Iraq and weapons of mass destruction dual-use expertise

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Iraq and weapons of mass destruction dual-use expertise

WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND DUAL-USEEXPERTISE/KNOWLEDGE REDIRECTION ANDPREVENTIONIraq and weapons of mass destruction dual-useexpertiseSENAN MUHICHIEF OF BIOLOGY DEPT.IRAQI NATIONAL MONITORING AUTHORITY (INMA)-IRAQFORMER EXPERTCOMMITTEE ESTABLISHED PURSUANT TO SECURITYCOUNCIL RESOLUTION 1540 (2004)17-18 April, 2013, Kyiv, Ukraine


WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND DUAL-USEEXPERTISE/KNOWLEDGE REDIRECTION AND PREVENTIONIraqi National Monitoring Authority (INMA)governmental agency established as the interface betweenthe Iraqi government and the United Nations SpecialCommission since 1991.In 2004 its activities have beencompletely redirected.Since2004 , INMA is responsible for Following up theImplementation of Iraq’s obligations under non- Proliferationand disarmament International treaties and conventions andthe Implementation of SCR 1540(2004).


WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND DUAL-USEEXPERTISE/KNOWLEDGE REDIRECTION AND PREVENTIONThe INMA seeks to achieve its goals through thefollowing means:First: Establishing and maintaining a national system ofmonitoring, investigation and inspection that shall enablethe Republic of Iraq to comply with its obligationspertaining to non-proliferation of weapons of massdestruction’s conventions and treaties.Second: Developing regulations and mechanisms forsubmitting offers, issuing licenses and permits and acomprehensive mechanism process for monitoringexports and imports related to dual-use materials andequipment.


WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND DUAL-USEEXPERTISE/KNOWLEDGE REDIRECTION AND PREVENTION Third: Monitoring the related peaceful activities to ensureprevention of converting them into any prohibited activitiespursuant to non-proliferation conventions , resolutions andtreaties, including the production, possession, use,storage, exporting and importing, shipping, transporting thedual use materials, equipment, and technologies . Fourth: put out lines of capacity building programs in Iraqwith respect to minimizing CBRN threats and to Preventnon-State actors from acquiring weapons of massdestruction and related materials.


WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND DUAL-USEEXPERTISE/KNOWLEDGE REDIRECTION AND PREVENTIONNational redirection programs in IraqThe Key points:All WMD sites were destroyed.Government research facilities, factories, and evenuniversity laboratories have been completely stolen after2003.Identifying WMD experts was more difficult (many ofthem left Iraq after 2003 ).Many Iraqi WMD experts were unemployed.The security situation in Iraq.


WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND DUAL-USEEXPERTISE/KNOWLEDGE REDIRECTION AND PREVENTIONThe importance of RedirectionTo prevent the proliferation of WMD expertise .To prevent the exploitation of Iraqi expertise in fields related toweapons of mass destruction or prohibited purposes. To redirect the scientists’ skills and expertise to productivecivilian applications.Selection of experts to re-direct themunemployed WMD experts . Those who have extensive knowledge in WMD Programs(scientists, technicians and engineers) .


WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND DUAL-USEEXPERTISE/KNOWLEDGE REDIRECTION AND PREVENTIONIndirect redirection programs:Establishment of Ministry of Science and Technology, whichbrought together many experts from the former Iraqi AtomicEnergy Organization and some research centers from MIC.Redirection of the Iraqi National Monitoring Authority (INMA)activities since 2004.The Iraqi Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and DisposalProgram (the NDs Program) has been initiated by the USAand IAEA to assist Iraq in eliminating the threats from poorlycontrolled radioactive materials, which will continue for severalyears.


WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND DUAL-USEEXPERTISE/KNOWLEDGE REDIRECTION AND PREVENTION Decommissioning of al- Muthanna stores Project (2011):• The purpose of the program to destroy the remnants of theformer Iraqi chemical program which was destroyed in the years1992 and 1994.• Experts from the Ministries of Science and Technology, Industry,Environment and Iraqi National Monitoring Authority are involvedin the project.• USA, Germany, Switzerland, Russia, United Kingdom and India,Provided a technical assistance, workshops and training courses.• At the end of 2014 , destruction plan will provide to theOrganization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)for approval and starting after 2015.


WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND DUAL-USEEXPERTISE/KNOWLEDGE REDIRECTION AND PREVENTIONDirect redirection program:Redirection of Former Iraqi WMD Scientists through CapacityBuilding for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities, Including Siteand Radioactive Waste Management in Iraq (Europe Aid CooperationOffice, European Commission) (2010-1013).To assist Iraq to redirect its scientists and engineers who possessWMD-related skills and dual-use knowledge through theirengagement in a comprehensive decommissioning, dismantling anddecontamination of nuclear facilities.This project is aimed at helping the Government of Iraq to performdecommissioning and nuclear clean-up at several Iraqi nuclearfacilities, in particular Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Centre.


WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND DUAL-USEEXPERTISE/KNOWLEDGE REDIRECTION AND PREVENTIONDirect redirection program:USA launched a program to support the peaceful, civilianemployment of Iraqi scientists, technicians and engineers formerlyworked on weapons of mass destruction programs.Office of Proliferation Threat Reduction (now called the Office ofCooperative Threat Reduction) has established the IraqiInternational Center for Science and Industry (IICSI) in 2003.The Program worked extensively with the Iraqi Ministry of Scienceand Technology (MOST), which has absorbed many WMD personnelfrom the former Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission and MilitaryIndustrial Commission, both of which played important roles in Iraq'sWMD programs.


WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND DUAL-USEEXPERTISE/KNOWLEDGE REDIRECTION AND PREVENTION program has two goals: To prevent the proliferation of Iraqi WMDexpertise ; and to enable the former expert to serve in theeconomic and technological rebuilding of Iraq. The program started the process through the creation of the IraqiInternational Center for Science and Industry (IICSI), whichwould:• facilitate the development and funding of projects designed to:• prepare WMD personnel for private employment in Iraq, and• support national reconstruction;• target program activities to engage individuals with relevant WMDskills.


WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND DUAL-USEEXPERTISE/KNOWLEDGE REDIRECTION AND PREVENTIONResults obtained:Identify experts and prevent the spread of their experiences in thefield of weapons of mass destruction to non-state actors.Many experts were hired by Iraqi ministries for their technicalskills, and a few were hired by Iraqi universities.The science center was currently replaced by the Iraqi ScientistEngagement Program.In 2009 the program expanded to include many more scientistsand engineers, with more opportunities for research grants andfellowships.


WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND DUAL-USEEXPERTISE/KNOWLEDGE REDIRECTION AND PREVENTIONMain challenges encountered:In any program funding is a big challenge to start .Security and political situation of the country represents anotherbig challenge.The willingness of experts themselves to cooperate and participatein the redirection programs .


WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND DUAL-USEEXPERTISE/KNOWLEDGE REDIRECTION AND PREVENTIONRecommendations and suggestions :Resuming redirection programs in the future to prevent theproliferation of WMD expertise by unemployed WMD scientists andengineers and utilize their expertise for civilian purposes.Strengthen efforts to establish such programs and provide fullsupport considering that the delay in securing WMD expertise canbe more dangerous than comparable delays in securing WMDmaterials .Securing WMD expertise is a strategic activity since it deals withthe expertise to produce WMD , so it needs to elaborateinternational strategy to setting up proposals and models for shorttermand long-term projects .


WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND DUAL-USEEXPERTISE/KNOWLEDGE REDIRECTION AND PREVENTION Providing financial support and funding for the projects . Increase awareness of the importance of securing WMD expertiseand redirection programs at the national, regional, sub-regionaland international levels . In this regard, the Non-proliferation anddisarmament International organizations and committees play animportant role by holding workshops and addressing this issue atits annual or periodic meeting’s agenda. Encourage States to find ways and means to enhance andestablish national redirection programs and to promote thesharing of experience, lessons learned and effective practices.


WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND DUAL-USEEXPERTISE/KNOWLEDGE REDIRECTION AND PREVENTIONThank you very muchSENAN MUHICHIEF OF BIOLOGY DEPT.IRAQI NATIONAL MONITORING AUTHORITY (INMA)-IRAQFORMER EXPERTCOMMITTEE ESTABLISHED PURSUANT TO SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1540(2004)EMAIL: BIODEP@INMD.ORG

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