU worry so ?King Solomon was not arrayedIn beauty such as theirs,Ο you, of little faith, will notGod hear His children's prayers ?You are much more than birds or flowers,Seek Him with faith anew,Search for the Kingdom, and these thingsWill be given to you.Beth Briggs (U.S.A.)

The TESTIMONY 141IRMQOJ1111Notes on the Daily ReadingsJames CarterArranged (pro tern.) by A. E. JONESThe Importunate Friend (Luke 11 :5-13)After answering the request of the disciples,"Lord, teach us to pray," Jesus gave themthe parable of the Importunate Friend. Thisis usually interpreted to mean that we mustkeep on asking God for our needs until finally,like the friend, He gives us what we ask. Maywe suggest that Jesus was contrasting God'sways with man's ways. The friend only compliedafter the importunate one had "wornhim down" ; but with God, we ask, and receive,(the friend did not!); we knock, and the dooris opened (but not in the parable !). This aspectis particularly emphasised in the parallelparable of the Importunate Widow where, incontrast to the delaying tactics of the judge,we are told God answers 'speedily' (Luke 1cS :1-8).# # #The Unclean Spirit (Luke 11 : 24)The people repented at the preaching ofJohn, but unless they went forward to acceptand apply the teaching of Jesus, as in theparable, the last state would be worse than thefirst. Nature abhors a vacuum ! A new forcehad come into their lives, and far from doinggood works "by the prince of the devils" thereverse was the case. Hitherto diseases ofthe mind had been incurable, but with a wordJesus could effect the desired cure. As hesays in another place, "I beheld Satan fall aslightning from heaven."# # #"Beware of Covetousness' 1 (Luke 12 : 15)In the next few chapters, Luke is verycareful to tell to whom Jesus is speaking. InLuke 12 : 1 he spoke "unto his disciples," inv. 15 onwards he addressed "one of the company,"but in v. 22 he again spoke to hisdisciples. To understand fully the teachingof Jesus, it is necessary to see to whom hisremarks are addressed.Jesus (v. 15) is very emphatic in his denunciationof covetousness, as also is the apostlePaul, who classed it with idolatry. It wascovetousness which produced the discomfitureat Ai, and in a latter chapter Jesus exhorts,"Remember Lot's wife," who cared more formaterial things than she did for the salvationof God. A man's life certainly does not consistof the things he possesses. To emphasise thisfurther, Jesus points out that if God feeds thebirds and clothes the flowers, will He not dothe same for His children ? It is wise to "setour affection on things above," for where ourtreasure is, there will our heart be also.# # #Healing on the Sabbath Day (Luke 13 : 11-17and 14 : 1-6)Here we have another illustration of Jesusbeing Lord of the Sabbath. If an ox or anass fell into a pit, men would not leave it thereuntil the sabbath was past, neither would theyleave their animals without attention on thesabbath, for they loosed them and "led themaway to watering." If then they "loosed"their animals, was not Jesus justified in "loosing"a woman who had been "bound of Satan"all those long weary eighteen years ? Surely !It is pleasing to note Christ's adversaries hadthe grace to be ashamed, while the peoplerejoiced at the great things which were beingdone.Often in the Authorised Version the punctuationleaves something to be desired, and thisapplies even to chapter divisions. In Luke13 : 24, 25 the full stop after "able" at the endof v. 24 destroys the sense. Jesus is emphasingthey will not be able to enter in, when themaster of the house has risen up. There willbe many surprises in that day. Contact with,or knowledge of Jesus is no guarantee ofacceptance at his hands. They who eitherthen or now esteem themselves to be first may

142 The TESTIMONYbe surprised to find themselves either "last"or even outside altogether, whereas others,conscious of their shortcomings, may find abetter acceptance than they ever dreamedpossible.# # *Building a Tower and Making War (Luke14 : 26-33)Note again how carefully Luke tells us towhom Jesus is speaking. The competition forposition at some of their "feasts" must havebeen nauseating to any who were above thatway of life ; and as often happens, Jesus madeuse of immediate circumstances upon whichto build his powerful lessons in parable form.The one who commenced to build a tower wasPilate ; and the one (who with all his resourcescould only find ten thousand to make war onone who came with twenty thousand) whohad to make an ignominious surrender wasHerod, who stole his brother Philip's wife andwho divorced his first wife, the daughter of theKing of Petrea. The latter at once marchedagainst Herod with the result stated. The"tower" illustrates the price of accepting thegospel, and the second parable outlines the cost—and peril—of rejection !# # #Seeking that which was lost (Luke 15)Three charming parables dealing with "theseeking and saving" of those who are "lost."The proportion matters not ! The sheep, onein a hundred; the coins, one in ten ; thebrethren one in two, in all cases the principleis the same. At the beginning the prodigalsaid, "Give me," but at the end he supplicated,"Make me." The elder brother said, "This,thy son," but the father replied, "This, thybrother ! " The amazing thing about all theseparables is that although a child can understandthem, yet the wisest among us can never plumball their depths ! It has been said that theparable of the Prodigal Son is one of the finestpieces of English literature, and if a singleword had to be omitted the parable would bethe poorer.# # #The Unjust Steward (Luke 16 : 1-18)The unjust steward is a parable of contrast,the "Lord" who commended was the steward'sLord and NOT the Lord Jesus. He requires"faithfulness in that which is least" in whichrequirement the steward failed lamentably.Verses 13—18 are at first difficult to understand,but a study of Romans 7 : 1-4 is agreat help in seeing the matter clearly.On the later parable in the same chapter,The Rich Man and Lazarus, one or twoarticles have already appeared in the pagesof The Testimony to which we refer readersfor further enlightenment.# # # IThe cleansing of the lepers (Luke 17 : 11-19)Thankfulness is a quality which is by nomeans as evident as it might be. Although,in vv. 11—19, ten were cleansed, one only, andhe was a Samaritan, returned to give thanksfor being cleansed from the loathsome diseaseof leprosy. Now, if we had been so cleansed. . . .But have we not ? Is not leprosy a mostpowerful type of sin ? And have we not beenthe subjects of redemption ? Is, then, ourthankfulness as great as it should be ? Anddo we show it in our lives ?# # #The Kingdom of God is within you (Luke 17 : 21)What a lot of misunderstanding has arisenfrom this verse ! The marginal note "amongyou" helps a little, but the greatest help comesfrom the recognition that the Greek word"Basilea" requires to be translated "King" or"Kingdom" according to context. John theBaptist came preaching, "The King is athand," and many other passages becomeabsolutely luminous when this fact of thealternative translations is recognised. So itis here. They were all looking for the Kingcoming, "to slay their foes and lift them high,"as the poet expresses it ! They demanded,"When will the King come ? " Jesus' replywas, "He won't come with looking for him,neither think he is over yonder, for THE KINGIS AMONG YOU ! " Among them, in theirmidst, and they had failed to recognise him !"When they could, they would not; but later,when they would, they could not." Theywould "desire to see one of his days, and shallnot see it." "He must suffer many things ..."The remainder of the chapter then tells themof the signs and conditions which would prevailat his Second Coming. For those closingdays he emphasises, "Remember Lot's wife."# # #The Unjust Judge (Luke 18 : 2)In the first parable—that of the UnjustJudge, Jesus gives the alternatives : either wepray, or do not pray and therefore faint. Butwhy faint ? As Jesus implies, God answersour prayers speedily, and then adds, "Whenthe son of man cometh, shall he find faith inthe earth ?" And so it is. Now we walk bysight, and yet, in spite of it, because of themany distractions of today, the love of many

The TESTIMONY 143is approaching the lukewarm state, if noworse !# # -/?The Needle's Eye (Luke 18 : 25)The old interpretation still has much tocommend it. The "needle's eye" was the smallgateway of towns for pedestrians which theycould use when the larger traffic gateway wasclosed. If the belated traveller, with loadedcamel, came when the large gate was shut,the only way to get into the city was to persuadethe camel to get down on its knees, removeits burden and then, by pushing and pulling,drag the animal into the city. And, says Jesus,that is easier than for a rich man to enter theKingdom. His riches are no passport. Hehas to unburden himself of those ! "Get downon his knees"—as Jesus said in another connection,"This .... cometh only by prayer . . ."# # #"To seek and to save' (Luke 19 : 10)Jesus was the most competent psychologistwho ever lived. Here was a man who required"seeking and saving" (v. 10), one who evidentlyhad used the office of tax-collector to his ownmaterial advantage. But what a success Jesusmade of "seeking and saving" him. Hismethod of approach lifted Zacchaeus on toa totally higher plane than he had ever seenbefore, with the consequent determination torestore fourfold any injustices, and of theremainder, give half to the poor !# # #The Triumphal Entry (Luke 19 : 29-40)It is evident from v. 31 Jesus had madearrangements for the colt to be in readiness,even to the 'password,' "Because the Lordhath need of him." This was a provincialdemonstration and on it the citizens lookedaskance. Later the stones did 'cry out,' thefact that not one was left upon another provingconclusively Jesus' words, and the foreknowledgeof it, with all that was involved, reducedJesus to tears.# # #"By What Authority ?" (Luke 20:2)In the closing days of the life of Jesus,increasing hostility appeared on every hand :"By what authority," his critics asked, "doestthou these things ? " "Shall we pay tributeto Caesar ? " "Whose wife will she be ....?"were other captious questions. In every caseJesus was much, very much, more than theirmatch, which, of course, only increased theiranger and hostility. They put questions tohim to which he gave disconcerting replies,but he put questions to them which theycould not, or would not answer. The chapteropens with one, and closes with another:"What think ye of Christ ? Whose son is he ? "After that durst no man ask him any morequestions at all !# * #The widow's mites (Luke 21 : 2)The rich men gave of their "abundance."The word means "overflow,"—that whichthey could easily spare and for which theyhad no real need. Not only so, the marginsuggests it was copper—handsful of smallcoins, but which sounded like a big contribution.Although the intrinsic value of thewidow's contribution was negligible, in thesight of Jesus it was worth all the others puttogether, for out of her absolute beggary shegave all that she had—she kept nothing back.Sacrifice was once defined as "Giving until ithurts,"—and the widow "sacrificed ! "# # #The pitcher bearer (Luke 22 : 10)A man bearing a pitcher. Usually thewomen carried the jars of water, and for aman to carry one was an unusual sight—andconsequently could not be mistaken. In allprobability the man was John Mark.# # #"There was also strife among them" (Luke22 : 24)Possibly the cause of the strife was aboutthe feet-washing. Peter seems to suggest itin his first epistle, chapter 5. Feet-washingwas the office of a slave, and it was a slave'stask which Jesus undertook and gave a lessonwhich Peter, and probably the others also,never forgot.# # #"He that hath no sword, let him sell his garmentand buy one" (Luke 22 : 36)Much has been written about this, but astudy of the context makes it perfectly clearthat a literal sword was meant. While Jesushad been with his disciples, they had lackednothing ; and because he provided for themhe had sent them out without purse, scrip orsandals. Now, however, he was going to dieand then going to leave them, and, as we know,he was later going to send them further afield,and they would have to look after themselves.Purse and scrip would now be needed, andbecause of their wider mission, a sword also.Had we been going to North America twohundred years ago, should we have taken arifle with us ? Certainly ! Why ? To kill RedIndians ? No ! But to protect us from theordinary hazards of the way. The sword was

144 The TESTIMONYthe "rifle" of the First Century. The factthey had two swords in their midst shows itwas an ordinary accompaniment of travel.There is no need to spiritualise it !# # #The servant of the High Priest (Luke 22 : 50)We know from John's record that he wascalled Malchus, but the name is probablyomitted from Luke's gospel because he wouldstill be alive at the time it was written."This day . . . in Paradise' (Luke 23:43)It is evident that the repentant thief wasacquainted with the teaching of Jesus and alsothat he recognised Jesus as the coming King.It has even been suggested that possibly hewas one of those who went back and walkedno more with him after Jesus had given thediscourse on the Bread of Life (John 6). Thephrase "today" is from the Greek wordsemeron and is emphatic, and obviously refersto the day of which the thief had been speaking—the day Christ comes into his Kingdom,which will constitute Paradise Restored whenfully developed.# # #"Their eyes were holden" (Luke 24:16)This explains many things about whatotherwise appears mysterious in the comingsand goings of Jesus, both before and after hisresurrection. In verse 31 "their eyes wereopened," and they recognised him.# # *"Not flesh and bones'" (Luke 24 : 39)It is impossible to have life without a body.Jesus, after his resurrection, was as materialas he was before it, but of course, his life wasdifferent. He was now immortal, with thepowers that immortals have. The fact thathe invited them to handle him should removeall doubt and misconception about the realityand solidity of his resurrected body.The intercession of Moses (Num. 14 : 13-19)On two major occasions Moses intercededfor the people with God. "Pardon, I beseechThee, the iniquity of this people ..." Theanswer of God is illuminating, especially whenwe realise the rebelliousness of the people." .... All the earth SHALL be filled withMy glory." God's purpose was not going tobe allowed to fail, even if the people were notprepared to contribute to it!# # #The Psalms of Moses (Num. 14 : 34)It is interesting to notice in Num. 14 : 34that in the proportion of a day for a year theywere condemned to stay in the wilderness. Inthe interpretation of prophetic dates this isan important principle which has often to beapplied. In this connection also, Psalms 90and 91 are "Psalms of Moses." Psalm 90applies to those who were condemned to diein the wilderness—and there would be 600,000men, and presumably an equal number ofTHE BOOK OF NUMBERSJacobwomen—whose death was certain before theforty years expired. Psalm 91 applied to thosewho were to enter the land, and who consequentlywould be (largely) immune from"the arrow that flieth by day" or the "pestilenceby night."* # #The Rebellion of Korah, Dathan and Abiram(Num. 16)It is very probable that Korah, Dathan andAbiram were "the angels that sinned, and whokept not their first estate" referred to by bothPeter and Jude.* The meekness of Mosesstands out very prominently in the whole ofthis rebellion. The relationship of the variousones concerned is shown in the followinggenealogical tree :—Moses, Aaron, Korah, Dathan and Abiramwere all of the same generation, and were allgreat-great-grandsons of Jacob.# # #*See article on p. 116.ReubenIPalluEliabDathan Abiram ιMoses•H amAaronLeviKohathKorah

IMPORTANT NOTICESTHE TESTIMONY RENEWAL SUBSCRIPTIONSThe Testimony Committee wish to thank all subscribers for their loyal support inthe past and (God willing) look forward to a renewal of subscriptions for 1961. Therewill be no increase in subscription rates.most ataptablf giftYour relatives and friends would appreciate your kind thought by receiving aregular copy of The Testimony each month. The readable and reliable contents of themagazine keep all readers fully informed on the various and valuable phases of Scripturestudy by its concise and objective presentation.A year's subscription to The Testimony makes an ideal gift. Every time a copy isdelivered by the postman, the recipient will quite naturally think gratefully of you.It is a present that lasts all the year round, and will give much interest, understandingand enjoyment.PUBLIC LIBRARIES, Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., AND OTHERPUBLIC READING ROOMSFor a special annual subscription of 5s., we are prepared to post the magazineregularly direct to any of the above institutions, provided permission has been obtainedfrom the Librarian and/or Secretary in charge.The New Year presents a splendid opportunity to commence this service of witness.ALL communications regarding the above to be addressed to the Secretary/Treasurer :Mr. Frank Grant,Parklands, Stoughton Lane,Evington, nr. LeicesterBINDINGThe printers of The Testimony will be pleased to receive copies for binding in yearlyvolumes. Any year, blue cloth, gilt lettering, at 21s. 6d. each, post paid back.Copies for binding must be sent direct toPhilip Palmer Press Ltd.,101/105 Kings Road, Reading, Berks.enclosing name and address in BLOCK LETTERS, and stating if the monthly coversare to be bound in or omitted.

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FOR THE STUDY AND DEFENCE OF THE HOLYSCRIPTUREVol. 31 No. 365 MAY, 19Photo by courtesy ofMontague Lewis"Within , , . an half acre of land, which aof oxen might plow." (1 Sam. 14 :

CONTENTSTHE QUIET MOMENTTHE PILGRIMAGE OF JESUS :(63) "THOU ART THE CHRIST"THE LEPER'S CRYTHE PROPHECY OF HAGGAI (1)ANGELIC GUIDANCE (1)REVIEWS :"FIGHTING AGAINST GOD"ISRAELCOALS OF FIRETHE GREAT DENUNCIATIONTHE BOOK OF JOB (5)THE THUNDER OF THE CAPTAINS AND THE SHOUTINGOUT OF THE DUST :THE BRITISH MUSEUM IN 1961 :THE ROOM OF WRITINGWATCHMAN :NEW FRONTIERS OF SPACE (2)NOTES ON THE DAILY READINGSM.B.John MitchellA G BatemanA. AkeroydJames CarterF. WhiteleyNorman Ρ HoltΗ A Whittaker. . Leonard F. CoxCyril Tennant. . D. A. B. OwenF.E. MitchellHubert W. CraddockJames CarterPage145146149151153154155157158162164166170176Full Editorial endorsement applies to all articles except those of anon-fundamental nature.Articles from contributors of either sex will be welcomed for considerationby the Editors.

TheTESTIMONYFOR THE STUDY AND DEFENCE OF THE HOLY SCRIPTUREVol. 31, No. 365 May, 1961THE QUIET MOMENT** That He May Exalt You...""Humble yourselves therefore under the mighty hand of God"This is not the upraised hand of an angry dictator, bending us to hiswill through hysteria and fear ; neither is it the clenched fist of a ruthlesstyrant crushing us into resentful submission through cruel oppression ; noryet is it the iron hand in the velvet glove of a democratic king, subduing andcontrolling us through the veiled threat of the law.This is the gentle Hand of an All-wise Father, held out in love all theday long, yearningly for our willing obedience ; offering comfort and helpnow while we are humble, and promising exaltation in due time.M.B.

146 The TESTIMONYEdited byJ. MITCHELLThe Pilgrimage of Jesus(63) "THOU ART THE CHRIST'John MitchellΤ Τ is the difficult times in our lives that test us.•* When the way is hard, then our charactersare tried, and we reveal our true selves. It iswritten of the worthies of old that "against hopethey believed in hope." When all the naturalprobabilities were against them, they believedin God and in the word of His promise. Thedisciples had been passing through a time likethat, and we must never belittle their faith,though we may be tempted to do so sometimes.They had left home, family and business tofollow a Teacher who had nothing. Every stepof the way, though falteringly, they walked byfaith. It is easy for us to see the end of theirroad, but they could not do so, and for sometime things had not been easy.The disciples themselves were passionatebelievers in the Promises, and were awaiting andexpecting the setting up of the Kingdom ofGod. If the Lord Jesus had consented, at thetime of the feeding of the 5,000, to the peopletaking him by force and making him King, thedisciples would have joined heartily in thejubilation. Instead however, Jesus packed theminto the boat and sent them away on a voyagewhich was in itself a sign of the long hardstruggle that lay ahead. Then there was thememorable address in the synagogue atCapernaum, during which Jesus said, "Exceptye eat the flesh of the Son of Man, and drinkhis blood, ye have no life in you," at whichsome of his disciples said, "This is a hardsaying, who can hear it ?"—and many of themwent back and walked no more with Jesus.Whilst internal dissension was reducing theflock, external opposition was mounting. "Hewould not walk in Judea, for the Jews sought tokill him." Whenever Jesus met the Scribes andthe Pharisees he 'offended' them, with theresult that it became more and more evidentthat his ministry was running counter topriestly approval, and popular appeal. Themind of the faithful few who continued tofollow Jesus must have been in a turmoil.So Jesus took them away, in order that theirfaith might crystallise. One more miracle, thehealing of a blind man in Bethsaida, and thennorthwards to Caesarea Philippi. This was amodern and magnificent city, greatly enlargedand beautified by Philip the Tetrarch, son ofHerod the Great. Its fortress was set on a 1,000ft. high mount, below which the rock droppedprecipitously in places to the valley below. Afitting background indeed for the statement ofJesus concerning the Rock and the Church !And how significant too, that it was made inlargely Gentile territory away from Jerusalemand its Temple. For the hour was coming whenneither in Mount Gerizim nor in Jerusalemwould men worship the Father ; but theywould worship Him in spirit and in truth.It was to lead his disciples on to the veryheart of the faith that Jesus, after he had beenpraying, suddenly put the distinction to thembetween what men said of him, and what hisfaithful little ones thought of him :"Whom do men say that I, the Son of Man,am ?"In their replies, the disciples repeated whatmight be termed the best of what they hadheard men say. For the Scribes and thePharisees had certainly said harsher things thanthese. The common people, however, hadthought of Jesus in terms of John the Baptist;Elijah ; Jeremiah ; or one of the other prophetsrisen again. Some of them even hovered on the

The TESTIMONY 147brink of acclaiming him as the Messiah—butno ! the signs were apparently wanting. Thewhole of Jewry was looking for a conqueringking, and the whole of Jewry overlooked himbecause he came in the humble role of theServant of God."But whom do ye say that I am ?" This wasaddressed to the handful, the remnant who hadbeen sifted out by hardship and all the hardwords that ungodly men had spoken againstthem. Except for Judas, these were the creamof all those who had been attracted to Christ.What would they say ? It was Simon Peter whoanswered, and whose natural impetuosity sooften gave him the lead, who could jump overthe side of a ship in the height of a storm, whofaced death, sword in hand at his Lord's side,but who quailed before a questioning maid.Beloved Peter, so lovable despite his faults,spoke up for them all, and not only for them,but also for all those who should afterwardbelieve on him, when he said :"THOU ART THE CHRIST, THE SONOF THE LIVING GOD."This is the spirit and the truth of salvation,for there is none other name under heaven,given among men whereby we must be saved.Men have spoken of Jesus merely as a greatteacher or a great moralist. They have bracketedhim with Buddha, Confucius and Mohammed.They have denied the virgin birth, and themiracles that Jesus did. For all such there is noanchor of the soul, no Rock on which to stand.Jesus is only our Saviour, in so far as he is theChrist, the Anointed, the Son of the LivingGod, who does for us what in our heart of heartswe know that no other man can do. Unless thisis a reality to us, we cannot claim to believe inChrist, nor can we be partakers of the inheritanceof the saints in light."Blessed art thou Simon, the Son of Jonah ;for flesh and blood hath not revealed it untothee, but my Father which is in heaven" saidJesus.Surely it was for this revelation and thestrengthening in the faith of his little band offollowers that Jesus had just been praying. Weknow that "no man cometh unto God, exceptthe Father draw him." And here was theFather at work in the lives of these men, whowere neither wise nor mighty nor noble in theaffairs of this world. They are a reminder to usof our own position. It is not our intellect thatbrings us salvation, but the Father Who drawsus until we are able to stand alongside Peter andsay, "Thou art the Christ, the Son of the livingGod." For with the heart man believeth untorighteousness, and with the mouth confessionis made unto salvation.Peter's confession brought a reply from theLord, which has been a subject of controversyfor centuries : "Thou art Peter, and upon thisrock will I build my Church ; and the gates ofhell will not prevail against it."Roman Catholics, anxious to build a Churchof their own upon this statement, and dig intoit the foundations of Papal authority, havedoubtless caused their antagonists to go to otherextremes. They claim that the rock was Peterand that he founded their Church in Rome ;others aver that it was Peter's rock-like faith towhich Jesus was referring ; and yet others thatthe Rock was Christ. There is a sense in whichall three interpretations are correct. λIt wasPeter's confession, and the words used in theAramaic by our Lord would infer that the rockand Peter were one and the same. But it was notthe unstable, and the impetuous in this lovabledisciple on which the Lord could build. It wasrather upon his rock-like stand, such as he madebefore the council in Jerusalem, when he said,"Whether it be right in the sight of God tohearken unto you more than unto God, judgeye." And thirdly, all could be summed up as"Christ in him, the hope of glory." If there is alesson in this at all, it is perhaps that there aresome Scriptures which defy dogmatic definition,being more like a rainbow than a line.And a rainbow indeed they are, constantlyreminding us of God's mercy, and His everlastingpurpose centred in the Ecclesia ofChrist, against which the gates of death cannotprevail.But eternal life in the kingdom of God wasnot the only honour to which Peter first, and thelittle band who accompanied them had beencalled. No doubt they had lately been feelingacutely the priestly pressure against them. Howcould such 'unlearned and ignorant men'triumph over the pedantic, Rabbinical triflersof Jerusalem, with all their apparent learningand prestige ? On the worldly plane such thingswere impossible, but with God all things arepossible, and it was to be God's good pleasure,through Christ, to use these men, not only to'turn the world upside down,' but to form thenucleus of that great company of 'called-outones' whom no man can number.When a Scribe was ordained, he was presentedwith a key to signify the opening of the1This does not of course concede that the RomanCatholic claim that Peter founded their "Church"is correct, nor that the inferences they draw fromthis passage of Scripture are right.

148 The TESTIMONYdoor of knowledge, and so there was very realthrust behind the remark that Jesus made oneday when he said, "Woe unto you, lawyers !for ye have taken away the key of knowledge :ye entered not in yourselves, and them thatwere entering in ye hindered."It would not be so with Peter, the humblefisherman. "I will give unto thee the keys of thekingdom of heaven," said Jesus, in the sureknowledge that Peter would use them becausehe believed that Jesus was the Christ the Sonof the living God. Now these keys have nothingto do with sitting at the pearly gates in heaven,and unlocking them so that the immortal soulsof men may enter into paradise. They weregiven to Peter to do what the Scribes andPharisees with all their learning had failed to do,namely to direct the people towards the Kingdomof God, and into the company of thesaints. They were given to be used in Peter'slifetime on earth, and how well did he usethem ! The keys were two in number. Thefirst was used on the day of Pentecost, whenPeter spoke of the risen Christ to thousands ofJews, urging them to repent, "and there wereadded unto them about three thousand souls."The key for the Gentiles was used by him later,when in response to the vision, he preached thegospel to Cornelius the Centurion, and showedthat "God is no respecter of persons : but inevery nation he that feareth Him, and workethrighteousness, is accepted with Him.." 2The contrast however, between the Scribesand the disciples did not end there. TheScribes claimed that it was part of their prerogativeto "bind and loose" their fellow menfrom certain acts done under the Law of Moses.For example, they prescribed whether or not itwas lawful to move a ladder, or wipe a woundon the Sabbath day, or how far one might carrya loaf of bread without it becoming 'work.'They claimed however, no right to forgive sins.Indeed, when the Lord Jesus said to a man,"Thy sins be forgiven thee," they were scandalised,and said, "This is blasphemy, for who canforgive sins but God ?"Jesus however, told Peter, "Whatsoever thoushalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven,and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shaltbe loosed in heaven." And how awfully wasthat fulfilled when Ananias and Sapphira werestruck dead before Peter because they lied tothe Holy Spirit !By so much then, would the privileges andpowers of Peter transcend those of the Scribesand Pharisees, and thus open the gates of theKingdom of God to millions of believers.Before that glad time however, the Lord Jesushad to pass through the valley of the shadowof death, when it would seem to the disciplesas if the gates of hell had conquered their Lord.The cross must come before the crown, and thisis true for us as well as for Jesus. If we are notprepared to go forth 'without the camp bearinghis reproach,' then there can be no final openingof the gates of the Kingdom for us. The elatedPeter, after so much of the honour and privilegeof his high calling had been revealed to him, wasin no mood to look into the valley of the shadowthen, with consequences that we shall considerin our next article. Still less could he haveforeseen the end of his own pilgrimage, but helearned, by and by, that the way of the Cross isthe only way through the gate, which he unlocked,to the Kingdom of God. It is the symbolof self-denial to all who, in the later words ofPeter "humble themselves under the mightyhand of God, that He may exalt them in duetime."2 The use of two keys by Peter in Jerusalem and inCaesarea makes nonsense of Roman pretensions.LORD HELP MEForgive me for my wilful waysAnd every evil thought erase.Forgive me for my little liesAnd make me truthful, kind and wise.Forgive the selfish thoughts and deedsThat haven't helped another's needs.Forgive bad temper, sloth and strife ;Lord help me live a better life.—Anon

The TESTIMONY 149The Leper's CryA. G. BatemanΛ SHRILL cry rings out—the crowd*^ advancing towards the city halts, and alleyes are turned in the direction of the cry. Itis an amazing sight that meets the eye—tenmen; no, not men, almost apparitions, seeminglywithout eyes, without nose, without hair—a crowd of beggars indeed. They hold uptheir handless arms, and unearthly soundsgurgle through roofless throats. What amiserable spectacle this is to be sure. "Tame,tame, unclean, unclean !"The very sound of their cry sends an ice-coldshiver down the spine.Suddenly they see a figure in the midst of thecrowd, a tall important looking figure, one whoseems to be in control of those around him.Can this be the man of whom they have heard ?Many marvellous things have come to their earsconcerning a certain Jesus of Nazareth, ofwonderful acts of mercy, of healing, of teaching.It has been mere hearsay to them, for theyhave not been able to go into the city, nor mixwith the crowds on the highway. They havenot seen him, but yet, can this be the One ?Their shrill cry changes, "Jesus, Master, havemercy on us !" Here they are, outcasts fromsociety, doomed to a permanent existenceoutside the city walls, with fellow-sufferers astheir only company. Doomed for life.But, no ! "Master, have mercy on us !"Here before them is their means of salvation—here is a Saviour indeed. "Go, showyourselves unto the priests," he says.* # #There is no disease which produces so foulan appearance in the human form as leprosy,of which there are several forms, some moreserious than others.The first symptom of the malady is a painlessspot, almost like a pimple, which covers anindolent ulcer. The ulcer may remain unprogressivefor months or for years, with little orno effect on the normal activities of the individual.He is able to carry on with his usualoccupation : but at some time it produces amore repulsive and foul disfigurement of thehuman face and frame than any other knowndisease. It causes the very features of the faceto change, and brings a deadening effect uponthe body, with the result that the flesh fallsaway in pieces. Death at last comes suddenlywhen the foul disease has performed its workand a vital part of the body is affected.The priests were taught how to distinguishthe various forms of leprosy—in general, thosewhich to their eyes were deeper than the skinand affected the colour of the hair were badcases.In those cases where the complaint appearedto be in the skin only, the sufferer was to beshut up for seven days to see how he progressed.If at the end of that time the spots were nolarger, the case was one for cure and healing.The great test of uncleanness was the spreadingor not spreading, and the consequent affectingof other parts of the body.The 13th chapter of Leviticus gives minutedescriptions and directions for the guidance ofthe priests in connection with lepers. A manwith the plague in his head was pronouncedutterly unclean. A hopeless leper was to be putoutside the camp. A hopelessly affected garmentwas to be burnt. A house to which theplague had returned after affected stones hadbeen removed and the rest of the house scraped,was to be broken down.The object of the regulations relating toleprosy does not appear to be for sanitaryreasons, although leprosy is slightly contagious.The disease was hideous and foul,causing a man affected thereby to be pronouncedunclean, and before he could berestored to God and to the community at large,he must be certified by the priests to be freefrom disease.It would appear that the disease was incapableof cure by normal means—the Hebrew term forleprosy signifies 'the stroke of God.' It wasdeemed a divine infliction, which could only becured by divine means : thus the regulationsimpress on the sufferer his utter unworthinessand his dependence on God. If the disease werenot divinely cured, then the results would befatal to the sufferer himself, and the diseaseitself was transmissible from parent to child.As soon as the disease is suspected, the personis to go, or be brought, not to a physician, butto one of the priests. The leper, after the priesthas diagnosed the disease, would go with "hisclothes rent, his head bare, and with a coveringon his upper lip, and shall cry Unclean, unclean.All the days wherein the plague shall be in himhe shall be defiled ; he is unclean : he shalldwell alone; without the camp shall his

150 The TESTIMONYhabitation be." lIn thus handing the disease over for religioustreatment, there is afforded the most strikingillustration of the nature of sin. Sin is a diseasewhich none but the divine physician can cure.There was a possibility of a leprous manbeing cured of his malady, but he could not yettake his place in the congregation, for there w r asa special process of atonement provided. Itwas more elaborate than all other atonements,as if to show forth the especial need of mankindin the matter of sin signified by leprosy, andto magnify the grace that extends reconciliationto sinners.Two birds were to be brought, alive andclean, together with cedar wood, scarlet andhyssop. One bird was killed, and the other wasdipped in its blood ; the leper also was sprinkledwith its blood, and the living bird was let free,taking as it were the leprosy with it. The lepermust then wash his clothes, shave his hair andbathe his body, after which he was allowed toreturn to the camp, but not to return to hisown abode.For seven days he remained in semi-exileinside the camp. Then on the eighth day hewas to bring two he-lambs, one ewe lamb, fineflour and oil. The priest would offer a he-lambfor a trespass offering, touching the leper'sright ear, the thumb of his right hand, and thegreat toe of his right foot with the blood, andthe oil was poured upon his head. Two furtherofferings were next required—the ewe lamb asa sin offering, and the other he-lamb as a burntoffering, after which the leper was pronouncedclean, and he was then at liberty to return tohis own house.These are the things to which Jesus referredwhen he said to the cleansed leper, "Showthyself to the priest, and offer the gift thatMoses commanded for a testimony unto them."So a divine disease is divinely cured.It was so in the case of Naaman the Syrian.His disease apparently was of a mild form,which lay dormant within him, and allowed himto occupy a high position in the Syrian army.Yet, nevertheless, he himself was caused distress,no doubt, as a result of his personalappearance. Nothing that he could do w r ouldcure him—he had tried everything, until heheard of the prophet in Israel.There were no properties of healing in thewaters of Jordan, indeed no other leper comingthere would be healed were he to dip himselfa thousand times, but Naaman was cured byDivine power.As with the natural, so with the spiritual. Sinis a disease carried about by all men : "Wherefore,as by one man sin entered into the world,and death by sin ; so death passed upon allmen, for that all have sinned." 2No patentmedicine or visit to a doctor can cure the disease: there is only one remedy, the divine cure.Naaman found the way : that same way isours : belief, obedience and baptism, bringingwith it the recognition that we are sinners, andas such are outcasts from God, being uncleanand dwelling without the camp, yet now pronouncedclean by the High Priest of ourprofession, being brought nigh by the blood ofthe lamb, slain for our redemption."Have mercy upon me, Ο God, according toThy loving kindness ; according unto themultitude of Thy tender mercies blot outmy transgressions."Wash me thoroughly from mine iniquities,and cleanse me from my sin. For I acknowledgemy transgressions: and my sin is everbefore me. Purge me with hyssop, and Ishall be clean : wash me, and I shall bewhiter than snow." 312Lev. 13 : 45, 46. Rom. f> : 12. 3 p s a >51.We lift our eyes unto the hills,To God Who dwells on high,He knows His loved ones, and He seesTheir tears and hears their cry.He never slumbers, He discernsThe ways our steps may take,And though He chastens in His love ?He never will forsake,LOOK TO THEHILLSSometimes in prayer He seems so farThat He does not reply,But He knows what is best for us,He often must deny.We must look up unto the hills,He holds us by the hand,And leads our faltering steps to Him,Straight to the Promised Land.Btth Briggs (U.S.A.)

The TESTIMONY 151HISTORYThe Prophecy of Haggai (1)A. AkeroydArranged (pro tern.) by A. E. JONEST^HE twenty-fifth chapter of the prophecy of**· Jeremiah tells of the approaching captivityof the kingdom of Judah and in verse eleventhese words occur, "This whole land shall bedesolate and an astonishment, and these nationsshall serve the king of Babylon seventy years."And so it came to pass that Judah was carriedaway captive to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzarand languished there in exile on the banks ofthe Euphrates. "By the rivers of Babylon,there we sat down, yea we wept when weremembered Zion. We hanged our harps uponthe willows in the midst thereof. For they thatcarried us away captive required of us a song ;and they that wasted us required of us mirth,saying, Sing us one of the songs of Zion. Howshall we sing the Lord's song in a strange land ?"Those words of Psalm 137 are vividly descriptiveof the sad plight of Judah as they fretted incaptivity in Babylon. But at the time when theBook of Haggai opens, this period of punishmenthad come to an end. Babylon was overthrownby Cyrus, king of Persia, whose spiritGod stirred up to allow and to urge the Jewsto return to their own land and to build thetemple of their God in Jerusalem. The openingwords of the Book of Ezra give us the words ofthe decree of Cyrus, king of Persia, wordswhich Haggai does not record. λThe Books ofHaggai and Zechariah belong to this post-Captivity period ; and also concerning thisperiod of history there are the three OldTestament books, Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther.Hence to get a true picture of the historicalbackground of the writings of Haggai, it isnecessary to consider Ezra and Nehemiah aswell. The Second Book of Chronicles is thelast historical book before the Babyloniancaptivity ; Ezra is the first after the captivity.The last two verses of the Second Book ofChronicles anticipate the deliverance fromBabylon and the return under Cyrus, so that theperiod of seventy years captivity comes betweenverses 21 and 22 of the thirty-sixth chapter of2 Chronicles ; and the last two verses of thatchapter are almost word for word the same asthe first three verses of the book of Ezra whichfollows. It is obvious from these verses that thecaptivity ended at the conquest of Babylon byCyrus, whose soldiers entered the city by wayof the emptied river bed, the river Euphrateshaving been diverted ; and Cyrus became, forthe Jews, their God-sent deliverer. 2God usedCyrus as His instrument in the restoration ofHis people to Zion and in the rebuilding of Histemple in the Holy City. Obeying the decree ofCyrus, many of the Jews, bearing the rifledtreasures of Solomon's temple, returned to theirnative land under the leadership of Zerubbabel,who was a prince of the house of David—andhence a type of Christ—and under the son ofJosedech the high priest. In verse two ofchapter one we are given the word of the Lordthrough the prophet concerning the returnedJews. "This people say, 'The time is not yetcome, the time that the Lord's house should bebuilt'." It would appear that 'this people'failed to discern the signs of the times. It isobvious from what follows that the time tobuild the Lord's house had arrived, althoughthe builders had become dispirited and apathetictowards their work for God, perhaps becauseof changing royal decrees, 3or perhaps becausethey were too fully occupied in trying toimprove their material position in face of poorharvests. But the indications that the time tobuild the Lord's house had fully come, shouldhave been plain to see. The seventy years ofexile were now ended, for Haggai was speakingabout 520 B.C. The very deliverer of whomIsaiah had spoken by name, Cyrus, had appearedand opened the two-leaved gates ofBabylon. The sacred vessels of the templewhich Nebuchadnezzar had carried to12Ezra 1 : l-fl.Isa. 44 : 28.Ezra 4 : 23,

152 The TESTIMONYBabylon, and which Jeremiah had predictedwould again be brought from Babylon, hadactually been delivered into the hands ofZerubbabel by Cyrus. 4The bad harvests fromwhich they were suffering were a sign of God'sdispleasure because of their neglect of His work,and were really no excuse for neglect of building,because they had been able to build forthemselves 'ceiled houses', that is, housesroofed and with ceilings and wainscoatings andpanellings. But as in these days, so it was inZerubbabel's days, they preferred the temporaland material things rather than the spiritual.The ordinary occupations of life presentedmore attractions than the duties to theirCreator, and their zeal for temple building wasquickly dampened ; but not so their enthusiasmfor erecting mansions for themselves, mansionsroofed with cedarwood, and so their work to theglory of God decreased and ceased, and with it,no doubt, ceased the sense of God's presence intheir midst. There is an evident spiritualcounterpart to these thoughts. The final templeof God will be an edifice composed of livingstones. Believers are now being built up intoa spiritual house and our Creator has presentedto us, in the perfect pattern of His own son,the type of stone required. But there is a dangerof saying, as did 'this people', "The time is notyet come, the time that the Lord's house shouldbe built,"But,"Procrastination is the thief of time,Year after year it steals, till all are fled,And to the mercies of a moment, leavesThe vast concerns of an eternal scene."and in this respect we picture the five foolishvirgins knocking on the door of the Kingdomof God when it is too late."Now therefore thus saith the Lord of Hosts,Consider your ways." "Set your heart uponyour ways," and the record indicates that theirlabours during recent seasons had lacked thedivine blessing. Though they had "ceiledhouses" in which to live, their harvests hadbeen poor and their wages had done them nogood. The prophet therefore urges the peopleto recommence the work of building thehouse of God.4'Go up to the mountain and bring woodand build the house". "Go to Lebanon wherethe cedars grow and recommence the buildingof the house" says God in effect, and "I willtake pleasure in it and I will be glorified."Thus it is that those who now diligently buildthe house, or household of God, glorify God ;and in them He takes pleasure. But the expressionmay also be taken as a prophecy, forit is God's purpose to fill the earth with Hisglory which will be radiated by those whoconstitute His house ; thus He will, in HisKingdom, take pleasure in the completedhousehold and will, by it be glorified. Versenine gives in the words of God the reason forthe poor harvests at this time of negligentbuilding."Because of Mine house that is waste, andye run every man unto his own house. Thereforethe heaven over you is stayed from dew,and the earth is stayed from her fruit." Indifferenceto the work of building the Lord'shouse brought calamities upon them, and inour day it is possible for the household offaith to "lie waste" whilst its members runwith zeal to adorn their own "ceiled houses."Had the building of the Lord's house been amatter that concerned their own glory andcomfort and interest, they would not havesuffered it to "lie waste." But the irksometask of building concerned the glory of Godand in it there appeared to be little presentmaterial advantage ; therefore the house wasallowed to "lie waste."Verses twelve to fifteen record a resumptionof the building of the Lord's house. "Theycame and did work in the house of the Lordof hosts, their God." "They obeyed the voiceof the Lord their God, and the words ofHaggai the prophet, as the Lord their Godhad sent him, and the people did fear beforethe Lord."This spirit of obedience and devotion wasshared by all.Zerubbabel the governor, Joshua the highpriest, and all the remnant of the people madea full surrender of themselves to the serviceof their God, with the result that the divinefavour was again manifest and "Haggai theLord's messenger gave the Lord's messageto the remnant saying, Ί am with you, saiththe Lord."There is a time coming when the tabernacleof God will be with men ; when to theredeemed remnant, the Israel of Deity, Godwill be able to say, "I am with you, to takepleasure in you, and to be glorified by you."Those who are thus chosen from the humanrace on account of faithful building, faithfulservice, service not ended but infinitely extendedby their immortalisation, will reignas kings or governors like Zerubbabel and aspriests like Joshua, for ever in the Kingdom ofGod.4 Ezra 1 : 7 & 8.

The TESTIMONYAngelic Guidance (1)James CarterTPHIS subject almost automatically falls into**· three sections, dealing with the angelicguidance of Israel, of the nations generally,and of those called out by God to be His people.The present article deals with the first of these.Israel's history commences with Abrahamand Sarah who were the progenitors of thepeople of Israel. In Abraham's life, angelicguidance was frequently evident, so much sothat the writer to the Hebrews exhorts, "Benot forgetful to entertain strangers, for therebysome have entertained angels unawares." 1One outstanding example was when the threeangels visited Abraham prior to the destructionof Sodom and Gomorrah. Isaac and Jacobwere similarly the recipients of angelic guidance.It was, however, when Israel had developedinto a mighty people that the larger phaseof this subject began. It was while they werein bondage in Egypt, forty years after Moseshad fled thence, that "the angel of the Lordappeared unto him (Moses) in a flame of fireout of the midst of a bush" and this was thecommencement of a long series of incidentsin which Moses was the subject of angelicguidance. In their exodus from Egypt, theIsraelites experienced angelic protection, for"the angel of the Lord went before the campof Israel," manifested in a pillar of cloud byday and a pillar of fire by night. God appointedHis angel to go before them and lead them, aswe read: "Behold, I send an angel beforethee, to keep thee in the way, and to bringthee into the place which I have prepared.Beware of him and obey his voice, provokehim not, for he will not pardon your transgressions; for My name is in him." 2This was again repeated on the occasionwhen, after the people had sinned so grievouslythat Moses interceded for them. God assuredhim, "Mine angel shall go before thee," ; andthe same idea is later repeated in the promisethat Israel would conquer the land of Canaanwith divinely sent aid. "And I will send anangel before thee, and I will drive out theCanaanite."In the book of Numbers we have the accountof the part the angel played in connection withBalaam when he was running greedily afterthe wages of iniquity. The dumb beast couldsee what Balaam could not, until finally thedumb ass spake, rebuking the madness of theprophet !Turning to the period of Judges, the incidentsin connection with the birth of Samsonare very illuminating. It is quite evident thatneither Manoah nor his wife had any ideathat the one who was instructing them wasan angel. They knew he was "a man of God,"who came again at their request after he toldManoah's wife she was to have a son and hadgiven her explicit instructions regarding hisupbringing. The news was so joyful that theyasked this "man" his name "that we may dothee honour," evidently intending to call thechild by the name that this messenger bore.The angel guessed why they asked, but declaredhis name was "secret." The margingives "wonderful." Here was a manifestationof God, but by no means as "wonderful" asthe later manifestation was to be when God'sonly begotten Son was to be called "wonderful,counsellor, the mighty God, the everlastingfather and the prince of peace."Coming to the period of the Kings of Israel,in David's life angelic guidance was not byany means lacking, although the recordedinstances of such are few. The most detailedoccasion was when David sinned in the numberingof the people and God gave him achoice of three punishments. After Davidin his threefold choice had thrown himselfon the mercy of the Lord, the angel of Godbrought pestilence upon the people, butpestilence wrought by the angel ended at thethreshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite. Unwillingto offer that which cost him nothing,David purchased first the oxen and the threshingfloor, but later he bought the whole areaon which subsequently the Temple was built.In the days of Hezekiah the angel of theLord wrought mightily for Israel. The Assyrianhad swept through the land in his apparentlyinvincible whirlwind campaign—until hethreatened Jerusalem by siege. Hezekiahrightly placed the matter in the hands of God,Who sent His angel, with the result thatpestilence of a very virulent kind came uponthe Assyrians, 185,000 dying in one night.The record says Sennacherib returned "withshame of face unto his own land," so mightilydid God's angel work for Israel.1Heb. 13 : 2, "" ζ Exod. 23 : 20-23.

154 The TESTIMONYDaniel and his companions were particularlythe recipients of angelic guidance, as Nebuchadnezzarfound to his cost! When Daniel'sthree friends defied Nebuchadnezzar, refusingto bow down to the golden image Nebuchadnezzarhad made, they were cast into the burningfiery furnace, heated to seven times itsusual intensity; this was probably one of theroyal brick kilns. Instead of the three castinto the furnace, Nebuchadnezzar could seefour men walking about, unharmed, and evenNebuchadnezzar recognised that the fourthwas an angel of God, sent to deliver thosewhose trust in God was so complete.Many years later Daniel became the victimof the jealousy of the courtiers of Darius (whowas associated with Cyrus in the overthrowof Babylon) and by subtlety they trickedDarius into signing a decree whereby Danielwas cast into the lion's den. Darius passed avery sleepless night, and when morning lightcame he hurried to the lions' den to see ifDaniel still lived. Daniel answered his anxiouscry, assuring him, "My God hath sent Hisangel and hath shut the lions' mouths thatthey have not hurt me." But there was noprotecting angel there when a similar fatewas meted out to those who had tried toencompass Daniel's death. They were tornin pieces before ever they reached the bottomof the lions' den !Angelic guidance and help appear veryprominently throughout the book of Zechariah.Angels instructed the prophet in his work,answering his queries on occasions more thanone angel being in evidence. What is statedso explicitly in the case of Zechariah, in allprobability would be the experience of theother prophets at various times. It is interestingto see how all through Israel's historythe angels of God have been in the background,and often in the foreground—guiding anddirecting God's people. Angels administeredrebuke where necessary, disciplining waywardpeople so that, if possible, the Israelites mightconduct themselves as being truly the peopleof God. It is tragic to see how frequentlythey disobeyed the angel's voice, forgettingthat God's name was in him and that he spokeand acted with the authority of God. We arewise if we profit by their example, for, as weshall see, angelic guidance is by no meanslacking in our lives, although it is not so visibleas it was in theirs.REVIEWS SECTION"Fighting Against God'Acts 5 : 39, R.V.F. WhiteleyCould anything be more futile, to say theleast ? It was to save the Jewish Council frombeing "found" guilty of such folly that theshrewdly perceptive Gamaliel, in his famouscounsel of prudence respecting resistance tothe work of the apostles, reminded them that"If it be of God, ye cannot overthrow it.' 1The above incident was brought to mindby the reported "story from Israel about whathappened when the national radio networkinterviewed schoolchildren and asked themwhat punishment should be given to Eichmann,One boy said he should be tortured. Anotherrecommended imprisonment for life.Finally, a young girl said : "I think theyshould just put him in a car and drive himall round and show him Israel." 1Whether the reported story be factual orfictional is quite immaterial : it enshrinesGamaliel-like wisdom in the proposed treatmentof any miserable Gentile who may havecommitted such dastardly crimes as are involved; namely, that such a one should begiven the opportunity of seeing that evenwhilst with incredible assiduity he was exertingevery diabolical effort toward making inhis own land an end of Israel, he was in factengaged in a futile fight against their God Whowas irresistibly raising them from centuriesof national death to vigorous life in His OwnLand !Yes, far better than bullet through heart orbrain—"SHOW HIM ISRAEL!" "TheGentiles shall come to thy light, and kingsto the brightness of thy rising . . . Thy sonsshall come from far . . . strangers shall buildup thy walls . . . (O excellent, ironic, penitentialtask) for that nation and kingdom that willnot serve thee shall perish ; yea, those nationsshall be utterly wasted."Fearful indeed, at any time and in any sense,for anyone to be found guilty of "fightingagainst God." 21 Daily Express for April 7th,2 Isa, 60 ; 3, 4, 10, 12.

The TESTIMONY 155REVIEWSIsraelNorman P. HoltEdited by F. WHITELEYTHE very name, Israel, running along the-** spine of a book, is sufficient to compelany student of Scripture to pause and to takea look at it. This we did with the volume wepropose to review. xWhilst, perhaps, not exceptional, we havefound it very good, worthwhile reading. Passingthrough its many pictured pages, wecertainly captured the atmosphere of enterprisingIsrael : the spirit of an ancient peopleliving again.The very chapter headings beckon one toread. In the two-page introduction, A Cocktailin the Making, we are given the mix of modernIsrael. To quote, "These are some of theingredients :—A little of the East, a little ofthe West, a little of the Middle Ages, a littleof the Atomic age, a pinch of mysticism, afew drops of Marxism, dozens of languagesand human beings from all countries. Hopes,despair,—dreams and prophecies, to be wellshaken 2 and spiced with the burning hatredof proud peoples ; those who have neveraccepted defeat at the hand of man ; thosewhom no one thought capable of fighting.This is a hot cocktail, a fiery cocktail, anexplosive cocktail ! "The first chapter, Impossible is not a Hebrewword, calls us to arise and walk through theland : see how the observation of the Kaiser,over fifty years ago, has proved true : "Thatcountry will go to those who can give it shade."Fifty one-year-old forests are now springing toaugment the existing sylvan shade, and theeucalyptus grove has taken the place of themalarial swamp. Two thousand farms willsoon be flourishing on the site of Lake Hula,and the valley of Beit Netofa, near Hula, willsoon become the reservoir to water the SouthLand. Villages do not begin in the curve ofthe river, or at the crossroads, but in thevoid—the reason ? To fill the void.The face of the waiter in the cafe seemedfamiliar. Yes, we saw him going into theGovernment buildings yesterday. Three daysa week in the cafe. Three days a week anIsraeli M.P. in the Knesset.The character of the next chapter, NextYear in Jerusalem, seems to be expressed inone of its wide-sweeping paragraphs :—"It is with Bible in hand that tourists shouldvisit Israel. It is with Bible in hand thatarchaeologists survey the country to excavate.It is with Bible in hand that high-rankingofficers of the Israeli army learn strategy. Itis with Bible in hand that members of parliamentprepare their speeches and geologistsprospect for oil."The third chapter takes its title from thename of the Israeli National Anthem, Hatikva—Hope, and breathes the spirit of nationalresurrection. The resurrection of the Hebrewlanguage stems back to the untiring laboursof an obscure Jewish crank of a scholar ;doubted, at first, by his people, but finallyacknowledged by all. Modern words had tobe grown from the ancient roots. The wordfor electricity, for example, was found in1 Israel, by David Catarivas. Actual volumereviewed was the original edition published inParis and translated by F. Carter. Published inLondon by Edward Hulton, 1959 ; in New York,by the Viking Press. Price unknown.Our enquiry re same has elicited a replyfrom Vista Books, 161-166 Fleet Street, LondonEC4, in whose Vista Travel Book Series it isavailable at 6s. Over 100 illustrations. 192 pages.—F.W.2 Reminding one that the whole terrestrial "mixture,"including Israel, is to be "well shaken"by God ere long (Joel 3 : 16 ; Haggai 2:6, 7,21, 22 ; Heb. 12 : 26), as a preliminary to theapplication of His Own divine remedy forhumanity's miserable condition.—F.W.

156 The TESTIMONYEzekiel 1 : 27.Several pages tell something of the storyof that giant among latter-day Jewry, TheodoreHerzl, who died at the early age of forty-four.His short, powerful convictions, thunderalmost prophetically along the lines:—"I believe that a new race of Jews will arisefrom the soil. The Maccabees will rise again."In less than fifty years his words came true.Israeli commandos in the battles of 1948 and1956 were known as "Samson's foxes."H.Q.F.C. were known as "Gideon" or "Jephthah"; and it was "Operation Ten Plagues"that drove the Egyptians out of Sinai.The chapter concludes with a note on theNational Anthem. "Hatikva" :—"Its tune is slow and languid; there isnothing martial about it; it expresses theyearning of a people who, for two thousandyears, never lost hope" ; which is followedby the timely quoting of Isaiah 11 : 11, 12,in full: "And it shall come to pass in that day,that the Lord shall set His hand again thesecond time to recover the remnant of Hispeople, which shall be left, from Assyria, andfrom Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush,and from Elam, and from Shinar, and fromHamath, and from the islands of the sea.And He shall set up an ensign for the nations,and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, andgather together the dispersed of Judah fromthe four corners of the earth." 3Chapter four leads off from the words ofHerzl to his people :—"It need not be a legend."Here, we feel it in the bones, in the marrowof the dry bones that now live again, clothedwith new Israeli flesh. Here is a land and apeople different from any other land andpeople in the world. For instance :—"You immigrate into any (other) country,but you ascend (aliya-ascent) to Israel, asthough approaching a high place. An immigrantis an ole—one who ascends. In the sameway, one who leaves Israel to go and settleelsewhere is not an emigrant: he is a yored—one who descends."Two passages in this chapter, perhaps halfknowingly,echo the prophetic. The one reads :"The country looks to the Sabra (Jews bornin Israel). They represent the future, andeverything which 'the generation of the wilderness'cannot achieve, they count on themto do. For they are the product, not of theKibbutz Galoyoth (The Gathering of theDispersed), but of the Mizug Galoyoth (TheFusing of the Dispersed). A day will comewhen the fusion of all the communities fromthe four corners of the earth will have takenplace, and on that day all problems will havebeen solved ; on that day the advent of Messiahwill be near."The other :—"Building goes on at such apace that it is impossible to take a finishedpicture. Your snapshot of today will be outof date tomorrow. Except for almost lunarlandscapes near the Dead Sea, the lowestpoint on earth, where it is hard to see whatchanges there could be. And yet . . . ! theyhave just built a youth hostel there, a petrolstation and a post office which are the lowestin the world. The Dead Sea itself seemsdestined to be revived." 4Significantly, the last chapter is namedDeuteronomy and is given over to useful factsand figures, historical data, feasts Jewish,Christian and Moslem ; information regardingpolitical and cultural activities in Israel ; andconcludes with the modern Hebrew alphabet,complete with transliterations and pronunciations.In all, a book of pictures worth seeing andwords worth reading.34But Ο that Israel could see the whole picture byquoting also the preceding verse ! Soon now,the same Lord Who has gathered them togetherwill cause Israel to recognise, in tears, theidentity of the Root of Jesse : none other thanJesus of Nazareth (Zech. 12 : 9-14 ; Rom. 15 : 12 ;Rev. 1:7; 22 : 16) who shall stand for anEnsign of the peoples, unto him shall the nationsseek ; and his rest shall be glorious. Then it shallbe said, "Sing unto the Lord ; for He hath doneexcellent things : this is known in all the earth.Cry out and shout, thou inhabitant of Zion : forgreat is the Holy One of Israel in the midst ofthee."—the God of Israel, manifest in His"beloved Son," "The King of the Jews," "liftedup" again, but this time in glory. (Isa. 12 : 5, 6).—F.W.Why "seems" ? "The Scripture cannot bebroken" ; its certainties on this matter can beread in Ezek. 47:1-14; Joel 3:18; Zech.13 : 1 ; 14 : 8-10. These imminent geographicalimprovements by the divine Land-Lord are thebasis of the beautiful apocalyptic symbolismwherein a healing stream of divine truth isseen to be springing from that same source inZion for the healing of the sterile waters of thewhole world. (Rev. 22 : 1-3).—F.W."Seven prayerless days make one weak"—A Wayside Pulpit

The TESTIMONY 157!·&"•' '*·• '··•• . 1 •'••'"•:?'• ·.•'•·"•"·•;·'·•.Coals of FireH. A Whittakerby E. WHITTAKER"THEREFORE if thine enemy hunger,-•* feed him ; if he thirst, give him drink :for in so doing thou shalt heap coals of fire onhis head." (Rom. 12 : 20.)The words are as familiar as can be. Theidiom has passed into the English language.Lots of people who are quite unfamiliar withthe Bible talk of "heaping coals of fire on thehead'* of some enemy or objectionable personwithout being really clear in their minds whatidea lies behind the expression. Even readersof this article who have read the Epistle tothe Romans many times may be uncertainas to the precise origin and meaning of Paul'spicturesque idiom.This phrase of Paul's seems to be the meetingplace of several vigorous Scriptures. It maybe profitable to trace them, and so maybebuild up a clearer picture of just what was inthe Apostle's mind. Consultation of marginalreferences soon reveals the fact that in Rom.12 : 20 Paul was quoting from Proverbs 25 :21, 22, with the omission of a concludingphrase. If this is restored, the balance of thepassage is seen more readily :Αχ If thine enemy be hungryΒ! give him bread to eatA2If he be thirsty,Β2give him water to drinkA a For thou shalt heap coals of fire on his headΒ3and the Lord shall reward thee.Thus, in the context, the obvious meaningof A Β is :3 3A The Lord shall punish himΒ and reward thee.But how is this punishment to be broughtabout ?It would seem that there is also a referencehere to the dramatic vision described by Ezekielin chapter 10. An angel is commanclecl totake coals of fire from between the cherubimand scatter them over the wicked city ofJerusalem in token, presumably, of its impendingdestruction by the fire of God's judgement. xAccording to this, Paul's meaning is : Do nottake vengeance against your enemy. Leave it toGod. He will destroy him in righteous judgmenteven as He destroyed Jerusalem long ago.It may be that Paul wrote with special referenceto the implacable antagonism which orthodoxJews were showing to Jewish Christians inhis own time. And Paul knew that beforelong an inevitable outcome of Jewish rejectionof Christ and Christianity must be the burningof Jerusalem once again.It seems possible to take the investigationa step further. In Psalm 120 : 2-4 "coals ofjuniper" is a vigorous figure for virulent,venomous, lying words. "Deliver my soul,Ο Lord, from lying lips, and from a deceitfultongue. What shall be given unto thee ? Whatshall be done unto thee, thou false tongue ?Sharp arrows of the mighty, with coals ofjuniper." Psalm 140 : 9, 10 also comes in here :"Let the mischief of their own lips cover them.Let burning coals fall upon them." In thispassage the "coals of fire" are the evil wishesand intentions of the enemies now comingback upon their own heads. Is this the idea inRom. 12 : 20 also ? "For in doing so (treatingyour enemy with kindness) thou shall heapupon his own head his own coals of fire whichhave been hurled at you"—i.e. the very thingwhich he has planned and intended and invokedupon you is what he himself will sufferfrom God, if he does not respond to the appealmade through your unresentful kindness.Perhaps a different development is possible.? Cf ;Ezek, 15 : 6 37,

158 The TESTIMONYWhen Isaiah saw the vision of "the Lord highand lifted up," he was cleansed of his ownunworthiness in the presence of this divineholiness by being touched with a coal of firetaken by a seraph* from off the altar. Bythis divine act the unclean representative ofan unclean race became sanctified for thepreaching of a wonderful gospel of salvationand deliverance. Was this idea also in Paul'smind ? "In so doing thou shalt heap coals offire on his head"—meaning: Your kindly,unresentful treatment of him will have apurging effect such as Isaiah experienced,and so you will convert him from a wilfulenemy into a fellow-preacher of the Gospel ofLife.* Identical with cherub. Do readers know theevidence for this ? ;The Great Denunciation (Matthew 23)Leonard F. CoxTHHERE were many occasions when Jesus·*• denounced the religious leaders of his day,but none when he did it so emphatically orat such length as on this occasion. This wasno casual denunciation ; it was the outcomeof a series of events which had put Jesus in amost favourable position to speak in this way.The events had not been planned with thisin view : just the opposite. His enemies hadall come to him in turn, first Herodians, thenSadducees and finally Pharisees, with awkwardquestions meant to embarrass him and makehim appear ridiculous to the crowd. But oneand all they had failed as they were bound todo, and then it was the turn of Jesus. By thistime perhaps his enemies would have beenglad to slink away, but probably they couldnot. We can imagine how the common peoplewhom they had hoped to turn against Jesuswould have gathered around, enjoying the cutand thrust of the argument, and glad to seethe superior men of religion "put in theirplaces" for once. Now these leaders wouldbe hemmed in by the crowd they had hopedto impress and would find themselves forcedto listen to Jesus' most impressive condemnation.He began by asking them a question aboutthe origin of the Christ; whereas he had founda ready answer to all their posers, they foundthemselves unable to do more than give aninadequate and vague one, which in its turnled to a second question for which they hadno answer at all. So Jesus was in completecommand of the situation ; he had his enemiesat his mercy and he showed himself merciless.Their's were sins not of weakness, which hecould always look upon with pity, but sins ofarrogance, which were to him anathema. Nodoubt there were among the Pharisaical bodypeople to whom many of his strictures wouldnot apply—men like Nicodemus who realisedat least that there could be a different outlookfrom the traditional one of his sect. But whyshould Jesus tone down what he said for theirsakes ? They would be the most likely torealise the justice of what he said, they mightlearn and profit from his words; the restwould only be angered.So we come to this twenty-third chapter.It is by no means just a list of "woes" strungtogether haphazardly. The more it is studiedthe more one sees how one woe inspiresanother one. But before the "woes" start thereis what we may call a prelude in the firsttwelve verses and after the "woes" a concludingparagraph beginning in verse 24 andbringing with it a change of tone, which infact leads to the almost inevitable ray of hopein its concluding verse.The opening of the prelude must havesurprised the crowd. They knew alreadyJesus' opinion of the authorities of his dayand they expected no commendation of themfrom him. Yet he began by telling them theyshould obey the regulations the authoritiesimposed. This is something that we tend tobe surprised about also, but we should not be.Jesus told the people that the Scribes andPharisees sat in Moses' seat, which means thatthey were the recognised government of theday in a deeper sense than the Roman governoror even Herod could be. The whole theoryof the Jewish state was that the High Priestas God's representative was the head of state.Even the house of David only ruled as asubstitute because the people did not like thepurely theocratic government. So Jesus' injunctionis completely in line with all the NewTestament advice from Paul as well as himself

The TESTIMONY 159that the Christian should obey "the powersthat be." In any case many regulations of thescribes were all based on the Law of Mosesand could all be justified from it. When Jesuscondemns them it is not as being wrong inthemselves, but in putting a minor rightabove a major one. This is clearly illustratedlater in the chapter.No sooner has Jesus said 'Obey the Scribes"than he adds "but do not imitate them." Theiractions seemed to have a two-fold purpose,first to make life more difficult for others andsecond to impress their own importance onothers. Both of these attitudes are fundamentally"unChristian." Jesus came into theworld to save sinners, not to make salvationmore difficult. This is something all preachersof the Gospel need to remember—the way ofsalvation is "strait and narrow" enoughbecause of human weakness without anyunessential barriers being raised to make iteven more difficult. These barriers of personalopinions and interpretations come most frequentlyfrom those who suffer from the secondof the Scribes' faults, namely the desire to beseen and admired by men.One of the signs of respect which the Scribesappreciated most was the title of "Rabbi."So Jesus warns his listeners specifically againstthis, but it should be noted that in verses 8to 10 he says two distinct and different things.First he tells his followers not to accept titlesof honour from others because all Christiansshould be equal and all recognise only oneMaster. The other warning is not concernedwith accepting titles of honour but with givingthem ; in particular they are to address no-oneas "Father" because that title is God's alone.Incidentally the word which the A.V. translatesas "master" has the basic meaning of"leader" or "guide," a position which is ofimportance only until those under him havereached their goal. Obviously here it is a caseof Christ leading us to God, the "Master,"taking us to the Father. One might wonderwhy mere titles matter so much, but verses11 and 12 show the effects their use may have.It is not very clear whether verse 11 is a warningon the lines of "pride comes before a fall" orwhether it implies as J. B. Phillips suggeststhat "the only superior among you is the onewho serves the others." Jesus certainly gaveexamples of this latter interpretation, notablywhen he washed the Apostles' feet. WhicheverJesus meant, it is true, and verse 12 iscertainly condemnatory, bringing us back tothese Scribes and Pharisees whose besettingsin was self-exaltation, and so providing a"lead-in" to the "Woes."Verses 13 to 15 deal with the Pharisees'relationship to three different classes of person ;first there is the common people, generallydespised by the Pharisees, then the unprotectedand simple among whom Jesus chosethe widows as his example, and third thoseof similar outlook to themselves. Of the firstJesus said that the Pharisees shut up thekingdom against them and yet it was amongthem that Jesus saw some who were entering,whereas he declared that the Pharisees wentnot in. This of course was something whichthey would have denied most emphatically.If they were modest enough to admit anyuncertainty in their salvation, they would atany rate claim that their fuller observance ofthe Law's requirements gave them a betterchance. As I have already said, it is for thosewho teach religion to help others come toGod and not to put unnecessary barriers intheir way. It is because these barriers werereally unnecessary that Jesus could speak ofthose who ignored them as entering in, whilethe Scribes themselves, being the makers ofthe barriers and therefore believing in themwere in fact no more capable of surmountingthem than anyone else, and therefore foundthemselves shut out by the very barriers theyerected. So it must be with us : we must notdemand from others what we ourselves arenot prepared to try to achieve ; and if we feelGod demands something which we cannotachieve, then we must expect Him to be atleast as merciful to others as we hope He willbe to us.The Scribes and Pharisees have not beenalone in making a profit out of the simpleminded.In fact the history of religion aboundswith examples of the religious hypocrite whohas wormed his way into the heart and thenceinto the possessions of honest but shortsightedand trusting Christians. There islittle to say except that this is hypocrisy ; andthat hypocrisy was an evil which Christ hatedperhaps above any other. It may be addedthat much in the Bible suggests that God takesa special care of the simple-minded, knowingthat while it is within the power of all of usto be "harmless as doves" we are not allcapable of being "wise as serpents." J. B.Phillips calls these hypocrites "play-actors"and according to Jesus' words in verse 15they not only knew ho\v to act themselves,but were experts in training others to do thesame. No doubt if they found the right sort

160 The TESTIMONYof man, it was easy to make him feel that hewas being highly honoured by their attentionsand that it was in fact God Who had pickedhim out, and therefore easy to make him"twice as ripe for destruction" as themselves !Nor is there any need to feel sorry for suchpeople. Only human vanity could make aman feel like this and only the blindness thatcomes from vanity could make him persistin such an attitude. It might be possible forone brought up in the Law and trained in itfrom his earliest days to have his appreciationof the vital truths behind it obscured byfamiliarity and the customs of his people;but one coming from outside, as the proselytedid, would surely need to be very blind atheart not to be Drought up with a shock onreading such words as the famous passage inMicah chapter 6, verses 6-8.Given the right material, it was easy for theScribes and Pharisees to lead men in theirown ways ; and it was particularly as leadersand guides that they fancied themselves. Sothe next few verses show up the falseness oftheir leadership by some examples which areextremely telling, but were no doubt drawnfrom their actual teaching. Possibly if we hadbeen brought up among such people insteadof having had Jesus' simple words alwaysbefore us, these distinctions between templeand gold, or altar and gift, would not seemso preposterous to us. They had begun asattempts at getting an exactly accurate interpretationof the Law. This of course is a goodthing if such an interpretation is possible andprofitable, but it was often a matter of opinionhow one applied a perfectly clear legal principleto a rather obscure set of circumstances ; andthe acceptance of one interpretation ratherthan another did not usually make a man moreor less godly. The same thing is true of Christianity; a good many of its minor schisms—and perhaps some of its major ones—havebegun with an insistence on the correctnessand importance of a personal interpretationof Scripture, a failure to "see the wood forthe trees." As Jesus points out, the Temple,its altar, heaven itself are all subordinate tothe God Who rules over all ; if we truly respectHim, we cannot help but respect the thingsof His making.So verse 23, returning to the list of "woes",takes up an example of this desire for exactnessgone wrong—the tithing of minor crops ofherbs. Some versions read "Ye tithe" and not"Ye pay tithe," but the difference is unimportant; there can be no doubt that it was theywho demanded that these tithes should bepaid, nor that in matters such as this they setan example in carrying out their own precepts.A few chapters later, we come across a parallelattitude among Jesus' own desciples—a reminderthat this list of "woes" is not put inthe record so that we can boast how muchbetter than the Scribes we are, but so that wecan learn from their mistakes. When Jesuswas in the house of Simon the Pharisee andthe precious ointment was poured over hishead, then the disciples were disgusted—orat least pretended to be—with the waste andpointed out that the money could have beenused for the relief of the poor. They wereof course quite right in saying that it wouldhave been well used in this way, but here is acase where a lesser good was cancelled out bya greater adoration of the grace of God asrevealed in His son. The same principle isshown in Jesus' attitude to the Sabbath,summed up in his statement that "the Sabbathwas made for man, and not man for the Sabbath"; it was the God-given day of rest,and the true enjoyment of this rest mightdepend on the breaking of some of the technicalitieswhich governed its observance.The enormous difference between tithingmint and being merciful was an obvious leadfor one of those comparisons in which Jesusshocks his hearers into an appreciation ofwhat he is saying by the very boldness of histerms. Verse 24 should, of course, read "Yestrain OUT a gnat and swallow a camel."How could one more strongly criticise thePharisaical appearance of revulsion at thebreaking of one of their "interpretations" andtheir calm acceptance of flagrant breaking ofthe spirit of the whole Law ! This image ofswallowing naturally leads Jesus to a furthercomparison connected with food, and againhis references to cleaning the outside of dishesmust have been based on actual practices ofthe day. But the reference to real food changesinto something much deeper when he describesthe dishes as being full of extortion and excess.So verse 26 is not a command to them totighten up their regulations and clean insideand out of their dishes, but of course to lookto their own hearts.Again there is nothing more natural thanthat the contrast between external cleanlinessand internal filth should lead Jesus to speakof the tombs of his land, not all collectedneatly together in cemeteries, but dotted hereand there at any convenient spot. Becauseof the danger of defilement from contact with

The TESTIMONY 161these, it was the custom to whitewash themand to renew the coating each year before thePassover. Once again it was a good idea,although of course accidental defilement ofthis kind causing a man to miss the greatFeast would be of no more importance inGod's eyes than if it happened at some lessawkward moment. No doubt the newly whitewashedtombs were a pleasant feature of thePalestinian landscape, so long as one wasconcerned only with externals ; similarly theScribes and Pharisees must have looked mostimpressive in their long embroidered robes,but seeing they had swallowed the camel ofhypocrisy and left the inside of their plattersfoul with their own iniquity, they indeeddeserved comparison with the tombs as theyactually were and not only as they appearedto a distant viewer.Then Jesus thinks of some of those buriedin these tombs, and the contrast between thetreatment they received in their lifetime andthe honour given to them after their death.The Pharisees wanted to have the best ofeverything ; they wanted credit for honouringthe prophets but could not for one momentforget that they were children of Abrahamin the literal sense. Had they been concernedonly with the spiritual descent, Jesus couldnot have held it against them, but it was theirracial pride which allowed him to point outtheir close connection with the killers of theprophets. While boasting of their ancestrythey also felt themselves one better than theirforefathers, because they had built and preservedthe tombs of the prophets, but Jesus,knowing what was going to happen to himselfand to some of his faithful followers, saw howthey would fill the measure of their fathersnot by being more noble, but by killing thegreatest of all prophets.So we come to verse 33, the end of thissection, and it is no mere chance that heintroduced the figure of "vipers" ; they arenot only one of the most dreaded agents ofdeath, but are to be found lurking in thedimness of old tombs, hatching out their evilbroods among the visible signs of death.Therefore Jesus asks : "How can ye escape ? "you who are so near "hell" already, livinglike vipers, boasting of your care of the abodesof the dead and being yourselves but gorgeousmasks covering an interior already dead.In the remaining verses Jesus turns from thepast to the future. Now he openly tells themthat they will follow in the footsteps of theirancestors by murdering the messengers ofrighteousness. He speaks with the mostabsolute authority, for the first time usingthe first person and looking on himself as thesender of those yet to suffer for the sake of theGospel. In one vast sweeping statement heconnects up those yet to suffer with all themartyrs of the past, from the very beginningsof human history up to times then comparativelyrecent. The point of this vast summaryis to emphasize that it is not purposelessslaughter, but that God is merely waiting untilthe cup of human iniquity is full before steppingin with His judgments. Mention of theTemple and the altar brings back Jesus' mindto the place where he then was, his own cityof Jerusalem. He knows that destruction issoon to come upon it, he knows how severelymany will suffer for the sins that he has beencondemning, but he cannot merely rejoicethat justice will be done. This is his city, thecity where he has preached so often and aboveall the city where he shall one day reign. Soit is with sadness that he contemplates thedesolation so shortly to come upon it. Hecannot hate it as he hated the Pharisees andall their works; even knowing what willhappen to him there, he feels compassion forit; and it must have been with a feeling ofjoyous relief that he could conclude thiscondemnation with the thought that one dayhe would be greeted in the way he should be :"Blessed is he that cometh in the name of theLord."Probably this speech had little effect onthe majority of the Scribes and Phariseesexcept to increase their annoyance and theirdetermination to get rid of him. Probably itschief effect on the crowd was to make themfeel a malicious joy at the discomfiture of their"superiors." Only a few would realise that inall of us there is a natural tendency to thinkand act as these "hypocrites" did, and thatevery lesson in the chapter can well be taken toheart by every one of us, and not shrugged offas the violent outburst of a fanatic, nor gleefullyapplied to the neighbour against whomwe have a grudge.A person who is a brother of Christ at the meeting of the Ecclesia, but not in the wicked surroundingsof the week, is a mere hypocrite, He is deceiving himself,

162 The TESTIMONYThe Book of Job (5)Cyril TennantThe Man in his TribulationΛ S we have seen, in both his material loss and** his physical suffering Job recognised andyielded to God's will : 'In all this did not Jobsin with his lips'; λbut the tribulation causedby the continued and unjustified condemnationof his three friends caused a change to come overhim, which through his experiences, opened theway for an outstanding revelation of God.When the thieves steal his goods Job can reply :" . . . the Lord gave, and the Lord hath takenaway ; blessed be the name of the Lord"; 2andlater, in his extreme agony of pain he can stillacknowledge God's good hand in his life. Whenhowever, men would attempt to take away hischaracter, Job indignantly defends it at all costs,so much so that the Job who was declaredupright and perfect in God's sight at the outset,now stands in need of repentance. " . . .Wherefore I abhor myself, and repent in dustand ashes." 3Although the arguments of the three friendsare spread over twenty-seven chapters, theissue is simple ; they make only one significantcontribution by a dogged and ruthless attackupon Job's character. Believing as they do, ina strict law of w r orks, they can see suffering onlyfor the wicked, and therefore all who suffer asbeing necessarily wicked. This argument isrepudiated by Job upon two grounds : first, hedoes not subscribe to this 'law-of-worksreligion' as can be clearly seen from chaptertwenty-one where he shows the reverse to betrue and concludes by saying : "... How thencomfort ye me in vain, seeing in your answersthere remaineth falsehood?" 4Second, heknows that the suffering is not a direct resultof any secret or persistent sin. So the effect ofthe prolonged attack upon Job's character is toreveal his ignorance and need for furtherenlightenment. And this is made evident inGod's challenge at chapter thirty-eight, verseone : "Who is this that darkeneth counsel bywords without knowledge ?" and in Job'sanswer : "I have uttered that I understood not ;things too wonderful for me, which I knew not."It is interesting to compare Job with Davidwho lived at a later stage in God's purpose, andhad the benefit of Job's experience and anexpanded revelation. They both see andacknowledge God's supremacy, but fromdifferent angles, For Job, God's greatness andsovereignty revealed the futility of trying toargue with Him, and the impossibility of gettingnear enough to justify oneself ; Job could provethat he was right if only God would come down !By contrast, David, from the vantage point of afuller revelation of the greatness of God,marvelled that He should ever notice man at all.Whilst Job did not believe in immediaterewards and punishments for man's works, itwould appear that he thought that good workswere absolutely essential for any future blessing; therefore, not unreasonably, he could notallow his character to be maligned. So far doeshe go in maintaining his righteousness underthis extreme provocation that even God'srighteousness is impugned; hence God'squestion, "... Wilt thou condemn Me thatthou mayest be righteous ?" 5For the moment let us pass over Elihu forconsideration later, and go straight to the heartof God's answer to Job so as not to obscure theimportant lesson. Chapter forty is the onearound which the entire drama revolves ; andfollowing as it does upon Elihu's speeches,brings into focus not only Job's problems butalso the very basis of God's salvation for men.God said in effect, "Stand forth Job, and girdyourself like a man ; Let Me ask you a few 7questions and give Me your answers ! Wouldyou disannul My judgment ? W 7 ould youcondemn Me to make yourself righteous ?Think again, Job ; have you got a voice likeMine ? Is your arm strong like Mine ? Are youendowed with majesty, excellency, glory andbeauty ? Can you control the pride and wickednessof men ? If you can answer 'yes' to allthese questions, then will I confess that yourrighteousness is sufficient to save you." 6Here Job is made to see the tremendousdifference between the righteousness of Godand that of even the best of men, as indeed Jobwas. If man is unable to stand before some ofthe creatures God has made, how can he hopeto stand before God Himself ? 7It is at thispoint that Job allows himself to be deprived ofhis supposed righteousness ; all else hadalready gone, but now he is absolutely destituteJob2 : 10.Job 1 : 21.Job 42 : (1Tob 21 : 3412345Job 40 : 8.()Paraphrase of Job 40:7-10,7 Tob 41.

The TESTIMONY 163and ashamed in the presence of God. Now nolonger the grand personage first introduced tous : without money, cattle or goods, withoutfriends or any position in society, he is reducedat last to the inescapable realisation that he hasno real claims upon God, but is completely atHis mercy. Surprisingly, Job's immediatereaction to this new situation is to think of theobvious spiritual plight of his three friends andto plead with God on their behalf. 9 For thiscomplete abandonment Ail-Shaddai, the fruitfulGod 'very pitiful and of tender mercy,' lifts upthe destitute Job and blesses him far beyond hisformer prosperity. 10The lesson of Job now stands clear for all tolearn. Even the best of men, by Christianstandards, cannot save themselves by their ownrighteousness. How then do we stand ? Jesus'prayed wdth strong crying and tears unto Himthat was able to save him from death' and didnot seek to use the record of his sinless life as abasis of self-vindication or escape from suffering.Salvation can only come on God's ownterms, and to those who tremble at His wordand by self-abandonment seek the fruitfulnessof Ail Shaddai.The problem set by Job's suffering is that ofall the suffering in the world, and the revelationto Job provides the answer. All disease anddeath and the sorrow and suffering they bringare in the world as a consequence of sin. Thosewho suffer most are not usually the worstoffenders. Death came by sin, and the pain andsuffering that come to most people in the processof dying are the punishment of sin. Inthe violence and death he suffered, Jesusallowed himself to be 'numbered with thetransgressors' that he might take away the sinof the world.Job 42 : 6. Job 42 : 10. Job 42 : 12.THE REALMS OF SPACEWhen man ascends through cloud and spaceHe must come down again,Or circle on forever moreAnd prove his mission vain.No power has he to stay aloftIn realms of light, and seeThe glories of the heavens high,Wondrous eternity.He has no power to rise on cloudsHe's 'prisoned in a cage !And soars through space—propelled by fuel,An actor on a stage.No power has he to count the starsOr even glimpse the sun,No power to find the dwelling placeOf God, and of His Son.No power can even make quite sureThat each man will returnFrom hurtling into outer spaceThe risk is that he'll burn.No power has he to leave his cageOf which he is so proud,Yet Jesus simply walked awayAnd rose up on a cloud."Why stand ye gazing into heaven ?This Jesus will return,"But not by man's elaborate meansNo risk that HE will burn.The clouds his footstool to commandAnd to those waiting hereThis miracle, long promised now,Is surely very near.The realms of space belong to God,The earth was made for man,And what is man that he should tryTo violate this plan ?God, sitting in the heavens, must laughWhen all He has to doIs just to say, "My son returnALL power I give to YOU."— Winifred M. Firth

164 The TESTIMONYΕ NCEEdited by D. Α. Β. OWENThe Thunder of the Captains and the ShoutingD. A. B. Owen' Ι ΉΕ evolutionist is short of genuine evidence-*· to support his hypothesis. Consequentlyhe spends much of his time hunting for thatwhich should be abundant and close at hand.Some thinkers, captains of evolution, realisingthat the evidence is not forthcoming, havedecided to accept evolution regardless of lackof proof ; hence such admissions as "Evolutionis a theory universally accepted not because itcan be proved to be true, but because the onlyalternative, special creation, is clearly incredible."1One day, God willing, we would liketo analyse this remarkable statement, phrase byphrase, but we quote it now solely to show theattitude of mind of many who insist (withoutfactual support) that evolution is a fact.As there is so little evidence, some evolutionistshave seen fit to provide it. There have beenthe dishonest ones like Haeckel, the Germanprofessor, who described intermediate formswhich existed only in his perverted mind.Fortunately such men are rare and they get nosupport from scientists of repute, but their'evidence' lives after them and may be used bythose not 'in the know.' Then there are thejokers who plant 'evidence' for the gullible tofind ; perhaps Charles Dawson was one ofthese when he concocted the Piltdown Man and'discovered' it himself. It should be easyenough for a scientist to see through this sortof evidence ; unfortunately prejudice can easilyparalyse the critical faculty. Far more dangerousis the 'evidence' constructed unwittingly bythe scientist in pursuit of an idea. A classicexample of this is the pedigree of a horse.Ask any schoolboy, interested in biology, foran example of evolution and the chances arethat he will give you the pedigree of the horse.He has learned from his textbook and histeacher that palaeontologists have discoveredremains in various strata which can be piecedtogether and arranged in order of descent toshow the way in which the modern horse hasevolved. He may have had this impressionstrengthened by a visit to a museum of naturalhistory where he has seen a tableau of reconstructedskeletons set in the correct order. Theexpert who devises such a series very often doesnot bother to advise the student that his seriesis only one of many, and as hypothetical as allthe rest.This sort of thing is manufactured evidence ;it is often designed to convince in spite of thefacts. It is dangerous because the majority ofpeople accept it as real evidence. If thescientists are honestly on the job, seeking fortruth, they should indignantly refuse the helpof such false witness.Professor G. G. Simpson, accepted as theforemost authority on the evolutionary ancestryof the horse, is critical of some of his fellowscientists—"Many of the discussions on horse evolutionin textbooks and elsewhere are badly out-ofdate.They often repeat what was knowntwo or more generations ago ... They arefrequently misleading in emphasis, oversimplification, or selection of fact. Moreover,inadequate or biassed summaries of horseevolution are being used to support radicallyΪ Prof, D. M. S. Watson in 1929,

The TESTIMONY 165discrepant views on evolution." 2It is a pity that the Professor does not applysome of his strictures to his own writings.He rightly objects to the over simplificationof the problem : there are claimed to be morethan 300 species of extinct horselike creatures,any one of which might be used as a link in thehypothetical chain. It should also be madeknown that none of the reconstructed series isof remains found in strata directly over oneanother, nor even in the same locality. Sometimesconsecutive members of a series may havebeen discovered a thousand miles apart.A fact which all these reconstructions dobring to light is that the supposed ancestors ofthe horse appear suddenly in the fossil recordand immediately in some variety—a fact noteasily explained by the theory of evolution. Inany case it should not be supposed that similarityin structure proves a common familyrelationship. This widely accepted belief isanother instance of concocted evidence, basedon the assumption that creation is incredible.It is actually more logical to believe thatsimilar structures are the result of the work ofone Creator, than to accept that one descendedfrom the other. The world of nature is full ofexamples of like structures, which not even theextreme evolutionist can pretend have inheritedtheir likeness from common ancestors : indeedthere is a branch of science—convergence—dealing with these very facts.In the case under discussion "the skeletalanatomy of the various animals named doesnot help the case for evolution. Eohippus wasabout the size of a fox with eyes halfway downthe head and which were only half ringedwith bone. Its teeth were low-crowned . . .and suitable for browsing on soft vegetation.The radius and ulna were equally developedand not fused, while its foreleg had fourdigits (toes) and its hind three. Merychippusis very different from its supposed predecessor,its eyes being higher, side toes smallerand its teeth high-crowned and suitable forgrazing, suggesting a very different environment."3The modern horse, of course, is very muchlarger, has one toe and no vestiges of more,and its radius and ulna are fused.The general rule in evolution is that animalsbecome larger as they evolve, but if the pedigreesof the horse are to be believed, there wasmore than one period when the species was ofsmaller build than its supposed ancestors.The idea of evolution has a drug-like effecton the normally learned man of science. Prof.Simpson has obviously fallen under its influence.In his book Horses he writes : 4"The most direct sort of evidence on the truthof evolution must, after all, be provided bythe fossil record . . . The history of the horsefamily is still one of the clearest and mostconvincing for showing that organisms havereally evolved."In order to persuade himself (and others) thathis adopted doctrine is right, pictures of reconstructedskeletons and whole animals intheir supposed habitats are presented in thebook to the gullible public and credulousscientist. How many of his readers will haveremembered reading on an earlier page : 5"A really complete evolutionary lineage isnever preserved." Then following a referenceto the "miracle of fossilisation" he says—"The actual data . . . normally consist ofrelatively small samples of the lineagescattered more or less at random in space andtime." This, he states, students may interpretsubjectively and "use the same data to provediametrically opposed theories."So much for the clearest and most direct andconvincing evidence that the Professor canmuster.How many of his followers have examinedthe evidence for the 'clearly incredible' alternativegiven in the Word of God ?"Hast thou given the horse strength ?Hast thou clothed his neck with thunder ?Canst thou make him afraid as a grasshopper ?The glory of his nostrils is terrible.He paweth in the valley, and rejoiceth in hisstrength :He goeth on to meet the armed men . . .He swalloweth the ground with fierceness andrage . . .He saith among the trumpets, Ha, ha !And he smelleth the battle afar off,The thunder of the captains and theshouting."Well might the horse paw the ground in rageat the captains of evolution who have given himsuch miserable ancestors.2 Australian/Nezu Zealand Assoc. for the Advancementof Science, 1951.3 Horse Sense about Horse Evolution, Dr. C. E. A.Turner, 1960. This pamphlet is issued by theEvolution Protest Movement.4 p. 165. 5 p# 35.We ought to be scrupulously honourable—men and women of good faith, whose word is sacred ; whoconsider a promise binding, even if its fulfilment is detrimental.

166 The TESTIMONYOut of the DustThe British Museum in 1961THE ROOM OF WRITINGF. E. MitchellEdited by F. E. MITCHELL'T'HE Room of Writing, which we now propose* to describe, is reached by turning right inthe entrance hall of the Museum, through theGranville Library, into the Manuscript Saloon,then turning left and walking through theentire length of the King's Library. On theright at the end is the North-East staircase andthe visitor should ascend the stairs as far as theygo. At the top of the stairs he should go straightforward until he enters the Room of Writing.Turning right immediately on entering thisroom, on the short wall are two exhibits ofinterest.First are two lintels from a tomb, inscribedin monumental old Hebrew characters. Theupper one bears the inscription "The tombchamber in the side of the rock". On the lowerone is written "This is the sepulchre of Shebna(Shebnaiah Yahu). There is no silver or goldhere. Cursed be the man who opens this." Thelintels date to about 700 B.C.The prophet Isaiah wrote against one Shebna,"Thus saith the Lord God of hosts. Go, getthee unto this treasurer, e\en unto Shebna,which is over the house and say, 'What hastthou here and whom hast thou here that thouhad hewed thee out a sepulchre here, and thatgravest an habitation for himself in a rock.Beho)d the Lord will carry thee away with amighty captivity, and will surely cover thee.He will surely violently turn and toss thee likea ball into a large country, there thou shalt die,and there the chariots of thy glory shall be theshame of thy lord's house." λThere is somereason to believe that the Shebna spoken of inthis passage is the person from whose sepulchrethe inscription in the museum came. If so, itseems that he never occupied it.The Moabite StoneBelow Shebna's inscriptions is a cast orreplica of the Moabite Stone, the original ofwhich is in the Louvre in Paris. The originalstone has an interesting history. In 1868 aGerman missionary, the Rev. F. Klein, on avisit to the land of Moab was informed that astone, inscribed with ancient characters waslying at Dhiban, the ancient Dibon. He foundit to be a slab of black basalt, rounded at thetop, measuring nearly four feet in length andtwo in width. It was covered with thirty-fourlines of an inscription in the letters of thePhoenician alphabet. He did not realise thevalue of his discovery and merely noted downa few words, compiling an alphabet from theremainder. When he returned to Jerusalem hetold the Prussian Consulate about the stone andmeasures were taken to obtain it. The PalestineExploration Fund knew of it, but left mattersto the Germans. Before the stone was secured,the French Consulate heard about it and theydetermined to get it. Their dragoman, M.Clermont Ganneau, sent natives to get animpression of the writing on the stone, bysqueezing moistened paper into the indentations,and to offer a large sum of money for it.The Germans had offered £80 : the Frenchoffered £375. The Turks, then in control inthe country, demanded the prize for themselveswithout any payment. Fearing that they w r ouldlose the stone for nothing, the Arabs lit a fireunder it and poured cold water over it. It wasthus shivered into fragments, which weredistributed among different families and placedin their granaries to act as charms in protecting1Isa. 22 : 15-18.

The TESTIMONY 167THESI LOAMINSCRIPTIONBy courtesy ofThe \Palestine Exploration Fundtheir corn against blight. Persistent efforts torecover the pieces were made and eventuallymany were obtained. With the help of thesqueezes, which the natives sent by M.Clermont Ganneau had made, the recoveredpieces were fitted together and most of themonument has now been read.The inscription proved to be a record madeby Mesha, king of Moab, of his relations withthe neighbouring kingdom of Israel. It statesthat for many days the Moabite god, Chemosh,was angry with Moab and the Israelites wereable to invade the territory and hold it. Laterhowever, the fortunes of war changed, andfavoured by their god, the Moabites were ableto drive out their foes and regain their independence.These records are in generalagreement with the history given in the OldTestament. The second Book of Kings relatesthat Mesha, a sheepmaster, paid a tribute toIsrael of a hundred thousand lambs and ahundred thousand rams with the wool. 2 Laterthe Moabites rebelled but the Israelitish armiesunder Jehoram, allied with the armies of Judahunder Jehoshaphat, entered Moabite territory.They were aided by a stratagem by whichditches were dug and miraculously filled withwater. The rising sun made the water appearas blood-red and the Moabites, thinking thattheir enemies were fighting among themselves,advanced carelessly, expecting easy spoil. Theywere however, met by a disciplined army andutterly defeated. Their cities were destroyed,their wells filled with stones and their trees cutdown. Their king was besieged in his capital,an attempt to break through to the land ofEdom being a failure. The record continuesthat, in the crisis, he offered his eldest son as asacrifice on the wall and "there was greatindignation against Israel and they departedfrom him and returned to their own land."This latter expression is, of course, a diplomaticway of saying that the Israelites were defeatedand forced to retreat, as Mesha himself saysthey were,The script and language of the stone issimilar to the contemporary Biblical Hebrew.HezirTurning towards the wall running at rightanglesto that just inspected, the visitor will seea cast of an inscription in an early form ofHebrew square characters from the burial placeof the Hezir family. The inscription reads,"This tomb . . . and to Eleazar, Haniah,Joazar, Jehudah, Simon, Johanan, son ofJoseph son Joseph and Eleazar, sons of Haniah... of the Sons of Hezir." Among the detailsfurnished in the Book of Chronicles concerningthe twenty-four courses into which king Daviddivided the Jewish priests, reference is made toHezir, leader of the seventeenth course. Thetomb from which the inscription is taken isclearly the burial place of his descendants.The Siloam InscriptionUnderneath the Hezir inscription is a cast ofanother old Hebrew inscription dating to about707 B.C. It also has a history. In 1880 Arabschoolboys, pupils of Dr. Schick, a Germanarchitect in Jerusalem, were playing by thePool of Siloam, from which a rock-cut tunnelleads to the Pool of Gihon outside the city,when one of them slipped and fell into thewater. As he rose to the surface he put his handagainst the wall at the entrance to the tunneland felt some indentations. He told Dr. Schickof what had happened and investigation showedthat an inscription had been found. When itwas deciphered it was found to describe themaking of the tunnel. The excavators hadstarted cutting through the solid rock and aftermuch work passed each other about the middle.Fortunately, they were so close that they couldhear each other talking and the noise of thepicks through the thin partition between them.This was quickly broken through and thewater flowed freely.No name of the monarch who made the2 2 Kings 3,

168 The TESTIMONY[Photo: Palestine Exploration FundTHE COURSE OF THE SILOAM TUNNELtunnel is given on the inscription, but theScriptures record that king Hezekiah, at thetime when Jerusalem was threatened by theAssyrian armies of Sennacherib, made a conduitto bring much needed water from outside thecity into it, not only for the use of the citizens,but also to deny it to the besiegers. It isgenerally agreed that the inscription found in1880 refers to the construction of Hezekiah'sconduit. The inscription was cut out from therock and taken by the Turks to Constantinople,now Istanbul.Next follows a collection of cylinder andstamp seals from Western Asia.HammurabiTowards the end of the room is a replica ofa basalt stele, or slab, containing the laws ofHammurabi, king of Babylon. Again, theoriginal is in the Louvre in Paris. The stonewas found by Mr. De Morgan, a FrenchArchaeologist, and a Dominican monk, Scheil,when excavating in 1901 at Susa, in Persia, theShushan of Daniel and Queen Esther. Theupper portion of the stone shows a seatedpersonage and a standing figure. The personseated is the Babylonian god Marduk, or,possibly, the sun-god Shamash. Before himstands Hammurabi, king of Babylon. Thelower portion of the stone contains a code oflaws. The carving above may intend to suggestthat the laws were given by the god to the kingfor the administration of his realm, or it maymean that the king is receiving symbols ofsovereignty. The writing on the monument isin the cuneiform, or wedge-shaped, writing ofBabylonia. This was made by taking wet clay,making impressions in it with a sharp instrumentcalled a stylus and baking the clay in thesun, thus obtaining a permanent record.The date of Hammurabi is rather uncertainbut there is no doubt that he reigned somewhereabout the time of Abraham, and may even havebeen the Amraphel king of Shinar mentioned inGenesis. 3The importance of the stone is two-fold.First, it disposed of the theory, at one timecurrent, that Moses could not have given theLaw called after him because there was nopeople in the world at that time sufficientlyadvanced to be governed by such legislation.If there was a full legal code in existence in thetime of Abraham, there obviously could havebeen one at the time of Moses, some fourhundred years later.Secondly, as Dr. Sayce 4 points out, the lawsand usages referred to in the history ofAbraham, Isaac and Jacob imply the use of thecode of the Babylonian empire, of which theHammurabi monument contains an example.He writes, "The action of Sarah, for instance,in giving Hagar to Abraham, or of Rachel, ingiving Bilhah to Jacob when they were childlessis explained by the provision of Hammurabi'scode that the wife could present her husbandwith a concubine, and if she had no children,he was allowed to take a second and inferiorwife. Another provision enacted that 'if a manhas married a wife and she has given a concubineto her husband by which he has had achild, should the concubine afterwards have adispute with her mistress because she has bornechildren she can only lay a task upon her tomake her live with other slaves/ The enactmentthrows light on Sarah's treatment of Hagar :the law did not allow her to sell her formermaid, and all she could do was to persuade herhusband to send his concubine away.The adoption by Abraham of his housestewardEliezer is another illustration of theBabylonian Law. The Law of adoption wasunknown to the Mosaic legislation, but itoccupied a leading place in the Babylonian codeand the adoption of a slave, who thereby be-3 Gen. 14.The Higher Criticism and the Verdict of theMt p. 567.

The TESTIMONY 169LIMESTONERELIEFWITHFIGUREREPRESENTINGHAMMURABI*KINGOFBABYLONBy courtesyofTheBritish Museumcame a freeman and the heir of his adoptedfather, was of not infrequent occurrence. Whenagain Jacob assumes that the theft of Laban'sgods was a crime punishable with death 5 orwhen Judah threatened his daughter-in-lawwith death by burning on the supposition thatshe was a whore, 6 we have references to theprovisions of the Hammurabi code regardingsacrilege and unfaithfulness to the vows ofvirginity or widowhood."All this prompts the question, "If the earlybooks of the Bible were not written until onethousand years after Abraham, as some criticsaffirm, how did the writer describe so accuratelythe legal background of Abraham's time ?"Not far from the stele is another representationof Hammurabi, this time in limestonerelief. The monument was dedicated to agoddess for the king's life.(To be continued).Gen. 31 32.6 Gen. 38 : 24.*Some 40 years ago during a lantern address, Mr.C. C. Walker, former Editor of The Christadelphian,introduced the above picture ofHammurabi with the words, "This is NOTBro. Sulley !" Older readers may see someresemblance to that venerable exponent ofEzekiel's Temple prophecy. (A. E. J).

ίϊΰThe TESTIMONYNew Frontiers of Space (2)Hubert W. CraddockEdited by H. W.CRADDOCKT the least of the tribulations of anEditor is the "time-factor" constrainingand restraining the preparation of a monthlyeffort against a publication dateline. Eventssometimes catch up with written anticipations,as for example the sensational news which hitthe newspaper headlines the world over onThursday, 13th April. Our notes which hadappeared in the April number of The Testimonywere, in fact, written five or six weeks previously,and we were able therein to alert our readersby stating : "The significant milestone of 1961may mark the calculated flight of homo sapiensinto an orbit in celestial space and his safereturn to earth . . . What will be the ultimateof this competition between the two largestand most powerful nations in the world ?Perhaps the answer to our question will havebeen answered by the time this issue (April)of The Testimony appears."Well, as all the world now knows, the answerwas given ! Just after nine o'clock on the morningof the 12th April, (Moscow time) a 27-yearold Russian Air Force officer, Major YuriGagarin was shot off into space, and, havingput a girdle around the earth in 87 minutes,landed safely somewhere in Russia at 10.55 a.m.The timetable of this mighty achievement ofSoviet science reads thus :Moscow time Space Itinerary(morning)9.07 Take off of the rocket-propelled5-ton satellite VOSTOK, or9.229.419.4910.25"East"Over South America.Radio'd to earth, "Amfine"Over Africa.Returning to Europe.feelingSpaceship starts to brake by its retro-rockets approaching Russia.10.55 The "Cosmonaut" alights andemerges smiling, apparently nonethe worse for his epic experience.The dream of man since the dawn of timeis now a fait accompli. This is a day and ayear to be remembered. Russian technologyhas given the world a spectacular lead in spaceachievement—Russia, which 30 short yearsago was largely an illiterate country. Mankind. is ever ready to show admiration and deferenceto Success and this latest accomplishmentenhances Soviet prestige among the nations,gaining her awe and admiration in a highlyscientific and competitive age. But the worldhas suddenly grown smaller this day, and menare jubilant and just a bit frightened at thesame time.Some technical details and the story of theactual space flight and the telling of the experiencesof the intrepid explorer have beenpublished already, so there is no need torecount them again here. Yuri Gagarin'sfellow countrymen have lavished praise andwell-deserved congratulations on this "Columbusof Interplanetary Space" as MoscowRadio fulsomely described him. Televisionviewers saw him effusively embraced byPremier Kruschev and other Soviet leaders.The Russian scientist designers also are beingsuitably rewarded for their part in thisengineering turning-point in history. TheSoviet space break-through spells possiblythe greatest revolutionary change in mankind'smentality.Comments of responsible newspaper leaderwriters are worthy of quotation here :The Daily Mail"Can man now take a moral step to keeppace with this marvellous physical step ?

The TESTIMONY 171UNLOCKING THE MYSTERY OF THE UNIVERSEWith acknowledgements to the Union Carbide Corporation, Ν. Υ.Can human beings sink their petty differencesas men and nations, and, united,explore the Universe ? Can they rise tothe height of the wonders they have themselvescreated ?"These are insistent questions which, fromnow onwards, will demand answers. Isthis latest manifestation of man's masteryover natural forces to lead him to triumphor disaster ?"Already the kind of flat, fateful voiceswhich have led men to their doom havebeen heard again. Already there is talk ofthe 'military advantages' of the commandof outer space."The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and theSoviet Government then promptly issued thefollowing text :"The first man to penetrate space was aSoviet man, a citizen of the U.S.S.R. Havingaccomplished a flight around the globe, hesuccessfully landed on the sacred soil ofour motherland, the Soviet Union."Before the eyes of the whole world, theentire Soviet people demonstrate an unprecedentedvictory of science and technology.Our country has surpassed all other statesin the world and has been the first to blazethe trail into space."The Sunday Times posed the editorial query,"To Peace via Space ? " and observed :'Today, in the probing of space, the manis but the brave cargo of a vessel createdby the genius of engineers and scientists.So, as we salute Russian courage, we salutestill more respectfully Russian science andtechnology,— in this field the unquestionedleader of the world."This event will palpably further the Communistobjective of bringing about theworld revolution by peaceful means, becauseit raises Soviet prestige to new heights in

172 The TESTIMONYthe minds of uncommitted people everywhere."The New York Times contributes its usualauthoritative comment :"Hailed as one of the greatest advances inthe story of man's age-old quest to tamethe forces of nature, it marks the crowningachievement so far in space technology, andprovides the most dramatic evidence ofSoviet leadership in the field of powerfulrocket engines. The successful launchingof the first man in orbit is a triumph ofthe human mind and spirit regardless ofgeographic, political or ethnic boundaries."Orbiting a man is only a stepping-stonetoward orbiting a space-station as a jumpingoff-pointfor trips to the Moon and beyond.It marks the opening of the era of interplanetarytravel and of discoveries beyondimagining. It must be regarded as ofpolitical and psychological importance ingiving the Soviet Union once again the'high ground' in world prestige."Similar authorities all agree that Russia'striumph in space is both technological andpsychological. Man has unlocked the mysteriesof the Universe, or, should we say, God hasallowed some of the details to be disclosed tohis intelligence.How does man propose to apply his newfoundknowledge of such stupendous magnitude? This crossing of the New Frontier ofknowledge has not been hailed with unmixedjoy by everyone. Normally, the news shouldhave been received with pride as a feat ofscience equal to any preceding ones whichhave brought benefit to humanity. Immediatereaction, however, has brought swift recognitionof the deadly potentiality of a newmilitary supremacy.The evil plight of our period of the world'shistory is the prompt conscription by humangovernment of inventions and of discoveriesso that they may be applied to warlike usages.Just as the first flight of an heavier-than-aircontraption by the Wright brothers developedeventually into mass air-raids of bomber andfighter aircraft, so this latest Soviet feat ofplacing the first Cosmonaut into space orbitsupplies a new historical dimension of warfare.Military objectives are being immediatelydiscussed through manned space projects.The possible utilisation of space platformsto- be used as launching areas for nuclearweapons is already the major theme in scientificdiscussion conferences. Within hours ofGagarin's flight, strategists have rushed intoprint to demonstrate how that domination ofspace and command of the earth will go tothe first nation which succeeds in establishinga manned space platform in the skies, andwhich will be designed to bombard particularobjectives on the globe with nuclear missiles.Military advantage, they point out, will goto the adversary who first gains the "HighGround" ; this weird, martial patronymicmeaning the 240,000-mile high area "'twixtearth and the moon."Already a proposed "Magna Carta of Space"is actually being drafted out for submissionto the United Nations Organisation to "advanceunderstanding of sovereignty of subjacentlands."In this Charter it is being solemnly submittedthat "Agreement as to rights of transitin heavenly space are more urgent than everin order to lessen provocations towards war."Whoever would have thought that an agewould dawn when men would discuss theneed for internationally-accepted space lawsto regulate possible aerial disagreements andconflicts and to improve facilities for globalcommunications so as to prevent war in heaven?The political significance of Gagarin'sflight is immense also because of the propagandaopportunities provided to Russia'sadvantage. For days following this Muscovitefeat, her radio boomed out across the wideworld: "The first man to penetrate outerspace is a SOVIET man ! "This fresh break-through into space explorationand man's capability of existingduring interplanetary travel, has overshadowedthe other Soviet triumph of which we wrotelast month. Ever since the 13th Februarylast, the spaceship "Venus" is continuing tohurtle through the heavens at a speed of12,000 miles an hour towards her twentysixmillion mile objective, the planet Venus.Shortly after the publication of this numberof The Testimony, Russia may be once moreacclaiming with justifiable jubilation freshconfirmation of the "superiority of the Sovietsocialist system over the West." We believethat her rulers will synchronise the occasionto cry aloud "Peace and Safety" for mankindand to demand forthwith a World Conferenceto discuss complete and universal disarmament.Events of the next few weeks shouldconfirm (or disprove) our anticipations.*= # ^"We are living in a good time, comrades.Both on earth and in the boundless cosmicspace, the boldest dreams of man are being

The TESTIMONY 173made reality/' The speaker : Nikita Kruschevhimself, Soviet Prime Minister when addressinga conference of agricultural workers, priorto the latest "man-in-space flight." He describedthe "Venus" satellite project likelaunching into the air four full-sized motorcars at once and then returning the space shipto a pre-fixed area, all as part of a plannedprogramme. Mr. Kruschev pursued : "How,after that, can the world fail to rejoice in thefact that the creator of many great deeds andachievements is our Soviet people, buildingCommunism ? "Just about the same time, President Kennedywas delivering his State of the Union messageclaiming that in the astro-race, the UnitedStates is "leading in the science and technologyof space, but that Russia is ahead in the capacityto lift large vehicles into orbit." The Westernargument is that while conceding the "bruteforce" superiority of Soviet science, the U.S.can claim greater scientific and more variedsophisticated achievement.Deeply conscious of Soviet success, theU.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administrationrepeats the President's claim that theyare actually ahead of the U.S.S.R. as far astotal volume of research is concerned. Theygive notice, with justifiable attention to facts,that while Russia leads in more spectacularefforts which seize immediately on worldattention and which have the "edge" in thedevelopment of power rocket lifting capacity,that nevertheless the U.S. surpasses the Sovietin several astronautical fields, some of whichRussia has not even yet entered. A controlledflight record in atmosphere, for example, hasjust been set up over California of the astoundingspeed of 3,140 m.p.h., by Major RobertWhite, piloting an XI5 rocket aircraft at aplanned altitude of 100,000 feet. Even tosophisticated air travellers by Atlantic jetliners, the description "routine flight" to aspeed of about 53 miles a minute is simplystaggering. A century ago, in Dr. Thomas'days for example, the fastest known meansof travel would involve a journey of aboutthree months from New York to St. Petersburg(now known as Leningrad). At this latestcontrolled flight speed, Major White woulddo the journey in about 1^ hours !This second half of the 20th century willassess the impact upon himself of man'ssuccesses in crossing the frontiers of space.His greatest need is to rise above his ownshortcomings and to be saved from his inherenttendency to destroy himself. His own historydenies the possibility of his new achievementsserving to turn his mind outward and upwardin the moral sense as well as in the scientificsphere.Humanity's technical interplanetary potentialitieshave as their social background conflictingpolitical and economic interests, classconflicts, exploitation of the masses, conflictingloyalties, mass murder, mass hatred,individual selfishness. Never let it be forgottenthat mankind's initial successes in blazing atrail to the stars have as their terrestrial backgroundthe lowest depths of obscene crueltiesdealt out at Dachau, Auschwitz and Belsen.All the foul evilness of man's basest natureis being dragged out into the light in a crowdedcourtroom in Jerusalem at the identical pointof time as his goal of celestial glory is beingdemonstrated to our civilisation and oursociety !The steadily rising tide of technical knowledgein all spheres of human society billowsin an ever-mounting crescendo. In the physicalsphere man has scaled the heights of Everestand plumbed the profoundest depths of theOcean. His submarines have explored farunder the ice packs of the North Pole. Hehas charted the snowy wastes of the Antarctic.As far as this earth is concerned, theislands have fled away and the mountains areno longer found. Obeying the restless expansionof his mental horizons, man's pioneeringinstincts now seek to explore the onlyremaining dimension, the realms of spaceabove and beyond. This is the ultimate of hisaggressive impulses, and the seventh decadeof the 20th century is presenting civilisationwith its supreme challenge as to the extentto which mankind's sense of moral values willequate with his measure of accomplishmentin conquering the Cosmos.# # #During the past weeks, the World Councilof Churches meeting at Geneva has warned :"If the perils and chaos resulting fromMan's invasion of outer space are to beavoided, the nations must seize every opportunityfor peaceful co-operation and agreement.Scientists show how easy it wouldbe to destroy what we call life on this modestastral abode, if the 'little individuals' areallowed to continue playing with politicalfire."We suggest that much more is needed thaninternational agreements to demilitarize spaceand to place all future aerial adventures undersome form of "police" supervision. The Men

174 The TESTIMONYin the Kremlin are organising, training andregimenting the brains of their own scientistson a vaster scale than any other State. Russiatoday is producing a most deadly combinationof an atheistic mind wedded to scientificbrilliance, resulting in her students becomingthe paid architects of Mammon. How unutterablytragic it is to see young people of bothsexes of high intelligence consecrated toscientific materialism and absorbed aboutmatters of secondary worth only. Sad torelate, Soviet science has passed the "Pointof No Return ! "We of the West cannot understand orappreciate the ruthless doctrinaire systemcreated throughout the eastern half of Europeand the Far East. This is not saying that allthe by-products resulting from the fallennature of man are confined behind the "IronCurtain." But the Communist mentality hasbeen spelled out candidly in the MoscowStatement issued by 81 parties in the November1960 Convention, where it stated categorically :"There is to be the complete destruction ofWestern civilisation and society, and thecomplete domination of our planet Earth."To this harsh reality is now to be addedthe threat of an aerial apocalyptic "Armageddon"waged with nuclear weapons fromthe skies, hence the ambitious Soviet programmeto obtain domination of space lanesby her cosmonauts. This is not "sciencefiction"but a rational assessment by militaryphilosophers as to the reasons for the switchin Russian policy to allocate the maximum ineffort and treasure in manned space-probes,instead of further building up of her missilestocks for the present, of which weapons sheis believed to have an abundant superiority.If present world policies are to be given continualfree rein, the inevitable outcome to befaced is a choice between an era of entente andconcord, or the era of the aerial supermegatonbomb.# # #In the noble ceremonial address by Mr.John F. Kennedy on his inauguration as thenew President of the U.S.A., he spoke eloquentlyand forcefully with an attention tohistory. He pleaded :"We offer not a pledge but a request; thatboth sides begin anew the quest for peace,before the dark powers of destruction unleashedby science engulf all humanity inplanned or accidental self-destruction."Let both sides seek to invoke the wondersof science instead of its terrors. Togetherlet us explore the stars and conquer thedeserts. Let both sides unite, to heed in allcorners of the earth, God's commandthrough Isaiah ; 'Loose the bands of wickedness,undo the heavy burdens, let theoppressed go free'."Defining the goal of mankind in the turbulentyears of this era, Mr. Kennedy statedon another occasion :"The miracles of modern science havebrought within our grasp the day when allmen can live decently—free from thedegradations of poverty, ignorance andhunger—liberated to pursue the satisfactionof intellectual and spiritual achievement."This dream must be our common goal aswe move through the turbulent years ofthe twentieth century, as we steer ourcourse through the great age of exploration,the age of discovery that lies before us."# # #By the time these notes are published, the"Venus" satellite, as stated last month, shouldjust about be completing its vast journey ofincomprehensible distance. This project,almost overlooked by reason of man's firsttriumphant space step is nevertheless a dramaticand spectacular symbol. Military science isgloating already over the "destruction capability"of new and horrific weapons relatedto the crossing of the New Frontier. Thejargon of these sabre-rattlers who would"Cry havoc, and let loose the dogs of war"speaks exultantly of the "Over-kill capacity"of their new deadly toys. "Over-kill capacity"indeed ! Students of death are calmly claimingthat the Western Powers can hurl by rocketpropulsion some 350,000 Hiroshima-typebombs, one of which obliterated one hundredthousand civilians in 1945. Russia's retaliatorystrike is, of course, unknown ; but presumablywould be at least equal to that of the West.By what is now known as "pre-emptive" warstrategy, it is estimated that the victim'scounter-blow could amount to not more thanten per cent of the initial aggressor.An astounding assessment of such atomicarithmetic comes from the pen of ProfessorP. M. S. Blackett of London University Collegeof Science. Writing in the April number ofEncounter where a group of American militaristsare the object of his attack, Blackettcondemns—and rightly so—what he describesas the "almost neurotic contemplation ofdestruction" ; and he apologises to his readersfor "the nauseating inhumanity of much ofwhat I have to say."

The TESTIMONY 175The hypothesis of these militarist funeralundertakers is the mass-extinction by themillions of the earth's population in terms of"Mega-Death" or units of one million eachof inhabitants. One of Blackett's quotationsepitomises what we have emphasised in ourremarks :"The most interesting things in science atpresent are done only if they are related towar and war preparations . . . Society does notaccept the desire for knowledge UNLESSIT IS IN SOME WAY TIED TO WAR."So the unhappy consequence of man'scrossing of the New Frontiers of Knowledgecarries the prospect of "Mega-Death." Surelyit matters not what measure of destructioneither side can inflict upon the other, becausethe mutual "Over-kill capacity" means obliterationof all human life upon earth. Man neednot fear therefore which nation developsquickest in interplanetary flight. He needssaving from himself, and his godless attemptsto unlock the mysteries of the Universe needthe restraint of his Creator. He needs todesist from the study of war altogether. Hissick brain needs the miraculous touch of theGreat Healer. Of prime importance everywhereis for men and women of faith to prayfor an inspiration that mankind might seekthe guidance of God in these hours of crisisand deepening social twilight."Lord God of Abraham, Isaac, and ofIsrael, let it be known this day that Thou artGod ; that this people may know that Thouart the LORD GOD, and that Thou hastturned their heart back again."CONTEMPLATIONWith many running to and fro', whilst knowledge doth increase,The troubled earth is full of woe, with little hope of peace ;Though man's achievements in this day would rock the ages past,The silver thread of Truth remains to.triumph at the last.The nations now are sore perplexed, more fearful than of old,Blinded by allegiance to their lust for power and gold ;Their trust in Israel's God is faint, their works of love are weak,Abundant riches is their goal, 'security' they seek.And yet the very source of this they forcibly reject,Opposing and blaspheming God, and scorning His Elect.But when the time appointed comes, the darkness of the nightShall be cast out, and in its place, the Glory of the Light.Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ will come to earth again,To raise his faithful servants up to share his joyful reign.Oh, Great Eternal Majesty, we pray our sins forgive,And guide us to Thy mercy seat, that we, in him, may live.C. BlandfordCHANGES IN EDITORSHIPIt is with extremely great regret that we announce the resignation, through continued infirmity,of our colleague Mr. P. H. Adams from the editorship of the First Steps and Problems section, whichhe has held since May 1936, exactly a quarter of a century.His untiring efforts and marked devotion to duty for The Testimony are exemplary and all hiscolleagues will greatly miss him. Readers will join us in wishing Mr. Adams every happiness andpeace in his retirement.Mr. James Carter is taking over First Steps and Problems by transfer from the History andProphecy section which, until further notice is being arranged by Mr, A, E. Jones,

176 The TESTIMONYEdited by JAMES CARTERNotes on the Daily ReadingsJames CarterThe Feasts of Israel (Lev. Ch. 23)1. The Passover. These feasts were typicaland the antitype is revealed in the New Testament.Paul says, "Christ our Passover issacrificed for us," and he is described asu The first fruits of them that sleep." ThePassover can be briefly summarised :—The LambThe EatersThe FirstFruits :Male without blemish.No bone broken.None remained till morning.With bitter herbs.Blood on door-posts, butNOT on threshold.No uncircumcised person.Put away leaven.Loins girded, shoes on feet.Abide in the house.Share the Lamb.The first wave sheaf wasoffered on the morrow afterthe sabbath.2. The Feast of Weeks. Fifty days afterPassover, two loaves, "baken with leaven,"were offered unto the Lord. "They are thefirst-fruits unto the Lord." (v. 17). Summarised:·—First-fruits : "Afterwards they that areChrist's at his coming."Two Loaves : Jew and Gentile.Leaven :Baken :Sin and corruption.Corruption arrested whenimmortalised.This all finds its antitype at the beginning ofthe Millennium.3. Feast of Tabernacles and Ingathering.At the end of the Harvest—the great ingatheringThis finds its antitype at the end of the Millenniumwhen the great work is complete. Itwill consist of "a great number that no mancan number," whereas the redeemed at thebeginning of the Millennium are symbolisedby 144,000,The first day a sabbath. Under theOld Covenant, the 7th was the day of rest—thesabbath. Under the New Covenant, the 1stday is the sabbath, for on that 1st day Jesusentered into his rest.# # #The Jubilee (Lev. 25 : 8 : 17)How superior are God's arrangements toman's ! Under men, a man was usually aslave for ever ; but God arranged that at theYear of Jubilee the man should go free, andthe land should revert to its original owners,had it been "sold" due to hard circumstances.So long as Israel observed her sabbaths,she was blessed of God ; but they grew negligentof God's requirements, and naturallythe land grew impoverished, yet God said,"The land SHALL enjoy her sabbaths,"which has found abundant fulfilment all theyears Israel has been scattered.To many, Leviticus seems a dry and formalbook; but there are very many interestingand educational matters when we dig beneaththe surface, and the Book well repays carefulstudy.# # #The land is Mine (Levit. 25 : 23)God laments later, "They have parted Myland," yet "the Lord shall inherit Judah, Hisportion in the Holy Land." Those who lookfor "kingdoms beyond the skies" entirelyoverlook this phase of the matter.# # #Spying out the Land (Num. 13)Among the twelve who went out to investigatethe Promised Land were Caleb and Joshua.Caleb represented the tribe of Judah, andJoshua the tribe of Ephraim. It is a solemnthought, that despite all that they gave of theirsubstance for the Tabernacle, of all over 20years old, these two were the only ones whoentered the Land of Promise. Not only so,one of these } Caleb, was a Gentile, forjtoshua

The TESTIMONY 17714 : 6 tells us that he was "the son of Jephunnathe Kenezite." Similarly of those who attainunto "the rest that remaineth for the peopleof God," some will be Jews, but also somewill be Gentiles, with the further soberingreflection that of the many called, few will bechosen.# * #"A Covenant of Salt" (Num. 18 : 19)Salt is a desirable ingredient with food,and is often used in speech to represent it. InEnglish we say someone is "not worth his salt,"meaning he does not earn his "keep." In theEast, (particularly), if one had eaten at another'stable, than a bond of friendship was deemedto exist between them and hence a "covenantof salt."# # #The sin of Moses (Num. 20 : 10-13)What a tragedy we have recorded here !The children of Israel were enough to exasperateone as meek as Moses ! Their ceaselessmurmurings and rebellions wore out even hispatience. He was commanded to "speak" tothe Rock. He smote it twice with the words,"Must we fetch you water out of this rock,ye rebels ! " God's reply was immediate. Thewater came, but God said, "Because ye believedMe not ..." It was, alas, more than"speaking inadvisedly with his lips" ; it was"unbelief" on the part of Moses and Aaron,because of which they were forbidden to leadthe people into the land. "That rock wasChrist," says Paul, and he had only to besmitten once to bring forth the water of life,(see Exod. 17 : 7). On this second occasion,therefore, Moses should have "spoken" to therock to produce the desired result. In Heb.3 :8, reference is made to these incidents,for Meribah means "provocation" and Massahmeans "temptation." Water was, of course,very valuable in the East, and hence the beautyof the type. It was an Eastern boy, who lickedhis lips and referred to England as "a land ofmuch rain ! "# # #The parentage of Moses (Num. 26 : 59)Reference here is made to the marriage ofAmram and Jochebed. Jochebed was Amram'saunt, but probably of the same age, or younger ;for she was born after Jacob and his familyhad gone down into Egypt, by which timeLevi would be growing into an old man.# # #The offerings of the Feast of Tabernacles(Num 29 : 13-40)At the Feast of Tabernacles, the number ofthe bullocks offered in sacrifice decreased asthe days went by. They commenced with 13,then 12, 11, 10, 9, 8 and 7 on the last day. Thetotal number adds up to 70 which, as we haveseen in previous notes, has particular referenceto the redemption of the Gentile nations. Thisfeast finds its antitype at the end of the Millenniumwhen there will be the great ingatheringof all those who have been obedient during theMillennium and who will constitute the "greatnumber that no man can number."# * #Beeves (Num. 31 : 28)When the writer was younger, he was greatlypuzzled what kind of animals beeves were !Beeves is the plural of beef. This goes backto the Norman Invasion, 1066. The Saxonswere reduced to serfs. They had to look afterthe living animals in the field. The Normanoverlord looked after them when they wereserved up to him as food. Hence we get :Old English Norman FrenchCow Boeuf (Beef)SheepPigMouton (Mutton)Pore (Pork)# * #Following wholly (Num. 32 : 11, 12)Note God's commendation of Caleb andJoshua because "they have wholly followed theLord," and conversely the condemnation ofthe remainder because "They have not whollyfollowed Me,"—and they were the only twoof that generation who entered the land. Asin the parable of the "Pearl" and the "HidTreasure" the reward is only obtained bygiving all. Again, "Thou shalt love the Lordthy God with all thy heart, soul, mind andstrength."# * #The Cities of Refuge (Num. 35)These were a very merciful provision forthe temporal wellbeing of Israel, but theyalso constitute an excellent type of the great"refuge" the Lord Jesus, as Heb. 6 : 18 testifies.Some have difficulty in rememberingwhat these cities are. The following mnemonicwill help :—King - Kedesh — SanctuarySolomon - Shechem = Shoulder orStrengthHad - Hebron — FellowshipRams - Ramoth — FortressBulls - Bezer = ExaltedGoats - Golan = Ecstasy orSurrounding Joy.We leave our readers to build up their ownexhortation on these interesting cities.

178 The TESTIMONYJOSHUA"The book of the Law" (Josh. 1 : 8)Joshua was the man appointed by God tosucceed Moses as leader of the Children ofIsrael, and God promises that, "As I waswith Moses, so I will be with thee." Godinsisted that "This book of the Law shall notdepart out of thy mouth, but thou shalt meditatetherein day and night."In later years, when Kings succeeded theJudges, God required that when the Kingcame to the throne, he should write out this'book of the Law' for his own personal copyin order that he should be familiar with it,and also have it handy for reference and studyat all times.# # #Rahab the harlot (Josh. 2 : 2)For strangers to go to a harlot's housewould cause the least comment, and hencethe wise choice of the spies at Jericho, as givenin v. 1. Despite the fact that the coming outof Egypt was now forty years ago, the knowledgeof it was very much alive and createdterror in the minds of the people of Jericho(vv. 9, 10). How frequently is it necessaryto "abide in the house" (v. 19) if we wouldavail ourselves of the salvation of God ! Thiswas necessary at the Passover; in Paul'sperilous voyage they had to "abide in the ship"if they wished to be saved, and the sameprinciple is still operative today.There is little doubt that Rahab was oneof the women in the ancestry of the LordJesus. Four women are singled out: Tamar,Rahab, Ruth and Bathsheba, and while therewas nothing questionable morally with Ruth—much the reverse—she was a Gentile and amember of a hated race. All this emphasiseshow much Jesus was of the same flesh as hisbrethren—". ... he also, himself, likewise,took part of the same."# # #"Early in the morning" (Josh. 3:1)In this and succeeding chapters, note howoften "Joshua rose up early in the morning,"and the outstanding example of when he didnot, was when the Gibeonites caught him byguile.# # #The rising of the Jordan (Josh. 3 : 13)Much criticism has been advanced againstthe suggestion that the cutting off of the watersof Jordan was by an earthquake. But doesnot the phrase, ". . . . the waters .... shallstand upon an heap . . . ." suggest such ablockage higher up ? The real thing to realiseis that the miracle (which there certainly was !)lay in the fact that God caused the earthquaketo take place at the right time. Had the earthquakebeen merely a natural happening, thenit would have been well nigh impossible tohave 'timed' the priests' entry into Jordanwith the landslide higher up.# # #The twelve stones (Josh. 4 : 9, 20)It is well to note that there are two lots oftwelve stones. Joshua commanded twelvestones to be collected out of Jordan and laidthem down at their resting place that firstnight. Then v. 9 tells us that: "Joshua setup twelve stones in the midst of Jordan .... andthe stones are there unto this day."It has been shown previously that thesestones were in existence in the days of Jesus,and it was to them he made reference, "Godis able of these stones to raise up children toAbraham."# # #The second circumcision (Josh. 5 : 2)This chapter contains an interesting type.The 'flesh' had to be cut away for them toenter their 'rest,' and equally, if we wish toenter the 'rest.that remaineth to the peopleof God,' the flesh has to be (typically) cutaway. Paul epitomises this when he says,"To be carnally minded is death, but to bespiritually minded is life and peace," or asJesus said, "the flesh profits nothing . . ."# # #"The Captain of the Lord's Host"(Josh. 5 : 14)The marginal rendering of 'prince' is helpful.Evidently a host of angels were in attendancefor this amazing work of a nation enteringupon their promised possession.# # #The fall of Jericho (Josh. 6 : 20)Research at Jericho has shown how defectivewere the walls. (It has been suggested that'jerry-building' is an abbreviation of 'Jerichobuilding' !) The method God employed—that of marching repeatedly around the city—would draw all the inhabitants to the walls,with their consequent collapse. Again Godcaused it all to be done at the psychologicalmoment, and God used existing weaknessesfor the outworking of His purpose. Someoneonce ingeniously worked out that when theseventh circuit had been made and the wallscollapsed, Aminadab was opposite the houseof Rahab ; he would be the first one into herhouse, and he subsequently married her ! Itcould be !

The TESTIMONY 179The greed of Achan (Josh. 7:1)Achan's avarice wrought tragedy in Israel,and until the sin was put away, God 'forsook'Israel, showing clearly that His promise toJoshua, "I will not leave thee nor forsake thee,"was dependant upon Israel's faithfulness andobedience. When the sin was put away, Israelagain became victorious.# # #The guile of the Gibeonites (Josh. 9 : 3-14)The subtilty of the Gibeonites was successfulbecause Joshua and the elders "asked notcounsel of the Lord." It seemed so simpleand so obvious ! What a lesson for us ! "InALL thy ways acknowledge Him, and Heshall direct thy paths" is a very wise injunction.How different history could have been on somany occasions, as could also our own privatelives, had we paid attention to it! The Gibeonitesbecame 'hewers of wood and drawersof water,' and they were the ancestors of the"Nethinims" of later years. This wouldsuggest they maintained a separate existencealthough living in the midst of Israel.# # #Joshua's long day (Josh. 10 : 13)Joshua's long day has been the subject ofmuch sceptical comment. The remarkablething is that practically all the ancient nationshave a reference to a long day in their nationallegends. Not only so, but the sun "hastednot to go down ABOUT a whole day." Wasthe remainder of the day completed in thedays of Hezekiah, when as a sign to him the'shadow' moved back ten degrees in the sundialof Ahaz ? (This would be forty minutes)..Various explanations have been offered showinghow this could be done. This writer sees nodifficulty in accepting it without worryingabout precise details. He Who "weighs themountains in scales and the hills in a balance"and "measures the waters in the hollow ofHis hand," and is the High and Lofty OneWho has created the heavenly bodies, aboutwhich to-day's scientists speak in millionsof light years, to Him a long day for Israelwould be a very small manifestation of Hisinfinite power !Joshua wisely put the five kings in the caveuntil eventide, rather than stop the battle todeal with them. We are wise to do the samewith our difficulties. General Booth was oncequestioned with regard to Bible difficulties."If I am eating a kipper and come across abone, I do not throw the kipper away ! I putthe bone on the side of my plate, and get onwith the good eating"! A dear old fellowbeliever,once similarly questioned said, "Letus hang our difficulties on the wall until theLord comes, and then ask Him about them ! "Sound advice !# # #The expulsion and destruction of wicked nations(Josh, chapters 11-19)God's commands were explicit. "Ye shalldrive them out." But Israel did not and theidolatrous remnants became a serious menaceto Israel. The destruction of these Canaanitishnations was a necessary surgical operation,for they were utterly morally corrupt. Sodomand Gomorrah had to be destroyed in Abraham'sday, and in the succeeding years the Amoritesfilled up their iniquity. It is always wise tobe obedient to God's commands, for Heknows best; and we are disobedient at ourperil. So long as Joshua was in control thenall went reasonably well, but when he and theelders who outlived him had died, deteriorationwas rapid, as we see in the book of Judges.# # #1 CORINTHIANSThis epistle was written by Paul, and wasprobably written while he was at Ephesus,on his Third Missionary Journey, during hislast year there. Titus is not mentioned in it,and it is quite possible that he was the bearerof it—hence the absence of reference to himin it. It was written about three years afterthe establishment of the Church.Paul was very desirous that there shouldbe no divisions among them : but he rightlyprefaces this in the opening chapter, with theinjunction that "you all speak the same thing."# =* #The Cross of Christ (1 Cor. 1 : 18)We are so used to references to the crucifixionof Jesus that it produces no shock in our minds.In the first century Paul had to deal with bothJews and Greeks, and to both this was adifficulty. Both associated crucifixion withcriminals. The Greeks thought it sheer foolishnessthat a crucified criminal should be ρμίforward as the coming King of the world.Similarly (note Paul says Christ crucified,NOT Jesus crucified) the Jews could notrealise that the one who had been 'hanged ona tree' and who was consequently 'accursedof God' could possibly be their 'Christ' or'Messiah'—it was a stumbling block to them >and to the Greeks it seemed utter foolishness.Later he has to emphasise that this realisationcould only come 'by the Holy Spirit,' that isby revelation from God, for it is so foreign tothe natural mam

180 The TESTIMONY"Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard . . . ."(1 Cor. 2 : 9)This verse is often quoted to suggest thatwe cannot imagine what God has in store forHis faithful, whereas Paul goes on to say(v 10) "But God hath revealed them to usby His Spirit."# # *"The fire shall try" (1 Cor. 3 : 13)Corinth had been many times swept byfire, which consumed the hovels of the poor,but left intact the buildings made of marble,granite, etc., and this forms the basis of theapostle's figure.# # #"If any man defile the temple of God"(1 Cor. 3 : 17)'Defile' and 'Destroy' are the same word,but the force of this is lost in the AuthorisedVersion. Whatever treatment we mete outto the 'temple' the same treatment will eventuallybe meted out to ourselves.# # #"A spectacle unto the world" (1 Cor. 4 : 9)The margin gives "theatre" for spectacle,the figure being that of the amphitheatre.(Paul used figures of the city and the gamesetc., whereas Jesus used agricultural and homefigures, domestic details and historical allusions)He is comparing themselves to gladiators,the 'angels' being the ruling authorities etc.When the gladiators marched into the arenathey halted before Caesar and cried, "Hail,Caesar, we who are about to die, greet thee."The "world" was composed of the above'angels' and also 'men,' that is, the ordinarypopulace.# # #"To deliver unto Satan" (1 Cor. 5 : 5)The early church had the power of inflictingphysical suffering (or in the case of Ananiasand Sapphira, even death itself) as a disciplinarymeasure, in order that "the spirit may besaved." We get similar references in 1 Tim.,"Lay hands suddenly on no man," and inJames 5, where the elders of the church canpray for and anoint with oil the repentantsinner, and "if he have committed sins theyshall be forgiven him."# # #"Such were some of you" (1 Cor. 6 : 11)Stalker, in his Life of Paul gives a verytelling picture of the early Corinthian Church.Some had "cut their pound of flesh from thegilded youth of Corinth," and others had"wallowed in the mire of Circe's swine-pens."To translate this into modern terms, Paul isshowing no matter how bad a sinner has been,it is possible for him to be "washed" (i.e.baptised), "sanctified," that is, made into asaint, and "justified," that is "declared righteous"—thevery antithesis of what he wasbefore.# * *Quotations in Paul's letter (1 Cor. 7 : 1)From 1 Cor. 7:1 it is evident that correspondencehad been taking place between Pauland the Corinthians and we find that Paulfrequently makes quotations from their letter(s)The recognition of these can be very helpful.(In their Life of Paul, Coneybeare and Howsonare very good on this point). 1 Cor. 6 : 12 isa case in point. "All things are lawful for me,"one had evidently written to Paul, but hisimmediate comment is "Yes, but all thingsare not convenient" ; and again in the sameverse, Yes, says Paul, but "I will not be broughtunder the power of any ! " Similarly in verse13, "Meats for the belly and the belly formeats" is a quotation from their letter. Yes,says Paul, but "God shall destroy both it andthem." Many other cases occur later in theepistle.# # #Free men and slaves (1 Cor. 7 : 22)It is a delightful touch in v. 22 where Paulequalises the free men and the slaves in theCorinthian Church. The number of slavesin the Roman Empire was stupendous, andthey formed quite a considerable proportionof the early church numbers. To the slavePaul says, "Don't be discouraged, you arethe Lord's free man," whereas to the free manPaul says, "Don't you be puffed up, you arethe Lord's bond slave." They both had been"bought" with "the precious blood of Christ."# # #Further quotations from the Corinthians' letters(1 Cor. 8 : 4)Here again Paul is quoting from letters andadding his comments. "We all have knowledge,""an idol is nothing in this world,"and "there is none other God but one" andalso the whole of verse eight would appear tobe quotations from their letter. The sameremark also applies to the closing part of verse40 of chapter seven. Evidently one of theirnumber had said, "I think that I have theSpirit of God," and so Paul turns the argumentback on him.Real faith is a treasure, a companion of delight, a spring of living water, a fountain of purity.

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CONTENTSTHE QUIET MOMENTTHE PILGRIMAGE OF JESUS :(64) Get Thee Behind Me, Satan . .THE JOY OF THE LORDTHE PROPHECY OF HAGGAI (2)ANGELIC GUIDANCE (2) .."HE THAT HATH NO SWORD"THE BOOK OF JOB (6)REVIEWS :A NATION REBORNMAKING THE INVISIBLE VISIBLEWATCHMAN :THE GREAT JERUSALEM ASSIZE (1)OUT OF THE DUST :GLEANINGSNOTES ON THE DAILY READINGSPROBLEMS :DR. THOMAS AND THE CAMPBELLITESBUYING A SWORDTHE PREPARATION OF THE PASSOVERR.M.John Mitchell. . Alice E. Bijoux (S. Africa)A. AkeroydJames CarterA. R. LangleyCyril TennantNorman P. HoltD. A. B. OwenHubert W. CraddockJ Geoffrey G M. ThomeJames Carter. . ^ James CarterPage181J82184187]89192196198200202211212215215216Full Editorial endorsement applies to all articles except those of anon-fundamental nature.Articles from contributors of either sex will be welcomed for considerationby the Editors.

TheTESTIMONYFOR THE STUDY AND DEFENCE OF THE HOLY SCRIPTUREVol. 31, No. 366 June, 1961THE QUIET MOMENTThe Dread Of TomorrowHow often we worry about tomorrow !It seems like something we can never face.And yet when the day dawns it brings its own courage.We rise quite differently from the day before."Today this has to be done and with God's help even /can do it ! ""Take therefore no thought for the morrow."R.M.

182 The TESTIMONYEdited byJ. MITCHELLThe Pilgrimage of Jesus(64) GET THEE BEHIND ME, SATANJohn Mitchell"ΛΛΑΝ, at his best estate is altogether**•*·•' vanity/' Even in our moments ofseeming triumph over sin, there lurks thedouble danger of a fall, for the higher we haveclimbed the less heedful do we tend to be ofthe subtleties of our human nature. In thelives of the worthies of old, so exemplary tous in many ways, there are illustrations ofthis. Such a one was Elijah. Alone he facedthe 450 prophets of Baal, and in the confidenceof his faith in God, challenged them to callupon their god over the sacrifice. "The Godthat answereth by fire, let him be God," hesaid. We can exult with him as the 450 prophetsof Baal leap in vain upon their altar, gashingthemselves, and crying, "0 Baal, hear us,"while Elijah mocks them,—"Cry aloud, forhe is a god ; either he is talking, or he is pursuing,or he is in a journey, or peradventurehe sleepeth, and must be awakened ! " Howdelicious is his sarcasm to the f believer in theOne True God, and how sweet is his triumphas the outrageous imposters are slain ! Stillthis day of great things was not over. In mighty,effectual and fervent prayer he called for rainto end the three and a half years of droughtthat had brought Israel to her knees, and thenwith superhuman fleetness, he outran thechariot of Ahab, the king, into the city ofJezreel.Alas, Elijah had not only outrun a king ;he had also outrun his own spiritual stamina,and only a few hours later we find him sittingunder a juniper tree, and requesting for himselfthat he might die. "It is enough ; now,Ο Lord, take away my life ; for I am not betterthan my fathers." He, who had braved alonethe 450 prophets of Baal, had also fled for hislife before the wrath of an imperious woman.And thus his finest hour was turned, in himself,into his greatest humiliation and defeat.Something of the same kind of thing alsohappened to Peter. He had companied withthe Lord Jesus Christ from the beginning,and had shown himself the leader of thedisciples in appreciation of spiritual thingsand in faith. Here was a man who couldjump over the side of a ship in a howlinggale and walk upon the sea at the bidding ofhis Lord. And now, at Caesarea Philippi, hehad trodden spiritual heights greater eventhan those of Carmel, when he was the firstto confess, "Thou art the Christ, the Son ofthe living God.""And Jesus answered and said untoBlessed art thou, Simon Bar-Jonahflesh and blood hath not revealed itthee, but my Father which is in heaven.him,: foruntoAndI also say unto thee, that thou art Peter, andupon this rock I will build my church ; andthe gates of Hades shall not prevail against it.I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdomof heaven : and whatsoever thou shalt bindon earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatsoeverthou shalt loose on earth shalt be loosedin heaven."After such a blessing as this from the Sonof God, Peter felt that he was walking on air,for it presaged those wonderful moments whenhe would open the doors of the kingdom ofGod to Jew and Gentile, to the ultimate salvationof multitudes of his fellow men whoalso would come to confess the Lord Jesusas the Christ, the Son of the living God.Between, however, the heights of Peter'sthrilling expectations and their fulfilment,

The TESTIMONY 188there lay a deep and dreadful valley whichour Lord well knew he had first to pass through.Only when he himself had unlocked the doorfrom the grave, could there be any fulfilledassurance that the way would be opened forthe rest of mankind. Therefore, lest hisdisciples should exult too much in the revelationof their ultimate triumph, Jesus beganto show to them how that he must go untoJerusalem, and suffer many things of the eldersand chief priests and scribes, and be killedand the third day be raised again.This was too much for Peter, elated as hewas and puffed up with his new-found importance.So, confidentially, in a patronisingand friendly kind of way, he drew our Lordaside, and began to rebuke him,—"Be it farfrom thee Lord ; this shall never be unto thee."But Jesus turned from him at once, andreplied, "Get thee behind me, Satan ; thouart a stumbling block unto me : for thou mindestnot the things that be of God, but thethings that be of men."How perfectly does this portray to us themind of Christ ! No parley with Satan, evenif it had come in a well-meant sort of way. Nocondescension to sin because of friendship.No swerving from the painful path of dutyeither along the road to Calvary or in rebukingthe impetuous but lovable Peter. "I do alwaysthe things that please my Father." The LordJesus served God with a constancy and devotionthat is an inspiration to all who tryto follow in his steps, though we lag so veryfar behind him.But what of Peter ? In a few moments hehad passed from exultation to humiliation ;from being the rock on which Christ wouldbuild his church, to a stone of stumbling androck of offence. And all because of the selfwilled,self-reliant human nature which weall possess. Trusting in himself, he hadmisguidedly tried to serve Christ. It is amistake that many of us have made. He hadmeant well—but, in the words of the Chestertonepigram, "The road to hell is paved withgood intentions." All our intentions are goodin our own eyes, but in Christ we have todevelop a new kind of sight, and a new wayof looking at things—not with the eye of theflesh which minds earthly things, but withthe eye of the Spirit, which minds the thingsof God.It takes most of us a long time to realisethat "even when we would do good, evil ispresent with us." Sometimes, for our ownsakes, and for the sake of the cause we serve,God sends a restraining factor. This is whathappened in the case of Paul. "Lest I shouldbe exalted above measure," he wrote, "throughthe abundance of the revelations, there wasgiven me a thorn in the flesh, a messengerof Satan to buffet me, lest I should be exaltedabove measure." For it does not take elatedhuman nature long to imagine that IT can dogreat things, even for the Lord God Almighty,and can serve Him in its own way. Thereverse is true. The only things we can dofor God, be they "great" or "small" (in theeyes of men) are done by Him through us,if we be willing and obedient. It is no useour laying about us mightily with the Swordof God to expose the weakness of the fleshin others, when we have not first pierced ourown souls with it, and discerned our innermostthoughts for what they are—a stone ofstumbling and a rock of offence.Three times the Apostle Paul pleaded forthe removal of the thorn in his flesh, only toreceive the reply : "My grace is sufficient forthee: for My strength is made perfect inweakness." For the weaker the vessel ofhuman pride, the greater is its capacity toreceive the fullness of the grace of God, sothat we can truly say, "I can do all thingsthrough Christ, which strengtheneth me."In this light, the rebuke of our Lord toPeter was a blessing in disguise, for, "let therighteous smite me ; it shall be a kindness :and let him reprove me ; it shall be an excellentoil, which shall not break my head." Thelesson which Peter, Paul, Ezekiel had to learn,as have we all who share their common frailtyis that in ourselves there dwelleth no goodthing, and that we must accept with patiencewhatever the Lord sees fit to lay upon us inthe way of reproof and correction, if we areto walk in the way of righteousness. For theultimate end is not the exaltation of ourselves,but that we may become ONE with God,through the Lord Jesus Christ. To do thiswe have to put self completely aside in all itsattributes, ranging from self-esteem, to selfpity.Immediately after rebuking Peter, the LordJesus turned to the disciples and said, "Ifany man would come after me, let him denyhimself, and take up his cross, and follow me*For whosoever would save his life shall loseit : and whosoever shall lose his life for mysake shall find it." What did he mean ? Hemeant the complete renunciation of self, asexemplified by Christ on the Cross. This isnot an invitation to martyrdom, but to denial

184 The TESTIMONYof self in the service of God. The via dolorosafor Jesus began, not at the palace of the HighPriest, nor yet at the Praetorium, but whenhe stepped from the waters of baptism. Thatis where it begins for us all. "We bear in ourbody the marks of the Lord Jesus," as wejourney towards the Kingdom of God. Itmeans setting our course inflexibly away fromself, which may be summarised as the lustof the flesh, the lust of the eye, and the prideof life, and towards the righteousness of Christ,who laid down his life for us.'Tor whosoever would save his life shalllose it: and whosoever shall lose his life formy sake shall find it."This selfish saving of life is not deliverancefrom the gallows, but the saving up of ourlives for our own ends, a course which alwaysleads to the loss of everything, even life itselfin the grave. "For we brought nothing intothis world, and it is certain we can carrynothing out." But to lose one's life for thesake of Christ and the gospel, by constantlyputting God first in our lives, is to store uptreasure in heaven which fadeth not away,and be rewarded in the day of Christ's return,with his reward, even life everlasting."For what shall a man be profited if heshall gain the whole world and forfeit hislife ? " He does not possess an immortal soul.There are no Elysian fields, Nirvanas or"Happy Hunting Grounds." There is onlythe oblivion of the grave—unless the LordJesus turns the key for us, and opens the dooragain to life. How essential is it then to carrywith us, locked up in our hearts, a sense ofthe true realities, to condition all our thoughtsand intentions."For the Son of man shall come in theglory of his Father with his angels ; and thenshall he render unto every man according tohis deeds.""DIBLE students are generally agreed that*•"* when Jesus spoke the parable of thetalents, it was intended to encourage hisdisciples to faithful service during his absence.The servants in the parable were not equallygifted, but they were equally industrious andfaithful, and they were duly rewarded. First,their Lord gives words of approval, "Well done,thou good and faithful servant", then theirreward is offered in the invitation, "Enter thouinto the joy of thy Lord. Thou hast beenfaithful over a few things, I will make theeruler over many things." This amounted totaking them into partnership in the ruling ofthe Kingdom because they had been faithfulto duty in lesser things. We note how gladlythey record what they have gained for theirMaster. Their joy in service was evident, andcontributed to the joy of their Lord. We speakof Christ as Master, and Lord, and we say well,for so he is, but first he knew this joy in service.Although at his first coming he was a "man ofsorrows and acquainted with grief" it had alsobeen foretold of him, "the pleasure of the Lordshall prosper in his hand". 1 What is thepleasure of Yahweh ? He revealed it to Moses,who was a type of the 'righteous man whoseThe Joy of the LordMatt. 25Alice E. Bijoux {South Africa)prayer availeth much'. After the spies hadgiven an evil report of the Land of Promise,the people murmured, and God was angry withthem. Moses entreated God to forgive themfor His great Name's sake. The prayer waseffectual, and received this reply, "I havepardoned according to thy word, but as trulyas I live, all the earth shall be filled with theglory of the LORD". 2 Why do the angelsrejoice over one sinner that repenteth ?Because, as partakers of the Divine nature theyknow in what God's glory consists. WhenMoses prayed, "I beseech Thee, shew me Thyglory", God replied, "I will make all Mygoodness pass before thee, and I will proclaimthe name of the Lord before thee." 3 Whenthat Name was declared ; it was, The Lord, TheLord God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering,and abundant in goodness and truth". 4Jesus manifested that Name in every word andaction of his ministry, so that he could tellPhilip, "He that hath seen me hath seen theFather". 5 When, wearied with his journey,Jesus sat to rest on Jacob's well at Sychar, heIsa. 53: 10.Exod. 33: 19.42Num. 14: 21.Exod. 34 : (>.5 Jno. : V).

The TESTIMONY 185told the woman of Samaria, "God is a spirit,and they that worship Him must worship Himin spirit and in truth, for the Father seekethsuch to worship Him". Jesus himself was sorefreshed by the "living water" of which heinvited the woman to partake, that when hisdisciples offered him food, he said, "I havemeat to eat that ye know not of". "My meatis to do the will of Him that sent me, and tofinish His work". 6Speaking of his Father,Jesus could affirm with truth, "I do always thethings that please Him". It was his desire thathis disciples should have this joy fulfilled inthemselves and he tells them how this would bepossible. This is beautifully expressed in thewords, "If ye keep my commandments ye shallabide in my love, even as I have kept my Father'scommandments, and abide in His love. Thesethings have I spoken unto you that my joymight remain in you, and that your joy mightbe full." 7When the present-day disciples,who have believed through the words of theApostles, have joy in their service, this givesjoy to our Lord. Paul goes further, and statesthat joy is service. To the Roman believers hewrote, "The Kingdom of God is righteousnessand peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit, for hethat in these things serveth Christ is acceptableto God." 8Jesus has a present joy in service.Because he was obedient, even to the death ofthe Cross, God "hath highly exalted him". 9Foretelling this, the Psalmist says, "In Thypresence is fulness of joy, at Thy right handare pleasures for evermore." 10The right handis a symbol of power. Before his ascensionJesus told his disciples, "All power is givenunto me in heaven and in earth" 11 and withunwearying joy he is now using this power tofulfil his Father's purpose. What is thatpurpose ? Not simply a blinding glory beforewhich all mortals must tremble, for Habukkuktells us that the earth is to be filled with aknowledge of what constitutes that glory, andwhich Jesus lived amongst men, for "God wasin Christ, reconciling the world unto Himself".At the time of his ascension, Jesus commissionedthe Apostles to carry on this work ofpreaching the message of reconciliation in thewords, "As my Father hath sent me, even sosend I you". We who have received theirmessage must also strive to develop thosequalities which are implicit in the Name intowhich we have been baptised, that men, seeingour good works, may glorify our Father Whois in heaven. We must also take every opportunityof telling others what is the Hope of ourcalling, thus sharing the present joy of Jesusin doing his Father's will. We must not,however, be self-confident. Even the zealousand faithful Paul found it necessary to keepunder his body, and bring it into subjection,lest, after preaching to others, he himself shouldbe a castaway. 12Our source of strength lies inGod's Word assimilated and obeyed. Joy inservice can be lost by wrong doing. Even the"man after God's own heart" fell into grievoussin. In Psalm 51 David expresses his repentancefor his great sin against God, and pleads,"Restore unto me the joy of Thy salvation,then shall I teach transgressors Thy ways, andsinners shall be converted unto Thee." It isonly as we walk as Children of Light thatothers may be attracted to that Light. When thelaw was read to those who had returned toJerusalem from the Babylonian captivity, thepeople wept because they realised how far theyhad transgressed, but Nehemiah encouragedthem, "Do not continue mourning now thatyou have repented, for the joy of the Lord isyour strength to enable you to do better." 13Our hope lies in the fact which Job expressedwith confidence, "Thou wilt have a desire to thework of Thy hands." Let us take our positionwith Jeremiah, who exclaimed, "Thy word wasunto me the joy and rejoicing of my heart, forI am called by Thy Name, Ο Lord God ofhosts." However far we have hitherto failed tofulfil the joy of the Lord, let us remember thatwe are called by that Name, and with reneweddedication commit ourselves "unto Him Whois able to keep us from falling, and to presentus faultless before the presence of His glorywith exceeding joy." 14There is a future joyawaiting Jesus. A childless Jew sorrowedbecause his name would be cut off, and in thisconnection Isaiah asks, "Who shall declare hisgeneration, for he was cut off out of the land ofthe living ?" x 5 . God has made provision for thename of Jesus to be remembered and renowned.He has given him a Name that is above everyname, the only Name whereby men can besaved from sinning. In symbol we see himcoming to the Father with those whom he hasredeemed and saying, "Behold I, and thechildren whom Thou hast given me." Of hisearliest disciples Jesus acknowledged to God,"Thine they were, and Thou gavest them me ;Holy Father keep through Thine own Namethose whom Thou hast given me." What a6Jno. 4 : 24, 23.7Jno. 15 : 10, 11.8Rom. 14: 17, 18.ν Phil. 2 : 8, 9.10Psa. 16: 8-11.Matt. 2* : 18.1 Cor. 9 : 14.Neh. 8 : 10.Jude 24.Isa. 53 : 8.

186 The TESTIMONYsource of strength and joy for us to realise thatin that prayer Jesus prayed for you and for me,who have believed through the word of thosewhom he sent to carry on his word. In theApocalypse a multitude which no man cannumber sing praises to God and to the Lambwho redeemed them by his blood, thus fulfillingthe words of Isaiah's prophecy, "Heshall see of the travail of his soul, and shall besatisfied". There is a present joy of Jesus whichwill be granted as a future joy to all his truefollowers. Peter, when quoting Psalm 16,expresses it, "Thou wilt make me full of joywith Thy countenance". 16 Jesus was theInterpreter for whom, by Elihu, God expresseda yearning, and he has become a Ransom for allwho will acknowledge God's righteousness, andtheir need for it. He was the first man to beholdthe face of God, but the Spirit inspired Elihuto continue, and promise that all who are thusredeemed also "shall see His face with joy".In the Apocalypse Jesus tells John to recordthe promise, "His servants shall serve Him,and they shall see His face, and His Name shallbe in their foreheads". 17 These promises areonly for the ransomed. Although we have notseen Jesus, we have believed ; and if we trulylove him, we shall fulfil his joy by dedicatingour whole lives to his service, that others maysee our joy, and seek its spring in the knowledgeof our Lord and Saviour, Jesus, the Christ.The exaltation and joy of the Head is to beshared by the members of his "Body" who willthen have become his "Bride". Well mightIsaiah prophesy, "The ransomed of the Lordshall return, and come with singing unto Zion,and everlasting joy shall be upon their heads ;they shall obtain gladness and joy, and sorrowand mourning shall flee away". 18 Let usconstantly remind ourselves that our Lord willbe glad when we have joy in service, and thatjoy itself is service. Only as we seek for gloryand honour and immortality by patient continuancein well-doing, will God by His graceand mercy grant to us eternal life, that we mayenter into the joy of our Lord.1 f ' Job 33 : 23-28. »? Rev. 22 : 3, 4. >» Isa. 35 : 10.QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS"To wash in Jordan seven times ? . . . oh ! surely Lord, not me ! 'tis such a slimy, muddy streamto heal my leprosy ! Could I not wash in other streams, or do some grander thing ? but wash inJordan, no, not I ! THAT cannot healing bring.""Your sin decays like leprosy, of it you should be rid, and in the water, by My word is healing surelyhid ; I understand that you should want to find a grander way, but as you into Jordan go—Mypower I will display.""... Sell all thou hast ? oh ! Lord, not I, for now I have so much ! I've kept the law well from myyouth, nothing unclean I touch. Could I just give a portion up, or find some other way to gaineternal life, and live to see Thy glorious day ?""Your riches seem to weigh you down, and I must show you how to gain the greatest wealth there isby being poorer now. I understand how hard it is to pay the highest price—My followers must leavetheir all, lor you much sacrifice.""Bring forth the robe, prepare a feast . . .for one who took his half and squandered it in foreign lands—you'd kill the fatted calf ? I served thee well neither transgressed, I do not understand why he—the prodigal—should have such mercy at Thy hand.""Your brother was my younger son, and while you served me here, such bitter thoughts engulfedyour mind of one whom I hold dear. No matter where he wandered to, I watched, for he is mine—he's just come home, you never left, and all I have is thine.""Dear Father, as we read Thy book and wonder at Thy word—it is as if we caught a glimpse andsometimes nearly heard Thy voice in answer to our cry—for understanding true—we seek a wayarid yet we need so much to lean on You.""No grander way—no other stream, you must do as I say. You cannot keep a portion now, for richeswill decay. The prodigal came home again, and your cry I have heard—your questions ask, theanswers find, within My written Word."—Winifred M. Firth,LET US BUSY BE!"Hiving wisdom with each studious year."—Byron.

The TESTIMONY 187HISTORY PROPUECYArranged (pro tern.) by A. E. JONESThe Prophecy of Haggai (2)A. Akeroyd/CHAPTER two is highly symbolic and^-^ largely prophetic. It concerns not onlythe restoration of the temple in Jerusalem inthe days of Haggai and Zerubbabel, but alsothe great and final consummation of God'spurpose with the faithful of all ages in thefilling of the earth with His glory. The veryday and month mentioned in verse one takeour minds immediately to the last day of thegreat Feast of Tabernacles which celebratedthe ingathering of the harvest, and whichsymbolises the final ingathering of the righteoussaints of the earth into God's Kingdomand glory. Our minds are thus prepared forthe reception of such lofty spiritual truths.Verse three suggests that there were someelderly returned exiles, who, in their youth hadseen where the glory of the Lord dwelt betweenthe cherubim above the Mercy Seat in the MostHoly Place. Nevertheless this partly restoredZerubbabel temple was poor in comparison."Is it not in your eyes in comparison of it asnothing ?" The same thought is put forwardby Ezra himself. "But many of the priests andLevites and chief of the fathers, who wereancient men, that had seen the first house, whenthe foundation of this house was laid beforetheir eyes, wept with a loud voice ; and manyshouted aloud for joy." λTwo very important and significant wordsoccur in verse eleven ; the words, "towardIsrael." "His (God's) mercy endureth for evertoward Israel." That statement is still true inthe fullest possible sense of its application. Themercy that endures for ever is "toward Israel,"natural and spiritual. The foundation of thehouse in Ezra's days concerned Israel only. Itwas not for the Samaritans unless they joinedthemselves to the house of Israel. The foundationof the house typified Jesus, "for otherfoundation can no man lay than that is laid,which is Jesus Christ." 2"Now if any manbuild upon this foundation, gold, silver,precious stones, wood, hay, stubble ; everyman's work shall be made manifest : for the day(of judgment) shall declare it, because it shall berevealed by fire ; and the fire shall try everyman's work of what sort it is. If any man's workabide which he hath built thereupon, he shallreceive a reward." Paul's remarks are mostrelevant to the subject of temple building ; infact in verse sixteen of the same chapter he says,"Know ye not that ye are the temple of God?" ;and in the same strain are the words of Peter,"Ye also as lively stones are built up a spiritualhouse."In verse four of Haggai chapter two thereappears the divine injunction to Zerubbabelto "be strong" and "work," for the Lordpromises to be with them ; and if it was aduty divinely ordained—to work in the buildingof the literal edifice in Jerusalem—howmuch more essential it is to work towardsthe construction of the spiritual house ofredeemed saints, and to work willingly tothe glory of the Lord ? God still rules in thekingdoms of men ; Jesus still walks amongstthe lightstands of the world ; thus the wordsof verses four and five, in their applicationto the workers in spiritual Israel still remaintrue, "I am with you, saith the Lord of Hosts ""So My Spirit remaineth among you: fearye not." And to such an unlimited extentwill His Spirit remain among His faithfultemple builders, that in the last days of Gentiletimes "He will shake all nations." "He willoverthrow the throne of kingdoms." "He willdestroy the strength of the kingdoms of thenations," with the object, (as stated in verseseven) of bringing "the desire of all nations."The Authorised Version gives the wording,"The desire of all nations shall come." Thisdoes not mean that all the nations of the worlddesire what God is here speaking of through1Ezra 3 : 11-13.

188 The TESTIMONYthe prophet. Russia, for instance, does notdesire the glory of the Lord to fill any house,neither does America, nor even Britain. Theyare in total ignorance of these things for themost part. The Revised Version renders thepassage, "The desirable things of all nationsshall come," that is, the desirable things OUTOF all nations shall come, and the mattermust be looked at from God's point of viewand interpreted in accordance with otherScriptural expressions. What are the desirablethings out of all nations that God desires ?His desire and His aim is to fill the earthwith His glory, and the expression "of allnations" occurs again in the Book of Revelationchapter seven in connection with thesymbolic one hundred and forty-four-thousandsealed servants of God in the future kingdomof God. "I beheld and lo, a great multitudewhich no man could number, OF ALLNATIONS and kindreds and peoples andtongues stood before the throne and beforethe Lamb, clothed with white robes, andpalms in their hands. These are they whichcame out of great tribulation, and have washedtheir robes and made them white in the bloodof the Lamb." They are the redeemed fromamongst mankind worshipping God at thetime of the manifestation of the sons of God.They are saying, "Blessing and GLORY andwisdom and thanksgiving and honour andpower and might, be unto our God for everand ever." They are the immortal populationof the kingdom of God, giving glory to Godand filling the earth with His glory. Theyare the desirable things out of all nations,whose names are written in the Lamb's bookof life, and who are led by the Lamb himself.They constitute "the glory of the God ofIsrael, Whose voice is like a noise of manywaters," causing the earth to shine with God'sglory—a vision of the prophet Ezekiel whichindicates the multitudinous nature of thedesirable things of all nations which Godsays shall come. 3 Thus Jesus and his immortalisedsaints will be the glory of God in theKingdom of God. "Thy people shall bewilling in the day of thy power, in the beautiesof holiness from the womb of the morning,thou hast the dew of thy youth." 4 Dew ismultitudinous in its manifestation. Dewappears in the morning and is God-given.The desirable things of all nations will bemultitudinous and will appear on Zion's gladmorning—God-given through Jesus Christ ourLord, and constituting the travail of his soul,the temple of living stones, the house of God."And I will fill this house with glory, saiththe Lord of Hosts," i.e. with the glory ofimmortal beings, for every stone will be ahabitation for the Spirit of God, thus reflectingHis glory like precious stones in thepresence of the light of the glory of God.This thought is extended in verse eight whichstates in the words of the Almighty, "Thesilver is Mine and the gold is Mine, saith theLord of Hosts," doubtless because those representedby the silver and the gold had builtsuccessfully on the Christ foundation duringmortal life. The names of the saintly stonesare written in the "book of remembrance"spoken of by Malachi, and of them God says,"They shall be Mine in that day when I makeup my jewels."Having built upon the Christ foundationcharacters equivalent to gold, silver or preciousstones, they emerge from the fiery trial ofjudgment to receive the reward spoken ofby Paul, and here in Haggai's writings theyare the Lord's ; for "the silver and the goldis Mine, saith the Lord of Hosts." They arenot of the hay, wood and stubble class, whocannot endure the fiery trial of judgment,but are consumed at that day by "the spiritof judgment and the spirit of burning."Rather do they constitute the "latter house"of verse nine, a house which has a glory fargreater than that of any former house. Zechariahpoints out that in the final restorationof Israel, they of the captivity provide thematerial for the crown of the antitypical highpriest Jeshua, Joshua or Jesus ; and in fact,they become the crown. "Take silver andgold and make crowns and set them uponthe head of Joshua the high priest." But Paulsays, "What is our hope or joy or CROWN ofrejoicing ? Are not even ye, in the presenceof our Lord at his coming ? "So the silver and the gold are the same asthe desirable things of all nations, namelyChrist and the immortalised saints in theKingdom of God—that kingdom, that houseor household in which God will give peace.A primary reference is no doubt made to theliteral temple which will be erected in Jerusalem,but this is completely overshadowedby the greater subject of God's household andthe glory of the redeemed saints representedby the refined metals, the silver and the gold,which, says God, "are Mine." And it isinteresting and significant to note that theSeptuagint reads, instead of "the desire of21 Cor. 3: 11. 3 E ze k. ch. 43. « Psa. 110: 3.

The TESTIMONY 189all nations shall come," "the ELECT of allnations shall come."Verses twenty-one, twenty-two and twentythreeare again prophetic of the end of Gentiletimes. No events in Zerubbabel's days satisfythe conditions of this prediction, which awaitsfulfilment in the days of the return of ourLord from God's right hand. The words ofDaniel are very true, "The Most High rulethin the kingdoms of men," and God says,"I will shake the heavens and the earth.""I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms.""I will destroy the strength of the kingdomsof the nations." "I will overthrow the chariotsand those that ride in them."This divine intervention in the affairs ofthe nations : this is the subjugation of allhuman power when the Lord alone will beexalted in the earth. And "in that day," Godpromises to make Zerubbabel as a signet, forthe Lord has chosen Zerubbabel. The signetin ancient Biblical days was the instrumentby means of which the king gave validity tohis laws. It was the guarantee of the authenticityof early writings. It indicated thatroyal authority was given to the king's representative.As in Zechariah chapter four,Zerubbabel represents Christ and his immortalisedsubjects, so here Zerubbabel is obviouslya representative man and symbolises that samemultitudinous Christ, God's silver and gold,the "Desire of all nations."Behold My servant, see him riseExalted in My might.Him have I chosen and in himI place supreme delight.So Zerubbabel, the antitypical Zerubbabel,"My servant," Jesus and his associates willbe made as a signet; that is, they will begranted divine recognition, divine authorityand divine nature, for God has chosen HIMand the ELECT out of all nations.Angelic Guidance (2)OF THE NATIONSJames CarterΤ Ν THE Epistle to the Hebrews we read,-•· "Unto the angels hath He (God) not putinto subjection the world to come," the obviousimplication being that the present world isunder the guidance of and in subjection tothe angels of God. Very frequently thisguidance and direction is not obvious uponthe surface and only becomes evident upondeeper search. The Psalmist describes theangels as "ministers of His that do His pleasure,"1and it is reasonable to suppose thatthe "Sons of God, who shouted for joy atthe creation," and also those who said "Letus make man in our own image," were theangels.When God appeared to Moses at the BurningBush, He gave Himself the new name of"Jehovah" (Yahweh) and later when Godagain spoke to Moses we read : "I am theLORD (Yahweh) and I appeared unto Abraham,unto Isaac and unto Jacob, by the nameof God Almighty, but by My name Jehovah(Yahweh) was I not known unto them." 2"By the name of God Almighty"—whatdoes this expression "God Almighty" mean ?The scholars tell us it comes from the Hebrewand is a translation of Ail Shaddai which means"the strength of the mighty ones." Abraham,Isaac and Jacob were all familiar with theangels of God, and also realised how "mighty"they were, as witness, say, the destruction ofSodom and Gomorrah, or with a touch theputting out of joint of Jacob's thigh ! But theyalso knew that, powerful as these mighty oneswere, their might and power was not selfcontained,but rather that they derived itfrom a Power behind them Who energisedthem to do their wonderful deeds. Hencethey referred to the Uncreate, the Holy Onewho inhabits eternity, as "The Strength ofthe Mighty Ones," Ail Shaddai, or, as translatedinto English, "God Almighty." Theseangels, these mighty ones, were the intermediariesbetween the God of Heaven and Hiscreatures upon earth. This was very necessary,for no mortal can see God and live, and sothere had to be those "messengers of His thatdo His pleasure, hearkening to the voice ofHis word."Let us now see some of the dealings of theangels with the nations of the earth, apart •1Psa. 103 : 21.2Exod, 6 : 3.

190 The Τ Ε S Τ Ι Μ Ο Ν Υfrom God's chosen people, although oftenthe two were together affected. In our investigationwe must recognise one importantprinciple. We read of God speaking, Godcommanding, God doing, whereas it was theangel of God who did these things. CompareExodus 3 : 2 with verses 4 to 6. Verse 2clearly says it was the angel, but verses 4 to 6would lead one to think that God was actuallythere speaking, whereas it was His angelicrepresentative who did it all. Stephen inActs chapter 7 confirms this when he says inverse 30 "an angel of the Lord" appeared,and in verse 35, "God did send ... Moses ... bythe hand of the angel ..." and verse 38 refersto "the angel that spake to him ..."We see then, the first recorded large-scaledealings of the angels of God with Gentilenations in the early chapters of Exodus, whenGod brought upon Egypt the ten plagues bythe angel or angels who did the actual work.The last plague was the slaying of the firstborn.The Psalmist refers to this work inconnection with the ten plagues as "sendingamong them angels of evil." 3This terminatedon the shores of the Red Sea, where we read,"The angel of God which went before thecamp of Israel, removed and went behindthem ..." and this culminated in taking offthe wheels of the Egyptian chariots "that theydrave heavily." 4The next major illustration was the entryof Israel into the Promised Land of Canaan.God said to Moses "I will be an enemy untothine enemies, and an adversary unto thineadversaries, for Mine angel shall go beforethee, and bring thee unto the Amorites, andthe Hittites, and the Perizzites, and theCanaanites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites,and I will cut them off ..."From this it is clear, that although Godrefers to it as His work, He delegated thiswork to His angel to do.In view of the explicit statement in theEpistle to the Hebrews, we feel justified inthinking that when God's dealings with thenations are ascribed to Him personally, inreality it was the angels who did the workfor Him. When, for example, we read : "OAssyrian, the rod of Mine anger ... I willsend him against a hypocritical nation ... Iwill give him a charge . . .," 5it was God'sangel who would be the active agent in thusguiding the Assyrian. When the Assyrianinvaded the land of Judah, it is very clearlystated in 2 Kings 19 : 35, 2 Chronicles 32 : 31and in Isaiah 37 : 36, that the destruction ofthe Assyrian host, 185,000, was definitely dueto the angel to whom God entrusted thiswork . . . "the Lord sent an angel."It would appear that usually the angels did(and presumably do) not work in a spectacularcataclysmic manner, but rather gradually mouldand direct affairs in and into the way whichGod requires. An interesting example of thisoccurs in Daniel 10 : 13. Daniel had had thatwonderful vision by the river Hiddekel ; andthe angel, in comforting him, told him he wouldhave been with him three weeks before hadnot the perversity of the Prince of Persiadelayed him. To speed the matter, Michael,one of the chief "princes," came to his assistance.At first this seems difficult to understand,for it would seem to limit the powerof the first angel very much ; but to understandit, let us use an illustration. In the parable ofthe Pounds and the Talents, as a reward forfaithful service, the returned nobleman givesauthority to his servants over, sometimes tencities, sometimes five, or whatever the numberallocated to them because of the endeavourthey have made. Evidently, then, while thepower of angels is potentially infinite, theirarea of jurisdiction is limited and if certainoperations "spread over" into the area of thenext ten cities, then the assistance would berequired of the one delegated to administerthe affairs of that area. It is possible thatsomething of like nature appertains to angelicadministration now.Perhaps the fullest statement of angeliccontrol in national affairs is suggested in theBook of Revelation. While this is a book ofsymbol, from the language used it is quiteevident that the angels were used to administerwhatever was and is intended by the symbols.For example in chapter 7, there are fourangels who restrain the influence of the four"winds" until the "sealing" process wascomplete.In chapters 8 and 9, seven angels are depictedas successively blowing trumpets, thefirst four resulting in the disintegration ofthe Western half of the Roman Empire, andthe fifth and sixth resulting in a similar disintegrationof the Eastern half of the RomanEmpire. The first four were fulfilled in theinvasion of the barbarian tribes—Goths, Vandals,Huns and others and the next two bythe Saracenic and then the Turkish invasionsand victories finally occupying Constantinoplein 1453. All these were powerful world forces,3 Psa. 78 : 49. * Exod. 14 : 19, * i sa, 10 ; 5.

The TESTIMONY 191guided, directed and controlled by the angels.Similarly in chapter 16 we read again ofseven angels, but now carrying bowls of wrath.The work of the first five is completed, butthat of the sixth and seventh is still with us ;and in the course of the sixth vial we have theannouncement by the Lord Jesus, "Behold,I come as a thief, blessed is he that watcheth . ."It would further appear that when the Lordis here, the work of the angels diminishes, asJesus and the saints take over from them,for they (the saints) will, as Jesus promised,in that time have become "equal to the angels,neither can they die any more."In the meantime, world affairs are gradually(and sometimes rapidly) shaping themselvesfor those final events. This "shaping"gisundoubtedly being done by the angels, astheir work builds up to a mighty crescendo,when man is unleashing forces of naturewhich hitherto have been the prerogatives ofthe angels alone, but which forces the angelswill still guide, to the ultimate outworkingof the purpose of God in the earth.In our next, and final, article in this shortseries we hope to show the part that the angelsplay in "ministering to those who shall beheirs of salvation."4'BEING UNDERSTOOD BY THE THINGS THAT ARE MADE" —Rom. 1 : 20.SOLAR SYSTEM FORMATIONInto the controversy of how the solar system came into being enters Nobel Prize winning scientistDr. Harold C. Urey of the University of California with a new theory. According to reports fromWashington dated April 27th, λ it all started from a great formless area of gas and dust and some 4,500million years ago, the original "gas nebulae"—produced by an explosion of a supernova star some500 million years previously—began separating into many semi-solid objects, each about the size ofour present moon. A huge gas blob left behind the sun.Dr. Urey believes that some of these moon-sized objects touched one another rather gently, and someof them adhered together, the earth being ultimately made up of some 80 moons including some thathad adhered together and some that were first broken into pieces, then were absorbed as fragmentsas mother earth increased in size.1The Evening News and Star, April 27th, 1961.The noted astronomer Sir James Jeans, stated after years of analytical study of the universe,"Everything points with overwhelming force to a definite event, or series of events of creation atsome time or times, not infinitely remote. The universe cannot have originated by chance out of itspresent ingredients." —Wider Aspects of Cosmology, page 55.Sir Oliver Lodge, another great scientist, wrote, "We cannot understand the existence either ofourselves or of an external world unless we postulate some kind of creation. Creation involvesdesign and purpose and mental activity, and so necessarily implies a creator of some kind."— The Great Design, page 231.All nature joins with revelation in declaring the existence of an intelligent, supreme Being, havingcreative power. The Great Designer and Maker of the universe—the Originator—we call GOD.FOOD FORTHOUGHT"The Universe seems to be nearer to a great thought than to a great machine."—Sir James Jeans."As the heavens are higher than the earth, so are . . .My thoughts than your thoughts."—Isaiah 55 : 9.The man who possesses faith unfeigned will do what others will not do ; but a man of sham faith willnot sacrifice anything for the sake of it.

192 The TESTIMONY44He That Hath No Sword"A. R. LongleyEdited by E. WHITTAKERHPHERE are some thirty-six occasions in theNew Testament when the word 'sword'occurs. This translates the two Greek wordsmachaira and rhomphaia. Young gives thebasic meaning of these words and their counterpartsin the Hebrew of the Old Testament as'a destroying, fighting, or murderous weapon'.Rhomphaia is 'a brandishing weapon, a sabre'.They are not utensils of a peaceful kind. Theonly passage in which machaira occurs whichgives rise to difficulties of interpretation is Luke22 : 36, where Jesus, in an apparent contradictionof his otherwise consistent attitude tothe sword and all that it stands for, says,"He that hath no sword, let him sell his garmentand buy one." Many and varied are theexplanations offered.The suggestion that Jesus is here beingironical may appear at first to be too naive anescape from the difficulty, especially in the lightof the Oxford English Dictionary definition ofirony as : "A figure of speech in which the intendedmeaning is the opposite of that expressedby the words used", or the definition in Bain'sEnglish Composition and Rhetoric, "Irony consistsin stating the contrary of what is meant,there being something in the tone or themanner to show the speaker's real drift."In quoting this definition, Partridge, in Usageand Abusage, warns that "irony must not beconfused with sarcasm, which is direct andmeans precisely what it says, in a sharp, bitter,cutting, or caustic manner. It is a weapon ofoffence, whereas irony is one of the vehicles ofwit." This last remark needs some modification,for the wit associated with irony is surely itsoffspring, not its parent. The intrinsic qualityof irony is its capacity to emphasise, and thereare more occasions than one when Jesus usesit. If we fail to recognise it, we remain asbaffled by his words as were the disciples.However superficial this suggested explanationmay appear at the outset, an investigationinto the context in which the words occur notonly confirms this interpretation but adds awealth of meaning to the immediate circumstancesin which the words were uttered, if notto the whole background of the Gospels.The cry of John the Baptist, "Behold theLamb of God which taketh away the sin ofthe world" stands out at the opening of theministry of Jesus as a sublime example of inspirationby which John epitomised theimmediate sacrificial mission of the Son inwhom God was well pleased. Such an acclamationwas surely the last thing the Jews wouldexpect to hear heralding their Messiah. Themission of John was a call not to arms, but torepentance. So was the call of Jesus. Both trodthe same unpopular way to death—each aloneand unrecognised. The statements made byAndrew and Philip recorded in John are surelynot a recognition of the Messiah based on theirown conviction, but are more like echoes ofwhat they had heard from their former master,John the Baptist. Dr. W. Temple puts it thus,"I am led to regard the striking confessions hereas ... outbursts of an exalted hope, rather thanformulations of settled convictions." 1 Itbecomes in fact the first task of Jesus to convincehis disciples that he is the Messiahpromised to Israel. In the first part of theGospel story, there are no references to hissufferings, and only once, when asked by thePharisees for a sign, does he refer to his deathand resurrection. The completion of this firststage of the ministry is reached in Matt. 16 : 16,1 W. Temple, Readings in St. John's Gospel,Ser. I. p.32.

The TESTIMONY 193when Jesus elicits from the disciples, throughPeter, the great confession : "Thou art theChrist, the Son of the Living God." This opensa new phase in the teaching of Jesus. Thespiritual education of the disciples has beendeveloped by Jesus to this deeply establishedconviction. Once satisfied that this phase ofhis ministry is accomplished, Jesus proceedsto introduce to them that aspect of Messiah'swork which involved his sacrifice. The buildingof the Church begins here ; the foundationstone, this rock-like conviction, was the basicprinciple on which Jesus, as the wise man ofhis own parable, could build his house of faithagainst which no wind of false doctrine, orstorm of controversy could prevail. And soJesus commences the arduous task of cultivatingin these convinced, loyal followers a faith thatwill withstand the most terrible trials that layahead : such a faith in fact as that of Abraham.Had he not himself had to face these sameconflicts in the wilderness, and had he notunhesitatingly resigned himself to his duty ?And so we read Matt. 16 : 21, "From that timeforth began Jesus to show unto his disciples howthat he must go unto Jerusalem and suffermany things of the elders and chief priests andscribes, and be killed and be raised againthe third day." Perhaps we fail to appreciatethe impact on the disciples of these now frequently-repeatedwords, because we neverreally consider their point of view in our preoccupationwith that of Jesus. It is usual to becontent with the view that they just did notunderstand, and therefore took little notice ofthese forebodings. Here and there however,there are clear indications that their attitudewas not one of passive indifference, but of agrowing opposition to any idea of Jesus allowingthe authorities to take and kill him. Peter'sreiterated protests are not outbursts of uncontrolledfeelings in the mind of an otherwisefaithful Christian. They are utterancesrevealing the fundamentally wrong attitude ofan underdeveloped disciple. "Thou savourestnot the things that be of God." 2 The discipleshave made up their minds that Jesus is thepromised King of Israel and the Son of God,that they themselves have been selected to sharethe government with him, that the kingdom isabout to be restored at any moment. Fromtheir point of view, the ethics, the commandments,and the sacrificial work of Jesus werequite meaningless; they were irritated wheneverJesus mentioned them. What mattered to themwas the restoration of Israel, the quicker thebetter, and an immediate decision (for surelythere was no time to lose) as to who was to bewho in the administrative offices which Jesushad promised them. "His (Peter's) confession,"he declared, "was a true revelation from God.But it was to remain a secret between him andthe Twelve. The joy of this confession, however,was immediately turned to bitterness.For Peter could not endure the new and terrifyinginterpretation which Jesus gave to hisMessiahship." 3The task of convincing Israel that he hadmerely the credentials of their King would havebeen relatively easy, because Israel sought aDeliverer ; but the concept of a way to salvationthrough suffering and death was the bitterestpill for any nation or individual to swallow.And Israel, and the disciples, and Peter refusedto swallow it. Time and time again, Jesusdrives home his lesson. "He pressed it (theconception of himself as the Suffering Servantof Isaiah) down upon the reluctant disciples assoon as ever they had confessed him as theChrist." 3 A significant point in this respect isthe way Jesus sharply steers a discussion onthe coming of Elias to this all-important topicof his own coming sufferings. 4 The prophetscertainly foretold the coming of Elijah as aharbinger. He had in fact already come. Jesusgoes straight to the fact that they had put himto death. They would do to their own Messiahprecisely what they had done to 'Elijah'. This,like all these statements, does not deflect themfrom their course. Jesus aptly describes thesituation in his words, "The spirit is trulywilling, but the flesh is weak." As we shall see,these words were not just a trivial commentupon their tiredness in the Garden ; they sumup the entire make-up of the disciples from theconfession to their conversion after the resurrection.They dearly wanted the Kingdom, butthey did not know the way to it. We find Jamesand John, of whom we might have expectedbetter things, asking Jesus to call down firefrom heaven to destroy a Samaritan village, asthey make for Jerusalem. Again, this is not alapse from their otherwise soberer manners.They simply knew not what spirit they were of.These two are the subject of a request thatthey might sit in the highest seats of honour inthe coming Kingdom.It is because of this failure of the disciples toaccept the sacrificial work of Jesus and therelated ethical teachings, that the references to2 Matt. 16 : 23.3 Gore, New Commentary p.290 (N.T.) TheTeaching of our Lord Jesus Christ,4 Matt, 17 ; 10-13,

194 The TESTIMONYhis coming death are reiterated, and the ethicaland moral exhortations are intensified.There are no fewer than a dozen direct orindirect statements about the coming sufferingsof Jesus in Mark's Gospel after ch. 8, v. 33.The occasions when Jesus predicts hiscoming sufferings seem regularly to follow suchMessianic manifestations as the Transfiguration,or such incidents as the approach to Jerusalem,as if always to offset their excited anticipationsof an immediate "coup." If Jesus knew not theday nor the hour of his coming in glory, hedid know that the cross preceded the crown.It took the resurrection of Jesus from death toteach them.As Jesus unfolds the Olivet prophecy of thefall of Jerusalem, it is as if he is still pressingupon them the folly of hoping for an immediatevictory. "There shall not be left one stonestanding upon another that shall not be throwndown . . . They shall fall by the edge of thesword . . . led away captive into all nations . . .Jerusalem ... trodden down of the Gentiles ..."Here was a test of their loyalty to him! Could theMessiah of Israel speak like this of the City andPeople of God ? Perhaps they saw a ray of hope,when he said, "Then shall they see the Son ofMan coming in clouds with power and greatglory, and when ye see these things begin tocome to pass, then lift up your heads for yourredemption draweth nigh", but their attituderemains solidly as before. And what could hehave meant, they wonder, when he hinted thatthe sufferings which he was to undergo mustalso spill over on to them—that they too wereto be betrayed, hated, put to death ?That none of these sayings fundamentallychanged the disciples is manifest from theevents and conversations in the Upper Roomwhen they assembled to celebrate the deliveranceof Israel. No doubt they came in themanner prescribed in the Book of Exodus,with their loins girded, their shoes on theirfeet, and staff in hand. There was about thePassover an inevitable atmosphere of patriotismcoupled with the deepest spiritual feelings,which no one but a Jew could fully appreciate.The air was charged with a rich sense of joyouspreparedness for a national awakening. It isagainst such a background that Jesus kneels likea slave and begins to wash their feet. Anythingless in keeping would be difficult to conceive.Peter protests in the strongest language. Jesusinsists with a subtle appeal to Peter's loyalty.Peter is won over, but his loyalty is purelypolitical or partisan, and knows nothing ofwhat he later calls "precious faith," This feetwashingagain is an impossibly hard lesson, andthe disciples fail once more. They have nogreater perception of what Jesus is doing forthem than his enemies. This is the measureof their comprehension, even at this late hour."As I said unto the Jews, 'Whither I go yecannot come'; so now I say to you !" The wayof self-denial, of non-resistance to the violenceof enemies was as closed to them as it was totheir compatriots. Jesus trod it alone. Peter,completely lost, asks, "Whither goest thou ?""Whither I go thou canst not follow me now ;but thou shalt follow me afterwards." Peterneeds sifting as wheat before he is converted,and Jesus has prayed for him that his faith failnot under the coming strain. Jesus says he willbe converted however. But Peter plungesblindly on. "Why cannot I follow thee now ?Lord, I am ready to go with thee both intoprison, and to death. I will lay down my lifefor thy sake !" When Israel celebrated thePassover, and the deliverance from Egypt, theyshould have recalled that the salvation was avictory of the Lord, not of themselves. Theywere assured of His guidance : "Not with thysword nor with thy bow." Peter had come tothe upper room ready for more than theprovisions of the Passover. He did not recognisethe Lamb which God had provided. Hisreadiness to die was that of a soldier for the newKing, in the spirit of true patriotism. But inJesus here, he met one with the same purpose,but with an entirely different end, for Jesus wasready to die for Peter, not as a soldier, but asthe Lamb of God. So Peter came to the Passover,and hence to the Supper, armed with asword. 5 Another disciple of the same brand ofloyalty did so too, but he is not named.Let us now look at all this from the point ofview of the man who not only deserted thecause of Jesus, but even betrayed him to hisenemies.Whatever were the convictions of JudasIscariot at the time of Peter's confession atCaesarea Philippi, it is certain that when heentered the Upper Room with Jesus to celebratethis Passover he had formed the irrevocableconclusion that Jesus of Nazareth was not theMessiah of his hopes. He could easily haveformed this opinion from the Olivet prophecy,and the reproof which he had received fromJesus at Bethany could easily have offended himbeyond reconciliation. For him the purse wasmore substantial than lessons about forgivenessand humility and love, and this utterly mads John 18 ; 10 ; Lk. 22 ; 38 a

The TESTIMONY 195insistence on martyrdom for the cause, whichJesus appeared to have developed since theirvisit to Caesarea Philippi. He may have knownthat Caiaphas was considering Jesus to be asource of the gravest danger to Israel. PerhapsCaiaphas was right. Three things were certain :Jesus was not going to take the city by force andproclaim himself King ; Judas was not goingto be his Treasurer : the rebuke at Bethany hadmade that quite clear ; the party of Jesus wasmanifestly about to break up, and who could saywhat his followers would suffer if Jesus wereexecuted ? It was clearly safer to throw in hislot with Caiaphas, and it was also lucrative.As they recline at the supper, Jesus, aware ofthis situation, begins to be troubled in spirit.Since Jesus never indulged in self-pity, thismust have arisen from a deep concern forJudas. Jesus could have prevented Judas fromdoing what he knew he would do, but theScriptures must be fulfilled and Jesus wouldhave been obliged to use force where precepthad failed. This was the one great tragedy ofthe Passion—the loss of the son of perdition."Woe unto that man by whom he is betrayed",says Jesus. Having no element of threat inthem (for "he threatened not"), these words canonly be interpreted as an expression of thedeepest solicitude for Judas. Jesus bestows thefinal honour, the last appeal, when he offershim the morsel reserved by custom for theguest of honour. But Judas is silently adamant.Here was a rich young man indeed ! And it wasJesus who was sorrowful, for the possessionsthat Judas coveted were thirty pieces of silver !Judas leaves, aware that Jesus knows exactlywhat he is doing. Was the wonder of thiscompletely stifled in the heart of Judas by hisutter contempt of Jesus's refusal to stop himby force ?The precise nature of the information whichJudas imparted to the Jewish authorities hasfrequently been the subject of surmisal. At atime when insurrections of one kind or anotherwere rife, it is scarcely conceivable that theauthorities would fail to ask Judas how muchphysical resistance to arrest might be expected,if not from Jesus himself, at least from hisfollowers. The general attitude of the disciples,together with the fact that two of them werearmed, gave to Judas valuable information.The extent to which the arrest party was armedis a reflection of their expectation of a struggle,if not with Jesus, then certainly with his armedfollowers. It must be borne in mind that eventwo armed men require a large, heavily-armedbody of men to overpower them efficiently.Jesus comments on this show of arms, 6 andmust have wished that his friends, by theirfolly, had not precipitated this ugly situation,for he was gentle and kind and hated the eviland violence of men. His disciples still"savoured not the things that be of God, butthe things that be of men."Jesus continues to reflect, troubled indeed bythe failure of Judas, and surely no less, by thepresence of the swords. What a situation !The first "breaking of bread" is celebrated witha betrayal and in the company of armed men,one of whom, Jesus knew, would stain hissword with human blood that night in a spiritof misguided loyalty. With meticulous accuracyhe tells Peter the details of how even that loyaltywould be shattered. 7 The temptations to whichthey had exposed themselves loomed perilouslynear, as Judas proceeded with his work. Thereflections of Jesus turn wistfully to the sunnierdays of the early ministry. 8 There were noswords then. Back in those days he had sentforth his disciples with power to heal and toprotect themselves against wild creatures, andhe had given them instructions on how tobehave ; they went with the wisdom ofserpents and the harmlessness of doves ; theywere sheep among wolves ; they would be hatedof all men, persecuted ; the sword that Jesusbrought was the symbol of the hatred of eventheir closest relatives and friends, which theywould experience for his sake. 9 Was it likelythat he would change these principles now ?He had in fact reiterated them in the Olivetprophecy a few hours earlier : they would bepersecuted, imprisoned, brought before kingsand rulers, betrayed by parents and friends ;some would be put to death. 1 ° He remindsthem of this early mission and of their experienceson the way, when they went evenwithout money, without scrip, without staff,wearing only sandals on their feet, and withonly one outer garment. "Did ye lack anything?" he asks. "Nothing", is the answer,for they had returned from this mission full ofjoy. If anything was changed now, it was notJesus and his principles. He thinks of Judasagain, betraying him for a purse, of the twodisciples armed with swords. "Then (pun—'therefore', the force of which excludes anycontradiction of his former instructions) saidhe unto them (i.e. because they had admittedthe efficacy of his former instructions). "Butnow, he that hath a purse, let him take it {JudasLk. 22 : 52. ? L k . 2'2 : 34.8 Lk. 22 : 35 ; 9 : 1-6.Matt. 10 : 34-36. «" Lk. 21 : 12-16.

196 The TESTIMONYhad already done so), and likewise his scrip : andhe that hath no sword, let him sell his garmentand buy one". (Once we appreciate the ironyas applied to Judas, it is manifest that the sameironical tone applies also to Peter and hiscompanion, and we learn from the remarks ofJesus, that in order to buy the swords, they hadparted with their precious outer garments.Peter must surely have reflected in the bitterdespair into which he was later cast, that hisouter garment, after all, would have served himfar better than the sword on that cold night.Jesus continues, "For I say unto you, that thisthat is written must yet be accomplished in me,and he was reckoned among the transgressors :for the things concerning me have an end".Now Mark draws attention to this quotationfrom Isaiah 53 as having its fulfilment in thecrucifixion between the two thieves. 11 Theswords had brought the disciples down to thelevel of those who, the next day hung forinsurrection, and though Jesus hated hisdisciples' motives, he loved them. His healingof Malchus removed all the evidence thatwould not only have hanged Peter on the crosstoo, but would have wrought havoc with thecase of Jesus himself. Though Jesus wasnumbered so intimately with transgressors, howgraciously he preserved himself from transgressions,and, as Paul could say for them all,"while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us."The discussion concerning the swords is stillnot ended. The disciples are quite incapable ofunderstanding the meaning of the words. Theytake Jesus quite literally, and naively draw hisattention to the swords of which he had beenspeaking. There is no more time for teachingor argument. It is the hour for earnest prayernow. He dismisses discussion with the words,"It is enough", and leads the way toGethsemane.11 Mk. 15: 28.The Book of Job (6)Cyril TennantELIHUDEFERENCE has already been made to ourbelief that Elihu was speaking on behalf ofGod, and since commentators give widelydivergent views on the subject, it is necessarynow that reasons should be advanced for ourinterpretation.The Higher Critical school, with typicalastuteness, resolved the problem by completelyremoving chapters 32 to 37 as a textual intrusion,whilst those who accept the text as itstands are sharply divided into some whocondemn Elihu as an arrogant, immatureyoung man, and others who accept him as averitable prophet of the Lord.Those who would expunge Elihu, do so byan argument extremely ingenious, though unconvincingand harmless. The presence ofElihu is said to disturb the balance of the Book ;indeed he can be removed without detractingin the slightest degree from its purpose andmessage. Further, no reference is made toElihu in Scripture outside the section thatconcerns him, nor is he referred to, or addressedby, any other character in the Book. All thismight seem plausible if there were not a completeabsence of any textual evidence for theverses being added at a later date. Logicallytherefore, the Elihu section should remain.Too often, as in this case, do learned mendevise a theory, and pervert the facts to makethem fit it. The God-fearing student whoseaim is to find the Truth will ask himself twoquestions only : Is the manuscript sound ?And if so, what does it teach ? As the text issound in this case, he proceeds to apply hismind prayerfully to discover the message of thetext.It readily becomes evident to the reader thateither Elihu does speak on behalf of God orhe is a wicked arrogant young man ; and whilstit may seem strange that one should have tochoose between two such extremes, one realisesupon reflection that the same has been true ofall God's great men. Had Jesus not been theSon of God, his claims would have made himguilty of blasphemy. Had not the Apostle Paulbeen a specially chosen vessel unto the Lord,he too would have been guilty of blasphemywith egotism. So the choice in respect to Elihuis the same ; either he is inspired of God, or heis making basely false claims. The fact thatElihu is not answered by God, the threefriends, or even by Job himself would suggestthat either he is being completely ignored or

The TESTIMONY 197accepted as a matter of course ; either hisclaims are too ridiculous to claim attention orhe is so utterly right that none dare answer him.Now let us study in detail the claims Elihuactually makes. "For I am full of matter, theSpirit within me constraineth me. Behold, mybelly is as wine which hath no vent; it is readyto burst like new bottles ..." The wordsexplicitly describe a man empowered by theHoly Spirit. In similar terms the prophet Amosdeclared : "The lion hath roared, who will butfear ? The Lord God hath spoken, who can butprophesy ?" So too, the words of Jeremiahlikened the message of God to a fire within hisbones that forced him to speak. In chapter33 : 6 Elihu says : "Behold I am according tothy wish in God's stead : I also am formed outof the clay". Thus, combining this referencewith chapter 36 : 2 he claims to be a mediator,who though mortal, speaks with the authorityand on behalf, of God.It is extremely difficult to imagine how suchclaims could go unanswered if they were nottrue. Job had severely contended with histhree friends and roundly condemned them forspeaking that which was false. God too, formuch less, calls the friends to repentance, buthas no word of reproof for Elihu. This remarkablesilence amongst those who were obviouslygiven to debate is significant, no less than thethunderstorm which God sends as an audibleassent to Elihu's words and, of course, tointroduce His own. Although Elihu's speechis presented with authority, it is blended witha touching humility as he waits patiently forthe opportunity to speak. And if our judgmentis right, he must have waited a long time !Finally, he only speaks when Job has silencedhis three friends by his arguments and insistedon justifying himself rather than God.In support of this viewpoint, a thoughtfulconsideration of Elihu's speech will reveal thathe had a different approach from that of histhree friends. They had condemned Job'sprevious life, whilst Elihu speaks only of Job'sframe of mind during his sufferings. Job's sinswere in their imagination, but Elihu was trueto the facts. The discourse of this inspiredinterlocutor now provides the setting for theintervention of God, Who reiterates the pointsmade by Elihu and brings the whole drama toa climax at chapter 40. The following comparisonswill show the resemblance betweenthe approach of Elihu and that of God :At chapter 38 : 1 God speaks out of the whirlwind,whilst in the earlier chapter 37 : 2-5 Elihuhad already hinted that it was arising during thecourse of his speech.At chapter 38 : 2 God accuses Job of havingspoken without knowledge, an accusation whichmust have applied to utterances during hisaffliction since he was pronounced "perfect"before. (Some would aver that God's disapprovalhere is levelled at Elihu rather thanJob. The opinion is disproved however by thefact that verse 1 explicitly says the words wereaddressed to Job, which is further confirmedby Job applying them to himself at chapter40 : 3-4 and 42 : 1-3). Elihu, speaking as webelieve under inspiration, had already atchapter 38 : 2 prepared Job for this rebuke.Chapters 33 : 12 and 34 : 16-19 record howElihu showed the futility of attempting toinstruct God, and this point is underlined byGod Himself at chapter 40 : 2.Both Elihu at chapter 35 : 2 and God atchapter 40 : 2 challenge the attitude of Jobin clinging tenaciously to his own righteousnessat the expense of the righteousness of God.At chapter 40 : 9-14 God now proceeds totake the points raised by Elihu a stage furtherand carry them to the spiritual climax of theBook when He establishes the principle thateven a man as "perfect" as Job cannot standbefore God to demand salvation. The righteousnessof this "perfect" man is dwarfed before theholiness of God, so that he can only preparehimself by humble contrition to become therecipient of God's saving grace (Chapter 42 : 10.James 5 : 11).THECONCLUSION"The whole written word is, then, inspired of God.""Open Thou mine eyes, Ο Lord, that I may see the wonders of Thy law !""Thy testimonies are wonderful, therefore doth my soul keep them. The entrance of Thy wordsgiveth light; it giveth understanding to the simple. I opened my mouth and panted, for I longedfor Thy commandments."—Gaussen.ENDEAVOURIn the making of any endeavour, Christian or otherwise, if it is to be worthy, it is not as importantthat we be better than "the other fellow", as it is that we be equal to our own "best,"

198 The TESTIMONYREVIEWSA Nation RebornNorman P. HoltEdited by F. WHITELEY7E have recently enjoyed reading anotherbook 1concerning the people of that landwhich, long ago, God described as "A landwhich the Lord thy God careth for (or seekethafter) ; the eyes of the Lord thy God are alwaysupon it, from the beginning of the year evenunto the end of the year." 2Whilst its background is wholly political,the fact that it touches the work of God withHis people, Israel, respecting their relation toHis land, brings it, of course, very muchwithin the scope of our special interest ; forwith the national redemption of natural Israel,the personal salvation of spiritual Israel is mostclosely related in the prophetically revealedplan of God. In fact Israel's own prophets bearmultiple testimony to the fact that the former isthe divinely appointed precursory sign of thelatter ; and Jesus to his followers confides manymatters that at the end of Jerusalem's downtreadingby the Gentiles, in a time of great andworld-wide fearful unrest and distress, theymay know how to interpret the shooting forthof the fig tree : the unmistakable budding ofIsrael nationally reborn :"Know that it is near, even at the doors.""Know ye that the Kingdom of God is nighat hand.""Look up, and lift up your heads ; becauseyour redemption draweth nigh.""But watch ye at every season, makingsupplication, that ye may prevail to escapeall these things that shall come to pass, andto stand before the Son of man." 3Richard Crossman, M.P., the author of thebook referred to, of the above title, was, to usehis own words, "pitched into the Palestineproblem by Ernest Bevin," as one of the twoBritish M.P.s on the Anglo-American Commissionof Enquiry in 1945—an experiencewhich enabled him to take part in the birth (orrather rebirth 4 ) of a nation, and also, to becomean intimate friend of Dr. Chaim Weizmann.The book, which is really an extended scriptof three lectures, given in 1959 in the Michaeland Anna Wix Auditorium of the WeizmannInstitute at Rehovoth, to a large and distinguishedIsraeli audience—gives us as saints(and therefore at once subjects and students ofthe ways of Providence) something of aninsight into the way in which God chooses mento guide events into His predetermined pattern.Its three chapters are entitled :(1) The Balfour Declaration. ChaimWeizmann.(2) The End of the Mandate. Ernest Bevin.(3) The First Ten Years of Independence.David Ben-Gurion covers the past forty vitalyears of Israel's history, and while, in the lastchapter, the personality of Ben-Gurion seemsto be merged into the progress of the first tenyears, in the first and second chapters the Menand the Hour can clearly be seen.The patriotic fervour of Nehemiah of old,breathes through four of Weizmann's letters :The first : To his schoolmaster, written atthe age of eleven.The second : To Churchill, in 1921—butnever sent.The third : To Ormsby-Gore andThe fourth : To the Chief Rabbi of Palestine,in 1946, when relations between theJews and the British were dangerouslyhostile.1Λ Nation Reborn. The Israel of Weizmann, Bevinand Ben-Gurion, by Richard Crossman, M.P.Hamish Hamilton, London. 140 pp. 8| •" χ of",12s. 6d.2Deut. 11 : 12.3 Matt. 24 : 33 ; Luke 21 : 24-36.4In fact, better (because truer) than either "birth"or "rebirth", would be "resurrection"—God'sown figure for His pre-Messjanic miracle of ourtime, (F,W.)

The TESTIMONY 199True Zionist that he was, he had a robustdislike of all Jews who allowed themselves to belost in the lands of their dispersion, preferringthe company of British Gentiles to that ofassimilated Jews.His ability to adapt himself to the varyingmoods of negotiations deeply impressedCrossman. He says that Weizmann had therare ability "to be able to charm three Britishstatesmen out of their usual concentration onnational self-interest and persuade them to takea great risk for the sake of a good cause. This isnot something the British have done very oftenin their history."That it was done in 1917 was due to thepersonality of a Russian-Jewish chemist whoout-argued Milner and out-charmed LloydGeorge and Balfour. In wartime, at the heightof their power, they looked into the tragic eyesof this Jew and felt their consciences stirred.Then, just when the tension was becoming alittle un-British, they found themselves laughing,because the next facet of Weizmann'scharacter was his humour : the most intenselyJewish I have ever experienced."And after that came the third transformation.The tragic Jew, the sardonic humorist,within a minute had been transformed into ascientist, cooling off his listeners with a doucheof sparkling analysis. No wonder few Britishpoliticians could resist him."Contrasting with this very adaptable Jew, wehave the character of the hard-headed BritishForeign Secretary, Ernest Bevin, who made themistake of looking upon returned Jews asmerely a religious community rather than as avirile, "new" nation. "What Ernest Bevinensured by his Anti-Jewish vendetta",Crossman tells us, "was that the State of Israelshould be compelled to fight a war of independencewithout the protection of a GreatPower."Yet, very soon, it was clear that the unnaturaland cruel conditions under which thenew nation was brought to birth had twoinestimable advantages. In the first place, thefact that the Jews of Palestine were compelledto fight and to win a war of independence,proved to the Western world that they wereindeed a nation !"In Britain it was widely held that the Jewswho had settled in the 'National Home' were areligious, or at least an ethnic, community, andtherefore not entitled to national self-determination."As far as I know, there is only one test ofwhether an ethnic community is indeed anation. That test is war. The community mustshow that it is worthy of nationhood by fightingfor its existence, even when the chances ofsurvival are small. It was Ernest Bevin, theman who believed that they were only areligious community, who compelled theYishuv to pass this test triumphantly."In the light of matters related and recordedin this book, it can truly be said that ifWeizmann was the man in God's plan to forgethe instrument of nationhood, Bevin the manto sharpen that instrument by his very opposition,then it was Ben-Gurion who used thatinstrument in a practical way to build up thereturning Jews, stone upon stone, into amodern Nation-State.In this book then, we see most strikinglyillustrated, how God, knowing the thoughts ofmen's hearts, with exactitude selects His menand places them at the right time, in thenecessary position, with the requisite authorityto work out His purpose. 55Λ profoundly true lesson which(1) Nebuchadnezzar learnt "the hard way": "thatthe Most High ruleth in the kingdom of men" ;(2) Israel herself, soon to discover that invincibilitymust be without self-sufficiency, will thenhumbly acknowledge : "that the heavens dorule"; and(3) All true Christians, bearing ever in mind, findto be a source of constant comfort enablingthem to receive at the hand of the Lord "good"and "evil" with undisturbed equanimity,through the certain knowledge of how "allthings" are made, by their loving Father, to"work together for good, to them that are calledaccording to His purpose." (F.W.)' TIGHT THE GOOD FIGHT""The warrior for the True, the Right,Fights in Love's name ;The love that lures thee from the fightLures thee to shame."—Aubrey de Vere,"SMALLTHINGS""Art little ? Do thy little well,And for thy comfort knowGreat men can do their greatest workNo better than just so/'Goethe,

200 The TESTIMONYMaking the Invisible VisibleD. A. B. OwenNCEEdited by D. A. B. OWENΛ NALOGIES, if not pressed too far, can•* *· provide valuable help in living the life thatGod requires of us. Let us see then what wecan gain by a brief consideration of the processof photographic development of a monochromenegative.On the exposure of a sensitive photographicemulsion on film or plate or paper to light, animage is formed which is latent, invisible andeasily destroyed. If it is to be of any use, itmust be developed. So in our spiritual experience,we (if we know the Truth) have beenexposed to spiritual light, and impressed uponour character is the latent invisible image of theLord Jesus. Is it still invisible ? Still latent ?In the photographic world there is a multitudeof developing solutions which we may use onour film. To a large extent the final beauty ofthe picture will depend on which one wechoose ; but these developers, though differingin detail in the results they give, all have onething in common. They render the invisiblevisible. They produce an image which men cansee. What developer must we choose to renderthe image of Jesus visible in our character ?Perhaps it will help if we examine a photographicdeveloper a little more closely. We havethe developing agent, the activator, the preservative,the restrainer. Now the mechanismof development is much too complicated todetail here, and in any case as yet it is onlyimperfectly known. But if we can find spiritualcounterparts to these chemical ingredients wecan perhaps improve our own development.Surely the finest spiritual developing agent iscontact with those of like precious faith.Communion with others in their joys andsorrows broadens the mind and deepens_thecharacter. What does a hermit know of theecstacy of sharing another's burden ? But thereis something deeper implied than attending themeetings often and making our friends insidethe Faith ; there is also contact with those oflike precious faith who walked this earth longago—the prophets, apostles, Jesus himself—through their writings and words. We suggestthen that our spiritual development may bestbe accomplished by not forsaking the assemblingof ourselves together, and by reading theword.Many developers will not work without anactivator ; in the spiritual sense, faith is theactivator, hope the preserver and love therestrainer. The first two analogies are obvious,we think ; without faith who would spend thetime in coming in contact with the developinginfluence of communion ? ; and hope, everpresent when we think on these things, preventsthe meetings and the reading of the Bible frombecoming stale and hence useless. But love asthe restrainer seems a trifle strange. On closeranalysis we see the beauty and truth of thelikeness, however. God's love restrains us fromtaking the ways of death, a father restrains hischild from some injurious action, the love ofthe brethren and sisters restrains us from doingwrong. Admittedly sometimes the urge isgreater than the restraint, but true Christianlove can conquer most evil things, given timeto act.But the way in which the restrainer in adeveloper acts is somewhat different. It retardsits action, and allows it to proceed at a controllablerate. Extremes both in the natural and thespiritual can be dangerous. No restraint producesa harsh yet muddy over-developed image

The TESTIMONY 201in the natural; it may easily produce a feelingof self-righteousness and self-sufficiency incharacter. Too much restraint however, gives athin washed-out image ; it warps the growthof character. We should follow the advice ofPaul, "Be temperate in all things", and so weshall be if we cultivate love.The gelatine used for holding the lightsensitivematerial in a film or plate is obtainedfrom calves' skin. It is often passed by indescriptions of the photographic process asalmost unworthy of mention. As a matter offact it is a most remarkable substance with manycharacteristics not only highly suitable for thepurpose to which it is put, but absolutelyessential. It confers sensitivity upon the silvercompounds used, by reason of an infinitesimalimpurity, which impurity is there because cowshave a liking for sulphur-containing plants. Ithas a porous structure which enables the largemolecules of developing agents to penetratereadily inside it, and yet it has sufficientstrength to resist the considerable physical andchemical forces which occur during developing.It is chemically resistant to developing agents,and it is transparent.The mind is the sensitive material on whichthe spiritual light works. Many minds act asthough completely insensitive to the light oftruth. They are not therefore amenable todevelopment or final judgment. Others breakdown under developmental stress. Others seemunable to absorb developer to any extent. Inall these cases except the first, an image will beformed which is imperfect. Indeed we have toadmit that perfection is never obtained. Thisis where faith helps. We believe that God isfull of compassion, that Jesus knows full wellour struggle as well as our imperfection, andthat when the time comes he can transform thethin under-exposed, under-developed image ofhimself, into a glorious picture ; he can giveus bodies and characters like unto his ownglorious body. Until that day dawns we aresubject to developmental stress. That the forcesinside the emulsion are very considerable isshown by the fact that, during development,the silver is extruded from the grain in the formof a thin ribbon. Development in the Truthis no exception. Stress and strain are everpresent. Wrestling with temptation, assailedwith doubts, weary with much work, patiencetried often.When development is complete, the photographerplunges the film into a fixingsolution. This dissolves out all the sensitivematerial which has not been developed. Sodeath treats our sensitive natures. All that wehave omitted to develop is irretrievablyremoved. And when Jesus comes and we risein the Resurrection, if we show an image of himworthy of further treatment, he will by hispower transform it from a negative to a gloriousand sparkling positive. # And here a curious andstartling fact becomes obvious. Those incidentsin our lives which seemed so black, the moreviolent stresses of our development, are nowtransformed from deep black to dazzling white,for it is only through much trouble and sacrificethat we can achieve a place by the side of Jesus."To him that overcometh will I give . . ." hepromises, and overcoming implies struggle.So let us continue to advance our developmentas best we can, so that when he comeswe will not be ashamed.*Our colleague E. W. Whittaker observes :On 2 Cor. 3 : 3 C. H. Waller writes, "We are theDivine negatives from which portraits of Christ aremultiplied."—(A. E. J.).Grant me to see, enmirrored, in the word,A face no more with Adam's image blurred;But cleansed each day from mottled marks ofsin,A likeness to the Lord's all pure within.REFLECTIONSA PrayerTeach me to see, whenever I do sup,And taste the wine, reflecting in the cup ;The Saviour's form suspended on the tree,And there he hung and shed his blood for me.—Harold TennantHelp me to see in waters dark or clear,A figure of the One Who knew not fear ;And in the gold made liquid and refined,A semblance of the Christ in death resigned.

202 The TESTIMONYThe Great Jerusalem Assize (1)Hubert W. CraddockEdited byH.W. CRADDOCKΕ JUDGES of Israel! In his openingaddress for the prosecution of the prisoner,Adolf Eichmann, the Attorney General, hasmade an impassioned speech, frank, truthfuland with unfeigned sincerity, unfolding therebythe story of the deliberate attempt by Germany'sformer rulers to exterminate the Jewish peopleof Europe, and of the responsibility of theirprincipal executant standing there in the dockbefore you. His sordid record, some of whichwe recount here, has disclosed to a horrifiedworld the criminal conspiracy to effect theutter destruction of a Nation. By a calculateddecision known as the * 'Final Solution" taken bythe Nazi rulers, and by painstaking planningon the part of those to whom the concept ofthe crime was entrusted for execution, millionsof innocent men, women and children have beenimprisoned, starved, tortured and murdered inmost appalling circumstances. Of what mostfoul crime then, were such people deemed tobe guilty ? Judges of Israel, they were Jews !Of your clemency please permit this "Watchman"in Israel—himself a member of adevotional Community of Gentiles whosereligion is identified with the true Hope ofIsrael—to recapitulate some of the loathsomeevidence already submitted to you. Our objectsin so doing are several. Mr. Ben Gurion, yourPrime Minister, has declared the object of thistrial now taking place in Jerusalem. Additionalto the arraignment of Eichmann, it is an indictmentof an unheeding world which refused tolisten for the space of sixteen years. Today thatsame world is transfixed and gripped withhaunted horror.My co-religionists, known as Christadelphians,have proclaimed publicly for over acentury that your own nation has beenpunished, scattered and peeled throughouttheir history, by reason of their hardness ofheart in rejecting the counsels of the God ofIsrael. Basing our evidence from your ownProphets, we have taught in the ears of allpeople who would give heed that "Jacob'sTrouble" was of a definite time period ; thatalthough God had made an end of othernations, He would not make a full end of yours.It is our profound conviction gathered from therecord of your own Scriptures that that Onewhom you crucified and hanged from a treenearly 2,000 years ago, is, in truth, yourrightful King ; and that the day is at handwhen the God of Abraham your great forefather,will send Jesus Christ—whom theheavens have received meantime—until thesetimes of Restitution. We believe God that itshall be even as it was told that your Messiahwill re-establish the throne of his father Davidin Zion ; in which day "the Lord shall makethee the head, and not the tail ; and thou shaltbe above only, and thou shalt not be beneath."We hope later to be allowed to deal in greaterdetail of that glorious destiny awaiting areformed and regenerated people of Israel.This "Watchman" asks also to be placed onrecord that any reproach might be removed,if such be deemed even necessary, that theremay be a tendency among any of his ownCommunity to treat what is now shown to bethe most bestial crime ever committed, inmerely objective terms, or to reduce this subjectto the level of a printed article of faith only.I am not judging unfairly, neither am I pleadingthat every reference to "Jacob's Trouble" beaccompanied by a recital of harrowing details.I do feel most strongly that this shameful storyof Jewish blood being shed like water by the

The TESTIMONY 203"TOGETHER WITH MEHERE ARE 6,000,000PROSECUTORS . . .THEIR BLOODCRIES OUT,BUT THEIR VOICEWILL NOT BE HEARD.I SHALL HAVE TOBE THEIRSPOKESMAN."—Gideon Hausner,Attorney GeneralAcknowledgmentstoAssociated Nezvspapersminions of the monster Eichmann now standingbefore you, should find a permanent placein all its stark horror in Christadelphianliterature.The third point on which I would beg leaveto treat later, is that of the breakdown ofBritish responsibility to carry out the terms ofher obligations under the mandate given by theUnited Nations' Organisation ; and in so doing,to remove thereby serious misconceptionswhich have existed for many decades as to theprophetic destiny of what used to be theBritish Empire in relation to the return of theJewish people to their ancient Homeland.With this preamble, may I be permitted toproceed ?In accordance with the commission set to aWatchman of the house of Israel to "declarewhat he seeth", we published an importantanticipation exactly twelve months ago basedupon a scriptural statement recorded in 2 Kings25 : 27 stating that "the king of Babylon in theyear that he began to reign lifted up the head ofJehoiachin king of Judah out of his prison ;spoke kindly to him ; and set his throne abovethe throne of the kings." Why was such acomparatively unimportant occurrence to receivespecial mention ? Why was the daterecorded so meticulously ? It corresponds to atime in modern reckoning as the middle ofMarch, 560 B.C. Students of the Scripturesare familiar with the Divine architecture of thecalendar into epochs of 2520 years, or "sevenprophetic times". Commencing this particulartime-cycle with the indictment of Jehoiachin in560 B.C. we saw its ending in A.D. 1960, hencewe wrote : "One dares to hope that someparallel favour might happen whereby Israel'shead may be lifted up also among thenations."An amazing affirmation of the correctness ofanticipation was provided on May 12th 1960—the exact date when our notes were beingpublished—with the arrest in Buenos Aires ofAdolf Eichmann, and the subsequent arrangementof this trial in Jerusalem with the declaredobject of documenting Israel's affairs and confrontingthe nations of the world with the"Sign of Jewry" ! The details of Israel'scenturies-long sufferings are being madeabundantly clear to both Jew and Gentile ;while Hitler's "Final Solution" is front pagenews in every country, in every language,compelling people of whatever creed, colour orrace they may be, to become aware of what hastranspired, and to ask with your AttorneyGeneral, "WHY" ?Judges of Israel ! Your Prime Minister hasinsisted that his object in authorising this trialis to put the Jewish tragedy into the HistoryBook. May we say with the greatest respectthat it has already appeared in the Bible progressivelyfor about 3,000 years, but that veryfew people, including those of your ownNation, will take the time and the trouble toread it!

204 The TESTIMONYTHE TRIALAccused :Adolf Eichmann. Aged 56.Former head of Gestapo's Department for Jewish Affairs.Judicatory :Supreme Court Justice Moshe Landay, President Judge Benjamin Halevi, JerusalemCourt President Judge Yitzhak Raveh, Tel Aviv District Court.Prosecuting :Dr. Gideon Hausner, Attorney General of Israel.Defending :Dr. Robert Servatius, German lawyer from Cologne.This "Watchman" is very conscious of thefact that this trial now being conducted sinceApril 11th of possibly history's most evil manis in the same City which tried and unjustlycondemned the most holy man who ever lived.We recall that Mr. Ben Gurion's voice almostbroke with emotion when he announced in theKnesset the arrest of Eichmann and that hewould be placed on trial in Jerusalem. "Justice,not Vengeance !" was his passionate cry.Clearly he is concerned that the trial shall beirrefutable evidence of history that may bethought incredible in a few years' time.This momentous trial is taking place nearly2,000 years after a Trial even more momentousfor the human race. That trial was not Justice,but Vengeance. Also may a notation be madethat on the first occasion the rulers of the Jewsspeeded up the accusation so that they mighteat the Passover. Eichmann's trial, however,was postponed from its original date (March15th) so that the rulers of present-day Israelmight first observe the Passover. Interesting,and with great respect, very significant!In his opening speech, Mr. Gideon Hausnerstated for the prosecution : "Jewish sufferingis not new, the history of the Jewish people issteeped in pain and tears." He paused frequentlyto enquire, "How could this havehappened ?" May we with the greatest respectremind the Attorney General of Divinewarnings given thirty centuries ago : "Behold,I am bringing such evil upon Jerusalem andJudah, that whosoever heareth of it, both hisears shall tingle."# # #"I do not stand here alone, Judges of Israel,to accuse Adolf Eichmann. Together with mehere are six million prosecutors, but theycannot rise to their feet and cry out towardshim who sits there. They cannot do so becausetheir ashes are piled up in the fields of Auschwitzand Treblinka, and their graves arescattered all over Europe. Their blood criesout, but their voice will not be heard. I shallhave to be their spokesman, and in their nameI shall submit here the horrible indictment."With these words, the Israeli Attorney Generalhas opened the prosecution's case againstEichmann. Many people in court wept as thetale of unparalleled horror, a brutality withoutprecedent, a sullying of all spiritual values,of crimes never equalled in bestiality in worldhistory, were recited.As this trial proceeds, it exposes to the fullthe great enigma of man's inhumanity.Eichmann is a symbol of the hatreds andunspeakable hideousness of the late NaziGermany. A sickened world is made to wonderhow ever it became possible for a nation of veryrational men and women of this 20th centuryto become systematically perverted to the pointof dehumanisation. One recoils at the perfectionreached in the science of massacre. Theblack art of mass extermination stands epitomisedin that accused man who has made themost cynical and terrible remark in history :"/ shall leap into my grave laughing because thefeeling that I have the deaths of six millionpeople on my conscience will be for me a sourceof extraordinary satisfaction /" In his memoirsdictated to a German journalist in 1956, theprisoner is quoted as adding : "I believe thatif I had killed all the 10,000,000 Jews thatHimmler's statisticians listed originally in 1933,I would say, 'Good, we have destroyed anenemy'."But more is on trial than this fiend in human

The TESTIMONY 205guise now brought before you. Eichmann ismore than the executant of the "Final Solution"decreed by his German overlords. This trial isfirstly a cold detached assessment of the Naziera from 1933 to 1945, a generation whichparticipated, which condoned, or just did notcare about it. It is meant to be a purposiveeducative spectacle in the eyes of the world,as well as an act of justice.Your Prime Minister regards this Assize asa slice of history, a demonstration of the unparalleledexperience which your people haveundergone. It is to be a Token and a Sign,not merely of martyrdom under Hitler, but of"Jacob's Trouble" throughout the ages. Mr.Ben Gurion has resolved that the State of Israelnow sitting in judgment shall be recognised bythe nations for what it is—a regathering of theOutcasts of Israel and the Dispersed of Judahfrom the four corners of the earth.This lesson is being directed particularly tothe "Sabras", the native-born youth of Israel sothat this truth may never be forgotten. Thenew generation of Jewry must be shocked intorecognising the facts, and, by being remindedof what their fathers have endured, know thatthey themselves belong to a persecuted andscattered people—scattered, not by reason offortuitous adversity, but by reason of what yourown Prophets had decreed centuries ago. Asif to enforce the lesson, the mourners whoassembled on the "Day of Holocaust" duringthe first week's hearing of this trial have heardthe dramatic passages quoted from yourprophet Ezekiel concerning the resurrection ofthe dry bones in the Valley. How the ancientprophecy assumed vivid new meaning for somefor the first time ! "Thus saith the Lord God ;Come from the four winds, Ο breath, andbreathe upon these slain, that they may live."It is against all the changes and the challengesin a speed-paced world of news, that thisWatchman desires to place irrefutable factsbefore you, Ο Judges of Israel, no less significantbecause you have already heard someof them from the lips of the Prosecutor, butbecause those who may read, may see them setdown against their historic context, andcharted with clarity against their long-termprophetic significance. The subject of thefulfilment of Messianic prophecy is not admittedin this Court, but it certainly is in aHigher One. It has, and will be used inevidence by us as far as your people and nationare concerned.By means of this judicial occasion, theleadership of world Jewry has been firmlyestablished where it rightly belongs—not inLondon, Paris or New York, or even Berlin, butin the State of Israel and its capital city,Jerusalem. Mr. Ben Gurion has observed withtruth that the only true Zionist is the Jew wholives in Israel. Under political pressure fromthe influential, affluent Jewish community inthe U.S.A., your Prime Minister modified hisoriginal statement that it is a violation of hisreligion for a Jew to remain outside Israel. Ina subsequent statement issued to the honoraryPresident of the American Jewish Committee,Mr. Ben Gurion re-affirmed that Israel will notinterfere with the internal affairs of "Jewishcommunities abroad", and that "the emigrationof Jews to Israel is at their own free discretion."We shall submit in due course that his originalestimate is the correct one.In face of legal quibbling as to Israel's rightto sit in judgment upon Eichmann, in spite ofequivocations from anti-Semites in manycountries of the world, the legal identificationof Jewry in every age, in every state, is essentiallytrue with Israel of today. The population ofyour country now exceeds two millions, but itis still a minority against the total aggregate ofJewry. The nationalistic connotation "Israeli"is coming to mean only a son of Abraham whoresides in the State of Israel. One prays thatfurther persecution may not be the sole dynamicby which further immigration will be stimulated.We pray that Israel of the ghettos andpogroms now belongs to a cruel past; but itmust be regretfully admitted that once themoral crime of genocide is ended, the enthusiasmfor Zionism withers among the very peopleconcerned !The story has already received world-widenotice of the kidnapping of Eichmann on theoutskirts of Buenos Aires on May 13th 1960.By meticulous timing, the drugged captive wasflown out of the airport at midnight, theBritannia 'plane having been cleared fordeparture by the duty officer for that day, whohappened to be a Jew ! Three days later,Eichmann stood handcuffed in the dock atJaffa, self-confessing to his identity. On the dayof his arrest, a secret message had been flashedto Mr. Ben Gurion, which decoded read : "Theman is THE MAN. The beast is in chains."Defending the admitted illegality of thekidnapping, the Israeli Prime Minister appealed: "There was a supreme moraljustification for this act. Try to understandwhat it means to any people to be the victim ofsuch a Satanic wave of assassinations !"Judges of Israel ! These bereaved witnessesappearing before you are being forced to relivean experience beyond all human understanding.


The TESTIMONY 207JEWISH WOMEN,DEADFROM BRUTALITY,AWAITING BURIALMEN BEING SHOTKNEELING AT GRAVE'S EDGEBY LAUGHING EXECUTIONERSVICTIMS,DEADBY STARVATION,AWAITING BURIAL2,000 "S.S." men carried out their Satanic tasks.20,000 male and female Gestapo guards operated the Concentration and Slave-labourCamps.100,000 Nazi sadists were employed under the Eichmann organisation. Only 20%of those who participated in systematic torture and butchery of the Jews wereapprehended. The vast majority having gone underground, are still at large andunrepentant of their part in the greatest mass-murder ever perpetrated inhistory,

208 The TESTIMONYTHE JEWS IN EUROPEHow well the Nazis succeeded in their devilish aim to make Europe Judenrein (emptiedof Jews) is shown by the following table compiled 16 years later by the World JewishCongress dealing with countries occupied by Germany :CountryPolandGermanyAustriaHungaryCzechoslovakiaRumaniaHollandBelgiumYugoslavia ....GreeceFranceItalyJews in 19333,300,000550,000190,000400,000315,000850,000150,000100,00075,00075,000320,00057,000Jews in 196130,00030,00010,00080,00018,000180,00023,00033,0006,5006,000300,00030,000Totals : 6,382,000 746,500Your country's Minister for Foreign Affairs,Mrs. Golda Meir has asked : "Who can encompassthis picture in all its horror and itsconsequences for the Jewish people for manygenerations to come and for Israel ? Those whoremained alive live in a nightmare recollection."We say "Amen" to that, for have the passingyears dulled their memories ? Their dead arestill unburied. The ghosts still walk. What hastthou done, Nazi Germany ? Thy brother'sblood crieth unto God from the ground !We desire to place on record the sympathetichelp given us by the Director of the WeinerLibrary for the photographs reproduced in thesepages. People might ask, "How came it thatthese murderers kept such self-condemnatoryrecords of their gruesome handiwork ?" Duepossibly to the well-known German mentalityfor systematic documentation, this horrifyingpictorial confirmation of murder, torture andhuman degradation was placed on file. Whilemuch of the damning documents was burnt bythe enemy retreating before the victorious Alliesin 1945, a large quantity of records werecaptured bjfore the evidence could be destroyed.Many dossiers were found on deadS.S. guards shot by the Allied troops advancingfrom the East and West.No excuses are offered by us to our readersfor reproducing just a fragment of the revolting,palpable testimony of the Nazi plan forGESAMTLOESUNG (the Final Solution).Countries listed for this "final solution" included—besides those already groaning under theNazi yoke—Britain, Ireland and Sweden, whilsta pact had been made by Eichmann with theArab Mufti of Jerusalem for all Jews in Palestineto be exterminated, once Nazi victory wasassured.Yet even some of the photographs of thehandiwork of Eichmann's hirelings seen by thisWatchman are too terrible to reproduce alongwith those shown on pages 206 and 207. Amongthose we would like to forget is that of a liveJewish captive whose head is being graduallycrushed under a steam hammer, while his eyeballsand brains are gushing out from his slowlycracking forehead. Another is of a prisonerbound face downwards on a leather stool andbeing whipped to death by S.S. brutes, whilethree other fear-crazed captives whose turn isnext are forced to look on ! Possibly the mostgrisly exhibit is a shrunken mummified head ofsome poor unfortunate Jew, mounted on awooden base, actually used as a paper-weighton the desk of the camp commandant atBuchenwald.Small wonder that the audience in your Hallof Judgment groaned as the prosecution turnedback the pages of history. Tears filled the eyesof spectators and reporters alike ; and even thepolice guards were visibly affected. "There wasonly one man concerned solely, almost as abusiness, in the extermination of the Jews, andthat was Adolf Eichmann", exclaimed theAttorney General! The prisoner sits in the

The TESTIMONY 200dock meanwhile, entirely unmoved by therecital of the evidence against him. Accordingto his lawyer, Dr. Servatius, the accused hassuffered two slight heart attacks since hiscapture, due to worry, it is said—not becauseNemesis has overtaken him—but because he isworried about a prediction supposedly made bya South American soothsayer that he will notlive beyond his 57th birthday in March 1963.The prosecutor has spoken of babies beingsnatched from their mothers, hurled into theair and caught on the end of bayonets. Headded : "You will hear testimony that thehuman mind refuses to believe in." One tinychild, for example, was torn from its parent'sarms, its head smashed on the stone pavement,and then handed back to the mother with acallous laugh, "There's your child, Jewishswine !" Another new-born babe was snatchedfrom its young mother and its little limbsripped off with no more compunction than if ithad been a rag doll. While the sobbing,demented mother on her knees hugged to herbreast the tiny limbs and the pieces of tornbleeding flesh, she herself w r as shot like ananimal.Mr. Gideon Hausner has told this hushedcourt of the death march of Hungarian Jewsorganised by Eichmann in 1944. Thousands ofall ages, of both sexes, were forced to trampthrough the snow. The lame and the feeblewere shot on the spot; others, lagging behindthrough weakness and hunger were mercilesslybeaten and tortured. Hundreds committedsuicide en route, or collapsed and died by theroadside. Corpses littered the country like fliesand the snow was crimsoned with blood.The Court has heard of men, women andchildren being driven to a place of execution,made to kneel in front of their graves, and shotin the back of the head by laughing guards.The mind reels at the account of Jews closelywedged standing erect in a gigantic grave atBelsen with only their heads visible. Theexecutioner was an S.S. man who sat unconcernedlyat the side of the huge trenchsystematically firing his machine gun while alighted cigarette dangled from his lips. Thenext batch of victims was driven into the pitover the bodies of the others, and similarlymurdered. Then the earth was shovelled overthe dead, dying and living alike.One Jewess who managed to escape has toldthe Court : "There was a kind of fountain ofblood spurting from the ground, the surface ofwhich was heaving horribly from the strugglesof some of the buried who had life still left inthem." Ο Judges of Israel! do not yourScriptures come to mind, "Earth, cover not thoumy blood, also now, behold, my witness is inheaven, and my record is in the high places."Speaking slowly and with his voice laden withemotion, Mr. Hausner has said : "The prosecutionwould be able to do no more than givea pale reflection of the enormous human andnational tragedy which occurred to Jewry in thisgeneration." Yes ! strong stomachs are neededto digest this most abominable tale of man'sinhumanity to man that has ever been heard.It is sheer, stark tragedy with no mitigatingcircumstances.Sworn evidence has been given by eyewitnessesin this Court of Polish Jews, wearingtheir "kaftans" and prayer shawls, being madeto kneel in the streets and to raise their arms toheaven in supplication. Nazi soldiery thenpoured petrol over them and set them alight.A survivor of the Auschwitz terror has toldthe court that, as a child prisoner when twelveyears of age, he actually saw some famishedcaptives snatch the bodies of the newly deadand devour their raw flesh. Can degradationgo any lower than enforced cannibalism ?One of the most shattering experiencestestified before you was the deportation everyTuesday to the Westerbork death camp. Theroll-call of the doomed for each particular weekwas always called at 3 o'clock in the morningby the Gestapo sadists. There was deathlysilence in the dark as the names of the tremblingvictims were called out, but the tension andfear were unimaginable throughout the wholecamp as to whose name was to be called next !Sworn evidence has been placed before youof the barbarous practice in Bucharest, whereRumanian Jews were slaughtered in batches inthe city abattoirs, after which their bodies weresuspended from hooks with the sign, "KosherMeat".Possibly the foulest blot on the Germannation was the actions of her medical profession.Doctors stand accused of using Jewish victimsfor "guinea-pig" experiments which resulted inmost painful and horrible deaths. Supplies ofliving women prisoners were made available tomedical concerns for experiments with newdrugs. Letters from the world-famous drugfirm of Farben-Fabrieken BAYER, A.G. ofLeverkrusen/Rhein written to the camp commandantof Auschwitz have been read out tothis Court, and published in some newspapersreporting on the trial. The callousness of itpasses all understanding and I am reproducingextracts as printed :

210 The TESTIMONYTo the Camp Commandant, Auschwitz :"We should be grateful if you would supply150 women for experiments with a newsleeping drug . . ."We acknowledge your reply. The price of200 marks per woman seems excessive. Wecannot offer more than 170 marks . . ."We have received the consignment of 150women. Despite their poor physical conditionwe have decided they will suit us ..."The experiments have been carried out.All the test cases have died. We shall contactyou shortly re. a further supply."If you have tears, prepare to shed them now.A French-Jewish professor has shocked anddumbfounded you with the story of 4,000Jewish children between the ages of two andtwelve, forcibly parted from their parents andtaken to a camp at Drancy near Paris, andpenned up like cattle. They slept on straw fullof vermin. There was no heating, no soap, noclean clothes, the water was ice cold. Thebabies would cry for their mothers and hold onto the older children who were too terrified tomake a sound. At the beginning of September1942, Eichmann issued terse orders, "Let themroll." All those 4,000 innocent children weretightly packed, standing up in sealed boxcarsand transported to "Somewhere in Germany".Actual destination unknown : no-one ever sawany of them alive again."Why, why, why were Jews subjected to allthese sufferings ?", the prosecution has asked.Nothing like this happened even in the darkestdays of Sennacherib or the Spanish Inquisition.Prisoners in the camps were driven out to toilat 4 o'clock in the morning ; they returned inthe evening exhausted, wounded and carryingtheir dead comrades who had been shot by theguards. S.S. men at Buchenwald were grantedthree days leave plus a ten-mark bonus forevery Jew they shot—and full well they madeuse of this devilish bonus system.Young women were compelled to play"roundabouts" and forced to run naked aroundthe barrack square before the sniggeringsoldiery, until they dropped from exhaustion.Water was poured into people's ears ; fingernails were torn out; prisoners starved untilthey went out of their minds. We have no rightto forget or ignore what happened. Outcast,scorned, wretched beyond words yet robed ineternal dignity, the Jew survives as the perpetual"J* accuse"—a monument to the malice andmalevolence of his fellow human beings.The secret of the atrocities has been laid bare,said Mr. Hausner, and humanity must fulfil thedying injunction of an anonymous poetess whowrote, before being put to death in Auschwitz :"There is no more hope in amongthe barbed wire, under the ruins,And our dust is scattered in the dustout of the broken jars . . .Our army will go forth, skullboneand jawboneAnd bone to bone, a merciless line,We the hunted, the hunters,Will cry out to you ;'The murdered demand justice at yourhand'."# * *A granite Memorial stands now on the siteof the infamous slave camp at Buchenwald, onthe stone plaques of which are engraved ineternal token, scenes of the Holocaust of Israel.The very stones cry out as a reminder of whatungoverned hatred and power can lead to.Never did the world stand more in needof such a reminder. Handfuls of earth havebeen assembled from the various camps ofEichmann's barbarism, and the displays arededicated to the memory of all the sons ofAbraham whose lives were taken from them.This then, Ο Judges of Israel, is the story, themeaning of your impeachment of AdolfEichmann. Your Prime Minister has wiselydecreed that these nameless dead shall not havedied in vain. Their sufferings have beengranted the gift of remembrance. Theirpoignancy has been given life, yes, even in themodest oages of this magazine ; vivid as thosescreams in the night.How long will such humiliations be heard ?How long will such sufferings be seen beforeJudah's sorrows cease ? Their tribulationswere so great, the number of the slain so many,that sane men cannot or will not comprehendor remember for long. No punishment onearth can be adequate retribution for the crimesof which the prisoner stands accused. Summaryexecution would be something of an anticlimax,although there would be a certainpoetic justice were this modern Haman tofollow the example of his infamous predecessor,that Agagite who sought to encompass thegenocide of the Jews in Persia nearly 3,000years ago, and to hang from a gallows 50 cubitshigh.In his summing-up, your Attorney Generalconcluded : "Adolf Eichmann's guilt lies in theplanning, initiation, organisation and executionof the crimes specified in this indictment. TheJudges will pronounce true and righteousjudgment." Ο ye Judges of Israel ! Is it not alsowritten : "VENGEANCE IS MINE : 1WILL REPAY, SAITH THE LORD !" ?

The TESTIMONY 211Out of the DustARCHEOLOGYGleaningsJ. Geoffrey M. ThomeEdited by F. E. MITCHELLTHE DEAD SEA SCROLLSΤ Τ has come as a tremendous surprise to many•*• that the Jordan Government decided onMay 1st not to permit the now famous DeadSea Scrolls to be shown abroad, according to areport from Amman the capital of Jordan.A ministerial committee comprising theJordanian Foreign, Education, Finance andPublic Works Ministers was appointed toconsider whether their Government couldallow the famous scrolls to be loaned to foreignmuseums. They banned exhibition in anyother country but Jordan. They had receivedmany requests from foreign museums forpermission to exhibit them. xMoscow Studies the Dead Sea ScrollsAn astounding report from Moscow datedApril 25th and headed "Scrolls 'Disprove'Christ" appeared on April 26. 2This reportquotes from a radio broadcast from Moscow onApril 25th in which it was claimed that theDead Sea Scrolls provide proof that Christnever existed ! The radio said that when thescrolls were discovered in 1947, "certainbourgeois scholars saw in the documents proofthat Christ was an historical figure." "But ithad turned out that the Teacher of Righteousnessof the Qumran scroll w r ho so resemblesthe Christ of the Gospels, had in reality livedabout 100 to 150 years before the time whenChrist was supposed to have been born."After his death his followers believedthat he would return to the world tojudge those who rejected his teachings.The radio talk sums the whole matter upby stating, "Thus the documents not onlyfailed to confirm that Christ had lived on earth,but, on the contrary, have helped to reveal howlegends about a non-existent Saviour have beenformed."(It should be pointed out that very few, ifany, students would endeavour to identify theTeacher of Righteousness with Jesus.—F.E.M).Judean Desert ExpeditionReports are now coming in ( 3and 4 ) ofsome exciting finds by this year's JudeanDesert Expedition which consists of four teamsmaking up a large archaeological expeditionscouring caves in search of biblical scrolls inthe Judean wilderness west of the Dead Sea.One of the finds was a large bundle of ancientHebrew parchment fragments which, togetherwith some eighty documents which weie foundon March 16th in another cave, will bedeciphered when the expedition returns toJerusalem at Easter. It is reported that Dr.Yohanan Aharoni, one of the team leaders anda lecturer at the Hebrew University, believesthat the tomb dates back to the early sixthcentury B.C.Professor Yigael Yadin is another leader of ateam which is digging in the district ; andamong the latest finds he has shown, apart fromthe papyri, are a pair of leather sandals "sowell preserved that one can step right intothem", a wicker basket stated to be "as newas out of a city shop", together with jewellery,Roman-made copper vessels and countlessother trophies all dating to the second centuryA.D.The later report 4stated that although thefour leaders of the 160-man expedition wouldnot commit themselves until the treasures hadbeen examined and studied, they did includea hoard of 436 chalcolitic brass, ivory, and flintfigurines and utensils. In addition five documentstightly rolled like cigars and a bundle of60 wrapped in layers of rags were found in the"caves of letters". They are, says ProfessorYadin, from the same period as the Bar Kochbadocuments found at the same place last year.The Professor is repoited as saying thatthree documents belong to the archives of thearea in the command of Bar Kochba at Eingeddiin the second century B.C. during the Jewishrevolt against the important Roman forti ess.The papers are written by the same person,deal with the same subject, and are all datedthe second Kislev of the third year of ShimonBar Coseba (Kochba).1The Evening News and Star, May 2, 1961.2Daily Express, April 26, 1961.1Daily Express, March 20, 1961.4 Daily Express, April 3, 1961,

212 The TESTIMONYmmEdited by JAMES CARTERNotes on the Daily ReadingsLiving of the Gospel (1 Cor. 9 : 14)Paul rightly argues that, in view of thework he is doing, and having "sown to themspiritual things" then it is permissible to "reaptheir carnal things," and that "they whichpreach the gospel sheuld live of the gospel."If any feel disposed to use this argument atthe present time, it is well to remember that,however right it may have been, Paul did notdo it y but rather he said, "I have laboured withthese hands that I might be chargeable tonone of you." How much stronger was hisposition when that was his attitude to life andto the preaching of the gospel!# # #Paul's similes (1 Cor. 9 : 24)In the Olympic Games—held every fouryears, and which constituted a means of datingin Grecian life—one only could receive theprize, and that was a perishable one, eventhough the garland was made of evergreenlaurel leaves. In the Christian race, in contrastto the above, many can receive the prize, andthat is an incorruptible crown of life for evermore.Then in the last few lines of chapter9 Paul changes the figure from that of therunner to that of the boxer. "I buffet mybody" he says, lest "having preached to othersI myself should be a castaway" (changing hisfigure for the third time); his remark givesadditional proof that only those who endureto the end will be the subjects of salvation.# # #Given for examples (1 Cor. 10)In verse four, for ". . . . the spiritual rockthat followed them . . .," the best authoritiesread " . . . the spiritual rock that followedit . . .," the "it," of course, having referenceto the spiritual meat of verse three.Paul then exhorts against five things that wereat that time outstanding weaknesses of theflesh, viz., lust, idolatry, immorality, tempting,and murmuring or grumbling. For each ofthese besetting sins he refers to Old TestamentJames Carterexamples, and then adds, ". . . These werewritten for our admonition upon whom theends of the age are come." The "age" herefers to is the Jewish age, terminating inA.D. 70, but the exhortation loses none ofits force today, for we are witnessing the approachingend of another age, that of theGentiles.In the remainder of the chapter we againsee his comments on several more quotationsfrom their letters.# # #Woman in the Church (1 Cor. 11 : 3-15and 14 : 35, 36)A trouble, peculiar to the church at Corinth,had arisen. V. 16 suggests that it was not inother churches. This trouble was not isolatedto Paul's day, but is rampant today, and hasreference to the position of woman in theDivine scheme of things. Much of woman'strouble arises because she was "first in thetransgression," ; and because of this God gaveto her a position in subjection to the man.Since the first century this has been an unpalatabledoctrine to, at any rate, many of thefemale portion of assemblies for divine worship.Today the majority of chapels and churcheshave repudiated it entirely, and frequently awoman will occupy the pulpit. Some havesaid Paul was a "woman-hater," and othershave denied the inspiration of these parts.The contention of the apostle is still in accordancewith divine instruction and revelation,and faithful men and women both recogniseand uphold it. It would appear possible thatin the Kingdom of God, like the other curses,the curse on woman will be alleviated.# * *The Lord's supper in the Early Church(1 Cor. 11 : 17-34)When Jesus instituted the last supper, itwas the concluding portion of the passovermeal. This picture of the Corinthian churchshows that the same procedure was followed,

The TESTIMONY 213and it was a complete meal of which theypartook. Some were rich and could bringwhat they wanted ; many were slaves, andcould bring nothing. The slaves would oftenbe detained by duties, and so would be latefor the service. Paul instructs them, that ifthey are hungry they should satisfy theirhunger at home, and also that they must wait,the one for the other, that all could partake.They must not "shame them that have not,"by leaving them out of their meal of remembrance.Some even were going to excess andbecoming inebriated at this feast of remembrance.Well might Paul say that this wasto their own condemnation, and because of itmany were spiritually sick !# # #The Holy Spirit in the Early Church (1 Cor. 12)Although no longer with us, the Holy Spiritwas a very necessary gift in the Early Church,and the foundation, progress and buildingup of the Truth would have been almostimpossible without it. It was given in manydifferent forms, which Paul enumerates. Farfrom being a mark of holiness, it was given to"men of like passions to ourselves," and wesee that those with less spectacular gifts werejealous of others who had different powersgiven to them. Paul emphasises they are allparts of a whole, and to be a successful bodythe whole has to work together without jealousyor schism.# # #The Greatest of these (1 Cor. 13 : 13)Paul now shows them that there is a waybetter than possessing even the best of theSpirit gifts. It is the way of love. Much hasbeen written on this phase without any commentsof ours. Paul emphasises that the HolySpirit, partitively distributed as at Corinthgave an imperfect impression like a mirrormade of beaten metal gives of one's featureswhen we look into it—"looking through aglass darkly" ; but when the perfect thingcame—the complete revelation from God, i.e.the New Testament—the undistorted picturecould be visualised of God's purpose. TheHoly Spirit, he explains, was necessary forthe infant church, but just as manhood putsaway the things of childhood, so the "grownup" church would no longer need the HolySpirit, yet while that would go, Faith, Hopeand Love would abide.# # #Correct Punctuation (1 Cor. 14 : 33, 34)In the early verses he shows that the bestof the Spirit gifts is that of "prophesying"i.e. preaching ; and requires that lesser giftsbe kept under control; for "the spirits ofthe prophets are subject to the prophets."In the A.V. the punctuation, of vv. 33 and 34requires to be amended. It should read :—"For God is not the author of confusion,but of peace." (full stop). Then continue :·—"As in all churches of the saints, let yourwomen keep silence in the churches . . . ."# # #Resurrection (1 Cor. 15)This is the Resurrection chapter, not theburial chapter ! Note in vv. 13-19 the sevenpoints Paul enumerates, which are dependentupon resurrection :—If there be no resurrection,1. Christ is not raised (v. 13)2. Preaching is vain (v. 14)3. Faith is vain (v. 14)4. Believers are false witnesses (v. 15)5. They are yet in sins (v. 17)6. The dead in Christ are perished (v. ]8)7. Believers are of all men most miserable(v. 19)Note also, Paul's statements do NOTsuggest or support the believers' emergencefrom the grave in an immortal condition. Hesays distinctly (v. 51) "We shall not all sleep,but we shall all be changed ..." This canonly mean that both the living and the raiseddead require to be the subjects of change,which would NOT be necessary if they cameforth immortal. Also "This mortal must puton immortality," and "This corruptible mustput on incorruption" (v. 53).# m #The first day (1 Cor. 16:2)"The first day of the week" was evidentlytheir "meeting day" and no longer the JewishSabbath (the 7th day).# # #THE BOOK OF JUDGESGeneralThe book of Judges largely consists of acontinuous cycle—Disobedience, Punishment,Repentance and then Deliverance, repeatedtime and time again.Joshua divided the land by lot, but this doesnot mean they possessed it, for we are told thatwhen Joshua died much of the land had stillto be conquered.With regard to the extermination of theseCanaanitish tribes, Sir Robert Anderson saidhe could never understand it until he becameChief Commissioner for Police in London, andthen he came into contact with such unmentionablecrimes that he realised that extermin-

214 The TESTIMONYation was the only remedy.The following mnemonic helps us to rememberthe Judges :OurOthnielendeavour EhudshallShamgardiffuseDeborahgreatGideonandAbimelechtrueTolajoysJairjoysJephthahimmeasurable IbzaneternalElonandAbdonsatisfyingSamson# # #Partial failure of conquest (Jud. 1 : 27-36)So long as Joshua lived he kept the people inthe right way of serving God, and this lastedthrough the days of the elders who outlivedhim. When, however, all these had passedaway, and their influence and advice werebut a memory, then declension set in veryrapidly. Instead of driving out the inhabitantsof the land, as they were definitely commandedto do, they compromised, and frequently theycould not because they would not ! Had theybeen obedient to God, then success would havebeen theirs.# * #The rebuke at Bochim (Jud. 2 : 1-5)The angel into whose hands God had giventhe affairs of Israel told them how disobedientthey have been, and as a result that God'sassistance to drive out the inhabitants was nowwithdrawn, whereupon "they lifted up theirvoice and wept.'' God's promises are conditional,and to have His blessing we must beobedient children. It is interesting to note thenumber of times we read "Therefore the angerof the Lord was hot against Israel ..."# # #Sisera and Jael (Jud. 4 : 6, 7)God's guidance of and care for Israel isshown in the words"Hath not the Lord . . . commanded . . ./ will draw . . . Sisera . . . and / will deliverhim into thine hand . . ." "The Lorddiscomfited Sisera ..."It would appear that in his flight, Sisera, forgreater safety, invaded the back part of Jael'stent and fell asleep there. This rear portionwas sacred for the women. Jael therefore, hadlittle alternative. If she let him sleep there,and Heber her husband returned, her honourwas gone, for no strange man was allowed there !Jael therefore, to save her honour, slew Siseraas described.# # #Megiddo (Jud. 5 : 19)This plain has been the battleground forcenturies, and so we read "The kings came andfought, then fought the kings of Canaan inTaanach, by the waters of Megiddo ..."* # #Gideon (Jud. ch. 6-8)The incidents associated with Gideon constitutea very complete type of the work of theLord Jesus."The Lord sent a prophet. . .""Gideon was told, "Thou shalt save Israel"Jehovah Shalom—the Lord send peaceGideon "built an altar . . .""...bytheHillofMoreh..."" . . . The Sword of the Lord . . .""Every man's sword against his brother ...""Rule thou over us ... the Lord shall ruleover you."The above are some of the outstanding itemsin this wonderful type. We leave our readersto fill in the details.* # *Jephthah's Vow (Jud. 11 : 30-40)Reams have been written regardingJephthah's vow, whether he slew his daughteror not. This present editor is satisfied that thesacrifice of Jephthah's daughter consisted of herconsecration to the Lord in the ministry of thewomen. We are told the Hebrew reads :"Whatsoever cometh forth to meet me, fromthe doors of my house shall be the Lord's, andI will offer to Him an ascension offering ..."It is obvious two items are involved, and notone only : 1. Whatsoever cometh to meet me.2. An ascension offering. From the statements"... she knew no man . . ." "She bewailedher virginity ..." it is evident she remained avirgin devoted to the service of God. Jephthah'sdistress can be understood because she was hisonly child, and her perpetual virginity wouldcause his house to cease in Israel.# # #Samson (Jud. ch. 13-16)Here is an illustration how the New Testamentcompletes our knowledge of the Old.From the Old Testament we gather Samson wasa powerful warrior in whom the passions of theflesh were strong. We do not deduce he was aman of outstanding faith, but Paul in Heb. 11corrects this, and he assures us he was a manof faith.Manoah and his wife had no idea it was anangel of God who was instructing them, until

The TESTIMONY 215the angel ascended in the flame of the sacrifice.It is interesting to note how God used theweaknesses of Samson in the outworking of Hispurpose. "The thing was of the Lord."The Suspended "Nun" (Jud. 18 : 30)Here we have a reference to "... Jonathanthe son of Gershom the son of Manasseh . . ."Despite the care with which the Jews copiedtheir scriptures, it is evident one scribe thoughthis predecessor had made a mistake. In theHebrew there are no vowels, so the differencebetween "Moses" and "Manasseh" is one letteronly in the Hebrew, the letter Nun. Gershomwas the son of Moses, but the copyist could notbelieve that the grandson of Moses was anidolater and a priest to an idol, so he furtherconcluded that "Moses" should be"Manasseh". The next copyist, however, wasnot so sure, but he was in a dilemma. He wasnot satisfied to alter his predecessor's work, butneither was he satisfied to let the mistake go, sohe compromised. He placed Nun> the offendingletter, above the line, and not in the word itself.The Hebrew text now reads "Moses" but theNun is also there, above the line, and is alwaysreferred to as "the suspended Nun".PROBLEMSDr. Thomas and the CampbellitesA correspondent writes with regard to thearticle "Who are the Christadelphians ?" :"If the only honourable course forChristadelphians who differ from Dr. Thomasis to withdraw, what adjective would you useto describe Dr. Thomas's own conduct inremaining a member of the Campbellite bodyfor some years after he had departed fromimportant elements of Campbellite doctrine ?"Reply :We think it will be agreed that the positionof Dr. Thomas was unique. For over twentyyears he was gradually unearthing the Truthfrom all heresies which had almost choked itout of existence. Finally he realised that his"immersion" in the Miami Canal twenty yearspreviously did not constitute true Scriptural"Baptism", so he was again buried in water inorder that he could be properly baptised/Today an individual is baptised after a fullA correspondent suggests that the note on"Buying a Sword" on page 143 of the AprilTestimony is not quite as explicit as it might be,with regard to the use to which the sword intheir possession might be put. We wouldremind our correspondent that the sword of the1st Century was compared to the rifle of the 18thCentury, and it was definitely disclaimed thatBuying a Swordconfession of the things of the Kingdom of Godand the Name of Jesus Christ. The position ofsuch an one is vastly different from that of theDoctor, who all the time he was associated withthe Campbellites was growing in the Truth.Not only so, all that time he was vigorouslycombating the false doctrines the Campbellitesheld. He was not with them under any falsepretences, but rather they knew very definitelywhere he stood and what he believed. He wasnot with them on the understanding that hebelieved their doctrines, neither was he all thewhile covertly preaching something else, butrather his teaching was known to all of themand finally he severed his connection with themaltogether.,..· We think the article in question correctlystates the action that ought to be followed whendeparture occurs from "those things mostsurely believed amongst us".J.C.the possession of such a rifle was for the purposeof killing Red Indians ! We thought that allwould realise that equally the sword in thepossession of the twelve was not for killing theirfellow men, but for hazards other than humanones which they might encounter.We hope the foregoing amplification clarifiesthis matter.J-C*(See also article on p. 192 of this issue.—A. E. J.

216 The TESTIMONYThe Preparation of the PassoverIt has been suggested that the note about thePassover, on page 375 of The Testimony forNovember 1960, is inaccurate. The first queryis about the "Preparation" and the secondabout the "Third day."The "Preparation" was a term used initiallyby the Jews to describe the Friday in everyweek. Later this passed into Gentile usage also,and Dean Alford quotes Bishop Wordsworthas saying that "it is the name by which Fridayis now generally known in Asia and Greece."On the other hand the 14th Nisan was alwaysthe day when the Passover was celebrated, andso consequently the 14th Nisan could fall onany day in the week, and only periodically onFriday. The Friday in Passover week wascalled "the Preparation of the Passover"although it had nothing to do with "preparing"the Passover !Coming now to the second point about "thethird day", in the first place Jesus said, "TheSon of man shall be three days and three nightsin the heart of the earth", but he also referredseveral times to the fact that "on the third day"he would rise again ! Are these two statementscontradictory ? To a Gentile they may be, andindeed probably are ; but not to the Jews, towhom the statement was made. Dr. Lightfoot,in his Horae Hebraicae quotes the Jewish saying,"A day and a night make an Onah and a partof an Onah is as the whole", in other words theJews regarded a part of the twenty-four hoursas the whole of it. Consider the followingillustrations from other parts of Scripture. In2 Chron. 10 : 5-12 we read of Rehoboam, "Hesaid unto them "Come again unto me afterthree days ... So Jeroboam and all the peoplecame to Rehoboam on the third day." Esther4 : 16. Esther ordered her people "Fast ye forme, neither eat nor drink three days, night norday", but it was "on the third day" that sheheld her banquet for the King and Haman.When Jesus was in the tomb, what said hisenemies to Pilate ? "We remember that thatdeceiver said, while he was yet alive, 'Afterthree days I will rise again'. Command, therefore,that the sepulchre be made sure until thethird day."When ail the facts are faced, it is evident thatthere is neither mistake nor confusion, at anyrate to the Jew to whom these things were said.In all probability Jesus was only a few hoursover twenty-four before God called and heanswered, and he rose "to life and joy again."BACKSLIDING ISRAELYe Jacob's sons, how oft in former yearsHave ye rebelled and earned the chastening rod !How oft through pride and false backsliding waysHave ye been dispersed—outcasts from your God !Now ye are back and eager to retrieve,And fill with fruit your long-forsaken Land ;Yet still do not through blinded eyes perceiveThe stretching forth of Yahweh's mighty Hand.So yet once more the proud Assyrian kingShall hasten down and lay your vineyards waste ;And once again the Lord shall succour bring,And ye shall mourn, repenting ye with haste,Yet this time true ; your stony hearts of yoreShall be made flesh and ye shall slide no more.—Harold Tennant

SUBSCRIPTIONSWill subscribers, both in Britain and overseas, kindly note that all subscriptionsshould be sent direct to the Secretary-Treasurer, Mr. Frank Grant, and not to membersof the editorial staff."THE TESTIMONY" VISUAL AID SERVICEWe have now prepared new sets of slides, films and film-strips for use during thelater part of the year. Further particulars will be published in due course, and earlyenquiries for autumn and winter bookings will be welcomed by the Secretary of theVisual Aid Service :Mr. L. Lloyd,16, Chamberlain Crescent,Shirley, Solihull,Warwickshire.PUBLIC LIBRARIES, Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., AND OTHERPUBLIC READING ROOMSFor a special annual subscription of 5s., we are prepared to post the magazineregularly direct to any of the above institutions, provided permission has been obtainedfrom the Librarian and/or Secretary in charge.The New Year presents a splendid opportunity to commence this service of witness.ALL communications regarding the above to be addressed to the Secretary/Treasurer :Mr. Frank Grant,Parklands, Stoughton Lane,Evington, nr. LeicesterBINDINGThe printers of The Testimony will be pleased to receive copies for binding in yearlyvolumes. Any year, blue cloth, gilt lettering, at 21s. 6d. each, post paid back.Copies for binding must be sent direct toPhilip Palmer Press Ltd.,101/105 Kings Road, Reading, Berks.enclosing name and address in BLOCK LETTERS, and stating if the monthly coversare to be bound in or omitted.

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ftΉ HARBOUR. " mendin their nets" Matt. 4FOR THE STUDY AND DEFENCE OF THE HOLYSCRIPTURIVol. 31 No. 367

CONTENTSTHE QUIET MOMENTTHE PILGRIMAGE OF JESUS :(65) THE TRANSFIGURATION"HE BEGAN TO DELIVER ISRAEL"DAVID, KING OF ISRAELANGELIC GUIDANCE (3)BARABBASYAHWEH ELOHIMTHE BOOK OF JOB (7)OUT OF THE DUST :GLEANINGSTHE BRITISH MUSEUM IN 1961THE MELTING POT (1)REVIEWS :THE DATE OF THE CRUCIFIXIONREADY REFERENCE : DATES AND TIME PERIODSTHE LORD OF THE SABBATH"HIS HANDYWORK"NOTES ON THE DAILY READINGSHarold TennantJohn MitchellAlbert AkeroydH.M. ColeJamer CarterHarold TennantElwyn HumphreysCyril Tennant> F. E. Mitchell. . B. E.J. MorganJames CarterF. WhiteleyJames CarterPage217218220222225227228232234235238240241243245248Full Editorial endorsement applies to all articles except those of anon-fundamental nature.Articles from contributors of either sex will be welcomed for considerationby the Editors.

TheTESTIMONYFOR THE STUDY AND DEFENCE OF THE HOLY SCRIPTUREVol. 31, No. 367 July, 1961THE QUIET MOMENT«We Have A Great High Priest"Somehow at prayers I never pray aright,My words are weak, and hesitant, and few ;I cannot pray through watches of the night,As did my Lord, (with meditations too) ;Yet what I say wells up from deep within,My heart impels the thoughts I'd fain express,What comfort, then, to know a Daysman's near,More skilled than I, the Father to address !For now my Brother takes my sighs and tears,And bears them up and lays at Heaven's gate,Making all plain unto the Father's ears,What I but lisp, and scarce can formulate ;And thus I have an Advocate that's farMore eloquent, than peers or poets are.Harold Tennant

218- The TESTIMONYEdited byJ. MITCHELLThe Pilgrimage of Jesus(65) THE TRANSFIGURATIONJohn Mitchell'ΤΉΕ descent of the Lord Jesus into the valley·** of the shadow had already begun, and thedisciples were being progressively preparedand strengthened for the ordeal that lay ahead.Were they about to face the death of their Lord ?They need not fear. His Church would bebuilt, of which he was the Rock and the chiefcornerstone, and the gates of hell would notprevail against it. Had their traducers laidclaim to the key of knowledge ? In the disciples'hands would be placed the very keys of theKingdom itself, carrying with them divinejudgments upon the deeds and thoughts of men.But what of their seemingly blighted hopes ofits establishment ? "Verily I say unto you,there be some of them that stand here whichshall in no wise taste of death till they see theKingdom of God", said Jesus.And so it came to pass that six days later,the Lord Jesus took with him Peter, James andJohn, and went up into a high mountain(thought by many to be Mount Hermon). Thecircumstances suggest that they began theascent towards evening, and it is not necessaryto suppose that they climbed to the top of themount, but only to a point where they could besure of being alone and undisturbed. Then, inthe chosen spot, the Lord Jesus went a littleway ahead of the disciples, and began to pray.There has never been a suppliant to the Fatherlike him. He often prevented the dawn with hissupplications, and passed long watches of thenight in prayer, in desert, hill and garden.No doubt the disciples also prayed, but,being cast like ourselves in lesser mould, andfeeling keenly the cool mountain air, theygathered their cloaks about them and began todoze. It was to happen again like thisjinGethsemane. Fresh air and exhaustion werehaving their natural effect on the weakness oftheir flesh, and soon Peter, James and Johnwere heavy with sleep. They therefore did notsee the beginnings of the drama that wasunfolding before them. As the Lord Jesusprayed with greater and greater intensity, thefashion of his countenance changed so that itshone like the sun. His clothes became whiteas the light, and glittered with a dazzlingbrightness. Indeed his whole being was transfiguredinto the glory he would have as theresurrected Christ, such as John himself witnessedand described when Christ revealed tohim the Apocalypse.—"His head and his hairwere white like wool, as white as snow ; andhis eyes were as a flame of fire ; And his feetlike unto fine brass, as if they burned in afurnace ; and his voice as the sound of manywaters ..."The unfolding vision took on a deeper anddeeper significance as other figures joined thatof the Lord Jesus. "Behold there talked withhim two men, which were Moses and Elijah—who appeared in glory."Every word of the inspired Scriptures has itssignificance. Moses was dead, and had been sofor nearly 1,500 years. He died in faith, nothaving received the promises, but, having seenthem afar off, confessed that he was a strangerand pilgrim on the earth. He chose the riches ofChrist rather than all the treasures of Egypt.He knew that one day the Lord himselfwould descend from heaven with a shout andthe voice of the Archangel and the trump ofGod, and that the dead in Christ would rise.

The TESTIMONY 219He had faith that "when he who is our lifeshall appear, then shall we also appear withhim in glory." And so Moses represented thefaithful dead who await the coming of the Lord.But what of Elijah ? When the time came forElijah to be taken from among men, "He wentup by a whirlwind into heaven," and thoughfifty sons of the prophets sought for him forthree days, they did not find him. So Elijahmay be said to represent those who have notdied, but who are alive and remain unto thecoming of the Lord, for "we shall not allsleep, but we shall all be changed, in a moment,in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump ;for the trumpet shall sound and the dead shallbe raised incorruptible, and we shall bechanged." Both the living and the dead who are"in Christ" at his coming will appear beforehim in glory, and it is a wonderful confirmationof the rest of Scripture that in this vision of theKingdom, the glory of the immortal state isparamount. For "whilst it doth not yet appearwhat we shall be, we know that when he shallappear we shall be like him"—changed fromglory into glory, as by the Spirit of the Lord.The Transfiguration, however, was not just asilent and spectacular witness to God's purposein Christ. Moses and Elijah talked to the LordJesus of his decease which he should accomplishin Jerusalem. He had a painful baptism to bebaptised with, and how was he straitened till itshould be accomplished ! And so this visitationof glory from the Father would strengthen theSon for the ordeal that lay ahead.But what must it also have meant for Mosesand Elijah ? Moses, the representative of theLaw, to whom was committed the commandmentsof God, was there to see the Lamb ofGod, the glorious consummation of the typesand shadows that had gone before. For it wasimpossible that the blood of bulls and of goatsshould take away sin. Only through the Onewho would say, "Lo, I come to do Thy willΟ God," by the offering of himself, would thesins of men be covered.If Moses represented Christ in the Law, thenElijah, Christ in the Prophets. These righteousmen of long ages past had earnestly desired tosee the things come to pass which the HolySpirit had moved them to utter. They hadsearched diligently what time the Spirit ofChrist which was in them did signify, when ittestified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, andthe glory that should follow—which things theangels desired to look into.It was therefore an ecstatic moment forMoses and for Elijah when they appeared inglory with their Lord upon the Mount, andspoke of the salvation which he should accomplishfor them and for all the faithful of all agesby his sacrifice in Jerusalem. This was the Lord.They had waited for him ! They would be gladand rejoice in his salvation ! This was the Onein whom they had believed, for whom they hadhoped and longed, in whose Name they hadsuffered, and to whom they looked for life andimmortality, and for freedom from the fettersof sin. Was there ever in all history a meetingso pregnant with meaning as this ?Some have spoiled the picture with suggestionsthat Moses and Elijah were not reallythere. Such speculations are unnecessary.We do not have to explain the ways of God,but rather to accept them for the message thatthey teach us, remembering that it is the unseenthings of His creation that are eternal. Betterthat we should, in spirit join the disciples in theecstacy of it all, as those who have been broughtout of darkness into light, and have beentranslated by the word of God into theKingdom of His Son.For the time had come for Peter, James andJohn to awake. They stirred, looked up, andblinked their eyes as "all his glory full disclosedwas opened to their sight."And thus will it be in the resurrection of thedead, when the Kingdom of God is set up.Even some of the rejected will see of its glory.For Jesus said to some of the Jews who rejectedhim, "Ye shall see Abraham, Isaac and Jacob,sitting down in the Kingdom of God, and youyourselves thrust out, and there shall be weepingand gnashing of teeth." Not so with Peter,James and John, the three witnesses of the ageto come, who gazed upon this awesome spectacle,afraid, yet unable to take away their eyesfrom it. As they gazed, the two prophets beganto take their leave of the Lord Jesus ; and theimpetuous Peter, scarce knowing in his fearfulnesswhat to say, spoke up : "Master, it is goodfor us to be here : and let us make threetabernacles ; one for thee, and one for Moses,and one for Elijah."That would have been a feast of tabernaclesindeed ! But this was only a foretaste, and notthe fulfilment. While Peter was yet speaking,a bright cloud overshadowed them, and theyfeared as they entered into the cloud. For afew brief moments they were included in theglory of the Lord, in token of the day whenGod's glory shall include them for ever, andthey heard a voice out of the cloud saying,"This is My beloved Son, in whom I am wellpleased, hear ye him." Knowing from their

220 The TESTIMONYnational history how God had visited Hispeople in the cloud, and awestruck by theexperience of it, the three disciples reached thepoint of complete human abasement. They fellon their faces and were sore afraid.Then the Lord Jesus came and touchedthem, and said, "Arise and be not afraid."They lifted up their eyes, and saw no-one,except the Master with themselves.It was an experience they never forgot.Shortly before he died, Peter reminded thethe believers that the apostles had not followedcunningly devised fables when they madeknown unto them the power and coming of theLord Jesus Christ. "We were eyewitnesses ofhis majesty," he wrote. "For he received fromGod the Father honour and glory, when therecame such a voice to him from the excellentglory, This is My beloved son in whom I amwell pleased. And this voice, which came fromheaven we heard, when we were with him inthe holy mount."The Scriptures tell us that a three-fold cordis not easily broken. Neither is the witness ofthree faithful men, Peter, James and John. Itis their faithful witness that enables us to jointhem, in spirit, in the holy mount, and topartake in full assurance of faith, of the glorythat shall be revealed. We know that it is true,and as we too work out our salvation withtrembling and fear, we contemplate the awfulmajesty of God, and the glory that shall berevealed. And surely, in these last days ofGentile times, the saying of Jesus will applyalso to some of us, "There be some here whichshall not taste of death till they see the kingdomof God."Even so, come, Lord Jesus !'He Began To Deliver Israel'Albert Akeroyd"AND what shall I more say ? for the time***· would fail me to tell of Gideon, and ofBarak, and of Samson". Here in the Epistle tothe Hebrews, we have the inspired writer'sinclusion of Samson's name in the list ofworthies who through faith subdued kingdoms,wrought righteousness, obtained promises,stopped the mouths of lions, ... of whom theworld was not worthy, and who, havingobtained a good report through faith, receivednot the realisation of the promises God hadmade to them. Now although we may beinclined to think of Samson as a man who didthe most injudicious things, there must be areason for the inclusion of his name in that listof men of renown. Amongst Old Testamentcharacters, he is pre-eminently the one overflowingwith a joyous spirit; his very namemeans "Sunlike", and he is a man of surpassingphysical strength, venturing into one snareafter another, so that although "the Spirit ofthe Lord began to move him at times in thecamp of Dan", he was by no means free fromthe temptations common to mankind.Nevertheless, of him we read, "he began todeliver Israel from their enemies", and in sodoing he was working for God. The Scripturalinjunction is, "Whatsoever thy hand findeth todo, do it with thy might", and this is whatSamson most certainly did—not always wisely ;nevertheless he did it with his might and cannotbe accused of inaction or slothfulness.Thousands of men in Israel in Samson's daysmerely stayed at home until their grapes andolives ripened ; all the while in abject fear ofthe raiding Philistines, and making no effortto free themselves from the hated yoke.Samson, on the other hand, went fearlessly andindependently to work for Israel and forGod.In our own lives there are sometimes elementswhich cause hindrance to our progress in thecause of God. There may be a tendency toslothfulness, a disposition to drift, or there maybe a sense of fear imposed on our efforts bysome opposition to which we are apt to submitmost ingloriously ; or perhaps we are too muchdependant on others, lacking initiative. Butthese traits of character were not to be found inSamson. To the man who buried his one talentJesus said, "Thou wicked and slothful servant",and it is noticeable that he was condemned, notso much for what he had done, as for what hefailed to do. His tide of opportunity had ebbedaway and at the judgment seat he was rejected.If there is in our minds a sense of fear, whereis the "peace of mind that passeth understanding?" If we are ground down by somefigurative Philistines, shall we submit ingloriously,or shall we make an effort to prove to them

The TESTIMONY 221as Samson did, that in God is our strength.Samson was a Nazarite, consecrated to Godfrom his birth, and his abstinence from wineand his uncut hair were the signs of his consecration,and so long as he kept his Nazaritevow he was divinely endowed with supernaturalstrength. He delighted in adventure andfrolicked with danger, and doubtless thecountry rang with the fame of his exploits. ThePhilistine oppressors trembled at his coming,for he compelled them to realise that the Godof Heaven could give strength to those whokeep His laws, a truth which is still applicablein these days. God used Samson in spite of hisimperfections, so long as he was true to his vow ;and recklessly as he sometimes lived, terriblyas he sometimes sinned, he knew he wasdedicated to service to God, a servant to whomhad been committed a stupendous task—thedeliverance of Israel from the Philistine enemy.The angel of The Lord had declared beforeSamson's birth that he should "begin to deliverIsrael out of the hand of the Philistines". Andwhen God gives us work to do, or a battle tofight, He does not leave us without weaponswith which to accomplish the task. Samsonmade use of God-given strength shaking thepower of the Philistines thereby. On anotheroccasion, wielding a crude weapon in the formof the jaw bone of an ass, but doubtless withconfidence in God, he slew "heaps upon heaps"of Philistines, for as yet he remained true to hisNazarite vow. "The weapons of our warfareare not carnal", nevertheless they are mightyand include "the sword of the Spirit, which isthe word of God".The fatal step was taken by Samson when herenounced his position as a Nazarite, revealingthe secret of the Lord to the scorn of thePhilistines. He thus cast pearls before swineand surrendered his sacred vow to the foes ofGod, awaking to find the Spirit of the Lorddeparted from him, and thus he passed fromtriumphant strength to humiliation and weakness."He wist not that the Lord was departedfrom him". He had successfully resisted awhole host of Philistine warriors, but failed toresist the wiles of one Philistine woman.A striking point in the account of Samson'sfall, is the importance of seeming trifles in themaintaining of good character. In itself it wasbut a trifle whether his hair was cut or allowedto grow, but it was not a trifle when viewedfrom the standpoint of the Nazarite vow.Similarly it seemed an insignificant point as towhether the followeVs of Gideon should bowdown on their knees to drink at the water's edge,or whether they should lap like a dog, yet inthe manner of their drinking lay the test of atrue soldier of the army of God and of Gideon.Little by little Delilah had worn down Samson'smoral resistance with the result that "the Lordwas departed from him" though he wist it not.Our path of daily life may take us into someGaza, or into a valley of Sorek which is full oftemptation and enticement. In fact the wholeworld is a valley of Sorek to a weak man, whoat every stage needs, not the crude and carnaljaw bone of an ass, but the sword of the Spiritand "the shield of faith wherewith to be able toquench all the fiery darts of the wicked".Is it not possible for us to lose touch withGod and yet not know it ? Is it not possible tobe so misled by our ambitions and dailystruggles that we neglect the nourishing pasturesof God's revealed Word, and roam instead inthe valley of Sorek without realising the extentto which we have strayed ?But in spite of the break in Samson's loyaltyto God, his name is there, in that list of worthycharacters of old time, proving conclusivelythat God can overlook a man's faults, a man'shuman frailties, providing he is repentant andhis heart is right towards his Creator. Not onlydid Samson, in his humiliation and degradationreturn to God, but God returned to him, givinghim again his strength and thus allowing himto complete his work of beginning to deliverIsrael from their enemy, the Philistines. Godhad heard his prayer, and although God's herowas by no means perfect or spotless, theinspired writer leaves it on record, concerningthose who have obtained a good report throughfaith, that time would fail him to tell of Gideon,and of Barak, and of Samson.May there be no break in our loyalty to God,so that our names may finally be inscribed upona similar list'LORD, THAT I MIGHT RECEIVE MY SIGHT."—BartimaeusIf we could open and intend our eye,We all, like Moses, should espy,E'en in a bush the radiant Deity,-Cowley

222 The TESTIMONYHISTORYArranged (pro tern.) by A. E. JONESDavid, King of IsraelΗ. Μ. ColeVV/HEN we speak of David, perhaps the first idea associated with him is his kingshipover the Lord's people and possibly the second,his place in the Scriptures as "the sweetPsalmist of Israel" the author of many uniqueand incomparable "Songs of Zion". Furtherwe think of him as the great forefather of ourLord, the founder of the Davidic dynastywhich he was assured, should endure for ever. lWhen we consider the character of Davidwe find that he possesses many virtues and veryfew vices ; and as we dwell upon the story ofhis life and think of the times in which he lived,we find that his virtues become increasinglyoutstanding while his faults become moreunderstandable and we are able to grasp moreclearly the reason why he was honoured withthe description of being "a man after God'sown heart."David was the son of Jesse, the Bethlehemite—a direct descendant of Judah—and whosegrandfather Boaz was a mighty man of wealth inthe days of Ruth and Naomi. In the genealogyof David, in 1 Chronicles, chapter 2, he isstated to be the seventh son of Jesse but in1 Samuel chapter 16 he is said to have had sevenbrothers. Hence we must conclude that one ofthese died young and is not mentioned in theChronicles. There are two sisters mentioned,Zeruiah and Abigail, but as Abigail is said tohave been the daughter of Nahash 2 , it wouldseem that David's mother was a young widowwhen Jesse married her. Hence the sisterswould be the eldest and this being so it is likelythat their sons, Joab, Abishai and Asahel, thesons of Zeruiah, and Amasa the son of Abigail,were as old as, if not older than, David, althoughhe was their uncle.The life of David may be divided into threemain sections, the first being his private life asa youth at Bethlehem ; the second, his life inconnection with Saul when he had become apublic character ; and the third which was thelongest, those busy fruitful years of his reign.Of David's youth we know but little, yet wehave a few facts which enable us to draw afairly correct picture of his early years. As arule the Jewish women did not have theirchildren very near in succession ; therefore asthere were nine children older than David, wemay safely assume that his eldest brotherswould be young men when he was born. Theyapparently treated him as much older brothersare apt to do even today, looking upon him asof very little importance being the "baby of thefamily", and possibly as their father was of agreat age when David was still young 3 they mayhave carried out to a great extent the managementof his estates. Thus when we are introducedto David, we find him occupied with atask which was usually given to slaves, thefemales, or the despised of the family. Perhapsit was a job which David liked, for he would beout on the hills with the flocks and would befree to indulge in his devotion to music awayfrom the criticism of his elder brothers. Thatlife also had its dangers, and as David appearsto have known no fear, he probably gloried inthem. Having, moreover, an implicit faith inGod's protection even in his early years, weknow that he had the courage to attack wildanimals when they came upon the flock. It wasno ordinary feat of valour to seize a woundedlion by his beard and struggle in mortal combat,as he told Saul he had done. 4It is also evidentthat he was not afraid to stand up for his rightsagainst any marauding bands with which hecame in contact, seeing that he had a reputationfor being u a mighty valiant man, a man of warand prudent in matters." 5Perhaps he evengloried in these affrays and this was resented byhis would-be superior eldest brother.We do not know how many years elapsedbetween the time when David was first introducedto Saul as a musician who could extract12 Sam. 7:16. * 2 Sam. 17 : 25. 31 Sam. 17 : 12.4 1 Sam. 17 ; 36, Π Sam. 16 ; 18,

The TESTIMONY 223such soothing strains from his harp that Saul'stortured spirit was calmed, and the time whenhe again stood before him prepared to slay thehuge champion of the Philistines, but it mayhave been long enough for David to grow hisbeard which would so alter his appearance thatSaul would not recognise him. At the time ofhis introduction to Samuel then, we mustrealise that he was a very attractive handsomeyouth, possibly tall like his eldest brother, fullof health and vigour, courageous, generous andkind in heart, expressing his lofty sentimentsand ideals in music and verse and filled with apractical faith in the God of his fathers.With such an appearance and character, it issmall wonder that David soon became a greatfavourite among the people ; but amongst allhis admirers there was none who loved andrevered him quite so much as Jonathan the sonof King Saul. The friendship of David andJonathan is an ideal friendship. It was themeeting of two choice and gallant souls, forsurely Jonathan is one of the noblest figureswhich can be found anywhere in the pages ofhistory. There was a rare and perfect harmonybetween them so that we read that the soul ofJonathan was knit with the soul of David andhe loved him as his own soul. For some yearsthis beautiful friendship was the one brightspot, so to speak, in David's harassed life.One fact should be constantly borne in mindwhen considering the life of David in that it istestified that "the Spirit of the Lord" cameupon David at his anointing by Samuel.Therefore when we read that "David behavedhimself wisely in all his ways", we must notforget that this was largely because "the Lordwas with him."As we are all familiar with the episodes ofthe second, and most trying, part of David'slife, we will not mention them in detail. Butremembering the injunction of the apostle that"whatsoever was written aforetime was writtenfor our learning".Do those painful and long drawn out trialsof David affect us in any way ?When we turn to the Psalms and read whatDavid was constrained to write "when he fledfrom Saul in the cave" (Psalm 57) "when Saulsent and they watched the house to kill him"(Psalm 59) "when the Philistines took him inGath" (Psalm 56) "when Abimelech drove himaway and he departed" (Psalm 34) or whenthe traitorous "Ziphims came and said to Sauldoth not David hide himself with us ?" (Psalm54), let us realise that the words written wereperhaps the only outlet for the torture of hissoul. They are the exact description of ourfeelings at times, and we then begin to realisethat the afflictions of this godly man haveborne fruit all down the ages.The personal magnetism and the strength ofcharacter of David during this period of his lifeare shown by the tremendous influence he wasable to exert over his band of followers. Notonly was he joined by all his brethren andrelatives in the cave of Adullam, but we readthat those who were in debt and every one whowas discontented joined his band and he becametheir captain. It is remarkable that a godfearingman who was a fugitive, was able tocontrol and lead such a set of rascals ! What wemight term his strong filial piety is shown bythe fact of his care for his aged father andmother at this juncture. He realised that hisrough life was too hard for them, so he tookthem to the king of Moab for safety. Thegreat fact which emerges from a considerationof this part of David's life is that in everydifficulty and danger which arose, he soughtGod's guidance and help. The name of theLord was continually upon his lips, and theLord was to him a veritable fortress and towerof strength.His wanderings would make him familiarwith parts of the country which otherwise hemight never have known and this first-handknowledge of his country would probably be ofgreat value to him when he came to administerits affairs.This section of his life was closed by thetragedy upon Mount Gilboa when Saul andhis sons, including his devoted friend Jonathan,were slain. David's tender heart felt this losskeenly and it was a very touching lament whichhe composed. 6After being hunted and persecuted for so longby a wicked enemy like Saul, one cannot helpbut feel that David's forgiving spirit was almostChrist-like when he wrote such words of griefand regret.What an example to all of us David is at theopening of the next phase of his life. His enemywas dead, he had a strong following, he knewthat God had chosen him to be king over Hispeople and that the sacred anointing oil hadbeen poured on his head ; but he made no rashor hasty move towards seizing the reins ofpower. What was his first act ? "He enquiredof the Lord" what he was to do, and havingreceived his instructions, he went up to Hebronand was there anointed as king over Judah.()2 Sam. 1 : 19-27.

224 The TESTIMONYHis first royal act was magnanimous. He senthis greetings and blessing to the men who hadbeen kind enough to bury his worst enemy.Was this merely done for effect ? KnowingDavid's mind through the Psalms, we cannotthink that he would invoke God's blessing uponthem for ulterior motives.David was now in the full tide of his manhoodand physical strength. He had learned the artof ruling men, and he had also learnt the valueof strategy in dealing with his enemies. Helooked upon the enemies of his country as "theenemies of the Lord"; and having unboundedfaith in divine aid, he placed on record thewonderful words of the sacred song which weknow as Psalm 18.Besides the two wives which he already had,Abinoam and Abigail, he married Maacah aprincess of Geshur who bore him the handsomebut ill-fated Absalom. David also had threeother wives who each bore him a son. Thereis no doubt that David was exceedinglyattractive to women as men of his type alwaysare, having all those qualities which womenadmire, combining personal beauty with unboundedcourage and force of character and yetwithal possessing a kind and affectionatenature. Whether David at this juncture of hislife knew all the enactments of the law, it isimpossible to say, but we know that the lawforbade the usual practice of heathen kings ofkeeping a large harem. That he had a largefamily of 19 sons we learn from 1 Chronicleschapter 3. Tamar appears to have been his onlydaughter although there may have been others.The events of his reign are familiar to us.We see the formation of a powerful army havingfor its officers many of the valiant men who hadshared David's trials. Amongst these men,David's nephews Joab, Abishai and Asahel heldprominent positions ; and Joab whose greatestcharacteristic was ambition became the generalof the whole army, the king reserving to himselfthe office of commander in chief.For seven years there w r as a feud betweenJudah and Israel; Ishbosheth a son of Saulstill reigning over ten tribes, supported byAbner, a valiant general. At last, however, beingoffended by an insulting remark made by Ishbosheth,Abner went over to the side of David,only to meet his death by a dastardly act oftreachery on the part of Joab. The murder ofIshbosheth following shortly after, Davidbecame the king of all the land, reigning uponthe throne of the Lord as King in Jerusalem.At this period of his life he becomes the obvioustype of Christ when he comes to execute thejudgments written and to go forth as a man ofwar bringing the world into subjection toIsrael's God, saying to the house of Jacob,"Thou art My battle axe and weapons of war :for with thee will I break in pieces the nations." 7Therefore we see that when David committedhis great sin over the beautiful wife of Uriah, henot only defiled his own life and gave cause forthe enemies of the Lord to blaspheme even tothis day, but he also placed a blot upon himselfas a type of his great son.The armies of Israel were almost invinciblein the days of David and for a short time heseems to have allowed the multitude of temporalaffairs with which he was occupied to havesmothered the spiritual flame which had hithertoshone so brightly in his life—a lesson whichwe must all try to take to heart.We know the sorrows and grief whichfollowed—the rebellion of a favourite son, themurder of another, the constant friction withthe overbearing Joab, and the pestilenceamongst his beloved people.But as bodily strength failed, spiritualstrength seemed to increase and like AbrahamDavid was permitted so see afar off by the eyeof faith, his Son reigning as king before him,not only over his own land but "from the rivereven unto the ends of the earth."Before we conclude we must think whatDavid was able to do for his country and peopleby his marvellous organising ability and God'shelp. From being a little insignificant state,constantly invaded by more powerful neighbours,Israel became a kingdom of great powerand wealth, the latter being acquired from thevery nations who had previously preyed uponher.When he came to the throne the Law wasneglected and the worship of Yahweh practisedby the few, but David was not content until he"had magnified the Law and made it honourable"and brought the ark of the Lord toJerusalem where he placed it in a new tabernacleand set himself the task of restoring the worshipof God in all its wealth of symbolic details.Moreover, he organised divine service in away it had never been carried out before,appointing suitable officials to see that it wascarried out and collecting an immense orchestraand choirs of trained singers "to stand everymorning to thank and praise the Lord, andlikewise at even." 8In addition to all this work he was in verytruth "rich towards God" ; setting aside as hedid an enormous fortune which he might have7 Jer. 51 : 20.8 1 Chron. 23 : 30.

The TESTIMONY 225used for his own aggrandisement, for as he saidwhen old, "I have prepared with all my mightfor the house of my God."The apostle Peter wrote, "Ye also as livelystones are built up a spiritual house." Thereforlet us by adorning the doctrine, "preparewith all our might for the house of our God",and may we be permitted to see David in gloryin his re-established Kingdom, under the ruleof his "greater son", Jesus the Christ of God.Angelic Guidance (3)VV7RITING to the Hebrews, the Apostle said** of the angels, "Are they not all ministeringspirits, sent forth to minister to those whoshall be heirs of salvation?" 1 These wordswere true of the pre-Christian era, they wereequally true of the first century, and they arealso equally true of the days in which we live,although little attention is paid now to thislatter aspect. It would appear the key to thesituation is to be found in Hebrews 13 : 2,"Be not forgetful to entertain strangers, forthereby some have entertained angels unawares."We know that this is true of earlier days ;why, then, should it not also be true of ourdays, for we certainly hope that we are amongthose who will be heirs of salvation ? Frequentlywe find that the dealings with the angels hadproceeded a long way before it was realised thatthey were angels and not merely "men" or "menof God". Of the immortalised saints, Paulrecords, "One star differeth from another starin glory", and so it would appear with theangels. Gabriel said, "I stand in the presenceof God", and in Daniel 10 we read of "Michael,one of the chief princes". Michael is undoubtedlyone of the angels, and therefore one who ishelping to control the affairs of this world.This recognition that there are various "degrees"(shall we say ?) of importance of theangels is helpful.God said to Moses, "I will send an angelbefore thee ..." and later, "... My 'presence'shall go with thee . . ."; 2 and a comparisonwith Isaiah 63 : 9 clearly shows that the"presence" referred to is "The angel of HisPresence". Further of Moses we read "...with him (Moses) will I speak mouth to mouth. . . and the similitude of the Lord shall hebehold . . ." 3 When was this promise ofbeholding this "similitude" of the Lord fulfilled? It is recorded in Exodus 33 : 18-33.It was not the Uncreate whose "back parts"Moses saw, but could not see His face, butrather an angel who was so high in angelic rankTHE SAINTSJames Carterthat it was not possible to see his face and live,like that of Deity Himself whose "similitude"he was.Five times in the Old Testament we have theexpression, "I will not leave thee ..." It wasfirst said to Jacob when he was at Bethel,fleeing from Esau after he had obtained theblessing. It was at this "certain place" that hehad the vision of the "ladder" or staircase, withthe angels of God ascending and descendingupon it. Did the angel of God ever leave him ?It would appear that he did not, for not onlylater did Jacob wrestle with the angel, but whenJacob was giving his blessings he said, "Theangel, which redeemed me from all evil, blessthe lads ..." Evidently the angelic guidancewas not occasional, but continual, seeing heredeemed Jacob from "all evil".The next occurrence is recorded inDeuteronomy 31 : 6. Moses, out of the fulnessof his experience, says to Israel, " . . . the Lordthy God, He it is that doth go with thee ; Hewill not fail thee nor forsake thee." As we haveseen, the angelic presence was continually withMoses—he knew from practical experience thatGod never did forsake him, but, by His angel,God was ever with him.Our third occurrence is in Joshua 1 : 5," ... as I was with Moses, so I will be withthee. I will not fail thee nor forsake thee."God is there promising to repeat with Joshuathe guidance he gave to Moses, and to give itin the same way, " . . . as I was with Moses, ..."Again we know that the angel of the Lord didappear in Joshua's life to guide and help him.For example, we read of a "man with his sworddrawn in his hand" who stood by Jericho, andwho said to Joshua,". . . as captain (or prince,see margin) of the host of the Lord am I nowcome . . ." This further suggests, at thisbeginning of the capture of the Land ofPromise, that not one only, but a multitude, aHeb. 1 : 14.Num. 12 ; 8,Exod. 23 : 20 and 33 ; 14,.

226 The TESTIMONYhost of angels were engaged in helping anddirecting Israel. Note, further, that continuingin Joshua 6 : 2 we read, ". . . and The Lordsaid unto Joshua . . .", but we know fromJoshua 5 :14 that it was this angelic captain whowas speaking. Seeing he is a "prince" of theLord's host, is he the same one referred to asMichael in Dan. 10 and Dan. 12 ? We wonder !In view of this introductory explanation are wenot justified in believing that henceforward inJoshua when we readu the Lord said toJoshua", it is really the angel of the Lord whois speaking to him ? We think this is so and,equally, the same would be the case with Moses.David is the next example in 1 Chron. 28 : 20.He is speaking to Solomon saying, "... TheLord God, even my God, will be with thee.He will not fail thee nor forsake thee ..."David too, was speaking from a rich experience.He it was who said, "The angel of the Lordencampeth round about them that fear Him,and delivereth them . . ." 4Again he says,"The steps of a good man are ordered by theLord, . . . though he fall he shall not be utterlycast down, for the Lord upholdeth him withHis hand" 5 —by his angels, of course, who areencamped about.David had a similar experience to that ofJoshua, seeing the Lord's angel with drawnsword. Taking 2 Samuel 24 : 16-25 with 1Chronicles 21 : 14-30, we obtain the completepicture, and it is interesting to see the way inwhich the angel both speaks and acts with thepower and authority of God.The final occasion that the promise is madein the old Testament is in 1 Kings 8 : 57.There we read, "There hath not failed oneword of all His good promise, which Hepromised by the hand of Moses His servant.The Lord our God be with us as He was withour fathers : let Him not leave us nor forsakeus."So long as obedience was manifested, angelicguidance and help were there. When disobediencewas prevalent, the "Presence" waswithdrawn. Despite the explicit promise toJoshua, the attack on Ai resulted in utter rout.Why ? "Israel hath sinned", was God's answerto Joshua, and when the sin was put away,then the guidance and help returned.Why have we thus carefully examined theseOld Testament references ? It is to show that,when God promised He would neither fail norforsake, He fulfilled it by means of His angelswho companied with the one thus committedto their charge—often unseen, but none the lessthere, Paul brings the whole into focus in ourday when he says, "Let your conversation bewithout covetousness, and be content with suchthings as ye have, for He hath said Ί will neverleave thee nor forsake thee'." eScholars tell usthis should be rendered even more emphatically,"I will never, no never never, leave thee norforsake thee." In view of what we have foundin the Old Testament, it is significant that Paulshould introduce this after his reference toentertaining angels in verse 1. What is theobvious inference ? Surely it is that thepromise to "never, no never, never, leave norforsake" is, and will be, fulfilled by God'sangels ; and just as certainly as they were withMoses, Joshua, and David, equally certainlywill they be with us. It may be sometimes theycome as "strangers" unknown and unrecognisedby ourselves, but none the less guiding anddirecting our steps, even helping us to ariseshould we fall. Frequently, too, they will beunseen. Although they were there in multitudes,they were unseen by the young manuntil Elisha prayed, "I pray Thee Lord thatthe eyes of this young man may be opened",whereupon he saw the mountain side full ofangelic figures. Although the ass could see theangel, he was unseen by Balaam until he, too,had his eyes opened ! With regard to Christ's"little ones", he says in Matthew 18 : 10, "Theirangels do always behold the face of my Fatherwhich is in heaven." When Peter was delivered,it was quite a while before he recognised thathis deliverer was an angel. Cornelius said, "Aman in shining garments" appeared unto him,and we doubt if he immediately recognised hewas an angel, otherwise we think he wouldhave said so.A recognition that angelic guidance operatesin our lives will often explain what otherwisewe may think are just "coincidences". Werecognise of course, that the angels are bodilybeings, immortal, having the same power oflocomotion that Jesus had when he ascended toheaven, and having the power of "holding men'seyes" so that, although there in bodily form,they are unperceived by the one whose eyesthey have holden.Guardian angels, therefore, are much morethan a beautiful thought—they are a splendidreality ! They are still the messengers of Godwho do His pleasure, guiding, directing,helping, ministering unto the sons and daughtersof God in this wicked and perverse generation,that finally they may "attain to that age"to be "equal unto the angels" who thus ministerto them, that finally they may "die no more" !• Psa, 34 ; 7, ? Psa, 37 ; 23, 24,6Heb, 13 ; 5,

The TESTIMONY 221BarabbasHarold TennantΛ MONG the many sinister names that come**· before us in the gospel records is that ofBarabbas. It is usual for us to think of him asa fierce and wholly unregenerate type, a son ofBelial, dangerous and forbidding in appearance.We may easily get that impression from the fewbrief notices of him given by the Gospelwriters. Both Matthew and John say that hewas a "notable prisoner". But Mark is moreexplicit and says, "There was one namedBarabbas, which lay bound with them that hadmade insurrection with him, who had committedmurder in the insurrection". λLukesays much the same thing.Are we justified, however, in regarding himas merely a common murderer, and a socialoutcast, or can we on closer inspection see himin a more favourable light ? We can be sure ourLord would extend to him the utmost charity.The patronymic "Barabbas" means "son of afather" as for instance Bar-(son of) Timaeus,or Bar-Tholomew.In the case of Barabbas however it wouldappear that "father" was not so much a referenceto a natural forbear as to a Rabbi, a"spiritual" father. Barabbas therefore may havebeen the son of a Rabbi and as such would havethe respect of both common people and leaderalike.Josephus in his books of the Jewish Warsmentions that Pilate in one of his rash momentshad offended the Jews and made himself veryunpopular by taking money from the Corbanor Temple Treasury for the construction of anaqueduct. This led to a tumult which had beensuppressed with much cruelty and slaughter bythe Romans. It is possible that Barabbas hadbeen implicated in this "sedition" and, as oneof the ringleaders had even committed murderin the "insurrection". The "crime" therefore,was a patriotic one and done out of zeal forreligious reasons rather than social or politicalpurposes. This would account at once for hisgreat popularity. There is plenty of evidencethat Pilate had a genuine desire to release Jesus—the common people had little reason to hatehim—and as it was a common custom that atthis feast, the Passover, he should release untothem a prisoner "whom he would" Pilate mayhave thought that by this means he could finda way to set Jesus at liberty, hoping that thepeople would cry out for him. But once morethe leaders of the Jews were more than a matchfor him. "The chief priests moved the peoplethat he should rather release Barabbas". 2There is a certain amount of evidence, althoughnot decisive, that Jesus-Barabbas was the actualname of the rebel. The name "Jesus" wascommon enough at that time and the Gospelwriters out of reverence for their master mayhave decided to make no reference to the fact.It is possible that this similarity of their nameswas responsible for the suggestion made byPilate, "Whom will ye that I release unto you,Barabbas, or Jesus which is called Christ ?". 3What he may actually have said therefore was,"Whom will ye that I release unto you, Jesus—the son of the Rabbi, or Jesus—which is calledChrist ?" Barabbas being popular, it was aneasy matter for the crafty priests to send theirservants hither and thither among the crowdsaying, "You are to cry for Barabbas."Whatever the reason may have been, however,it was by the "determinate council andwill of God" that Jesus should be delivered up. 4From verse 25 of Luke 23 it would appearthat Pilate immediately sent out and releasedBarabbas, at the same time delivering Jesus "totheir will".We must regard Barabbas as a typicalrepresentative of the sons of Adam, worthyindeed of death, but delivered therefromthrough the love and mercy of God Who gaveHis Son as a sacrifice. If Barabbas was releasedimmediately, it is of course more than likelythat he came and mingled with the crowd,witnessed the crucifixion and saw Jesus in hisagony.If so, what were his thoughts ?*Was Barabbas ever converted to the Christianfaith ? Of course we do not know. If, indeed,he did see the terrible spectacle of a just andgood man being put to death in his place, hemay have been so moved as to have givenearnest consideration to the truth of the Gospel.It would certainly be a comforting thoughtto think that he became baptised later on andeventually died in faith and hope of meeting hisSaviour again when returned to earth, andliving with him for ever.1Mark 15 : 7. ·' Matt. 27 : 17.2Mark 15: 11. + Acts 2 : 23.* See poem on p.247 (A.E.J.)

228 The TESTIMONYYahweh ElohimElwynHumphreysEdited by E. WHITTAKER•ΧΉΕ investigation proposes a study of the two*** Names of God—Yahweh and Elohim—separately, and then a consideration of theirmeaning when used jointly.Elohim : "In the beginning God (Heb.Elohim) created the heavens and the earth". Inthis sublime opening we are introduced toElohim as Creator, the Source of all power andmajesty and wisdom. The word is the plural ofEloah. This term is found, with variations ofdialect, in the languages of all the Semiticpeoples neighbouring Israel. In Israel's eyes,however, the Deity was One ; He was thesource of all powers, hence their use of theplural Elohim as His title. They recognised toothat in Him was a great plurality, the angelicsons, who partook of His Spirit, being manifestationsin glory and might of their DivineProgenitor.The use of a plural instead of a singular nounis an idiom in Hebrew speech (see appendixPhanerosis) and is styled "the plural ofmajesty". We have an instance when the termElohim (lit : mighties) was given by God toMoses ; "I have made thee a God (mighties) toPharoah". 1As part of the Memorial Name—Yahweh Elohim—the name Elohim has a propheticsignificance with reference to the futuremanifestation of Yahweh's sons who areredeemed in Christ, namely, "He who shall be(Yahweh) mighties (Elohim)"; but in this studywe are concerned with the Name in its referenceto the nature of God Himself.In Genesis chapter 1 the title Elohim is usedsolely. In chapter 2 we have the title YahwehElohim—Lord God. In his book DistinctiveIdeas of the Old Testament, Ν. Η. Snaith makesthis remark on a comment by the Jewish commentatorRashi : "In his commentary onGenesis he (Rashi) notices that Genesis 1 : 1 hasElohim for 'God', and not the Sacred Name. Hesays this because at first God intended to createit (that is, the world) to be placed under thestrict measures of justice, but He realised thatthe world could not thus endure, so He gaveprecedence to the rule of mercy, and joined itwith the rule of justice : and so, says Rashi,'when the creation is referred to a second timein Genesis 2 : 4, we get both the Sacred Nameand Elohim, with the Sacred Name comingfirst. This means mercy first and justiceafterwards'." How close to the truth is thiswe hope to show. Elohim is presented asCreator, making all things in conformity withHis will and glorious nature. All His works aregood and His judgment of them is pronouncedafter each progressive stage of creation. Byreason of His very nature He brings all thingsinto judgment. He is Holiness embodied ; Hepermeates His universe and nothing can liveperpetually therein which is not subject to Hislaws, be they physical or moral.The title Elohim is used with this significancein the Psalms. We quote only one example forour purpose. "God . . . judgeth among thegods". Later the Psalmist records the Divinedisapproval of His earthly representatives ;"I have said, Ye are gods (Elohim). . . . Butye shall die like men." This is addressed to thejudges of Israel. 2They received this title underthe Law. In Exodus 21 : 6 the word rendered"judge" is the Hebrew word Elohim. Plainlythey were expected to be manifestations of theirHeavenly Arbiter, exhibiting as far as in themlay, His sublime justice and impartiality ingovernment.Elohim created all things to conform to Hislaws. The stars in their courses pursue theirappointed destinies. The sun daily traversesthe sky. All creatures perform their functionsΈχοά. 7 : 12Psa. 82 : 6-7 Cf. Jno. 10 : 34

The TESTIMONY 229in their appropriate corner of His intricateweb of life. One thing marred the work andthat was man, the supreme object of all createdworks. He rebelled and Elohim, because of Hisessential righteousness, visited death upon Hiscreature.Yahweh : In John 1 : 1 the Apostle finds itnecessary, in the face of current heresy, toreveal the unity of God and the Word (Greek :logos). "The Word was God", or as in theoriginal, "God was the Logos" \ that is to say,all that was God, was the Logos. Seeing that theLogos is the self-expressive and eternal mind ofGod, the meaning appears to be this ; from alleternity it has been the very nature of God toexpress Himself in the creation of a multitudeof sons, all being manifestations of Himself.This eternal purpose was memorialised in HisName-— Yahweh, "He Who will be". But wemust not limit the Name to a mere propheticsignificance. As we said, the purpose determinedis an expression of what God is. It isthe nature of God to be the Father of manyglorious sons. How fitting then when Mosesconcluded the hymn of creation in Genesischapter 2 that he should introduce us to thecentral theme of the purpose and use the nameYahweh Elohim in relation to it. Throughoutthe following two chapters he uses this Namewith what seems unnecessary repetition."These are the generations of the heavens andthe earth". 3"Generation" is a key word in theBook of Genesis, giving the record its appropriatedivisions. It is the Hebrew word toledoth,and the generally accepted idea is that it meansthe offspring or product. Prof. Young in hisIntroduction to the Old Testament takes verse 4as indicative that the account following inchapter 2 concerning man's creation introducesus to the product of the heavens and the earth ;that is, we are brought to the central purpose ofcreation in man. Here was the creation thatwas destined to be the channel of that gloriouspurpose signified in the name Yahweh. It isfitting, therefore, that Moses should emphasisethe fact by repetition of the Name.In the A.V. some see a contradiction in theverses beginning at chapter 2 : 5. But the R.V.rendering resolves the difficulty. "And no plantof the field was yet in the earth, and no herb ofthe field had yet sprung up : for the Lord Godhad not caused it to rain upon the earth, andthere was not a man to till the ground". Mosesis about to give a more detailed narrative ofman's introduction to the world. In somedesert spot in Mesopotamia He planted agarden. There were no plants and shrubsthere, and no rain. The ground was watered bythe free-flowing perennial irrigation from theEuphrates. This we learn from the Hebrewword ed, wrongly rendered "mist". It is anAssyrian word describing the natural irrigationof rivers in Mesopotamia, where the land fallsaway from the river banks to the low plains.This also confirms that the writer is now dealingwith a locality and not with the globe entire.So man is placed in Paradise under a law ofworks, only to fail. His failure did not frustratethe purpose in the name of Yahweh. On thecontrary it gave God the opportunity of revealingthe fulness of His Divine nature or personality.If He were to fulfil His determinedpurpose of manifesting Himself in humannature, He must save man from death. To dothat He had to forgive sin. In short the arenawas prepared for God to reveal Himself as aRedeemer, One Who, as He told Moses, couldforgive iniquity, transgression and sin. 4Wesee how true was Rashi's suggestion quotedearlier.In Exodus chapter 6 : 3 God told Moses,"And I appeared unto your fathers by Myname Ail Shaddai, but by My name Yahwehwas I not known unto them". It has beensupposed by some that this means that Yahwehas a title had not been given to the Patriarchs,but we shall see that the word "known" has adeeper significance, and that what God reallymeant was that He had not manifested Himselfto the fathers in the role implied in the name ofYahweh.The fact that the name is used throughoutthe Book of Genesis is explained by the suppositionthat the name was substituted by Mosesfor Israel's benefit. But when God spoke toAbraham on the occasion recorded in Genesischapter 15 : 7, He was identifying Himself tothe Patriarch. "I am Yahweh that brought theeout of Ur of the Chaldees." If Moses hadsubstituted Yahweh here for another word, itwould have obscured the real identity given toAbraham. The point that the name was knownin patriarchal times is more clearly demonstratedin chapter 22. Abraham is recorded asnaming a place Yahweh-jireh. It cannot be saidthat Moses would have made Abraham appearto use a name of which he was ignorant. Hadit been some other name, Moses would in thiscase have left it in its original form as when herecords that Jacob names a place El Bethel.In Genesis chapter 4 we are given specificallythe date when men began to use the name as a, 4 ; 2 ψ,χοά, 34 ; 7

230 The TESTIMONYDivine title; but first let us consider a use ofit on the lips of Eve. "I have gotten a man, evenhe who shall be." In the A.V. and R.V. she ismade to say, "I have gotten a man from theLord." 5Dr. Thomas gives the former renderingin Phanerosis. This is confirmed by thewriter on Genesis in Ellicott's Commentary,written in the year of Dr. Thomas's death.Here it is emphasised that the Hebrew wordeth must be rendered "even". The matriarch,it is evident, was alluding to the "first gospel"in the phrase of chapter 3 : 15. Here, however,she was not using the verbal noun Yahweh as aDivine title, but rather in the sense "the comingOne". Ellicott is of the opinion that subsequentlyGod chose this as His Name. Albeitin chapter 4 : 26 we have the specific occasionwhen the word became a title in the lips of men—"Then began men to call upon the name ofYahweh' 1 . The preceding verse shows that thiswas subsequent to the birth of Enos, the son ofSeth. It cannot be that this was the time whenmen began to worship God. We have alreadyseen the account of the worship of God by Cainand Abel. The word "call" is used as inEnglish, both for naming a person and forsummoning one. Hence, when the verb isdirected towards God, it means an invocation.Now was the time when men began to invokeGod by His name Yahweh.The significance of this statement here is lostfor the English reader. It follows the notice ofthe birth of Enos. His name means "manmortal" or "mortality". This is an interestingsidelight on the growth of vocabulary. Therewere already two Hebrew words for men in use,Adam and Ish, but it is probable that circumstancerequired another word expressive of thereal nature of man since the Fall. Men werebecoming increasingly aware of the reality ofthe curse. Hence we are told that they calledupon Him in Whom alone their needs could bemet. They used His name Yahweh, and here isthe first hint that they regarded that title as thename of a Redeemer.Abraham's naming of the spot on Moriah asYahweh-jireh is most illuminating. Yahweh, theRedeemer, shall see or provide a sacrificial lamb.That is the implication suggested by thePatriarch in the choice of the name. TheHebrew verb is rendered "see" nearly 900times. It occurs in the name Moriah "seen ofYah". Its use here bears the implication thatYahweh would see a God-provided offering forsin, that is, accept it. The idea that "seeing"means acceptance is well illustrated inSolomon's dedicatory prayer. Beseeching Godto honour the house on Moriah, he says, "thatThine eyes may be opened towards thishouse". 6Abraham, assured by the typicalresurrection of Isaac and the Divine oath ofblessing, rejoiced in the vision of a sinless Onewhose offering Yahweh would accept at thatplace. Such an One would be a manifestationof God and the fulfilment of the Name "Hewho shall be". Abraham rejoiced for thecoming of the One who should know the fulnessof Yahweh and reveal Him in all His savinggrace.Returning again to the passage in Exoduschapter 6, we see that upon the premisesdiscussed manifestation is the matter referredto by God. The statement is a kind of antitheticparallelism. "By My Name Ail ShaddaiI appeared ; by My name Yahweh I did notappear". God had appeared to the Fathers inthe role of Ail Shaddai; through His messengersthey had witnessed His awful power in theoverthrow of Sodom. They had experiencedHis providential care and His ability to multiplyand bless them. These were the aspects involvedin the name Ail Shaddai. As a Redeemerthey had not witnessed Him. Yahweh is thename of a Redeemer. Only when we perceivethis, do we understand God's reply to Mosesin Exodus chapter 6 ; otherwise the addressremains obscure and irrelevant to Moses'sappeal for help. He had come to repeat theappeal of the elders of Israel. Their distresswas occasioned by the fact that since the comingof Moses their lot had deteriorated; thepromised deliverance was not forthcoming.Their rigorous bondage had been intensified.This was the complaint that Moses laid toGod's charge. Why then does God introducethe subject of the patriarchal non-acquaintancewith His character as Yahweh ?The relevance is seen at once if we interpretthe opening words "I am Yahweh" as implying"I am a Redeemer". As such He had not yethad occasion to reveal Himself to the fathersnor to their posterity. Yet He had covenantedthe land of their pilgrimage to them for ever,therefore necessitating their resurrection fromdeath. This He had already taught Moses byimplication at the bush when He identifiedHimself with the deceased fathers. The fulfilmentof all that was involved in the covenantcould only be achieved by the redemption ofIsrael out of Egypt and their placing in thePromised Land. This had been a clause in thecovenant. The destiny of the natural seed was5Gen, 4 : 1 Π Kings 8 : 29

The Τ ESTIMON Υn\to provide a channel for the ultimate fulfilmentof the covenant. "Say unto the children ofIsrael, I am the Lord, and I will bring you outfrom under the burdens of the Egyptians, andI will rid you out of their bondage, and I willredeem you with a stretched-out arm, and withgreat judgments". 7The words end upon the note in which theybegan : "I am Yahweh". The reassurance forIsrael's cry of anguish lay in the essential natureof God as a Redeemer in which role He hadpromised to appear to the fathers. The matteris taken up through the prophet Hosea centurieslater ; "Yet I am the Lord thy God from theland of Egypt, and thou shalt know no Godbut Me : for there is no Saviour beside Me". 8The withdrawal from Egypt under the outstretchedarm of God was a great redemptiveact both from bondage and from death. It ispart of the great design in the book of Exoduswhich contains, in fact, a parable of redemption.What is His Name ? From what has been saidit is plain that Israel were fully acquainted withthe title Yahweh. Evidently in the long yearsof their afflictions, and by reason of the Egyptianreligious influence, the Name would now holdlittle significance for them. They were in aforeign land where Egyptian gods were supposedto respond to the invocations of their devoteeswho called upon their names. Moses wasaware that they would be incredulous when presentedwith the message from the God of theirfathers. They would immediately ask, "What isHis Name ?" The question, therefore, must involvesomething more than a mere request for atitle. Martin Buber in a small book entitledMoses writes, "The people would ask this questionof a man bringing them a message from theGod of their fathers—'How about His name ?'That means, 'What is God really like ?' Wecannot find out from His name (or title). For asfar as primitive human beings are concerned, thename of a person indicates his character ; butthere is also something else included in thequestion, namely, the experience which theenslaved people had had with this God oftheirs."The "negative experience" of the Egyptianaffliction might well cause them to ask whatwas the purpose of this God with them ; but itis almost certain that they thought of Hispurpose more in the sense of "What can He dofor us ?" in this extremity. To this backgroundof thought and enquiry we must relate thesignificance of the title Yahweh. "Perhaps it israther a deep and mysterious statement of Hisnature", says a commentator. In this he iscorrect. It is a memorial Name, for it showsforth what He purposes ; and what He purposesis what He is ; and so, as the commentatorsaid, there is something deep concerningthe very nature of God revealed in this title.This, then, is the sum. The Name is notentirely of prophetic significance ; it is alsorelated to the nature of God ; and what God is,such will be His purpose in creation.Elohim is the Name indicative of the powerand majesty and justice of God. It is on accountof this that He must bring men unto judgment.Yahweh is the title which presents Him asthe Saviour of men Who can redeem from sinand pardon the fallen creature and fashion himas a son of God.In Isaiah chapter 45, God speaks to Israeland the nations on the great theme of salvation.He assures Israel of His purpose in the creationof the heavens and the earth. That purposeinvolves their redemption. Then to the nationsGod extends His invitation. He does so by firstexhorting them to forsake idols which cannotsave. Then come these words : "Tell ye, andbring them near ; yea, let them take counseltogether : who hath declared this from ancienttime ? who hath told it from that time ? havenot I the Lord ? and there is no God elsebeside Me ; a just God and a Saviour ; there isnone beside me." 9Here the whole idea in ourstudy is caught up in a single sentence : God isjust and yet He can save in spite of the fact thatHis justice brings men to the grave.In Romans chapter 3 : 26 the Apostle usesthis sentence from Isaiah in the context ofsalvation by faith through the sacrifice ofChrist. In that work the Lord, by submittingto death as a sinless bearer of our nature,vindicated God in His righteous judgment uponsin. God was declared to be just or righteous,and the way was then provided for Him tobecome the justifier of all who believe : "Todeclare, I say, at this time His righteousness :that He might be just, and the Justifier of himwhich believeth in Jesus."7Exod. () : 08 Hos. 13 : 4() Isa. 45 : 214LOVERS OF PLEASURES" — 2 Tim. 3 : 4"But pleasures are like poppies spread,You seize the flower, its bloom is shed !"—Burns.

232 The TESTIMONYThe Book of Job (7)Cyril TennantJob and the Resurrection"For I know that my redeemer liveth, andthat he shall stand at the latter day uponthe earth."Τ Τ may seem hard to doubt that Job believed**· in the Resurrection in view of his boldassertion at chapter 19 : 23-27 quoted in partabove ; and yet the point has been contestedby the theological schools for centuries. Somehave decided that the translation of the wordsis so difficult and uncertain that it would beextremely precarious to attach any doctrinalsignificance to them. Others believe that Jobwas merely expressing hope in the restorationof his bodily health, which was his most immediateconcern, rather than in a future lifeby bodily resurrection from the dead.Point to this latter objection is supposed tobe given by the fact that at several verses in theearly chapters of the book, Job alludes to deathas final and void of any hope beyond it. Asan attempt to harmonise these verses with therest of the book, an ingenious theory has beenadvanced which appears superficially to meetall the requirements of the case, and yet deniesthat Job had any knowledge of the hope ofresurrection until he was taught it by Elihu.Like the argument of the three friends, theexplanation is a mixture of truth and errorpresented with an air of authority. When firstintroduced to us, Job, it is suggested, was livingunder a law of works, wherein the righteouswere being blessed and the wicked punishedimmediately in this present life, and that thebook unfolds the transition of Job's religionfrom the law of works to the law of faithbrought about largely by the teaching of Elihu.The strength of the theory lies in the undeniablefact already explained that verses which speakof the finality of death appear near the beginningof the book, and may be said therefore to havebeen spoken by Job when his knowledge wasstill undeveloped. Even so, it is thought thatcomplete harmony could only be realised byregarding Job's later references to resurrectionas applying to a restoration of bodily healthmerely.We have no doubt that the interpretation hasbeen proposed as an honest attempt to solvethe difficulty, but several weaknesses readilybecome apparent when it is studied moreclosely.1. Had Job been living under a law of works,God could not justly have afflicted him,once he had declared him "perfect".2. It might not unreasonably be suggested thatif the book is intended to be a revelation ofGod unfolding the transition from the lawof works to the law of faith, it would beunlikely to have appeared in point of timebefore the Law of Moses.3. That Job did not believe in a law of works,and in fact argued strongly against it, is seenfrom chapters 12 : 6 and 21 : 7-19. Here Jobshows how the wicked prosper in this lifewhilst the righteous are often trodden down.Very significantly he adds : "The wicked isreserved to the day of judgment; they shallbe brought forth to the day of wrath."4. The real point of difference between Job andhis friends was this very issue of the time andplace of the punishment for sin. Job, atfirst, is quite prepared to accept the chasteninghand of God upon him even though heknows himself to be innocent ; by contrast,the three friends relate his suffering to somesecret sin. In this they are condemned byJob for not speaking that which was right(chapter 21 : 34).5. Had Job believed in a law of works, he wouldhave been justified in demanding recovery inthis life because God had declared him"perfect", instead, however, he denies anyhope of recovery, and in fact prays for anearly death (chapters 6 : 11, 7 : 6-8, 21.16 :22. 17 : 1. 17 : 15. 19 : 10).Now whilst the above points may satisfactorilydispose of the law of works theory, w r eare still left without any clear understanding ofthe "resurrection" verses in question; so wemust now apply ourselves to them.Chapter 19 :verse 10Job had no glimmer of hope in this life,verses 23-24Because he did not expect to survive hissufferings, he demands with grave deliberationthat a monumental inscription be madeof his belief,verse 25Alternative translations need not detractfrom the obvious trend and meaning of thetext. The original word translated "redeemer"means "vindicator" rather than "redeemer" inthe fully developed Christian sense. Even

The TESTIMONY 233at this stage Job believed his character wasworthy of salvation, but it would not beimparted until the Resurrection. The fullerunderstanding of redemption by faith wasnot understood until the Divine revelationof it came through Elihu and God later.His wretchedly dying condition reminds himthat God "liveth" eternally and thereforecould not fail him as Vindicator ; and thoughthe Vindicator now seemed remote andindifferent to His servant's suffering, Hewould ultimately "stand" for him "at the latterday." The Vindicator is before all and willoutlive all, so will remain Vindicator whenall others are gone,verse 26Job definitely expected to be completelydestroyed by his illness, as all the renderingsof this verse show, and yet however little hisknowledge was, he believed he wouldultimately "from his flesh" see his God.This straightforward study of the text confirmsJob's belief in resurrection, and that anyother interpretation is strained and unnatural.He himself realised he was making an importantassertion of faith, and requested it might beengraved in the rock for ever. All this isconsistent with Job's wish for an early releaseby death from his sufferings, and his lack of anyhope for a bodily restitution in this life.It is of interest that an inscription found inthe rocks at Hasn Ghorab in Arabia and interpretedby Mr. Foster, is said to have been leftby the Adites, the immediate descendants ofUz, and states that they believed in "the returnof the breath to the nostrils after death". Nowwhilst much superstition is mixed with thisbelief, at least the inscription reveals that Job'speople had a knowledge of the Resurrection,and it is not unreasonable, therefore, that heshould believe the same. In fact, this importantdoctrine had been an element of the true faithfrom earliest times, as witness the expectationof Enoch, "seventh from Adam", that the Lordwould come to execute judgment, and ofAbraham who "died in faith" of another "city,whose builder and maker is God", and confessedhimself meanwhile to be "a stranger andpilgrim in the earth".Although the doctrine of the Resurrectionwas not an issue between Job and his threefriends, it would be surprising if Job had notmade at least passing allusion to it. The followingquotations are worthy of closest study inthis regard :Chapter 14 : 14-17These verses usefully reveal Job's state ofmind, but do not make any positive contributionto his belief in Resurrection. Theverses 10-12 may appear in fact to teachotherwise, but we reserve comment until alater stage.Chapter 17 : 15-16The living would go with him to the gravewhere he would have "rest". The use of theterm "rest" resembles its use elsewhere inboth the Old and New Testaments todescribe the temporary abode of God'sfaithful people in the "rest" of death until theResurrection Day. Christ's flesh was to "restin hope". Those who "die in the Lord. . . rest from their labours" (Psa. 16 : 9.Rev. 14 : 13).Chapter 21 : 19, 30In this chapter Job shows his three friendsthe unreasonableness of their "law of works"religion. The wicked, he says, prosper inthis life, become old and powerful, and seetheir seed established in their sight. Theirhouses are safe from fear and God's rod isnot upon them. Then he adds emphatically :"The wicked is reserved to the day ofdestruction ; they shall be brought forth tothe day of wrath." Since Job is pressing hisargument against the three friends when herefers to the prosperity of the wicked, hiswords can only imply their responsibilityto resurrection for judgment.Chapter 23 : 10Since Job has repeatedly confessed himselfto be without hope in this life, this verse canonly refer to hope beyond the grave.Chapter 29 : 18If Job's days were to be multiplied as thesand, and he believed his death to be imminent,his hope must have been reaching beyonddeath to the Resurrection, when "theythat are accounted worthy" will "die nomore". The Revised Version margin substitutesfor "sand" the word "phoenix". Thiswas a mythical bird of the Egyptians whichwas supposed to appear once in every 500years and build a pyre, on which it was burnt,a new phoenix arising from the ashes. Theidea is alien to the Scriptures, but in anycase might be thought to savour of Resurrection.It remains now to consider the passages inin which Job seems to speak of death as final.Chapter 7 : 9-10Job first announces the fewness of his days ;when death comes his neighbours will see himno more ; as a cloud vanishes so man "comesup no more". He will not return to his house

234 The TESTIMONYany more, therefore he will not refrain fromspeaking. Like the Apostle, Job is preachingthat the present is the only time of opportunity; ''therefore take the present time."But the view is no denial of Resurrection.Chapter 19 : 20-22The same sentiments occur here. My daysare few : when I die, I cannot come back ;the few remaining days therefore are all thatare left to me. Let me be free from sufferingso that I can have comfort.Chapter 14A tree may sprout again.