Bulletin - Fall 1979 - North American Rock Garden Society

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Bulletin - Fall 1979 - North American Rock Garden Society

Bulletin of theAmericanVol. 37 Fall 1979 No. 4


The BulletinEditor EmeritusDR. EDGAR T. WHERRY, Philadelphia, Pa.EditorLAURA LOUISE FOSTER, Falls Village, Conn. 06031Assistant EditorHARRY DEWEY, 4605 Brandon Lane, Beltsville, Md. 20705Contributing Editors:Roy DavidsonAnita KistlerH. Lincoln Foster Owen PearceBernard HarknessH. N. PorterLayout Designer: BUFFY PARKERBusiness ManagerANITA KISTLER, 1421 Ship Rd., West Chester, Pa. 19380Contents Vol. 37 No. 4 Fall 1979Cacti: America's Foremost Rock Plants, Part I—Allan R. Taylor and PanayotiCallas 157Aphidicide—Milton S. Mulloy 164Al Fresco in Petropolis: Alpine Newport News—Norman T. Beal; Alpine NewYork City—Dr. Alan Nathans; Alpine Chicago—Vaughn Aiello; AlpineHartford—E. LeGeyt Bailey - 165Dwight Ripley, Plantsman—H. Lincoln Foster 178Edith Hardin English 187A Short Shortia Story—Roy Davidson 188Ralph Bennett—In Memoriam 192Eunomia Oppositifolia—John P. Osborne 193Never Use a Rock If You Can Help It—George Schenk 194Book Reviews: Gentians by Mary Bartlett; Asiatic Primulas, A Gardeners Guideby Roy Green; Wild Shrubs, Finding and Growing Your Own by JoySpurr 198Of Cabbages and Kings: Report on Animal Repellents; Horticultural Archaeology—LarryHochheimer 199Front Cover Picture—Pediocactus simpsonii—Panayoti Callas, Boulder, ColoradoPublished quarterly by the AMERICAN ROCK GARDEN SOCIETY, incorporated under the lawsof the State of New Jersey. You are invited to join. Annual dues {Bulletin included) are:Ordinary Membership, $9.00; Family Membership (two per family), $10.00; Overseas Membership,$8.00 each to be submitted in U.S. funds or International Postal Money Order;Patron's Membership, $25; Life Membership, $250. Optional 1st cl. delivery, U.S. and Canada,$3.00 additional annually. Optional air delivery overseas, $6.00 additional annually. Membershipinquiries and dues should be sent to Donald M. Peach, Secretary, Box 183, Hales Corners,Wi. 53130. The office of publication is located at 5966 Kurtz Rd., Hales Corners, Wi. 53130.Address editorial matters pertaining to the Bulletin to the Editor, Laura Louise Foster, FallsVillage, Conn. 06031. Address advertising matters to the Business Manager at 1421 Ship Rd.,West Chester, Pa. 19380. Second class postage paid in Hales Corners, Wi. and additionaloffices. Bulletin of the American Rock Garden Society (ISSN 0003-0864.)


Vol. 37 Fall 1979 No. 4Bulletin of themeticanRock Catden SocietyCacti: America's Foremost Rock PlantsPart IALLAN R. TAYLOR and PANAYOTI CALLASBoulder, ColoradoDrawings by Panayoti CallasCacti are an integral part of thenatural rock gardens of America; ourindividual rock gardens are necessarilypoorer without them. This statementmay strike the alpine gardening puristas unorthodox at best and hereticalat worst, but we hope to demonstratethat it is neither, that it is, in fact,an obvious truth.If cacti and our native monocotyledonoussucculents are exotic in the eyesof Europeans, they are rather commonplacein this hemisphere. Thefamily extends to practically every stateand province of the Americas fromthe Southern Andes to the windsweptprairies of Alberta and Saskatchewan.No family of plants in this hemisphereis more widespread or characteristicof a broad range of saxatile habitatsthan the cacti. Why saxatile? Becausecacti are most at home among rocks.A few species are restricted to sandyhabitats or grassy plains, but the overwhelmingbulk of the family prefersto grow on well-drained rocky sites.One can travel through countless milesin the heartland of cactus country andscarely encounter a single one amidthe endless flats of Creosote Bush, Mesquiteand Saltbrush. But climb ontothe first rocky ridge and dozens ofspecies will suddenly make an appearance.157


The Cactus Family is not withoutalpine developments. Especially in theSouthern Hemisphere, there are dozensof cactaceous vegetable sheep — porcupinesand hedgehogs in sheep's woolreally —• that haunt the highest screesof the Andes. Even in the United Statesthere are a number of cacti that climbto the tops of the higher desert ranges.An intensely spiny form of Opuntiaerinacea, for instance, hobnobs with theoldest Bristlecone Pines at 11,500 feeton the dolomitic summits of California'sWhite Mountains. Dozens of other speciesare restricted to the high, dry,steppes, plateaus and foothills of Utah,Northern Arizona, New Mexico, Coloradoand Oklahoma where sub-zerotemperatures are a yearly phenomenon.Literally hundreds of distinct forms ofcactus might yet be selected fromamong these, as well as fromChihuahuan, Sonoran and Majaveanendemics that stray beyond their subtropicalrange into this or that chilldesert valley.Yet, in spite of their diversity ofranges and forms, in spite of a relativeease of cultivation, rock gardeners findthemselves speaking furtively about thisglorious family of Americanwildflowers. Evidently there is somethingwrong with cacti. It is difficultto comprehend what might be wrongwith them as subjects for the rockgarden. After all, is the body of thecactus plant that much more succulentthan a sempervivum? Is its flowerany more showy, say, than that ofa lewisia? Its spines are only morepainful in degree than the spines ofa host of choice rock garden brooms,thistles and buns. Cacti are really nomore unfriendly than these, or a goodlynumber of other accepted alpines. Indeed,they are a good deal morefriendly than Aretian Androsaces,eritrichium and their ilk, that altogethershun our gardens with pathologicalobstinacy.The ambiguity and condescensiondisplayed by alpine gardeners towardscacti has resulted in an ironic twist:where in America is rock gardeningpracticed more extensively or with morestriking effect than in the desertSouthwest? Who can pass through ElPaso, Tucson, Phoenix, Las Vegas, LosAngeles — even Santa Fe — and notbe struck by the hundreds o fnaturalistic plantings featuring cacti artisticallyplaced among rocks and awealth of interesting desert wildflowersand shrubs that accompany them inthe wild? Of course the dryness andsubtropical climate in most of thesecities precludes the use of many conventionalrock plants in gardens there.But neither rocks nor gardens arelimited to tundra. Neither, in fact, arethe plants that most of us grow inour rock gardens. Cacti, too, it shouldbe remembered, are by no meanslimited to the southwestern desert.It is our contention that in spiteof persistent prejudices, the ARGS isa natural body to foster interest inthese plants and to serve as a repositoryfor information about them. No otherhoricultural organization on this continentcan boast larger numbers oftalented gardeners who are skilled indealing with difficult plant material.No other national horticulturalorganization in America has as its purposethe encouragement of naturalisticgarden plantings employing wild plantmaterial. No one is better suited thanalpine gardeners for the ordeal of coaxinga hardy cactus from seed tomaturity, and they can make a realcontribution by selecting superior clonesand compiling and disseminating informationon the culture of hardy cactiin cold climate gardens.The dryland rock garden is an ideal158


setting for cactus plants. Here they canmingle with lewisias, manzanitas, penstemonsand a welter of composites andbulbs just as they do in nature. Theindividual cactus is far more interestingwhen viewed in such a setting,among rocks and complementary,unrelated plants. Crowded too thicklywith their own kind, a cactus plantingmay end up resembling a rock concertmore than a rock garden. No sightin nature can impress a hiker morethan the sudden apparition of a solitarymound of cactus in full bloom. If youcan contrive this effect in the rockgarden, you can probably charge admission.While we readily admit that it isimpossible to recreate entire deserts ona city lot, we do maintain (and wehave proven) that it is possible to capturean essential part of the spirit ofthis fascinating natural complex. Thebalance of this article is a descriptionof the plant material apt for such anundertaking. Perhaps in another contextwe might detail the procedures forcreating an appropriate habitat for theplants.Which species of cacti are hardy,and how can they be grown? If welimit our scope solely to the membersof the family that grow north of theMogollon Rim in Arizona, east of theSierras as far as the Great Plains andcolder stretches of the Chihuahuandesert, the numbers of species availableto us is impressive. Cactus nomenclaturerivals the taxonomic confusion of Potentilla,Salix and Astragalus. Speciesnames especially are a bloody battlefieldfor botanists, now that a clearer conceptionof generic affinities has antiquatedthe clutter of micro-genera that onceconfounded amateurs. Botanists mayfret about whether some entity is worthyof specific, merely varietal or just"form" status, but the horticulturistmust necessarily apply a differentyardstick to judge its worth. Withoutworrying too much about specificnames, it is fairly easy to delineatethe broad outlines of certain groups,or complexes, of cacti that can be usedin the rock garden.Size is an excellent criterion to usein dealing with the more interestinghardy cacti. As often happens in thePlant Kingdom, two altogether unrelatedplants can resemble eachother closely in the eyes of a novicewhile different forms of the same speciesmay look vastly different. Sinceour art is more concerned with thehabit of plants than with their geneticrelationships, it is convenient to dealwith cacti on the basis of their habit:we will begin with the "ball cacti"— comprising many, distantly relatedplants — then discuss the cylindric"hedgehogs" (Echinocereus); concludingwith the much maligned PricklyPears (Opuntia). Since nature is thesupreme gardener, we will stress thenatural settings where we have seencacti growing. This can provide hintson how to grow them in the gardenand underscore the message of this article:rock gardeners owe it to themselvesto grow cactus.The "Ball Cacti"No better cactus can begin this accountthan the Mountain Ball Cactus,Pediocactus simpsonii. It is largelyrestricted to mountainous terrain athigher altitudes (in spite of itsridiculous generic name that means"Plain's Cactus") in almost every statewest of the Great Plains. It is the mostwidespread example of a group of cactithat almost never descend below fivethousand feet, in the south. They demanda rather mesic, temperate climateto grow at all. In the dry, intermountainranges of the West, this cactus can159


climb above 10,000 feet. While thisparagraph was being composed a temperatureof -52°F was recordedin a mountain valley west of Denverwhere Pediocactus simpsonii is especiallyabundant. Perhaps nowhere over itsrange does it grow as profusely ason the top of a nine-thousand foothigh plateau in western Colorado wherefor miles on end the exposed sandstonebedrock between islands of PonderosaPine and Gambel's Oak is a veritablesea of Pediocactus tangled in denseswards of Ericopsis Penstemons, phloxin variety, bright purple Alliumacuminatum, Townsendia glabella andselaginella. This species (as is so oftenthe case with cacti) actually comprisesa variable complex of forms. All aredensely armed with centimeter longspines so that the body of the cactusis invisible. Most forms grow singly,others form clumps. The spiny spherescan grow from a mere three inchesin diameter of the type variety intomonsters eight or more inches acrossin other forms. The loveliest form isundoubtedly the "Snowball Cactus", acommon variation in some localities,in which the normally amber spinesare of purest white.The flowers of the Mountain Ballare highly variable. The best formshave inch-wide chalices of rose whichopen widely and are fragrant. Cream,yellowish, flesh-colored and greenishtints predominate in the more westerlypopulations. This is the first hardy cactusto bloom in the garden, often openingits buds in March here in Boulder.Typically, it occurs among rocks andscant grass of the Ponderosa Pine beltof the Montane Zone. It will descendonto plains and valleys only in moisterregions where alkalis have been leached.In one valley in southern Wyoming,granite outcrops are studded withPediocactus at 8,000 feet elevation. Inearly June the steep, south-facingmeadows between these outcrops arefilled with dwarf sagebrush (Artemisiatridentata), many buttercups, andThlaspi montanum forming drifts ofwhite interspersed with the brillantblue patches of the local representativeof mertensia (M. bakeri? M. viridis?a M. lanceolata variety? Nothing keysout.) Bitterroots are just opening theirfirst buds as the Mountain Ball finishes,while directly opposite, on the northfacingslope, the Lodgepole Pine forestis dotted with calypsos.Pediocactus simpsonii var. robustioris the most distinctive race of the MountainBall. It forms giant, multi-headedclumps in restricted portions of thedry prairies in the Northern Great Basin.In this unusual race the spinesare blackish in hue. The impact ofa cluster of several six or seven-inchdiameter heads is striking year around,even if the flowers are less brightlycolored than those of its southernrelatives.A half-dozen more species o fPediocactus have been described fromrestricted ranges in the deserts of theSouthern Great Basin and NavajoanDesert. This austere landscape has beenso overgrazed and threatened by damming,electrical power plants andmining development that these impossiblyrare cacti are in real dangerof extinction. Most are adapted to extremedesert conditions or else occurin special habitats that are difficultto duplicate in gardens. Until these areavailable in seedling stock from responsiblenurserymen, it would be criminalto advocate the use of these endangeredplants in gardens.Coryphantha vivipara is even morewidespread and variable over most ofthe West than the Pediocacti. It extendsfurther south than any Pediocactus.How such a beautiful wildflower, still160


Coryphanthaviviparagrowing abundantly over such a vast,populated area, can remain without afitting common name is a mystery. Buddingcactophiles sometimes confuse itwith the Mountain Ball Cactus, but thetwo are really quite different in bothshape and spination. Although theflowers in both are produced at theapex of the stem (Coryphantha, in fact,means "flowering at the apex"), thoseof the Coryphanthas are usually twicethe size of the Mountain Ball's bloom,161


which they follow by as much as amonth in the garden. Coryphanthas mayhave over thirty, narrow petal-like segmentsin each flower, while in Pediocactusthe segments are blunt, much shorterand fewer in number. The flowers inthe former are generally much brighter,varying from pink to virulent magentasand vibrant purples. Although they areproduced on low plants, often halfhiddenin dense stands of Buffalo Grass,they can nonetheless make quite a showin nature. Coryphanthas generally prefermore alkaline conditions of openprairie at lower elevations but can climbwell over 6,000 feet even in the northernreaches of their range. They oftenbloom after the first rush of springflowers, joining in with a spectacularcanvas of eriogonums, Calochortus nuttallii,Lithospermum incision, Sphaeralceacoccinea and the ubiquitous rabbleof castillejas, astragalus and oxytropisof the West. Cattle have effectivelytrampled countless millions of theseplants out of existence in the last century.In pastureland they can oftenbe found only under fence wires, growingin pitiful rows not of their ownchoosing.The variation in the complex is almostridiculous. The name has beenused to lump varieties with incrediblydense, interlocking white spines (var.neomexicanus) that occur in thesouthern portion of its range; singlebarrel-like plants that can attain nineinches in height in the upper Mojavewith pale pink flowers and variablycoloredspines (varieties deserti androsea); and of course the thicklycaespitose plants (responsible for thename "vivipara") that produce dozensof offsets — resembling Sempervivumarachnoideum from a distance — thatabound in the high parks and on theGreat Plains.These forms and others all intergrade,so that the accurate determinationof varieties is difficult. Growingany of these from seed is a slowand tricky process, as the seed germinatesunevenly and matures at ratesto satisfy the most patient alpine gardeners.Unlike Pediocactus, which shedsits seeds from dry capsules promptlyafter ripening, Coryphanthas producea juicy, sour fruit that ripens late inthe summer and usually persiststhrough the winter on the plant. Asa result, it is easy to collect.Occuring over much the same rangeas the eastern varieties of Coryphanthavivipara is a similar ball cactus,Neobesseya missouriensis. This littlemammillary is more prominently tubercledthan even Coryphantha andhas sometimes been called the "NippleCactus" because of this. It, too, prefersthe Buffalo Grass prairie to mountainousterrain, but it is easily distinguishedfrom Coryphanthas growing nearbybecause of its flattened rather thanconeshape body and the bright redfruits that persist even longer than thegreenish or russet capsules of Coryphantha.The brownish or straw-yellowblossoms, with a darker central stripeon each narrow segment, are of coursequite different —• easily distinguishingthe plants when they are in bloom.Fabulously rare pink-flowered colonieshave also been reported in Montanaand Oklahoma, but we have never seenthem. The Nipple Cactus rarely growsin such dense stands as one often encounterswith the other Ball Cacti.One can easily overlook a plant infull bloom, and if one finds a smallcolony it is usually because one noticesthe bright red fruits contrasting withthe deep green body of a plant buriedin a clump of grass.The plants are small, usually onlythree inches across. Patriarchs sixinchesacross can be found where grow-162


Neobesseyamissouriensising conditions are optimal. It offsetssparingly in its northern forms, whichalso tend to be smaller. The southernforms of this cactus have sometimesbeen segregated under the name ofNeobesseya similis. This robust developmentoccurs from Oklahoma southwardand appears to be almost as hardyin cultivation as the northern form.The flowers are produced in an amazingprofusion over a much longer periodin the early summer than in the northern163


Al Fresco in PetropolisPeople who live in cities do not livethere because they dislike nature. Theflight to and from cities has little todo with horticulture. But most citydwellers,deprived of a naturallandscape, probably have an evengreater need for gardens than thosewho live in the suburbs or the country.Much of the beauty of our citiesis the direct result of a universal longingfor a green and picturesque environment.The aesthetic contributionof landscape architecture to the urbanscene equals or exceeds that of structuralarchitecture. Alfred Geiffert, Jr.,the landscape architect, said, "Asbeautiful as Charleston is architecturally,stripped of her gardens shewould lose much of her charm."Fortunately, the city-dweller can enjoynature even if he does not livein Edens like Charleston or Carmel.The beautiful parks of our concrete-andsteeliestmetropoli are proof of that.And for those who lack a neighborhoodpark, or who desire greater privacythan parks permit, there is always thechallenge of making one's own oasis,one's own Paradise, for appreciation,contemplation, release and fulfillment.An enormous literature, including aninfinity of magazine articles and many,many books, is devoted exclusively tothe urban garden. Many of the books,and a few of the articles, deal withsome aspects of urban rock gardening,in anywhere from a sentence to a fewpages. However, they yield little detailedinformation; the comments on rockgardens are, as a rule, brief andgeneralized. The articles that follow donot, of course, present a systematictreatment. However, they do depict theefforts of city rock gardeners to achievewhat we are all trying to do. Theadjustments they have made to cityconditions may be interesting orinstructive to those who are similarlysituated. Two of the authors have evenengineered a scree, with running water,indicating a willingness to go to whatthe average city gardener might considerdesperate efforts in order toachieve beauty. As many rock gardenersknow, and as these particular onestestify, the rewards of such labor aregreat indeed. — Ass't Ed.ALPINE NEWPORT NEWSNORMAN T. REALNewport News, VirginiaNorman Beal is a horticulturist workingfor the Virginia PolytechnicInstitute Extension Service in NewportNews, which has a population of 130thousand. In his small, townhouse gardennear the center of the city, hehas grown or is growing most of theplants mentioned.In the country a rock garden is often"lost" or, at least, of secondary interestamong the oaks, beeches, pines andvast lawns of a fifty acre residence.But in the city center, where buildinglots are small, it is easier and betterto display and enjoy up close the multitudesof small treasures available to165


us. Certain small, slow-growing ordwarf plants will thrive in every sectionof the nation.In southern Virginia, transplantednortherners often bemoan their inabilityto grow lilacs, rhododendrons, yews andother familiar landscape plants. Howlucky their visiting kinsmen considerthem when they see growing quitehaphazardly the incomparable CrepeMyrtle, Southern Yew, Live Oak,camellia and gardenia. Likewisetransplanted northern rock gardenersbemoan the death of imported saxifragesand heathers during our muggysummers instead of facing reality andselecting from the wealth of readilyavailable, hardy native and introduceddwarf plants. With these they can constructrock gardens that will be superb,even though different from those foundin Connecticut. The red winter matof Vaccinium vitis-idaea minor is notfor us; instead we have the equallybrilliant buns of Nandina domestica'Nana Purpurea Dwarf, starting theirfiery glow as early as September. Saxifrages,no; sempervivums and someechevarias, yes. Many regionallyoverlapping plants tie our gardens tothose of our Northern confreres,notably the dwarf conifers, the maplesand innumerable small creeping andblooming mats.The city rock garden should beenclosed by a fence or wall upon whichcan be grown non-invasive floweringvines. Clematis, Cross Vine (Bignoniacapreolata), and Trumpet Honeysuckle(Lonicera sempervirens) are good localchoices. A southern boundary fence willgive a northern exposure for plantspreferring it. If the soil is not welldrained,it should be made so witha goodly proportion of humus andcoarse sand mixed in. Ground-level rockgardens require back-breaking work,are monotonous to look at and harderto see. Raised beds or mounds alleviatethese problems. Rocks are not indispensableto rock gardening, but are greatlyto be preferred; but not your averagerock-hound's collection of one fromevery state and all colors of the rainbow.Decide upon one type and colorof rock and stick with it. It will notonly unify the garden, but appear tohave been there all along. To thosewho object that it is unnatural to placerocks in an area where none appearnaturally, I reply: Balderdash. It makesas much sense to apply that logic tohouses, in which case we would allbe living in trees and caves. However,each to his own taste.My preference is for the pale gray,water-rounded limestone rock thatabounds in the mountains of Virginia.Landowners in that area are oftendelighted to give away as many rocksas possible, and I, for one, am alwaysready to oblige. Rocks may be gradedinto sizes that can be comfortably movedby various assemblages of men, thus1-man, 2-man, and 3-man rocks. Thosesmall enough to be carried by childrenand most women are too small to makean impact and should be thrown back.When collecting, be picky. Rocks allthe same size and shape will look likepeas scattered upon a field. Of course,we can enhance the apparent size ofone by placing it high upon a moundof soil so that more of it appearsto be hidden than actually exists. Don'thesitate to place a nice rock into afinished garden at a later date. Afterdeciding where it belongs, carefully digout the soil, insert the rock, turn ituntil it presents its best aspect, thenfill in around it, tamping the soilfirmly. It will immediately look as ifit had been there forever.Sometimes a steeply sloping moundwill present problems of soil erosion.I've found that a mulch of shredded166


hardwood bark (stone-chips are lesslikely to harbor slugs,, fungus/diseasespores, and insects -—- Ed.), besidesbeing most attractive, will be proofagainst the heaviest downpour, althoughnot against the digging of squirrelsand racoons, as indeed nothing is.Everyone knows there are more of themin the city than the country, so wejust have to re-firm the soil after them.The small maples look exceedinglyat home in an alpine garden, and ifyou don't wish them to attain theirnormal height of up to twenty feet,they can easily be maintained at alesser size by judicious application ofthe secateurs. Most would agree thatthe natural-looking small gardens ofJapan would not look that way at allwithout the unnatural help of theshears. This is also an excellent wayto care for bonsai and use them toaugment the rock garden. Place themrandomly among your rocks and keepthe tops pruned as you would normallyduring the growing season. The trunkswill develop much faster than in a pot,and watering and other chores will bemuch simplified. Of course you canroot prune periodically as needed, andpot them up when desired for specialoccasions or effects. One of my mostdramatic "trees" is an old privet, eighteeninches tall, with a trunk as thickas your upper arm. Like all privets,it requires a lot of pruning and wouldnot meet a purist's qualifications, yetit arrests the eye. Another is a collectedScrub Pine (Pinus virginiana), witha twisting, sinuous trunk and layeredmounds of foliage. Too oriental? Sobe it.Most dwarf conifers thrive inthis area (excepting the true firs). Thebest are the dwarf Hinoki Cypresses,which never seem to be bothered byany pests. Most others do not longsurvive the predations of spider mitesunassisted. Forceful hosing down withwater knocks them off, and the littlecritters are so small it takes them thelongest time to crawl back on.In the South we are fortunate tohave a rich variety of dwarf broadleafevergreens to choose from. The peerof this group is Henry Hohman's selectionof Buxus microphylla compacta,which he named 'Kingsville'. It wantsto plod comfortably along at a half-inchannual growth rate. Those of you wholike to run with the hare for a whilecan speed it up to eight times normalwith periodic applications of liquidfertilizer (I use Peters 9-45-17) afterhot weather arrives to stay, discontinuingthem by late September. Frequentdrenching with water helps during thistime. Don't let its slow growth ratediscourage you from starting cuttings.True, a one-inch cutting will take someyears to appear in the field of vision;however, if you can gain access tolarge plants, take large cuttings. Mybest results were obtained by takingthem during the Twelve Days ofChristmas, growing them in darknessfor one to two weeks, then stickingthem under mist where roots magicallyproliferated within three weeks. Successwas in the range of 99 percent, whereassimilar cuttings in a Wardian caserooted much more slowly and in therange of 25 percent. Nandina 'HarborDwarf makes nice little groves as itproliferates from rhizomes. Minebloomed and fruited this past year,and the normal size berries lookedridiculously fat and pompous, perchedon their six-inch hosts. Satsuki Azaleas(the Japanese pronounce it "Satski")are great for small spaces. Naturallylow and spreading, they can be greatlyassisted by annual shearing near bloomingtime. As most flower buds arewell down inside the foliage, there willbe ample, indeed overwhelming, bloom167


after shearing. Shape them to matchtheir nearby companion rocks.Several dwarf Japanese Hollies (Ilexcrenata) are of interest. Two relativelynew forms look and feel as if carvedfrom stone. The male is 'Green Dragon',the female 'Dwarf Pagoda', the lattermore compact, both growing less thanfour inches a year. The I.e. 'Helleri'selection called 'Witch's Broom' hasbeen a disappointment, growing morevigorously and upright for me thanits parent. The yellow foliaged formof I.e. 'Helleri' provides a nice touchof winter color for those who likeyellow, although I prefer the dwarfgold Thread-leaf Cypress for pure gold.Pittosporum 'Wheeler's Dwarf makesa shining mound of bright green inshade. Abelia 'Edward Goucher', whiledwarf, needs periodic shearing to maintaincompactness. One of the best plantsfor shade is Sweet Box (Sarcococca),and its winter bloom is pleasantlyfragrant. Pieris japonica 'Pygmaea' isdelightfully miniature in all aspects;P.j. 'Bisbee's Dwarf, with reducedleaves, has a healthy pink winter color;P.j. 'Wada' is slower growing and morecompact than the species, has pinkblooms and pink winter leaves.Osmanthus heterophyllus 'Rotundifolius'with one-inch rounded leaves,and the even dwarfer 0. delavayi withholly-like leaves are both collectables.0. heterphyllus 'Variegatus' has crispwhite-margined foliage.Euonymus fortunei 'Minima' ('Kewensis')is a common landscape shrub,appearing box-like with tiny leaves. Itis most suitable for the rock garden.Rosmarinus officinalis 'Lockwood deForest' is a charming, twisted dwarfevergreen shrub, peppered in fall andwinter with stars of bright blue.Serissa foetida (Popcorn Plant),usually considered a houseplant, makesa stout-stemmed treelet in local gardens.The double-flowering form is morecompact than the species and isevergreen in normal winters. The tinyleavedHokkaido Elm, an Ulmus parvijoliaselection, is almost evergreen,shedding its mantle for a brief periodin late winter. With a growth ratesimilar to that of Kingville Box, itmakes a billowing, mounded littleshrub.A rock garden in the city? Yes!it's a natural.ALPINE NEW YORKCITYDR. ALAN NATHANSBronx, New YorkDr. Nathans is a retired biology andphysiography teacher of circa fortyyears. Currently he is a dedicated alpinegardener and an inveterate travelerseeking why a plant grows where itgrows — especially saxicole. flora.My active interest in rock gardensbegan in July 1972 while I was ona tour of the European continent. Ata rest stop near a peak in SwitzerlandI saw an alpine version of our nativebull thistle explosively thrusting a doublefloral head through the snow. Almostsimultaneously it was envelopedby a swarm of tiny insects from outof nowhere, a flower-to-fruit cycleerupting in a few minutes (or seeminglyso)!This display of dynamism had a pro-168


found influence on me. My determinationto pursue the mysteries of alpinehorticulture dates from that moment.But I have a thirty-two-foot byeighty-foot back yard in a brick andconcrete northeastern city at sea level.There is a temperature distribution of47 °F. in the spring, 63° in the fall,75° in the summer and 40° in thewinter, with a year-round average of54.5°. We rarely reach down to 20°in the winter; a bit more often, butstill rarely, we go up to the 90's. NewYork City has a year-round rainfallof 40.19 inches, with snow and frostamounting to 29.6 inches. There is morethan enough daylight with twelve hoursin the spring and fall, fifteen hoursin the summer, and a weak ten inthe winter. Wind offers little concernto the backyard garden, so surroundedis it by buildings.How then to grow alpines and rockgarden plants at sea level under suchclimate conditions? To answer thisquestion, I have spent six years instudy, built six different versions ofa free-standing rock garden (raisedbed), and travelled to eight Europeancountries. I have tested the nature ofsoil mix and mass, the form, heightand position of the raised bed, plantingdepth and positioning, nutritional additives,the watering cycle and winterprotection needs. I am still testing, butthe current version (about six feetwide, twenty feet long, and about twofeet high) has provided some answersto basic questions. Questions relatingto watering, nutrition, grooming andwinter protection are discussed in thefollowing paragraphs. A list of plantstested completes these notes.WateringAll other factors are secondary to~]the question of watering and drainage. [The very physical structure and constructionof the raised bed is totallypredicated on the manipulation ofwater.The site selected for the raised bedshould be either on a slight crest oron a gradient permitting constant watermovement, not in a depressed area.I first dig out the area to about eighteeninches below ground level, and fillthis excavation with a bottom layer ofthree inches of pea stone (bluestone,etc), pounded down, and the spaces filledwith course sand. Above this I placerock rubble in a vertical stance, andagain fill with pea stone and sand.Then, above this I scatter crushedunglazed red building bricks that act asslow release aquifers. At all levels, sandis filled in and watered down before thenext stratification.A three-inch layer of sand to actas a filter is then positioned. This layerwill also be an inducement to rapiddrainage. Above this sand layer goesthe planting medium. This consists ofa mix of two parts (two heaping shovelfuls)of sand and grit, one part ofrotted leaf mold, one part of mediumloam, eight ounces of dolomitic lime,four ounces of superphosphate, threeflat shovelfuls of course charcoal andtwo shovelfuls of finely chipped (1/4")bluestone.This soil combination, well mixed,is layered in as one builds up thevertical walls of the raised bed, usingsedimentary flat rocks. The rock wallhas a split bonding (each rock coveringthe crack between the two below it).Each stratum is carefully kept tiltedinward and down by firm insertionsof bits of rock chips between the rocks(for lateral water flow and air movement,and to insert wall plants). Thiscreates a funnel effect. There is nocementing of any rock.Counter to the common practice ofa slight inward plumb from the base,169


the plumb is kept true from top tobottom. It was found that such a strutureavoids the erosive effects of cascadingwater, permits the wall plants tobe freely pendulous, and encouragesair movement around them. It looksmore natural and is pleasing.The plants themselves are designedto catch water. As a result of eonsof Darwinian evolution, alpine plantshave developed survival characteristics.These include tightly overlappingrosette leaf patterns, slight or no internodalseparations, a wrinkled exterior,succulence, hairy protective coverings,etc. In the main, these devicesconserve or catch water in droplet ormist form.Watering of alpines in nature resultsfrom the passage of low clouds, condensationthat occurs when mists reachcritical night-time dew points, the slowrelease of snow melt, and drenchingsummer squalls. In the rock gardenthese natural actions can be approximatedby heavy mid-morning and midafternoonmistings, as well as by heavywaterings (with mist attachments) tosoak interior aquifers when required.These watering practices are dependenton the weather, especially thepresence of the sun. Watering shouldnever be done by the calendar, butshould depend on need. The wateringprogram should continue until frost setsin. The soil mass of the raised bedmust always have a reservoir of wateravailable.An automatic misting system mightbe hidden in the raised bed. This hasnot been tried.NutritionInitially, ideal growth conditionswere provided by fertilizers. The svelte,tight mounds and compact rosettesbegan rampant vegetative growth, withlong internodal spaces and few (if any)flowers. The saxifrages became looseand sprawling. They no longer resembledthose delightful little plants one seesin the mountains peeking out of snowor rocky places, where the alpineecology (a reduced level of nutrients,lower temperatures, and a shorter growingseason) permit little more than survival.Thus, to emulate these spartan conditions,over-feeding was abandoned andthe regular rich nitrogenous diet wasreplaced by small amounts of a slowrelease organic fertilizer. Offerings ofnitrogenous food became fewer andwere limited to early spring and latefall. A light, late-fall dolomitic-limedusting and a light sprinkling of bonemeal or superphosphate and potash inspring supplemented the nitrogen feedings.A raised bed should be positionedwhere plant or animal organic detrituscannot fall onto the soil, as these wouldundesirably increase the nitrogen intake.It should be out in the open,with no tree overhang, particularly notdeciduous trees. Open placement assuresthe raised bed of constant sun, all butthe north-facing areas receiving acreditable amount of sunlight. Openplacement also provides free air movementaround the growing area.GroomingRock gardens appear to require lessgrooming than annual, perennial orvegetable gardens.A key technique is the use of afine rock mulch. Quarter-inch sieved,clean rock chips or gravel placed abouta half-inch thick over the bed cutsdown on surface evaporation andreduces capillarity from the interior.It also minimizes the compacting actionof rain, watering, and wind movement,and keeps roots cool. It reduces theneed for weeding almost to zero. A170


thicker mulch, about an inch, is carefullytucked under the cushion, rosetteand mat-forming plants. This reducesthe potential for contamination by bacterial,viral or fungus organisms, andkeeps the plants drier. The rock mulchprovides a convectional air flow to keepthe rock garden plants dry and warm,diminishes soil-splashing onto leavesand lets the plants look their prettiest.Why not pine needles, or otherorganic mulches? These add extranitrogen and increase the chances forinfection.In lieu of washed bluestone chippingone might use small cinders, or crushed,finely sieved slate. Black crushed slateseems to provide more convectional airmovement around the plants.The vertical rock walls of the raisedbed require grooming, i.e. the soil insertedin the crevices does need occasionalreplacement. Sod is set aside,inverted, and kept apart from the compostheap. Suitably sized plugs of sodare pressed firmly into the crevices.Their fibrous nature acts with a spongeeffect, gives body, and can providenewly-imbedded plants with a firm anchorage,and also protection for theirroots. When the plug breaks downit will supply a bit of decomposednitrogen. Rock ferns, campanulas, sedums,saxifrages and other plants arehappy with such moorings.To compensate for loss of sand asit sinks into the soil mass, leaf moldshould be mixed with an equal volumeof sand when it is replenished.Pruning to maintain compactness,removal of dying flower heads and deadleaves are recommended as part of thegrooming process.Winter ProtectionThe main thing is to achieve thewinter protection that the plants areaccustomed to in their native habitats.In true alpine condititions, plants survivehappily in the only slightly subfreezingtemperatures that prevail undersnow cover. The winter climate in NewYork City, where there is little or nosnow cover, certainly differs. In thecity occasional warm spells in winterleave plants unprotected and directlyexposed to fluctuating temperaturesgoing far below freezing, even downto zero. Winter rains, occasionallyheavy, also have a disastrous effectby eroding the soil as well as the snowcover. These devastatingly violent fluctuationsare partly the result of thefact that New York City's winterweather sometimes comes from Canadaand sometimes from the Gulf of Mexico.Furthermore, that very characteristicmorphological structure of alpines, thetap root, delving deep between therocks, must continue to be winterfunctionalat all times. It must drawwater from the normally slow butsteadily trickling snow melt above tomaintain turgidity, and to prepare forthat explosive spring need of nutrients,enzymes, and phytohormones for therapid flower-to-fruit survival cycle ofspring and summer. If there is no snowcover, the tap root may dry out fromlack of moisture. Dryness can resulteither from actual drying out of thesoil or from freezing of the soil todepths below tap-root level: the taprootssimply cannot "tap" the moisture,because it is frozen. Winter-long snowcover would prevent such deep subsurfacefreezing.The so-called winter rest is actuallycoupled with growth dynamics, and aslow vernalization, increasing in latewinter, is necessary to complete thecyclic demands of survival. Withoutwinter mulching and protective effort,such dynamics would be nonexistent.Prior to using any of the wintermulching techniques there should be171


a pruning back and grooming of anyrampant, straggly or dead growth. Thecushions, mounds and rosettes need tobe tightened up.Winter weather brings many specialproblems, e.g. soil and plant heaving(resulting from fluctuating temperaturesabove and below freezingpoint), sunburn of exposed plants, increasedsurface evaporation of waterfrom exposed soil, erosion and compactionby rains, destruction of plants bysquirrels burying or digging for theirsecreted nuts, and the danger of prematuregrowth brought on by inopportuneand untimely warm spells.In addition, an inherent physicaldrawback of the raised bed results fromits having a vertical surface on allfour sides. These vertical surfaces makeit easier for cold air to get into theinterior, damaging the roots of creviceplants. These wall plants must be protectedfrom wind, sun and freezing.Still another factor, not significanton a flat surface or in warmer climates,but profoundly so in alpine ecology,is the need for immediate availabilityof nutrients for that precipitous springgrowth. One should put down aboutan inch of well-granulated leaf moldon the first snow surface, followed byweather-proof winter mulching (stonechips) to keep it from being blownaway, leached out or disturbed. Whenspring temperatures permit bacterialbreakdown, a strong survival-growthfood supply is available.The following procedures are suggested.In late fall (November 1-15),a covering of Scotch Pine needles isscattered on the horizontal surface ofthe raised bed. The long very rigidneedles provide, by their support, amodicum of insulation, reduce erosion,and permit any early snows to filterthrough and lightly blanket the surface.It is at this stage that finely granulatedleaf mold is tossed over the top.Sometime in the first half of December(preferably after a snow deposit) ablanket of three to four inches of firmWhite Pine needles is placed over theScotch Pine-snow-mulch combination,on the top and along the sides. Thisis lightly tamped down. The verticalsurfaces will hold insignificant amountsof the white pine needles; thereforethese surfaces present a special need.It is anticipated that a greater volumeof snow will fall subsequently. Shortlyafter New Year's Day, discardedChristmas trees are picked up. Longbranches are lopped off and drapedintertwined over the vertical surfacesof the raised bed. The shorter branchesare positioned (intertwined) over thetop. The remaining bole of the treeis placed over the middle to add weightand prevent the wind from blowingthe tree branches away.An effective deterrent to squirrel tunnelingis the use of rose canes thatwere pruned in the fall. They are crosshatched over the top of the bed underthe evergreen branches.The removal of the mulches is donein stages. Circa February 15-28 theevergreen boughs are removed (but notthe rose canes). In the first week ofMarch most, but not all, of the Whiteand Scotch Pine needles are taken off.All of these chores are subject to variationsin the weather.PlantsAn effort was made to test the adaptabilityof particular alpine and rockgarden flora before final placement inthe raised bed. A special raised bed,situated in direct and constant sunlight,and with free air movement, was usedfor the test plants. This testing siteincluded, side by side, plants fromIsrael, China, Switzerland, Yugoslavia,Scotland, Greece, etc.172


Some parameters determiningsuitability for the rock garden includedrampancy, nodal growth, leaf size, diseaseresistance, flower production,beauty of foliage or form, ability togrow with controlled minimal feedings,etc. These tests usually lasted over atwo year growth cycle, and are stillgoing on for many plants.The list tested and discarded wouldbe lengthy, so only a limited numberof the successful plants are noted here.Plants for the top of the raised bed:Almost all forms of dwarf Narcissus,e.g. 'Chloris', 'Dainty'; Iris reticulata,I. danfordiae, I. cristata; Muscari armeniacum;Ornithogalum umbellatum;P uschkinia scilloides (libanotica);Dianthus plumarius and hybrids; Androsacesarmentosa; Arabis procurrens;Aubrieta columnae; Saxifraga sarmentosa;Armeria maritima; Anemonepulsatilla (Pulsatilla vulgaris); Aethionemasaxatile; Achillea taygetea;Muelenbeckia axillaris; Stachys byzantina;Penstemon hirsutus pygmaeus;Gypsophila aretiodes; Veronica spicata'Nana'; Iberis sempervirens 'Nana', /.pruitti; Potentilla alba, P. villosa;Primula japonica; and a number of varietiesof Calluna, Erica and hardy dwarfconifers.Plants for the vertical rock walls: varietiesof thyme; Saxifraga stolonifera;Campanula poscharskyana; Dryopteriserythrosora; Asplenium platyneuron;Phlox subulata; Sempervivum tectorum,S. t. calcareum, S. arachnoideum; Sedumewersii, S. acre; Ramonda myconi alba;small leaved varieties of Hedera helix.Plants for the border that mergeswith the patio or lawn adjacent tothe raised bed: Hosta tardifolia; Aspleniumebenoides; Athyrium goeringianum;Epigaea repens; Ajuga reptans,Bergenia cordifolia, B. stracheyi; Iristectorum, I. cristata; Iberis sempervirensand its smaller yellow Italian relative /.pruitti; Epimedium pinnatum; andEuonymus fortunei 'GracihV.ALPINE CHICAGOVAUGHN AIELLOChicago, IllinoisMr. Aiello, chairman of the Wisconsin-Illinois Chapter of ARGS, is a sculptorby vocation.I was born in Chicago. Some yearslater we moved to the suburbs, wherewe were surrounded by open prairiesand ungrazed wooded areas. It wasthere that I developed my interest innative plants. Some of them I stillkeep near me; they are such joys thatI would hate to be without them. Bythe time I finished high school mostof the prairie had been turned overto developers, and I moved back intothe city.With mv involvement in the arts,I quickly met Eldon Danhausen, whosehouse and garden have won much acclaim.I then met Ruth Tichy and RoseVasumpaur. The four of us have beengardening together and attending mostof the national ARGS meetings since1970. Since I did not have a garden173


of my own I just gazed at all thedifferent types of plants and soon hadan idea of which ones I preferred.When buying a house began to seempossible, I decided the site would haveto be within the limits of the cityat the time of the 1871 Chicago fire.This is quite near the heart of thecity now. I bought a Victorian brickrow house, built in 1884 on undevelopedvirgin prairie. In 1900, aCatholic church had bought the landsouth of the house and built a nunnery,school and church. The nunnery andschool have since been torn down, leavinga vacant lot for parking. This hasafforded full sun for the garden, itsbest asset. Another asset is the soil.It has not been moved since the lastglaciation. The glacier laid soil twoand a half feet thick on a bed ofpure lake sand going thirty feet clownto bed rock (at one time Lake Michiganhad covered this land), providing gooddrainage. The house took possessionof me on April Fool's Day, 1974.The garden could be only thirty-fivefeet by twenty-five feet, so I had toplan carefully. Any trees would haveto be on the north side so as notto interfere with the full sun. The alpineplants would be in the middle andon the south side. A few of the plantsI wanted would like a moraine andin full sun definitely would need theunderground water. As this would bea special construction, I decided towork other areas and see the effectsof the full sun. Later, because I thoughtit would interfere eventually, I movedone tree (Diospyros virginiana) thatI had driven all the way to southernIndiana for. I even moved the telephoneand electrical lines.The weather around Chicago isgreatly affected by Lake Michigan. Wehave our own micro-environment withinthat of the Midwest. We have the normalMidwest weather that created andmaintained the prairies, where the temperaturedrops in winter sometimes tominus fifteen degrees or lower withthe humidity near five percent. In summerthe temperature can be over ahundred degrees with ninety percenthumidity. In January we can have sixtydegree weather, then severe snowstorms. Spring arrives practically overnight.Autumn is usually magnificent,though sometimes we need rain. Withinthat context is Lake Michigan.What a difference it can make! Thedogwoods that flower so terrifically eastof Lake Michigan will not bloom westof it. The lake also moderates the dailytemperature, summer and winter. Eldonlives three blocks from the water, Ilive one-and-a-half miles away, whileboth Rose and Ruth live about fifteenmiles from the lake. A typical winterday is, for Eldon and me, about fifteendegrees; for Rose and Ruth about five.A typical summer day is, for Eldonand me, about eighty-two degrees; forRose and Ruth about ninety-eight. Thisis only because of the lake. Rose andRuth experience frost a good monthbefore Eldon and I do. But when heand I are hit with frost it usuallystays until the following spring. Awayfrom the lake, the temperature risesso high during the day and drops solow at night that Rose and Ruth havespring at least two and sometimes threeweeks before Eldon and me. Thismoderating influence of the lake givesme a milder winter, and allows meto grow plants that will not grow awayfrom the lake. The west side of LakeMichigan is even given a different zonerating from that of the Midwest area.Most of the native prairie plantsaround Chicago have been destroyed.However, I hunted and found a smallpiece of open woodland and broughtback some Phlox divaricata, Lilium174


canadense, Sanguinaria canadensis, arotted tree stump and a few other plantsfor a woodland area next to the churchgarage. I added a Canadian Hemlockmy mother had collected as a seedlingin Wisconsin. A friend who has a quakingbog on his property donated aLarix decidua and a group of Cypripediumcalceolus. A Hino-crimson Azaleaplaced under the hemlock has been thebest performer in the area. Several differentvarieties of primroses were added,along with a few forms ofAnemonella thalictroides. Sanguinariacanadensis multiplex was added andhas been divided several times for increase.Hepatica acutiloba and H.triloba americana along with Trilliumgrandiflorum and T. sessile were addedand have increased. A Trillium undulalatumcollected in the wild has survivedand flowered again. Seed was sent tothe ARGS seed exchange. The hepaticashave seeded also. Thalictrum kiusianumdoes very well and I have divided itfor our Wisconsin-Illinois Chapter plantsales. To make a woodland type soil,I collected pine needles, coffee groundsand tea leaves, then mixed them alltogether with peat moss and native soil.For three years I collected Christmastrees from the alley for this purpose.After spending the first year onremodeling the house and in soil preparation,I decided that several collectingtrips would have to be made. Istarted by visiting the garbage dumpin Door County in northern Wisconsinto bring back several clumps of Cypripediumcalceolus. From two trips to thelakeside resort of a friend outsideDetroit, I brought back many graniteboulders in a rented trailer. Fromanother trip to northern Wisconsin, Ibrought back limestone rocks. The nextspring I placed mail orders to SiskiyouRare Plant Nursery and Alpenglow Gardens.That is when the rock gardenstarted to take shape. One trip to NewYork with a stop at Walter Kolaga'swas disheartening as his nursery wasalready sold, but I stopped near Detroitfor more boulders. Our local Wisconsin-Illinois Chapter plant sales greatly addedto the variety of alpine plants. Butit was the summer trips with Eldon,Rose and Ruth to the annual ARGSconventions with their plant sales thatreally began to fill the garden. Thesetrips also took us to many nurseriesand we all brought back many choiceplants. I know of no sources for alpinematerial for many miles aroundChicago.In 1975, the four of us travelledto the Four Corners area of Colorado.I collected Geum triflorum (a realfavorite) and Erigeron pinnatisectus(the best-performing erigeron I haveseen, and it has produced seed). I collectedand am quite proud of Ipomopsis(Gilia) aggregata with its spike ofbrilliant red tubular flowers. This hasflowered every year in very sandy acidsoil; I also collected a few others thatoutgrew their space and have had tobe placed in other gardens. Since thisexperience, I have not added any morecollected material because it seems togrow too vigorously in the garden andI want more alpines anyhow.In April of 1976 I started themoraine. A large hole about two-and-ahalffeet deep by eight feet long andfive feet wide was excavated. Daily walksto a nearby old industrial area produceda large pile of discarded bricks. Theywere broken into small pieces and putinto the pit. Sand, rubble and soil werethrown over this and watered to settlethe mixture. Then I shaped the rubblemixture into a peak in the center sothe water could run down both sidesas I wanted acid and alkaline sides.A heavy sheet of metal enclosed invinyl was cut and laid on top of this175


form. The edges were cut so the waterwould drop into the rubble before itcould reach the surrounding scree area.Sand and large granite pebbles werethen laid down. A copper water pipedrilled with holes along its bottom surfacewas laid on the peak and connectedto the water system. The water wentdown both sides so I put down theappropriate soil mixtures on top ofthe pebbles. This was watered untilit all settled, but it had leaks. Themost common type of leak occurredwhere boulders sat too close to thewater pipe. Water finds the easiest pathand it would come up under the rock.By moving the rock and fill this wasstopped in the first week and it hasnot leaked since. I was then eager forplants that I could use in the moraine.In July, we went to Seattle for thefirst Interim International Plant Conference.Our first stop was Dickson'sNursery in Chehalis, Washington, whichwe had visited in 1970 and 1972. Thishusband and wife team are probablythe most hospitable gardenersanywhere. I acquired Papaver alpinumalbum, Aquilegia saximontana (whichhas provided many seedlings for Chapterplant sales and the 1979 ARGSconvention), a Gentiana acaulis type,eight different dwarf conifers, severalsaxifrages, Campanula cochearifoliaand its white form, and a Lewisia x'Edithae.' Potted plants bought at anursery are superior to mail orderplants.The ARGS tour of an estate gardenin Seattle brought me face to leaf withthe plant I had wanted most, Dryasoctapetala 'Minor.' While I was leaningover it, Lincoln Foster noticed my appreciationand mentioned where I couldacquire it, but added "It probablywould not do well in your area." Putnam'sPlant Farm provided the specimen.In Chicago, I planted it in screetype conditions and it has performedquite well. It has more than tripledin size and flowers from mid-May untilNovember. It is never more than threedays without a flower. Cuttings rooteasily in spring and early summer. Ihighly recommend it. Other plants acquiredat Putnam's included Sileneacaulis, Campanula dasyantha (pilosa),Phlox subulata ssp. brittonii rosea, Saponariacaespitosa and Asperula nitidassp. puberula. There were four of usbuying plants, so the car was quite fulland low to the ground. We also had anassortment of collected rocks. Once home,I began to plant the moraine. The nextspring saw a vastly increased floweringperiod. The 1977 ARGS meeting in ValleyForge, our Chapter plant sales, andraising seed from the ARGS Seed Exchangehave since increased that bloom.After two and a half years, I havenoticed that seedlings occur in themoraine more than in any other areaof the garden. This occurs only alongthe border edge with the scree. HereHutchinsia alpina, Asperula nitida ssp.puberula, A quilegia saximontana,Draba aizoides, Papaver alpinum,Erigeron pinnatisectus, Dianthus glacialisand Oenothera species seed freely.The only two that I have not hadto remove by weeding are the hutchinsiaand the asperula. In fact Imay have weeded the Alpine Poppiescompletely out. The plants that thrivein the moraine are few, but well worththe effort. They are Campanulacochlearifolia, C. dasyantha (pilosa), C.planijlora, Gentiana acaulis, G. decumbens,Androsace sarmentosa, Sileneacaulis, Phyteuma comosum, Haberlearhodopensis and Papaver alpinum (tolist the most successful). So I haveleft the moraine as it is and haveadded to the scree areas.I am fascinated by tight buns andthey occur only in the scree. It was176


suggested I add even more gravel andI did. It seems that the plants withstandour hot, muggy summers if they sprawlon a rocky surface, producing theirown shade to cover their root systems.The best of the scree plants are Armeriajuniperifolia in all its varieties,Asperula lilacijlora (which flowers allsummer until frost), Draba aizoides,D. rigida, Dianthus 'Mars' (a blood-reddouble), Lewisia cotyledon in severalforms, Asperula gussonei, Silene quadridentata.,Dianthus alpinus, Aquilegiabertolonii, Saponaria caespitosa, S.pumilio and S. x 'Olivana', not to mentionfive varieties of dryas and twovarieties of edraianthus. Oddly, severalE. pumilio have failed to make itthrough the summer here, while theyhave succeeded in another Chicago areascree. All in all, it is the scree thatproduces the healthiest plants and thebest performers in this Chicago garden.ALPINE HARTFORDE. LE GEYT BAILEYHartford, ConnecticutRock gardening in the city on ahundred square feet presents problemsof adjustment which you would nothave to make if you gardened on anacre or two. For example: the ninefeet between my house and theneighbor's driveway was ideal for ashady garden, but the household fuelhose had to be dragged through thisarea to the intake pipe at the backof the house. What to do?I dug a trench nine inches deep andthe width of a wheelbarrow from thestreet to the back of the house. Threerailroad ties and some flat rocks formedraised beds on either side of the trenchto accommodate the soil I had dugout. I filled the trench with leaf-moldand gravel. To my surprise, within afew years seedlings of Erinus alpinus,Viola labradorica, Hutchinsia alpina,and Draba aizoides began to appearin the gravel path. My greatest pleasurewas the appearance of many Lysimachiajaponica minutissimaseedlings in the gravel. The path, builtoriginally to accommodate the oilmanand his hose, has become an additionalgrowing area I did not expect.Not having a wall or crevice facingeast or north where I could grow lewisiasin a vertical position, I sank concreteblocks in a sunny position. Iput leaf-mold in the bottom of the holesand filled them with gravel well uparound the plants and edges of theblocks. I feed the plants with fish emulsionand thev grow beautifully.Mrs. Herbert Sheppard of Burlington Rd., Harwinton, Conn. 06791would like to buy or swap color forms of Asclepias tuberosa.Ill


DWIGHT RIPLEY—PLANTSMANH. LINCOLN FOSTERFalls Village, ConnecticutAs an inadequate in memoriam I wouldlike to tell you a little about DwightRipley, a rare plantsman. He, and hislife-long friend, Rupert Barneby, wereawarded the American Rock GardenSociety's Marcel LePiniec Award in1974, but unhappily Dwight Ripley diedon December 17, 1973 before the awardcould be presented.Dwight was born in London,England, October 28, 1908, to anAmerican father and an Irish mother.His paternal forebears and relatives hadfor many years lived in Litchfield, Connecticut,as does still his cousin, S.Dillon Ripley, the Secretary of theSmithsonian. Dwight was christenedHarry Dwight Dillon Ripley, a cumbersomename he soon shortened toDwight, except occasionally, for partialconcealment, when he became in thetelephone book or ARGS membershiplist, H. D. D. Ripley.One knows little about his early yearsin England except from a few revealingreferences in his later writings aboutplants. For instance, I find this in mylittle red book — something I willrefer to on and off. This volume isthe bound copy of articles that Dwightwrote for the Alpine Garden Societyduring the 1930's and '40's — atreasured gift to Timmy and me fromRupert.He wrote in an account of a tripthrough Oregon in 1945:To the author there has always been somethingspecial about the Umbelliferae, or Parsleys,and a patch devoted to their culture wasbegun at the tender age of nine. Coriander,chervil, sweet cicely and fennel were at thattime accorded the lavish care I would probablybestow today on Kelseya uniflora, and aweek-end guest of my mother's was known tohave packed his bags precipitately after tastingone of my terrifying salads. Yet I'm wellaware that Ogden Nash spoke for the horticulturalworld when he wrote his immortaltwo-line poem:"ParsleyIs gharsley."As far as the rock gardener is concerned, theUmbelliferae (except for Seseli caespitosumand the South American Azorellas) are gharsleyindeed. ...This reminiscence may suggest thathis early attention was solely to edibleherbs. Far from it. From Rupert Ilearn that Dwight had fallen in lovewith plants as a small boy and bythe age of sixteen had committed tomemory the Latin names of all theBritish wildflowers listed in Benthamand Hooker's Manual.Dwight's father died when he wassix and his mother when he was twelve.At about that age he was sent by hisguardian, the family solicitor, to Harrowbut who knows what was expectedof him. It is likely that his devotionto the playing fields of that preparatoryschool was not the sort to prepare himfor any future Battle of Waterloo. Whilethere, enduring what must have beenin the 1920's a typical English boardingschool existence, he did meet a fellowstudentof congenial temperament,Rupert Barneby, who has since indicatedhis initial amazement atDwight's prodigeous knowledge ofplants with their Latin names. Thisfriendship endured a separation whileDwight went off to Oxford to pursuecourses in languages and Rupert offto Cambridge to steep himself in178


The Cliff House in Horam, Sussexhistory.During his years at Harrow, Ripleybegan experimenting at home with avariety of gardens. In Horam, Sussex,he had inherited his first rock gardenand a small greenhouse. As his experienceand enthusiasm grew so didhis imaginative innovations in horticulture.By 1935 there were specialsand-beds and water-gardens and threealpine houses, one of which containedthe still reknowned limestone cliff builtagainst a rear brick wall with a cantileveredglass roof and removable glasspanels on the front and sides. Youcan read of its continuing influencein Roy Elliott's accounts in the AlpineGarden Society's Bulletin.Dwight's innovative structures wereprompted largely by his annual botanicalexplorations and collecting tripswith Rupert into remote areas of theMediterranean basin which began in1927. Many of these trips include foraysCrowboroughinto Spain until that country was closedoff by the Civil War.In preparation for these journeys,Dwight and his friend, Rupert, poredover botanical literature in a wide rangeof languages and studied rare plantsin herbaria. The record of these tripsand unusual plants discovered andrediscovered are to be found eloquentlyset forth in the pages of the AGSBulletin from 1930 to 1948. He startedmodestlv with an article of three anda half pages titled "Some Plants ofSouthern Europe." He dives right in:"The following is a brief descriptionof Mediterranean plants now beinggrown in a cold greenhouse at Horam,in Sussex, the majority of which Ibelieve to be new to cultivation in thiscountrv."There are twenty-two plants preciselyand elegantly described, none of whichI believe, even today, are in generalcultivation. This first article was follow-179


ed by a longer one titled "Plants forthe Cold Greenhouse," this time describingtwenty-seven plants collected inNorth Africa, the south of Europe, andin California (and this provenance isprophetic.) As a sample of Dwight'sability to capture in words the essenceof a species let me quote from thisarticle:Astragalus coccineus. This is not only byfar the most sensational member of its genus,it is also one of the very finest alpines to befound anywhere in the United States; thoughmany may take exception to the epithet "alpine"as applied to a species of the highdeserts of California. It occurs here and therefrom Inyo County to the western edge of theColorado Desert, at an altitude of 3,000-8,000feet, growing for preference on apparentlybone-dry slopes almost devoid of vegetation,but with the soil quite damp a few inchesbeneath the surface, round the long, deeplyburrowing taproot. The leaves are clothed indense white silk (as are also the seed-pods),and from their snowy mats rise up in earlyspring, on short stems, the heads of comparativelyfew pea-flowers, nearly two incheslong, of intense scarlet. One's first glimpse ofthis plant is unforgettable, an excitement hardto match and harder still to communicate toothers. The finest specimens I ever saw weregrowing on the sides of a small canyon nearLone Pine, at the eastern base of Mt. Whitney,where the desert sand had not yet cededto the influence of the mountain conifers.There it was obviously happy, revelling in thedeep gravel that contained not a trace of humus— undisputed king of that particularcastle except for an annual Gilia or two anda bright red Castilleja, faint echo of its owninimitable splendour. It may be grown, notwithout difficulty, in a very deep pot filledwith granite chips and coarse sand, plungedto the rim in ashes; and the crown should beguarded from water as rigorously during thesummer as in the darkest days of winter.He rounds out the alphabetical paradeof plants from diverse areas with thisaccount:Statice (Limonium) asparagoides. This Staticeis a native of the sea-shore at Nemours,Astragalus coccineusR. Barneby180


in Algeria, whence it extends to a single pointjust over the Moroccan border; and its rarityis only equalled by its beauty. Would that onecould say the same of Nemours! For here indeedis a plague-spot, as hideous and profoundlydepressing as the drabbest of thoseSpanish fishing-villages which display for thepassing tourist, between the sea and the southernbase of the Sierra Nevada, their ownpeculiar horror. In order to reach the Staticeone has to pass the local slaughter-house,jumping lightly (handkerchief to nose) overthe gully that drains its unnameable foulnessesinto the bright waters of the Mediterranean.But there, waiting in the shadow,lurks the prize, a few young plants perchedwithin reach upon their steep escarpment ofred gypsum. The older plants are out ofreach: enormous black trunks sprawling andtwisting over the cliff's face, from which eruptat intervals the long leafless branches as fineas filigree and rimed with blue, more intricateeven than the fronds of Asparagus acutifolius.In reality they are composed of verymany minute branchlets, interminably dichotomous,covered all over with little cladodesof the same length as themselves. The basalleaves are small and ovate, dying away soonafter the branches begin their growth; theinflorescence is produced in August, and turnsout to be a generous panicle of cerise. Cuisin'splate of this Statice in the "lllustrationesFlorae Atlanticae" is among the most inspiredtours de force to be found in any of thegreat botanical works.One can forgive, I think, his flourish ofscholarship at the end.His next piece, titled simply "In theMediterranean", is a more leisurely accountof yet another journey withRupert Barneby, who is now officialphotographer. There are two ofRupert's superb photos illustrating Matthiolatricuspidata and Iberis candoleanaaccompanying the article.Dwight begins his essay:In January of last year, accompanied by myfriend Rupert Barneby, who took the photographsillustrating this article, I visited CapePalinurus, famed locality of the unique PrimulaPalinuri, lying more than eighty milessouth of Naples on the way to Calabria — aremote and undramatic promontory isolatedbetween stretches of mountainous coast,marked only by a little striped lighthouse anda cluster of fishermen's huts. Centola, perchedon a hill a short way inland, is the nearestvillage, and if you descend from here thePrimula is almost the first plant you see onarriving at the shore. It is worth the fivehours' journey from Salerno to witness thebizarre spectacle of an Auricula, so essentiallyalpine in appearance, growing down bythe very edge of the Tyrrhenian. The largeglandular rosettes, usually single, more rarelyseveral to the trunk, sit quite happily a fewfeet above the dark blue sea, listening, not tocow-bells or the chatter of excited spinsterson their first trip to the Engadine, but tofishermen's more ordinary talk and the musicof waves falling on a southern beach. Thearchdeacon of rock-gardening, who never sawthis plant in situ, describes it with what canonly be called genius as occurring on "limestonecliffs . . . where it lies baked and dustcoveredin the fine dry silt of the grottoes".In point of fact the Primula affects openbanks, so steep as to be almost vertical, of acurious orange-coloured sand, known technicallyas friable arenaceous tufa, which characterisesthis piece of coast and which I havenever seen elsewhere in the Mediterranean.But then the word "grotto" is irresistible.and ends:Returning home last summer, we stayed forseveral days in the Puy-de-Dome, prosaic yetto us exciting, while Rupert tracked downcritical Biscutellas among the scoriae of deadvolcanoes or in small granite gorges by theside of streams. A wind was blowing over thehigh plateaux, unbelievably cool after thestifling heat of Provence, and as we scuttledhappily from puy to puy, with the air becomingfresher and more bracing every day,we told each other that the Mediterraneanwas quite definitely overrated. That inn atCavaillon, for instance, had been beyond ajoke. And then, the mosquitoes. . . . Back inEngland, we revelled in the sight of lawnsand elm-trees, river-beds that ran with water,and the large grey clouds. Never again, wevowed, would we leave this paradise on earth.Two months later I found my friend poringover a road-map of Morocco. His bagswere almost packed, he said. It seemed therewas a Trachelium near Fez. . . .Again one can forgive his measuredthrust at Farrer.Then as a sort of final farewell tohis Old World explorations he has along piece called "A Journey ThroughSpain" about which he confesses:The following notes, to be frank, are nothingmore nor less than an expression of uncontrollednostalgia, a prolonged harping ona set of all too precise memories acquiredover a period of years spent in the moun-181


Cymopterus ripley R. Barnebytainous regions of Spain. ... It is the selfindulgenceof one who has been exiled far toolong —• almost a decade, in fact — from theleast understood and most arrogantly beautifulcountry in Europe.Yet in spite of more than a dozen visits tothe Peninsula, some lasting several months,there are still many sierras that I have nevereven glimpsed, or that remain in the mind'seye merely as intriguing contours seen inpassing from the train or bus, shapes of momentousindigo lying on horizons as cold andvirtuous as the seas's; the marble gorges ofYunquera, for instance, or dank Riopar withits caves and cataracts poised high above thewhite dust of Murcia. . . .The whole essay is a magnificentrecherche du temps perdu, erudite andbotanically precise but most fancifullystructured.From there on the pages of the AGSBulletin record accounts of the Ripley-Barneby expeditions into the flora ofthe United States and adjacent Mexico.They had taken up residence in BeverlyHills, California in 1936. But we shallsee later that the beauty of the Mediterraneanworld still haunted them.Here in America was a new world,wide and inviting. Over the years thesetwo explorers chased down many aplant recorded only once years beforein diverse botanical publications. Andthey discovered a number of utterlynew and unknown ones. There are fivespecies in four different genera named"ripleyi" and several "barnebyana."'At the time of the early Americanexplorations, the gardens and alpinehouses at the Spinney in Sussex werestill there to receive collected plants,though during the war they did receivesome damage from bombing. The receptionand care of the new plants fromAmerica, plus the management of theestablished collection under increasinglytrying circumstances was entrustedto the care of a series of gardenersunder the guidance of the elderW. E. Th. Ingwersen. Mr. Ingwersen,noted nurseryman and himself a plantexplorer, was a devoted admirer ofRipley's as is evident from the series of182


letters dispatched by him to Americarecounting the affairs at Horam. I havebeen privileged to read these Ingwersenletters and was told I might throw themaway after reading but they are toofascinating for such a fate. I have, therefore,sent them back to the present generationof Ingwersens for possible biographicaluse.Eventually it fell to the elder Ingwersen'slot to arrange for an auctionof the plant collection at the Spinney.This sale was carried out November12, 1951. I have a copy of the salecatalog with notes of prices given foreach lot, an amazing document. I canvisualize the formidable gathering ofnotable horticulturists of the AlpineGarden Society and others cagily biddingagainst one another. Prices rangefrom five shillings for Lot 108 containingBupleurum plantagineum, Sedumtuberosum and three others, allthe way to seven pounds, one and sixfor Lot 96 that included Lepidium nanum.,Salvia vivacea, Cyclamen creticumand three others.During their prolonged absences fromEngland and until Ripley's finaldisposal of the Spinney at Horam, thetwo friends made numerous botanicaltrips in the United States, primarilyin the southwest. They were frequentlybased in California and deposited theirherbarium specimens at the CaliforniaAcademy of Sciences there or at theNew York Botanical Garden. Ripley'selegant accounts of these explorations,with magnificent pictures by Barnebyare to be found in ten articles in theAlpine Garden Society Bulletin from1940 through 1948.There are such titles as "TheLimestone Areas of Southern Nevadaand Death Valley", "Rarities ofWestern North America", "Utah in theSpring", "A Trip Through Oregon".These are all wonderful reading, fullof plants and their discovery. I can'tresist giving you just a brief sample.On the morning of June the 1st, 1945, Iawoke in a small, battered bedroom of theonly hotel in Mountain Home, Idaho, with afeeling of exasperation and one of those moderatehangovers half-way between a simpleheadache and the condition, described so accuratelyby S. J. Perelman, in which "partiesunknown seem to have removed one's corneasduring the night, varnished and replacedthem, and fitted one with a curious steel helmetseveral sizes too small." I had spent theprevious evening pounding a piano in a barfor the amusement of the local cowboys, andthese innocent souls, inflamed no doubt bythe novelty of my urban tempo after a lifetimeof "Home on the Range" and similarforthright compositions, had kept me well suppliedwith refreshments.But sleep, when I finally dragged myself tomy pallet, refused to come: all night long thecowboys tramped up and down the creakingstairs of the hotel or shouted happily to eachother in the corridors, while the less virileretired to their rooms to pass out, breathingpeacefully with the quiet, regular rhythm ofpneumatic drills. Shortly after dawn I fell intoa fitful doze, and at six-thirty, wide awakeand pondering on the world and its follies, Igot up and dressed.A little later a knock sounded on the door.It was my friend Rupert Barneby, lookingenviably crisp, with a stack of drying papersunder one arm and our camera and tripodunder the other. Together we descended tothe hotel cafe, where I forced my teeth tognash sullenly for a few minutes on somethingyellow accompanied by two slices of salt pork,and gulped down a large cup of coffee inpreparation for the day's collecting. By seveno'clock, armed with a thermos and some sandwicheswrapped in cellophane, we were in thecar and off. . . .Near the end of these years of Americanbotanical explorations recorded inthe AGS Bulletin and in some Americanscientific journals, the two explorerssettled permanently in the United States,first at Wappingers Falls, N.Y. There,on extensive outcrops of Hudson Valleyshales, they devised a large rock gardenand erected an alpine house where theygrew a continuing introduction of plantsfrom their annual pilgrimages acrossthe country and into Mexico. FromWappinger's Falls came a few Ripley183


The Rock Garden in Wappingers Falls, N.Y.articles for the Bulletin of the AmericanRock Garden Society.But it was at this time that Dwightturned more and more of his attentionto other interests that had for longabsorbed him in the periods betweenbotanical explorations. He was an avidcollector of avant garde art and washimself an accomplished artist with aseries of one-man shows in New York.His first book of poetry, a volumeas slim as it is rare, appeared in 1930and in 1952 he published a long poemcalled "The Spring Catalogue", a lyricalextravaganza invoking the muses ofhorticulture and of kinky erudition.For years he had been at work ona compilation of botanical informationbased on the vernacular names of plantsin over thirty languages and dialectsthat he had taught himself to read,in many of which he was truly fluent.This vast and erudite manuscript, whichR. Barnebyhe did not live to finish, is depositedin the Library of the New York BotanicalGarden.In 1960, following an almostinevitable breakdown of spirit andphysical illness, Dwight moved toGreenport, Long Island, N.Y. There hecontinued to work on his dictionaryof plant names and carried on withhis painting and poetry. And it wasthere that together Dwight and Rupertcreated a unique and wonderful garden— The Sanctum — a summary anda synthesis.I know nothing of how the Sanctumwas conceived, nor of its original construction.When I first saw it at thefar end of a long narrow sweep ofgrass that had been mown in stripesrunning out from the house, it wasa beautiful and shocking vision. Froma distance, set as it was against aline of tall, rather thin pines with blue184


sky through and beyond them, itappeared like the partially tumbled remnantsof some Greek temple. Thereseemed to be toppled pillars in theforeground, scattered here and there,embraced in a flat sandy space betweena broken-shadowed back wall and thetwo wings of a roofless structure completelyopen on the fourth side.As we advanced, kicking out of ourway, as I remember, rabbits here andthere on the grass approach, detailsbecame clearer. The wide back walland the two shorter wing walls, whiteand gleaming in the Long Island summersun, were of uniform height, buttheir faces were not flat and even. Therewere subtle juts and embayments settingup the most delicately balanced andspaced play of light and shadow alongtheir entire expanse. On closer approachwe could discern another even palerpattern breaking across the vertical pattern.There was a strong horizontalline tracing the walls about one thirdof the way up and fainter lines aboveand below this. These fainter horizontalssoon showed as the indented jointsbetween the large white-painted concreteblocks of which this marble-appearingtemple was indeed constructed.The firm horizontal line proved tobe a double row of sandstone facingblockslaid flat on the top of a wall,five concrete blocks high, sweepingaround in front of the three taller wallsand about three feet out from them.Between this lower wall and the backwall on all three sides was a raisedbed whose soil mix went down to theearth between them. Here against thesetextured and irregular back walls ofglistening white, broken occasionally bythe silhouette of subtly trimmed dwarfevergreens trained against them, werebeds with three different light exposuresand with some irregularity of surfacewhere soil and facing-stones were builtup into low mounds and ledges.I was aware, from the generalgeography of Long Island, that the longback wall faced east, that the wingon our left faced to the north andthat on our right to the south. Entirelyopen, of course, overhead there wasa strong play of light throughout; yetI knew that during the course of aday all of these long narrow raisedbeds were bathed in varying intensitiesof sunlight.I must admit that some of myanalysis of the structure came laterbecause when we got close to the raisedbeds I was literally overwhelmed withthe variety and elegance of the plants.There along the north-facing wall weretight cushions of Kabschia Saxifragesand other rare alpines along with somecompact woodlanders. And in the sunnierreaches were mounds and tuffetsof such diversity and rarity that I couldonly begin to absorb the botanicalnames as Rupert or Dwight providedthem in answer to my repeated —"What is that?" Here, indeed, wasan unbelievable assortment of rare andstunning plants. Only a few had beenpurchased; some had been grown fromseed: most had been collected in thewild on forays into the Southwest ofthe United States, the highlands of Mexico,or the lofty regions of the mountainsabout the Mediterranean.Besides the plants in the raised beds,there were others grouped into specialmicro-habitats in an assortment ofround and square planters set here andthere on the sand floor of the rectangleformed by the three walls. Each planterwas a commercial artifact: a sectionof concrete septic tank; sewer pipe;conduit; or chimney tile, all set onend, painted white and each filled withits special soil blend, in most casestheir surfaces enhanced with artfullyplaced rocks. These were what I had185


mistaken for tumbled columns. In onewas a collection of plants from theCaucasus, in another plants from theSpanish Sierra — all out in the fullplant-huddling sun.Though my first visit was in Augustwhen few plants were in bloom, thevery health of the vegetation, the beautyof the foliage, and most of all theabsolute clarity and beautiful proportionsof the structural setting mademy spine tingle with admiration —and a touch of envy for the imaginationand artistry that had invented this stunningconceit. Here was indeed, a pieceof architecture, simple and straightforward,using the most prosaicmaterials. It combined in a magicalway the romantic beauty of a tumbledGreek temple and the starkestangularity of a modern building. Formfollowed function — less was more.Then a couple of years later I returned.No longer along the approachfrom the house did I see the openface of the three walls. Across the frontwas a new concrete block wall, notas high as the other walls nor as stark.As I approached once again down thelong narrow sweep of grass, it wasas though I were looking toward, nota Greek temple, but rather a Moorishor Middle-Eastern building.With some ordinary concrete blockand an elegant selection of pierced andpatterned ones a front wall had beenconstructed. This filagreed wall extendedon either side beyond the originalside walls, which had also been extendedoutward into two set-backs to format each end of the building elaborate,almost sculptured entrances. The fronthad balanced square juts and a longbay, the lower portion solid, but toppedfrom end to end with fluted and openspacedblocks. One entered from eitherside through a Moorish gateway.Against this front wall, inside thegarden, was a whole new built-up rockgarden constructed entirely of the sameThe Sanctum in Greenport, N.Y.H. L. Foster186


formal slabs of facing-stone used totop the original raised beds. On thesand floor within were still the concreteplanters, but, in addition there wasa lop-sided crucifix of flat facing-stonesframing a new ground bed. There weremore plants and more wonderful plants.Where previously I had in jokingletters referred to the Sanctum as the"Sewer Garden" alluding to the planters.I now wrote Dwight about the"Seraglio" because the reconstructedgarden gave a sense of a Mohammedansecret enclave, his special harem withhis special plants.Now I begin to realize that DwightRipley was always years ahead of histime. What had been InternationalModern architecture fitted most eloquentlyto rock gardening had becomea piece of architecture that anticipateda parade that has become known asNeo-Modern.Alas, this monument to a man ofmost precious sensibilities is no longera sanctuary for alpine plants of rarityand wonder. In some ways, I feel sure,that if Dwight Ripley knew, he wouldbe content that his work of art, wasas subject to time and fashion as arethe fritillarias and dionysias.God rest him.Edith Hardin EnglishEdith Hardin English, born in Bellingham, Washington, in 1897, died in Seattleon June 19, 1979. Scattered throughout many northwest gardens are living memorialsto her and to her late husband, Carl English Jr.; memorials in the form of plantsintroduced by one or the other of them, plants named by or for them, plants whichcame from their garden or nursery. When I walk through my garden, I am remindedof them when I see Lewisia 'Editheae', Pleione bulbocodioides 'Pricei'. Dodecatheonpulchellum 'Red Wings', Metasequoia glyptostroboides, or numerous others.Edith English was a lady of many talents: as a teacher of botany and horticulture;as a photographer of this region's flora and fauna; as a botanical illustrator; as apainter of word pictures through her many contributions to various publications; asan authority on native flora (co-author of Flora of Mt. Baker, 1929) ; as guide andmentor to countless students, particularly through youth camping trips into theOlympic mountains as described by San Francisco horticulturist Kate Read (Winter1979 ARGS Bulletin) when Edith English was the subject of one of the series onoutstanding western plantswomen.Mrs. English was the recipient of many awards and honors throughout her lifetimeincluding, in 1966, the Award of Merit from American Rock Garden Society givenjointly to Edith and Carl English for their many individual and combined contributionsand achievements. In recognition of her work with irises and particularly forthe development of Iris 'Golden Nymph', she was given an award of merit from theAmerican Iris Society and, in 1950, the prestigious National Horticultural Awardpresented by the National Federation of State Garden Clubs. She was acclaimed asone of the first of the American hybridizers of Pacific Coast irises and introduced tothe gardening world the lovely white Iris douglasiana 'Pegasus'.Edith and Carl English played an important part in the development, appreciation,and study of horticulture in the Pacific Northwest. There are many of us who feelfortunate and honored to have known them both.—N.B.187


A SHORT SHORTIA STORYROY DAVIDSONSeattle, WashingtonPhotograph by Stephan DoonanIt has been often said — anddoubtlessly with great wisdom — thatthere is nothing new under the sun,but no plantsman has ever really believedit. Researches into the literature ofthe jewels of Diapensiaceae, that smallfamily assemblage of pixie-mosses,galax, shortias and schizocodons anddiapensia itself, have led to a numberof clarifications, and investigations intowild places, investigations that almostyielded a truly "new" species to horticulture,one in cultivation nowhere,insofar as can be determined.Botanists of late years seem almostconsistently to want to lump bothSchizocodon and Shortia into the onegenus (called Shortia) and there maybe quite sound reasons for this.However it might be thought quite unnecessaryfor understanding such a verysmall family. Although the Japaneseand American species of "true" Shortiacan be interbred* and presumably allthe Schizocodons, of a single speciesmust surely be quite interfertile, membersof the two groups simply do notmuddle themselves in hybridity. Thisis certainly no criterion for keepingthem as two distinct genera, but tomost gardeners, at least, Schizocodonsremain Schizocodons regardless.Steve Doonan accompanied my secondvisit to see the oriental species in theautumn of 1972. We asked ourselves aswe clambered about on the Japanese* Shortia x intertexta, raised in England byMarchant; Doonan has remade the crosshere.ranges: What were the ecological relationshipsof the two? We exploredcolonies of each in close proximity, atsimilar and at diverse elevations, on avariety of substrate, with similar andwith distinct plant associations. We neverfound the two together. Above on thetopmost summits of the same rangesDiapensia isolated itself from both.Our handy reference list of the Diapensiaceaeconcluded with a puzzlingset of items from Index Kewensis, seemingto indicate that Hayata had describedseveral species of a genus calledShortiopsis, but we had been unableto verify or to find anything moreabout them, and while in Japan wehoped to substantiate some of ourguesswork, such as that Shortia rotundifoliamight be the same thing, certainlya presumptuous idea. Could itbe possible (we reasoned) that therewere several unknown and unsungfamily conveners hiding in theremoteness of Taiwan's mountains?Would it not be as logical to presumethere is in reality only a multiplicityof names?Dr. Moriya, who had so ably andpatiently aided our explorations centeredabout the mountains of Tochigiken,came up with an encouragingbreakthrough, a little known referenceto the effect that Shortia ritoensis wasconspecific with Shortiopsis ritoensis,one of the listed names. The rangewas stated to be the Loo-Choo (Ryu-Kyu) Islands and south to Taiwan,thus correlating a reference to Shortia188


otundifolia that Brian Mulligan hadprovided.That clinched the matter, we werecertain. Forehandedly we had air ticketsthat allowed us to go as far as HongKong and with stopovers, so we immediatelyset about making arrangementsto visit Taiwan. But prior to that departurewe set off in exploration of theendemic white-flowered Schizocodonsoldanelloides var. intercedens, stumbledupon with the Craigs in Gifu onmy prior visit in 1969. Of this wewere fortunate in obtaining much cuttingmaterial from the enormous oldplants and a bit of seed, adding considerablyto the stock of this fine introduction.In no case did we dig anyplant of any of these as we foundthem, taking only cuttings and seedif any was found. We were gifted witha number of interesting variations asthey are cultivated in Japan, but foundthat our own collections were just asinteresting as they flowered later.After a pilgrimage to Kyoto, we indue time arrived in Taipei and wentimmediately to the botany departmentof National Taiwan University, whereDr. de Vol literally opened the Shortiadoor for us. Folder on folder of ourplant was on file as well as a quantityof unmounted material. In the referencelibrary we were shown Hayata's publisheddescriptions and the note to theeffect that should this Taiwan aggregateof Diapensiaceae prove sufficientlydistinct from Shortia it should becomeknown as Shortiopsis. There was noactual publication of the name perse and yet it had found its way intothe Kew record, thence to our list.Hayata had published them as Shortiaspecies, a total of five in number.In passing, we noted a single sheetof another rare member, the HimalayanBerneuxia thibetica, distinct in severalways, with a long lanceolate leaf bladeand tali raceme of small fringey flowers.It had originally been considered tobe a Shortia species.After photographing several of thesheets and making extensive notes, weobtained such special permits, hotelreservations and rail tickets as wouldallow us into the forestry preserve highin the mountains near the base of Mt.Morrison, also known as Yushan, JadeMountain and Niitakiyama, the highestprominence between the peaks of theHimalaya and California's SierraNavada. Our specific destination wasAlishan at about 7200 feet or approximatelyhalf the height of Yushan, andbarely to the north of the Tropic ofCancer.It was the end of September as wetraveled by express down the westernside of Taiwan, a generally flat coastalplain on Formosa Strait, the narrowestpart of the China Sea. At Chia-yi, apoint about halfway down the island,we changed to the picturesque narrowgaugelogging railway and were soonclimbing from the humid agriculturalflats of sugar cane and ripening bananas.It was hot and uncomfortable,but all that was soon forgotten as afascinating transition came through thewindows as though flashed onto a moviescreen. We began seeing occasionaltree-ferns amidst the dominantbroadleaf evergreen trees, then thenested treetop epiphytes like crowsnests; soon tree-trunk-bracted ones,then lower and lower they grew aswe climbed higher, until as we reachedthe conifers they merged to surfaceepiphytes in the moss and then to terrestrialspecies. The railside was neatlycared for, doubtlessly hand cut to allaythe jungle as well as to provide fodderfor animals. There were miles ofplanted subjects, both native and introducedmaterials, red floweredwithout exception. Taiwan's own189


Rhododendron oldhamii seemed afavorite, and here at lower elevationsit has a non-stop flower record. Suchmundane things as cannas and pelargoniumsblazed forth from the jungle'sgreenness.After a couple of hours of maneuveringthe terrain of plunging ravines andknife-ridges we came to the seemingimpasse of sheer cliff just beneath thesummit. The procedure halted for thosewho wished to debark and pay homageto a venerable old chamaecyparis. Fromthis point the track was engineered backand forth in a series of reverses, andwith each change of direction we gaineda bit of elevation until to everyone'sexpressed relief we emerged at apoint just beneath the rounded summitof Mt. Ali, and thus arrived at Alishan.Alishan must be one of the mostbeautiful places in the world. In thefifty years of their occupation (1895-1945) the Japanese commenced theharvest of the huge spruce andchamaecyparis trees and built the railwayto convey the logs down the scarp.In the days of earliest botanical exploration,these high mountains weresaid to have been inhabited by warringtribes of savages. As the immediatearea had been cleared, a comparativelygentle little vale became a village setabout the perimeter of a most lovelypark, retaining the natural terrain andindigenous plants. Miles of beautifullylaid, broad stone walks and stairwaysled throughout. As there are noautomobiles there are no streets. Inone secluded area we came upon amagnificent stone and bronze shaft, amemorial to the forest that had beensacrificed. Further along a botanicalgarden identified the native plants forus, and nearby a most terrible "mickeymouse"of a temple had broken mirrorand pretty-rock roof ornamentation thatwould frighten the most evil of devils.As the pavement looped back to climbtoward the station again, we crosseda broad lagoon with a pagoda-bridgefor lovers. There are several large resorthotels and the residences of the forestryand railway people, a few curio shopsbut those near the station. We at lastclimbed back and paid our call onthe forestry officials, and there we meta visiting plantsman who knew the shortiawell. We should go, he told us,by the early morning work train furtherbeyond, to open ridges higher andcloser to Yushan, and there it wouldbe plentiful, and we should easily returnby evening.As we left that encounter, we couldscarcely believe our good fortune andthe sequence that had led to it. Butwe contained ourselves sufficiently toadmire a flourishing bank planting ofpleione on the railside. The summitsroundabout had been commercial collectingstations for P. formosana atan earlier time. Now they are scarce,and these were safe only behind a protectingenclosure. We lazed away theremainder of the afternoon examiningeven more ferns (the island has wellover six hundred species) and hikingalong the railway toward our new goal.The hollow of an immense decayingstump was festooned with perhaps adozen sorts of fern, from leatherythongs to the laciest frailty. There wereground orchids of some variety anda neat ground-covering of Gaultheriaitoana. Although snow may fall at Alishan,the situation above tropical junglecauses it to melt without freezing actionand the area is sheltered from prevailingwinds.Sunset was an unbelievable spectacleat this elevation on the verge ofthe tropics, but its promise of tomorrowwas not to be ours. A deluge in thenight destroyed a section of the railwayand we were obliged to be evacuated,190


to hike out over a low mountain tomeet a special train that had comeup from below. Men ported the heavyluggage and the old and infirm whohad been on holiday. It was no easytrek for any of us; the well-worn trailswere steep and muddy. It did give,however, an opportunity of observinghow the mountain people live, theirjungle shaded by a wire treillage ofbitter-melon to provide most of theworld's supply. By nightfall we wereback at our Taipei hotel, and I wouldhave given the world for a good bakedpotato!We are satisfied that there is a thirdspecies of Shortia*, safely hidden awayand obviously plentiful in the highmountains of eastern Taiwan and islandsto the north, but never as far north asthe schizocodons are found, the southernmostof those being on the Japaneseisland of Yaku.In 1868 Maximowicz describedSchizocodon rotundifolius from Taiwan'smountains; this was later subjectto transfer, becoming Shortia rotundifolia(Maxim.) Makino. Meanwhilein 1913, Hayata described Shortia exappendiculataand S. transalpina, atwhich time he proposed that shouldthey be found sufficiently distinctivethey should become known as Shortiopsisspecies. In 1914 he followedwith the related S. ritoensis and apparentlythe further S. crenata and S.subcordata, now reduced to forms ofthat. Thus the amount of variabilityis seen to be very similar to that ofschizocodons and other plants with abroad altitudinal range. For discussionhere the Taiwan plants are referredto as Shortia rotundifolia collectively.Shortia rotundifolia is in general appearancemuch like a smaller S.uniflora; the flower is a nodding one,* At least one more is known, the HimalayanS. sinensis Hemsley.$Shortia rotundifolia in National Taiwan UniversityHerbariumgreenish white (infrequently blushpink) with nearly entire petal margins.The unique absence of staminodes obviouslysets it quite apart from othershortias and from schizocodon. Hayataalso noted the sessile anthers and undividedstyle as distinctive. These pointswould of course define the genusShortiopsis should it ever be recognized.It has been found on rocks, amongmosses, under trees, on the forest floorand on steep and rocky hillsides, apparentlyalways associated with conifers.From the very extensive collectionsit would seem that it must constitutea prominent element of the floraof its range, and certainly it wouldbe endangered by logging operations.Almost nothing is known of it outsidethat herbarium. To the Japanese whofound it, it is known as "Randai iwautiwa". We were invited to a few piecesof the unmounted material on ourreturn to the university. There wereboth large and small forms representedamongst these, although the filed specimensdemonstrated those from higherelevations, consequently smaller, to beconsidered as S. transalpina.We have just come onto a single191


eference to this Taiwan plant in thewestern literature. Dr. Hui-Lin Li writingin Rhodora 45.537 (1943) expressedhis concurrence in considering ita species of Shortia, although he admittedto having known it only fromphotographs and descriptions.Any keen plantsman traveling to Taiwanshould make the special effort tovisit the village of Alishan. It is famousfor an illusion known as the Sea ofClouds. When the western lowlandsare blanketed in dense overcast as happensfor a part of almost every day,one may experience that sense of isolationas if viewing it from an island,the mountaintop surrounded by bluestwater bathed in sunshine. Should hefind himself so isolated, he should takethe early morning work train to theridges closer to Yushan and have thesatisfaction of finding the Taiwan Shortiafor himself . . . just as quicklyas he possibly can.This account might be considered a sequel toa prior discussion of Diapensiaceae, ARGSBulletin, Vol. 29, p. 2.Ralph Bennett—In MemoriamIn the spring of 1967, we had been less than a year in Falls Church, Virginia andwere in the process of building our first rock garden. One pleasant Saturday Ireceived a phone call from a gentleman asking if I belonged to the American RockGarden Society and if I had a rock garden. The answer being yes to both he told mewho he was and asked if he might see my garden. And that was how I met Ralphand Annie Bennett.Less than a half hour later he was observing my construction efforts with thekindly compassion that the professional bestows upon 'the beginning amateur. Observingthat I was where he had been thirty years earlier, he asked me if my wife,Lois, and I and our two children would like to see his rock garden in nearby Arlington.For those of you who have seen that garden, you can understand the charm itheld for two small children, not to mention their father. A maze of sunken paths,steep screes, shrubs and trees in a naturalistic setting all lent an air of enchantment.I came home with two boxes of plants.Over the ensuing years I learned much about Ralph. For years he presided overthe Potomac Valley Chapter of the ARGS, organized our spring and fall plant exchangesand the winter meeting. He had started a neighborhood garden club inArlington that had done much to beautify the homes of its members. He was amember of numerous plant societies and was particularly interested in lilies. Hespoke to garden clubs throughout the Washington area, looking always for convertsto that gentle art.I believe his greatest pride and sense of achievement came as an organizer of theAmerican Penstemon Society. For years he printed the annual report on his ownmimeograph machine at no little cost of time and effort.A few years ago, he stepped down as the leader of the Potomac Chapter to bereplaced by Jim Minogue. And then because he and Annie were both in theireighties, they sold their enchanted garden and the home he built and moved toFlorida near two of their children. He and Annie did get back to Virginia on two192


occasions. Ralph true to form had taken up his lawn and transformed the groundsinto a tropical garden — and he had slides to prove it.I know that his many, many friends will miss him, but I suspect, like me, whenthey look around their gardens they will find much to remind them of him for hewas a generous giver of plants. With me it is Penstemon smallii, now on its ownand doing well.Our sincerest condolences go to Annie, his life mate for over half a century andto his children. However, I remember him with gladness for he touched many liveswith his zeal, kindness and generosity.• • • •Ralph Bennett died at his retirement home in Florida on May 1, 1979 when inhis late eighties. The above tribute by Donald Humphrey of Falls Church, Virginiatells much about the kind of man he was — a dedicated and generous plantsman.The following excerpt from a letter written to a friend by his daughter, MargaretCurtis, shortly after his death, tells how deeply entrenched was his love of rockgardening."I think you know of how interested Dad always was in rock gardens andprobably have been to visit the large one in Arlington which he built and whichcovered an acre of ground. It was beautiful in the spring when it was in bloom. Hemoved to Florida in September of 1975 and purchased a small home and, sincehe loved rock gardens so much, invested in a ton of rock in order to build a smallrock garden in his back yard. Here in Florida they sell rock for five cents a poundor eighty-five dollars a ton and thus it is a scarce item. He planted many plants inhis small rock garden here. They are perennial and have seeded themselves so thatthere will be bloom in his garden for many years yet to come. At present it is infull bloom and just beautiful."Eunomia OppositifoliaNothing much is ever heard of this little crucifer, a true alpine fromthe mountain regions of Lebanon and neighboring countries. Even thetext books are rather vague about it. Nor is it seen in many gardens,though it is easy enough to grow and a real gem.It is a small shrublet, only an inch or so high. From a woody basetwigs branch out in all directions with fleshy little, round, gray-greenleaves, making a compact mat that spreads only moderately. In earlyApril the four-petalled flowers of light lavender cover the plant. Thecombination of gray leaves and lavender flowers makes a charmingpicture each spring.Here in Connecticut it is completely hardy. Like most plants ofMediterranean regions, it requires full sun and good drainage. Itmakes little seed but is easily propagated from summer cuttings.—John P. Osborne, Westport, Connecticut193


Never Use A Rock If You Can Help ItGEORGE SCHENKKirkland, WashingtonScouting about, I have found naturalstone used to good effect in the gardenin an amazing variety of ways: Thenatural outcrop, a treasure that comesto few gardeners, embellished with alittle soil in the seams and saddlesand planted with rare or commonthings; rocks artfully placed in a gardento suggest natural outcroppingstone; field stones casually arranged,the glacial rollers fussed with onlyslightly, each lying almost as the gardenertossed it on the gorund.On occasion rocks in no arrangementwhatever may be very effective, as whenriprap is dumped from trucks to coveran extensive embankment and plantedwith Broom and other big tough rockplants wherever crowbar and shovel canwork a plant into the ground. Theeye will find its own compositions inany such stonefall, especially if therocks are of various sizes.Rocks may also be used to goodeffect as plant-enriched architecture. Adry stone wall, for example, plantedwith such immortals as Mother-of-Thyme, Basket-of-Gold, and CheddarPink can be a piece of folk art ifvery neatly constructed and cared for.Then there are stones used as pavinginviting to the feet, or conversely, rocksas paving politely discouraging to thefeet (no short cuts, please) with afew rosettes, perhaps of mullein or ofsome finer leaved plant between therecks.Natural stone can be well used assculpture, but it requires a poeticbulldozer operator (a rare bird, indeed)to tip a glacial monolith on end andgrade the soil comfortably about it.More often, such great stones, whenencountered in the process of grading,end up pushed over a bank.But there are also many ways ofusing natural stone to no advantagein the garden.There is a Northwest kitsch classic:at least ten thousand gardens in theSeattle area display collections ofblocky "mountain rock" trucked fromtalus slides in the Cascades anddeposited in clots resembling nothingso much, to my eye at least, as caninescats mineralized and of colossal size.Such stuff is worthless for the romanticlandscape uses to which it is usuallyput. True, there are a few good rocks,even magnifcent rocks, in thisgeological subspecies but finesse inselecting these few is not to be hired.To get the best rocks one must goto the mountains, scramble over rockslides and search out the singularorganic shape amidst countless dicedand lifeless units. Unselected stonesbrought in as an eight or ten stoneload and costing probably fifty dollarseach installed is throwing away moneybetter used for plants. Never use arock if you can help it.Furthermore — as long as I'm beinginsufferable — never use blocky stonein hope of naturalistic effect. Blockswill stack up to nothing more thana parody of an outcrop, but this same,routine blocky granite can make a finedry stone wall.Rocks usually only add confusion tothe already confused facade of bad architectureor non-architecture. Farrer'sfamous advice about locating rock gardensout of sight of all buildings seems194


to me as valid in the event of contemporarytrash-buildings as it was inthe case of the heavy Edwardian architectureof his era. However, in thePacific Northwest many of our later20th Century houses, particularly thoseutilizing stained wood, take beautifullyto a rock garden as close as can beto walls and windows.We do much visual gardening, evenin gardens into which we are neverinvited. We walk by, keeping to thesidewalk; we look in; we care aboutwhat we see; in seeing, sometimes wesuffer — rather often we suffer. Forexample: we may very well have inour care one hundred thousand completelyunnecessary stone retaining wallsor wall-lets — stone retaining that retainsnothing, but annoys the peacefulprogress of eyes and feet. One can almosthear the curses heaped on such rowsof stones over the years by gardenersplodding behind lawn mowers. In mostcases gentle grades of stable soil shouldbe sloped instead of being chopped intoupper and lower levels.And finally, and eternally, there isthe Date-Nut Bar Rockery with itsinevitable wrappings of concrete. Theremust be millions of these the worldover, constructed of rocks too much thesame size, rocks too regularly placed,rocks the wrong answer to begin with.Never use a rock if you can helpit.The strength of our compositions ofrocks and plants comes from ouranalysis of natural stonescapes. I can'tconceive of anyone constructing aplausible rock garden without havingbeen psychically knocked out of one'sshoes at some time, probably manytimes, by the hallelujah majesty ofstonework in nature.Good rock gardeners are superbtourists, tourists that is, who see morein a mile, more in an inch than theaverage traveler. We are what I calltrailside types, rather than trailmarchers.While the more athletic marcherspass us by — their eyes onthe dirt track, their minds on somemystic goal (Lake Divine or PillarRock) — here we are stopping at trailsideto take mental pictures of the waythe world fits together. Here, now, isthe Hairstreak Butterfly irritably probingan alpine daisy (a slow-yieldingwell), the flower clinging in thrillingsuspense to its cleft in the cliff, thecliff cascading mightily from the skydown to us and on down below absorbedin turf and forest.Rock gardening is based equally onsuch close-ups and on such grand views.One must be a constant student ofrocks and plants in all places: in themountains, at the beach, in the desert,along the streambed, and even in thepasture; for if rocks are here, heretoo are dutiful rock gardeners: horsesand sheep, deer and rabbits, who keepthe herbage nicely adpressed and neatlyedged about the rocks, making meadowgrasses, dandelions, bull clover, andplantains artful rock plants for the moment.Pm smiling quite seriously asI write this. This pasture with itshaphazard, yet orderly, rocks and itsbuttoned-down, yet blended plants isa great teacher of rock gardening.Not every wild landscape of rocksand plants is pretty, however. Someare tumultuous and disturbing, yet eventhese hectic landscapes reveal thebalance required for the rock gardener'sart; we must work with a sense ofthe fierce and of the gentle.Three words have just come to thefore in my mind unbidden. I amsuspicious of them for their jinglysound as a trio but they won't goaway. The words are Power, and Bower,and Flower: for me, these three wordsring the garden values of all natural195


landscape.A considerable amount of the Powerof the stony world transplants with surprisingease to the rock garden whenwe develop that connoisseurship of rockswhich rock gardeners sum up in sayingsimply, "That's a good stone", meaningthis is certainly no broken or newlylaid egg of a rock, but shows goodlyage of surface, warm tone, and a livelyshape. As a piece of stonecraft therock garden can't be much better thanits stones, each individually weathered,warm, and lively. The Bower in nature— to return in search of our secondvalue — is that place of environmentalwholeness, surround, and intimacywhich compels us to stay: this is theplace to be. A garden is a gardenonly when it enfolds the gardener insuch a place. Finally, the Flower isthe detail in nature that entertains;each flower is as something to read,and I know rock gardeners to be insatiablereaders of nature. In plantswe read flowers, leaves, roots and all;stone surfaces we read as a goodmystery. The rock garden providesmore to read than any other gardenform, which is to me the reason forits being.High sounding stuff. I wonder now,how is it possible to be a bad stylistin rock gardening when all about usthere is such an exemplary world freefor the looking? And yet even themost faithful observer of wild rock gardenscan go sadly astray when tryingto translate these nature-works into anatural appearing, home-made rock garden.And in naturalistic garden compositiona near miss ranks with falsebrickwork or plastic daffodils. Whathas gone wrong? Some detail canthrow a whole concept into disunity:a scree topping unrelated to the rocksit surrounds, the stones themselves tooregular in outline and set, like buildingblocks, in strata lines too monotonouslyregular, a magnificent rock inappropriatelypedestalled as a lone menhirat the summit of the garden, a curbingof bricks. Anyone of these or severalin combination may destroy the unityof the garden and thus destroy thenatural effect sought by the gardener.Brick curbing, suitable as it maybe in other garden contexts detractsfrom the value of stones — and viceversa.Brick, if it must be used, shouldat least be covered with plants — asingle sort for peaceability: thymewould serve well. Or, the rock gardenmight feature bricks — might usebricks entirely instead of stones, groupingthem from place to place on theside of a hillock as low fragments ofbrick walls, suggesting ruins nearly submergedby accumulated soil, suggestingsimultaneously outcrops of stone. Thelatter would be a far abstraction ofa natural outcrop but the mind wouldmake the merger. Having gone thisfar, would one dare use crushed brickas a scree topping? I believe I would.Why not?'If any of my readers have gone greenand queasy, I'm sorry. But I won't retract.In rock gardening one must, I believe,either recreate free-form naturemeticulously or forget nature almostentirely and frame one's beds withstraight lines and milled or manufacturedmaterials. Imitating nature badlyis the only crime.And yet the classic rock gardendesigned in admiration of wilderness,its mazy paths and well-stocked shelvesadding up to a library of sensualdelight, its cliffs not tall but noble,its stones crusty with aeons of sunand wind, its joints so cunning anInca might pat the gardener on theshoulder, and even a Rustyback Fernwill believe in you — who does notrejoice in this antique, this juicily ro-196


mantic art and craft? — When itsucceeds.But — oh! — the cost. I have foundmyself spending an entire day arrangingno more than three to fivestones, taking each stone out of theground, lifting each stone off theground — twenty, thirty, forty times;making countless little adjustments ofcloseness, of angle, of height; then tobed at night to be a captive audiencebefore my own mental movies of stones— figments of an ossifying brain —conjoining and separating in a kindof hefty ballet. And that's not the endof it. I have got up the morning after,twenty years older, probably as stiffas rigor mortis; I have gone outsideto examine my effort of the day beforeand, in the merciless morning lightof self-criticism, I have found thewhole business to be embarrassinglybad and demanding to be done over.I assume that each of us who arrangesstones creditably enough for ourfriends to give our work an appreciativenod goes through a similar trial.Therefore I advise anyone who is unpreparedto wrestle mightily with stonesto forego any attempt to arrange theminto fancy work such as outcroppingsor ravines. There is no honor innaturalistic stone composition foranyone but the zealot, the tomfool artist.There is, however, dignity for us all— and even some free and easy fun— in using a stone as a stone, unattached,or only very casually linked upwith others, if at all. This work isrelated to the natural scatter of stonesin pastures, and to the gardener's scatteredhandful of bulbs in drift planting.But there is an epilogue to thesegarden vignettes so artfully and arduouslyconstructed. Some will be revised,uprooted to give place for furtherexperiments on the same piece ofground. Others will be torn up as toolarge and costly of maintenance. Andwith most the growth of plants willrevise the original construction beyondrecognition or obliterate it cleanly outof sight. Yet the early stages of nature'scommentary on one's work is eagerlyawaited by the gardener. Now comesthe greening of the blanks, the softeningof outlines and mistakes; the gardenergrows proud and invites gardenvisitors. There is, however, a stagebeyond, and a stage beyond the beyond.There is, for example, the mystery ofthe disappearing stone. Who wouldsuspect perfectly well-behaved rockplants (as we set the bounds of behaviorin saxatile species) of being secret octopusesof stones capable of flowingover and consuming (for all visiblepurposes) a thousand-pounder in notime, in a decade or less? Moss willdo in the grandest stonework evenmore speedily in a moist shady garden.Rocks may be retrievable but the plantcommunity is irreversibly alive and ofits own mind and one may end upwith rock plants without a rock insight, and none needed."Never use . . ." but you know myrefrain.Do I mourn my losses? Not much.In rock gardening there is a perfectexcuse for starting over: most rockplants are pioneers in nature. Theylike new soil, a freshly made bed. Nowthat I think of it I am only the humblechamberlain of the rock garden. I havechosen my service with a free mind,or perhaps with cultivated delirium, andI suppose I'll never give up until itis absolutely time.This article is a verbal sketch of a slide essay presented at the Study Weekend-West in 1978. — Ed.197


tunately some of the best Japanese gentiansare annuals. These are not mentionedby Ms. Bartlett, but are, in anycase, unlikely to be seen except in Japan.In general, Gentians is a very helpfulbook to the grower, of convenient andsensible size and scope. David Wilkie'sGentians, edition of 1950, was reprintedin this country by TheophrastusPublishers in 1977. It is more encyclopedic(146 detailed descriptions,many illustrated, and over 600 speciessummarized in tabular form), and isessential to the amateur specialist. MaryBartlett's book, on the other hand, hasthe real "flavor of gentians" (the titleof her first chapter) and a strong practicaloutlook, which recommend it toAmerican alpine gardeners who wantto keep from feeling blue about gentians.—Howard Mason, Portland, OregonBooks For LoanMembers are urged to make use ofthe ARGS-PHS Library Service. Theaddress is on the inside back coverof the Bulletin. Available from YourARGS Store for no cost is the LibraryCatalog.Several new books have recently beenreceived by the Library and are nowavailable on loan:Asiatic Primulas — A GardenersGuide by Roy Green, put out in 1976by the Alpine Garden Society. Thiscan be purchased from the AGS but thosewho wish to examine it before purchasecan borrow it from the Library Service.It is a hardback book of 163 pageswith 24 illustrations and 27 photographsof Asiatic primulas. It is another excellentbook from our sister organization.Wild Shrubs — Finding and GrowingYour Own by Joy Spurr. Publishedin 1978 by Pacific Search Press, thisis a small soft cover book of 96 pagesand describes 40 shrubs native to thePacific Northwest suitable for the garden.Each shrub is depicted with linedrawings showing the whole shrub, itsfoliage, and bloom. This is accompaniedby a brief description of the plant,giving height, blooming and fruitingperiod and range. Propagation suggestionsand description of the plant'sbehavior when moved into cultivationare also included. This is a very worthwhilebook.Japanese Maples by J. D. Vertrees,reviewed in the Spring, 1979 issue,is also available from the Library Service.• • • of Cabbages and Kings• • •Almost all organizations find it essentialto have some method of communicatingwith its members. Whenthe American Rock Garden Society wasorganized in New York City on March21, 1934, Dorothy Ebel Hansell wasnamed Secretary and, in addition, theEditor of the Society's official organ.This consisted, until 1943, of a fewpages in Gardener's Chronicle, apublication founded by Mrs. Hansell'sfather, of which she was editor. Thesecolumns, giving news of the Society'sactivities, along with brief articles onrock gardening, were supplemented forthree years (1939-1941) by Year Booksand loose-leaf folded sheets known as"Saxiflora". Sixteen of these leaflets,199


which contained a brief description ofa specific rock garden plant illustratedwith a line drawing, were sent to themembers of the Society.In 1943 Mrs. Hansell disposed ofthe family interest in Gardener sChronicle and the ARGS plunged intoits own publication, the Bulletin of theAmerican Rock Garden Society underthe editorship of Dr. Edgar T. Wherry.For many years, under variouseditors, the Bulletin was the solepublication of ARGS. It came out everytwo months. Its issues during its firstyears were fairly slender, containingas they did only sixteen pages. Thoughthese contained illustrated articles aboutrock gardening and rock garden plants("Saxiflora" was one of the features)many of the pages were taken up bynews of the Society's activities, bothnational and regional, including thereports of the officers, the membershiplist and the seed list. In 1952 the Bulletinbecame a quarterly rather than abi-monthly publication, each issue containingfrom twenty to thirty-two pages.The content remained about the same,however, though "Saxiflora" was eventuallydiscontinued (thirty-five werepublished in all) and the seed andmembership lists were no longer includedin the Bulletins pages, but wereprinted separately, but lists of newmembers and the activities of the nationalorganization and the sevenregions continued to be reported inconsiderable detail.It became, in the 1960's, increasinglyevident, as the Society grew, that thesefeatures were taking up more than theiralloted space in the Bulletin despitean increase in the maximum numberof pages to forty. Members were complainingthat they wanted to read lessabout people and meetings and moreabout the real business of the Society:rock gardening and rock plants. Itwas therefore decided in 1966 toremove from the Bulletin as much ofthe organization's business news aspossible and relegate this to a separatenewsletter to be included with the Bulletinmailing. This had several advantages.Not only did it clear thepages of the Bulletin for articles ofmore lasting interest, but because thisnewsletter, which was printed by offsetfrom typewritten copy, had a more flexibledeadline than the Bulletin itself,late news of immediate vital interestcould reach the members more quickly.To relieve the Editor of the necessityof handling two separate publicationswith differing deadlines, and becausethe Secretary already had his handsfull and most of the business of theSociety arrives eventually on the President'sdesk, the production of thisnewsletter, y-clept the "Bulletin Board"devolved upon him. Though its preparationis an additional and, I am certain,at times onerous burden upon the President,it does give him an opportunityto communicate personally with themembers. In its pages are also to befound such things as the report ofthe Annual Meeting, the Treasurer'sReport, the announcement of rock gardenexhibits, meetings and conferencesof national interest, the reports of Chapteractivities and changes in their officers,the list of new members andnotice of the demise of rock gardeningfriends. It is in the "Bulletin Board"that the activities of the AdministrativeCommittee and the national officers arereported, the problems besetting the Societyare aired, and new programs presented.It is here that announcementsand information of immediate interestare brought to the attention of themembers for consideration and action.The "Bulletin Board" has become thenewspaper, the telephone exchange andthe nerve center of the Society.200


The Bulletin is, we hope, for yourpleasure and information and may beperused at leisure and even filed forfuture reference. The "Bulletin Board"is of immediate concern and shouldbe read as soon as received and, whennecessary, acted upon.Report on Animal RepellentsHerewith a brief note on the variousdeer repellents suggested last fall andtried with varied success. In our gardenin the northwestern corner of Connecticut,where deer greatly outnumberthe human population, the deer hadalready moved in by August and weresampling the azaleas and rhododendrons,comparative shopping, as it were,for their winter fare. One hundred andfifty nylon mesh bags stuffed with hairfrcm the local hairdressers, were scatteredthroughout the approximately sevenacres. These were attached to thoseshrubs that the deer had found particularlychoice the previous winter, oneto a shrub — not nearly enough accordingto the instructions. The deer,however, apparently got the hint andmoved out of the garden that night.As reenforcement the entire garden wassprayed in October with the hot peppersauce-Wiltproof mixture.We had no snow last winter andthe deer did return to forage in thegarden by late January, but nof nearlyas intensively as in past years, andthe damage was not as extensive. Theydid avoid the side of the shrub towhich a hairball was attached but chewedon branches a few feet away.Perhaps a second spraying with hotpepperfollowing the heavy Januaryrains would have helper! but unfortunatelythe temperature never wentabove 40°F. (the minimum for spraying)the rest of the winter.On the other hand, friends abouta mile down the road attached thesuggested three to live hairballs pershrub to the yews and Euonymusradicans vegetus around their house.These had been completely denuded theprevious winter. Though our friendswere away from January 1 to April1 and their house left vacant, theirshrubs came through the winter unscathed.Unfortunately they had forgottento tie hairballs to the Iberis sempervirensand these were eaten to theground. Draw your own conclusions.Shirley Klett of Bel Air. Marylandsent in the following note on the subject."In connection with the experimentson hot pepper sauce to repel varmints,I should have reported long since thatI concocted a mixture of brown laundrysoap (shaved, covered with water andheated to a jelly in the old way) andTabasco Sauce and made it work forwoodchucks and rabbits. A thin mixturesprayed on the Chinese peas repelledthe woodchuck after one sampling, anda thick paste painted on the stems ofblueberry bushes got them through thewinter (with a couple of renewals)where rabbits were concerned. I cameup with this seven years ago, butwhether I read the idea somewhere orthought it up myself, I do not nowrecall."Horticultural ArchaeologyThe following note is from LarryHochheimer of Norwalk, Connecticut.Last May my wife, Irene, and I werein Beziers near the Mediterranean inFrance. In a guide book we noted briefmention of a spot nearby where artifactsof three successive dead civilizationshad been discovered and we imposedon our hosts' good nature todrive us the ten miles to Nissan-les-Enserune. We found excavations in prog,ress and a small museum exhibiting201


pottery, iron and copper fibulae,figurines and other artifacts of Celtic,Greek and Roman origin, many verybeautiful.The site was elevated above thesurrounding flat terrain and had presumablybeen used as an observationpost to watch for approaching ships,possibly carrying raiders. This kind ofpiracy was indulged in all over theMediterranean for centuries, being considereda sort of national pastime,baseball not yet having been invented.Bold and blood-thirsty marauders woulddescend on unsuspecting settlements andcarry off the women and othertreasures.We were informed that the discoveryhad been made in 1915. A passing botanisthad noticed a plant he had previouslyseen only in Greece and ondigging around it had come upon ancientshards.A few weeks ago we wrote the museumasking for the identity of the plantand in return had a charming letterfrom Le Conservateur L'Abbe Giry. Theplant, he wote, was Anagyris foetida.Not listed in Bailey, Hortus II, orEverett, Irene finally found it in Poluninand Huxley's Flowers of theMediterranean, where it was describedas "very poisonous and obnoxioussmelling." Thus horticulture went handin hand with archaeology.The identity of the identifier remainsclothed in mystery, but while we mayassume he smelled it, we fervently hopethat he did not eat it.Should I wish to become a botanist (gardener) I must first turnmyself into a reptile.—Samuel Johnson, amended by Francis H. CabotPACIFIC HORTICULTUREa magazine about plants and Gardens of the WestIllustrated Color QuarterlyAnnually: $6 U.S., $7 ForeignWrite to P.O. Box 22609, San Francisco, CA 94122THE CUMMINS GARDENDWARF RHODODENDRONSYES, We Ship!DECIDUOUS AZALEASCustom PropagatingDWARF EVERGREENS Catalog 50*COMPANION PLANTS(Refundable With Order)Phone (201) 536-259122 Robertsville Road Marlboro, NJ 07746202


PLANTS FOR THE CONNOISSEURDWARF CONIFERS—for troughs and rock garden that will notoutgrow their site in a short time.JAPANESE MAPLES—only the finest are grown. Dwarf in growth—exquisite foliage.The above for mailorder or pickup. CATALOGUE 50#The following for pickup only.ROCK PLANTS—ALPINE HOUSE PLANTS—DWARF RHODODENDRONMany rarities in quantities too small to list are availableto those willing to visit the nursery and extensive rock gardens.By appointment only on Tuesdays—Saturdays and Sundays,call 516-MA 3-7810 after 8:00 PM.JOEL W. SPINGARN 1535 FOREST AVE. BALDWIN, N.Y. 11510STONECROP NURSERIESCold Spring, NY 10516(Just off Rte. 301—between Rte. 9 & Taconic)Offering a wide selection ofAlpine plants and wildflowers for the Rock Garden and Alpine House;Trough Gardens; Unusual Perennials and Dwarf Shrubs.Cash and Carry—No CatalogueBy Appointment only—914-265-2000Display Gardens and Alpine HouseFrank Cabot-Prop. (914-265-3533) Sara Faust—Mgr. (914-223-3419)Grower ofROCK PLANTS, HERBSPERENNIALSANNUALSLarge SelectionNo CatalogAll Plants for Sale at Nursery OnlySAMUEL F. BRIDGE, JR.437 North StreetGreenwich, Conn. 06830AMERICAN PRIMROSE SOCIETYoffersQuarterly publications beautifully illustrated,an international Seed Exchange of approximately100 different Primulas and a culturechart to assist in the growing of speciesPrimulas.U.S.A. $7.00 per yearG. K. Fenderson, TreasurerGrout HillSouth AcworthNew Hampshire 03607QREER QARDEN$Specializing in — the rare and uniqueRhododendrons, Dwarf Conifers,Japanese Maples, Lewisia, companion plants.Color catalog hailed as being a worthy additionto your gardening library — $1.00. We shipDept. R, 1280 Goodpasture Is. Rd.Eugene, OR 97401 (503) 686-8266203


1980 HOLIDAYSwith FAIRWAYS & SWINFORDfor Gardeners and BotanistsSome of these holidays combine an interest in Sites and Flowers while others arefor more serious alpine gardeners. All are with experts. Prices and names of tourleaders with itineraries will be available during September 1979 and will be senton request.SITES & FLOWERS ON CRETE—10 to 23 AprilThis tour embraces Crete's most interesting sites with the spring flowers of itssouth and eastern shores and mountains. Starting from Heraklion by special coach }and visiting Knossos en route, we cross the island to Ayia Gallini where we stayand visit Ayia Triada and Phaestos, botanising as we go. From thence we drive toleropetra for further plant-hunting in the Dikti Mountains and Lassithi Plain; thennorth-east to Sitia from which the sites of Zacro and Paleocastron are visited; and !finally back to Heraklion by way of Lato and the charming village of Kritsa. Afeature is made of staying at small, un-tourist-ridden centres and often eating atwayside Tavernas to sample country Greek food and wine.GREECE—AEGINA & THEPELOPONNESE—9 to 22 AprilAnother Sites & Flowers tour, this begins with a week on the lovely island of Aeginawhich has fine botanical areas and boasts a beautiful temple to Aphaia, designedby the architect of the Parthenon. On the 9th day of the tour we return to thePiraeus and are met and driven to Tripolis from which we visit the Temple ofBassae and the famous site at Mistra with its profusion of alpines and other plants.The return to Athens is made by way of Mycenae and Corinth.BIELSA—THE SPANISH PYRENEES—29 May to 14 JuneThis charming little village which we featured with so much success in 1978, is tobe used again in 1980 as a centre for plant-hunting. The Vaile de Pineta, where it Ilies at 3,500 ft. rises to the foothills of Mount Perdido at 11,000 ft., and there are |numerous and rewarding walks along and above. Many excursions can be madelocally including the National Park of Ordesa.IN ADDITION to these holidays we shall be arranging tours to two Swiss centrestowards the end of June; country holidays in Italy from April to July and again fromSeptember to November with seven departures; and our usual treks in Kashmir,Nepal and Sikkim in the Himalayas with an emphasis on rhododendrons. For alldetails apply toFAIRWAYS & SWINFORD (ARGS 10)37 Abbey Road, London NWS England(Telephone 01 624 9352)Accredited Agents for I.A.T.A. Member Airlines. Members of the Association of British Travel Agents andthe American Society of Travel Agents. Directors: Mrs. T. S. Hardie (Managing), Miss A. Hindle, MissM. W. McCall, MBE, J. B. Sharwood (USA), M. J. L. Stracey, D. J. O'Sullivan.204


SCARCE and INTERESTING BOOKS ...on gardening, botany, natural history, birds, etc. bought andsold. Secondhand reference works, color plate and rare antiquarian.Send $1.00 for catalog, sent air mail. Want lists welcomed.Books quoted without obligation.BOOKS BOUGHT .. .Please send details of any books you wish tosell. Good quality collections/libraries especiallywanted.Peter Kennedy702a, Christchurch Road, Bournemouth, EnglandTelephone: Bournemouth 301461Hardy NamedSEMPERVIVUMS SEDUMSJOVIBARBA & ROSULARIARed, Pink. Purple, Blue & GoldNew American Hybrids—Imports from EuropeWholesale and RetailOAKHILLGARDENSI960 Cherry Knoll RoadDallas, Oregon 97338(Same location—new address)CATALOG—25 #Visitors Welcome — Picnic Area — GardenClubs welcome (please by appointment)WE SHIP AGAINHelen E. & Slim PaynePLANT JEWELS OF THEHIGH COUNTRYSempervivums and Sedumsby Helen E. Payne111 Full Color PhotographsAutographed Copies $8.50 PostpaidQ$*t yNURSERIESSpecialists inAzaleas,Rhododendrons,Dwarf Evergreensand Rock PlantsFor sale at nursery only.Catalog 50*1159 Bronson RoadFairfield, Conn. 06430


Rock Plants, Alpines, Dwarf Conifers,Dwarf Shrubs etc. Many Rare"Get Acquainted Special"6 Hardy Sedums Labeled $3.50 PostpaidBEAUTIFUL—COLORFULSEMPERVIVUM(Hen and Chicks)Hardy Semps are great decor for betweenrock edgings, borders, containersSend 50c (coin or stamps) forDescriptive Rock Plant Catalog 50«RAKESTRAW'S PERENNIAL GARDENSdescriptiveCOLVINlistingGARDENSR.R.H2, Box 2723094 S. Term St., Burton, Michigan 48529T ^ s a a - j ^ Nashville, Ind. 47448MINIATURE BULBSWe have an extensive collection of MINIATURE and SPECIES BULBS and HARDYCYCLAMEN from many countries. It includes OLD FASHIONED WILD DAFFODILS, aunique collection of SPECIES and HYBRID SNOWDROPS, CYPRIPEDIUMS, PLEIONES,EUROPEAN and other GROUND ORCHIDS.Many are UNCOMMON and RARE — COLLECTORS ITEMSWe offer speedy deliveries by air freight and U.P.S.Our catalog, over 40 pages of fascinating reading, is available fromBLACK and THOMPSON, 124 N. 181 ST., SEATTLE, WA 98133Price 50c including postageJ. A. MARS of HASLEMERE, Haslemere, Surrey, GU27 2PP, EnglandORCHID GARDENSOver 150 Native Plants, Ferns, Club-mossesShrubs, Ground Covers, offered in ourCopyrighted Wildflower Culture Catalog.Send 5C# for your copyAll plants carefully dug and expertlypacked to arrive in top conditionMr. and Mrs. Clair Phillips6700 Splithand RoadGrand Rapids, Minnesota 55744Sorry we cannot accept foreign ordersALPENFL0RA GARDENS1798540th Ave., Surrey, B.C.Canada V3S 4N8New list in 78; many new & rare plants,colorful primroses, many dwarf & speciesirises, alpines, floriferous rockery plants,choice perennials, ornamental grafted trees,evergreens, rhododendrons, ground covers,miniature roses.Buy Canadian, U.S. $ at premium!Quality plants in 4" pots;quantity discountsOpen weekends & holidays onlyAn unrivaled selection of the world's most unusual and desirablealpine, native, and rock garden plants . . ..^SfSKIYOlTRARE PLANT JSTORSERY~CATALOG—SOCENTSSorry we cannot accept Canadian or Foreign ordersJ. Cobb Colley Baldassare Mineo2825 Cummings Road, Medford, Oregon 97501206


THE ROCK GARDENMaine Hardy PlantsChoice Cultivars — Uncommon SpeciesGrown and Mailed in Peat-liteNew Varieties AnnuallySeedlings from Several Exchangesand other European SourcesMany Ericas and CallunasMail Order Catalog 40*LITCHFIELD, MAINE 04350UNUSUAL SEEDOver a thousand different species,many collected in the wild.* PLUS •BARNHAVEN PRIMROSESSeed & Transplants1979 Catalog 75


YES... we haveMANUAL of DWARF CONIFERS—Welch $26 ppdMANUAL of ALPINE PLANTS—Ingwersen $23 ppdHortus III, Hillier, Bacon, Leach, Render, Hartmann & Kester, Jaynes,Wyman, Hoshizaki, Harrison, Bloom, Pirone, Westcott, Symonds, Dirr,and of course, the Klaber VIOLETSwith literally hundreds of other New Books.If you'd like to receive our Catalog Lists and our mailingsfor a year, send us $1.00.(We'll include a Dollar-Off coupon!)HHHHORTICULTURALBOOKS68 Brooktree Rd.Hightstown, N.J. 08520609-448-9345THE ALPINE GARDEN SOCIETYMembership of the Alpine Garden Society puts the American alpine gardener inclose touch with those throughout the world who share his interest in one of the mostabsorbing branches of horticulture.The Quarterly Bulletin of the A.G.S. is respected internationally as one of themost informative publications of its kind. It will bring into your home a distillationof the experience and ideas of some of the finest gardeners, plant explorers andhorticultural thinkers of our time.Among the many other benefits of the Society, its uniquely comprehensive seedlist alone is worth more than the modest subscription of $10.00 for Overseas Members.Apply to:—The Secretary, The Alpine Garden SocietyLye End Link, St. John's, Woking, Surrey, EnglandTHE SCOTTISH R O C K G A R D E N C L U B^"O{ "ss^iJ'Offers you . ..\ #^5^ '* s excellent annual scheme for the distribution of rare &L//^£unusual seed, amongst its international members.> its twice yearly Journal, well illustrated and containing auvthoritative articles on all aspects of rock gardening, rockrCE\ plants, and their world wide haunts.xUfho*-f o r- 5 0 P e r y ($8.00)e o r £ 3r^" 1^ Junior & Family membership 50p or U.S. $1.25^ non. subscription secretary u. J. uonaia tsq.Morea, Main Rd., Balbeggie, Perth PH2 6EZ, Scotland208


DIRECTORATEAMERICAN ROCK GARDEN SOCIETYPresident EmeritusHAROLD EPSTEIN, 5 Forest Court, Larchmont, New YorkPresident JAMES A. MINOGUE, Rt. 1, Box 126A, Bentonville, Va. 22610Vice-president ROBERT L. MEANS, 410 Andover St., Georgetown, Mass. 01833Secretary DONALD M. PEACH, BOX 183, Hales Corners, Wise. 53130Treasurer FRANCIS H CABOT, Cold Spring, N.Y. 10516DirectorsTerm Expires 1980Norman C. Deno Mrs. Louis (Molly) Grothaus Ms. Deon R. PrellTerm Expires 1981Elizabeth Corning John Kovalchik Charlotte RayTerm Expires 1982Pamela J. Harper T. Paul Maslin Quentin C. Schlieder, Jr.Director of Seed Exchange Director of Slide CollectionKathy FreelandQuentin C. Schlieder541 Norfolk, Holliston, Mass. 01746 Box 1295-R, Morristown. N.J. 07960ARGS-PHS Library ServicePennsylvania Horticultural Society Library325 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 19106CHAPTER CHAIRMENNorthwestern MRS. MARGUERITE BENNETT, 17015 26th Ave. N.E., Seattle, Wash. 98155Western WILLIAM S. FOLKMAN, 2640 San Benito Drive, Walnut Creek, CA 94598MidwesternAJLEEN MCWILLIAM (Acting Chm.), 711 Magnolia St.,Mena, Ark. 71953Allegheny DR. ROBERT MCDERMOTT, 1507 Mifflin Rd., Pittsburgh, PA 15207Potomac Valley DR. JOHN WURDACK, 4400 Samar St., Beltsville, Md. 20705Delaware Valley ALAN P. SLACK, 908 Twyckenham Rd., Media, PA 19063New England EDWIN F. STEFFEK, Cedar Hill Rd., Dover, Mass. 02030Great Lakes HARRY W. BUTLER, Rte. #1, 2521 Penewit Rd., Spring Valley, OH 45370Wisconsin-Illinois VAUGHN AIELLO, 2322 North Wayne, Chicago, IL 60614Columbia-Willamette MRS. FAITH MACKANESS, Rte. 1, Box 225,Troutdale, OR 97060Connecticut RICHARD W. REDFIELD, RFD #1, Hampton, CT 06247Long Island „ „ JOHN BIEBER, 185-8th St., Bethpage, NY 11714Hudson ValleyJOHN TREXXER, C/O Frelinghuysen Arboretum, Box 1295-R,Morristown, NJ 07960Minnesota „ MIKE ZINS, Rte. 3, Cologne, MN 55322Siskiyou PHYLLIS GUSTAFSON, 250 Maple St., Central Point, OR 97502Western-No. CarolinaHORACE K. FREEMAN SR., 2150 Woodridge Dr.,Hendersonville, NC 28739Rocky Mountain PANAYOTI P. CALLAS, 922 12th St., Boulder, CO 80302Adirondack „ JCATHIE LIPPIT, 6 Glen Terrace, Scotia, NY 12302


YOUR ARGSSTORE1. ARGS BULLETINS for Sale — Back Issues. Available at $1.50 each. PostpaidAll other Volumes not specifically listed above are $2.50 each when available. Pleaseinquire as to availability.For specific articles as listed in the Cumulative Index, please give Volume and pagenumber listed. Issue will be sent, IF AVAILABLE; otherwise a charge of 20

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