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AIBHJK T FLAM MAM.PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS,RED WON COURT, FLEET STREET.


C..^•..:..JOOSIJMMAEY OF THE VOYAGE ....MAMMALIAAVESBy Dr. E. W. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger.By 0. Thomas.By R. B. Shabpe.REPTILIA, BATEACHIA, PISCES. By A. Gun<strong>the</strong>b.MOLLUSCAECHINODEEMATACEUSTACEACOLEOPTEEALEPIDOPTEEAALCYONAEIA AND SPONGIIDA.By E. A. Smith.By F. J. Bell.By E. J. Miers.By C. 0. Waterhoitse.By A. G. Butler.By S. 0. Eidlet.G93Ca2


PREFACE,The <strong>zoological</strong> collecti<strong>on</strong>s <strong>made</strong> dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> Survey<strong>in</strong>g-voyage ofH.M.S. * Alert ' <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> years 1878-82, under <strong>the</strong> command ofCapt. Sir G. Nares and his successor Capt. J. Maclear, werepresented by <strong>the</strong> Lords Commissi<strong>on</strong>ers of <strong>the</strong> Admiralty to <strong>the</strong>Trustees of <strong>the</strong> British Museum.A narrative of <strong>the</strong> voyage has been given by Staff-Surge<strong>on</strong>R. W. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger, <strong>in</strong> his work ' Cruise of <strong>the</strong> ' Alert ' ' (L<strong>on</strong>d<strong>on</strong>,1883, 8vo).^ The pr<strong>in</strong>cipal parts of <strong>the</strong> Survey, and c<strong>on</strong>sequently <strong>the</strong>Collecti<strong>on</strong>s, fall <strong>in</strong>to three dist<strong>in</strong>ct secti<strong>on</strong>s, viz. :— 1, that of<strong>the</strong> Sou<strong>the</strong>rn extremity of <strong>the</strong> American c<strong>on</strong>t<strong>in</strong>ent; 2, that of<strong>the</strong> coasts of i^orth-eastern Australia and Torres Straits : and3, that of <strong>the</strong> groups of <strong>Ocean</strong>ic Islands <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Western Indian<strong>Ocean</strong>, situated between <strong>the</strong> Seychelles and Madagascar.The first of <strong>the</strong>se collecti<strong>on</strong>s has already been reported up<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong>Proo. Zool. Soc. 1881 ; but <strong>the</strong> two o<strong>the</strong>rs surpass it so much<strong>in</strong> extent and importance as to be quite bey<strong>on</strong>d <strong>the</strong> scope of aperiodical publicati<strong>on</strong>, and <strong>the</strong>refore <strong>the</strong> Trustees c<strong>on</strong>sidered itbest that a full account of <strong>the</strong>m should be prepared <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> formof a separate work. With <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> 'Challenger'Expediti<strong>on</strong>, n<strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> recent voyages has c<strong>on</strong>tributed so mixchto our knowledge of <strong>the</strong> Littoral Invertebrate Fauna of <strong>the</strong> <strong>Indo</strong>-<strong>Pacific</strong> <strong>Ocean</strong> as that of <strong>the</strong> ' Alert.' Irrespective of a iramber ofspecimens set aside as duplicates, not less than 3700, referableto 1300 species, were <strong>in</strong>corporated <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Nati<strong>on</strong>al Collecti<strong>on</strong> ; and


;VIPREFACE.of <strong>the</strong>se more than <strong>on</strong>e third (490) were new additi<strong>on</strong>s, if not toscience, at any rate to <strong>the</strong> Museum.The hest thanks of zoologists are due to <strong>the</strong> Lords of <strong>the</strong>Admiralty, to <strong>the</strong> late Hydrographer, Capt. Sir F. Evans, K.C.B.,and to <strong>the</strong> Commanders of <strong>the</strong> ' Alert,' from whom Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>gerreceived every encouragement <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> prosecuti<strong>on</strong> of his <strong>zoological</strong>work.F<strong>in</strong>ally, although <strong>the</strong> follow<strong>in</strong>g pages are by <strong>the</strong>mselves alast<strong>in</strong>g testim<strong>on</strong>y to <strong>the</strong> great service rendered by Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>gerto <strong>the</strong> Nati<strong>on</strong>al Museum and to <strong>the</strong> cause of science, I must notallow this opportunity to pass without duly acknowledg<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>energy and skill with which he performed this work. The collecti<strong>on</strong>swere <strong>made</strong> with s<strong>in</strong>gular judgment, <strong>the</strong> specimens (many of<strong>the</strong>m most fragile and delicate) preserved, labelled, and packedwith <strong>the</strong> greatest care ; and, beside, full lists wore prepared by himgiv<strong>in</strong>g additi<strong>on</strong>al, and <strong>in</strong> many cases most valuable, <strong>in</strong>formati<strong>on</strong>.When we bear <strong>in</strong>m<strong>in</strong>d that all this work was d<strong>on</strong>e <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> leisurehours which Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger could spare from his strictly officialduties, we may be encouraged <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> hope that <strong>on</strong> future occasi<strong>on</strong>ssimilar advantage will be taken of <strong>the</strong> opportunity which a voyageof Survey offers to q, man of science.The collecti<strong>on</strong>s were worked out immediately after <strong>the</strong>ir arrivalbut <strong>the</strong> completi<strong>on</strong> of this Eeport was c<strong>on</strong>siderably delayed by <strong>the</strong>removal of <strong>the</strong> Department from Bloomsbury to South Kens<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong>.ALBEET GUNTHER,British Museum,June 20, 1884.Keeper of <strong>the</strong> Department of Zoology^


.SYSTEMATIC INDEX.SUMMARY OF THE VOYAGE.By R. W. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger.(page 1.)Part I.THE COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.MAMMALIA.Skull of Torres-StraitsIslanderSkull of Torres-StraitsIslanderCranium of Solom<strong>on</strong> IslanderCraniimi of MallicoUo IslanderPageBy Oldfibld ThomasPage5. Cranium of MallicoUo Islander86. Skull of Banks Islander . 87. Skull of Banks Islander . 98. Calvaria of Fijian 99. Cranium of Fijian 10BIRDS.By R. Bowbler Sharpe,Cerchneis


SYSTEMATIC INDEX.PageCracticus23. Bigrignlaris, Gould .... 15Pacliycepliala24. melauura, Gould 1525. rufiventris, Lath 17C<strong>in</strong>nyi'is26. frenata, Miill. 17Myzomela27. obscura, Gotild 17Zosterops28. albiventer, Reichenh. .... 1729. lutea, Gmdd 18Manorli<strong>in</strong>a30. garmla, Lath 18Stigmatops31. ociilaris, Gould 1832. subocularis, Gould 18Ptilotis33. notata, Gould 1934. lew<strong>in</strong>ii, Sioa<strong>in</strong>s 2035. fasciogularis, Gould .... 2036. flava, Gould 2037. unicolor, Gould 20Pbilem<strong>on</strong>38. argenticeps, Gould .... 2039. buceroides, Swa<strong>in</strong>s 2040. citreogularis, Gould .... 20Dicseum. . 21. 2141. birund<strong>in</strong>aceum, ShawPetrocbelid<strong>on</strong>42. nigricaus, V. 21D<strong>on</strong>acicola43. castaneotlioras, Gould .Ai'tamus44. leucorliynchus, L 21Pitta45. simillima, Gould 21Merops46. ornatus, Lath 21Dacelo47. gigas, Bodd. 2148. leachii, Vig. ^ H. 21Halcy<strong>on</strong>49. sanctus, V{(j. ^ H. 2450. <strong>in</strong>acleayi, J. ^ S. 2451. sordidus, Goidd 24. 25. 25PageCentropus52. phasiauus, Lath 25Cacatua53. galerita, Lath 25Trichoglossus54. novfe hoUandife, Gm.55..cblorolepidotus, Kuhl .Macropygia56. phasianella, Temm 25Geopelia57. bumeralis, Temm 2558. tranquilla, Gould 25Ptilopus59. swa<strong>in</strong>s<strong>on</strong>i, Gould 25Megapodius60. duperreyi, Less 26Rallus61. pbilippensis, L 26Poipbyrio62. melan<strong>on</strong>otus, Temm 26^sacus63. magnirostris, Geoffr 26Hfenaatopiis04. l<strong>on</strong>girostris, F. ....... . 27^gialitis65. m<strong>on</strong>golicus, Pall. 27Cbaradrius66. Mvus, Gm 27Totanus67. <strong>in</strong>canus, Gm 27Larus68. uovse hollandife, Steph. . . 2769. stolidus, 27AnousLSterna70. bergii, Licht 2771. dougalli, M<strong>on</strong>t 2872. caspia, Pall 2873. ansestbeta, Scop 28Nycticorax74. caled<strong>on</strong>icus, Lath 28Demiegretta75. sacra, Gm 28Butoroides76. javauica, Ilorsf. 28Microcarbo77. melanoleucus, V. 28REPTILIA, BATRACHIA, AND PISCES.Obel<strong>on</strong>ia viridis 29Varanus gouldii, Gray 29timorensis, Gray 29prasiuus,';_-MM//. 29By Albert Gun<strong>the</strong>r.Lialis burt<strong>on</strong>ii, Gray 29Gy<strong>in</strong>uodactylus platurus, Shatv 29Diemeuia torquata, Gthr 29


Hyla|PageHyla caeriilea, White 29Trachynotus copp<strong>in</strong>geri, sp. n. 29Syngnathus trachypoma, sp. n 30Doryichthys aeiialis, sp. n. . . 30Branchiostoma el<strong>on</strong>gatum,Sundev 31OctopusMOLLUSCA.Cephalopoda.1. polyzenia, Gray 342. teuebricus, sp. n 353. maculosus, Hoyle 36C<strong>on</strong>usGastropoda.1. lizardensis, Crosse .... 362. aculeiibrmis, Reeve .... 36Terebra3. exigua, Desk 37Pleurotoma4. torresiana, sp. b 375. laterculata, Sow 386. spiirca, H<strong>in</strong>ds 397. gi'acilenta, Reeve, var. . . 398. axis, Reeve 409. arafurensis, sp. n 40Cytbara10. cyl<strong>in</strong>drica, Reeve, var. . . 41Mm-ex11. tenuispira, Lam 4212. copp<strong>in</strong>geri, sp. n 4213. acanthostephes, Wats<strong>on</strong> 4314. macgillivrayi, Dohrn . 4415. axicornis, Lam 4410. cervicornis, Lam 4517. territus, Reeve 4518. m<strong>on</strong>od<strong>on</strong>, Soto 46Fusus19. hanleyi, Anyas 4620. heptag<strong>on</strong>alis, Reeve .... 4621. cereus, sp. n 46Urosalp<strong>in</strong>x22. c<strong>on</strong>tracta, Reeve 47Trit<strong>on</strong>idea23. curtisiaua, sp. n 47Columbella24. fulgurans, Lam 4725. scripta, Lam 4826. pardal<strong>in</strong>a, Latn 48.SYSTEMATIC INDEX..36. uudatum, var., Reeve . 51IXdolichopsis, Cope 29Branchiostoma bassanum,sp.n. 31belcheri, Gray 32caribseum, Sundev 32lanceolatum, Pcdl 32cultellum, Ptrs 32Nassa27. cor<strong>on</strong>ata, Rrug 4828. tbersites, Rrzty 4829. algida, Reeve, var 4830. uuicolor, Kiener 4831. sutiu'alis, Adams, var.. . 49Pbos32. scalaroides, Adams .... 4933. seuticosus, L., var 50Purpura34. bituberciilaris,A7eMer,var. 5035. amygdala, Kiener .... 51Sistrum37. tuberculatum, Bla<strong>in</strong>v. . 52Latirus38. angustus, sp. n 52Tm'b<strong>in</strong>eUa39. armigera, Adams 5340. sp<strong>in</strong>osa, Adatns 54Mitra41. proscissa, Reeve, var. . . 5442. peasei, Dohrn 5543. corrugata, Lam 55Voluta44. volva, Reeve, var 56Ranella45. rana, L 5646. pulchella, Forbes 56Natica47. plumbea, Larn 5748. limpida, sp. n 5749. coli<strong>in</strong>maris, Rccliiz .... 5750. cum<strong>in</strong>giana, Recliiz .... 58Eulima51. mart<strong>in</strong>ii, Adams, var. . . 58Strombus52. campbeUi, Gray 58TerebeUum53. subulatum, Lam 59Cyprsea54. arabica, L .0!)By Edgar A. Smith.55. lynx, i 5956. annulus, L 59.


SYSTEMATIC rNDEX.57. err<strong>on</strong>es, LPage5958. walkeri, Ch-ay 59Ovula59. angasi, Adams 59Littor<strong>in</strong>a60. scabra, L 6061. filosa, Sotv, 6062. mauritiaiia, Lam., var.diemenensis 60Risella63. lutea, Qtfoy ^' Gaim. . . 61Risso<strong>in</strong>a64. clathrata, Adams 6265. cui'tisi, sp. n 63Cerithium66. morus, Lam 6367. nigro-balteatum, sp. n. . 6568. torresi, sp. n 6669. macrostoma, H<strong>in</strong>ds .... 6670. fasciatum, Brug 6771. vertagus, L 6772. kochi, PhU 6773. granosum, Soiv 6874. novse-liollandise, Adams 68Lampania75. australis, Q. Sf G 68Pyrazus76. sulcatus, Lorn 68Telescopium77. fuscum, Schum 68Siliquaria78. angu<strong>in</strong>a, L 6879. p<strong>on</strong>derosa, Morch .... 68Narica80. cancellata, Chemn 68Nerita81. clirysostoma, Recluz 69. .82. melanotragus, sp. n 0983. costata, Chemn 7084. l<strong>in</strong>eata, Chemn 7085. squamulata, Le Gill<strong>on</strong>. . 7086. signata, Mackay 70Turbo87. c<strong>on</strong>c<strong>in</strong>nus, Phil 70Trocbus88. cor<strong>on</strong>ata, Adams 7189. speciosa, Adams 7190. decoratus, Phil 7291. rubropimctatus, Adrms. 7292. torresi, sp. n 7293. lifupnus, Fischer 7394. labio, L 7495. zebra, Menke 7496. elisus, Gould 7497. atratus, Gm 74PageBankivia98. picturata, Adams 75StomateUa99. cancellata, Ej'auss .... 76Stomatia100. rubra, Lam 76Haliotis101. as<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>a, L 77Dentalium102. javanum, Soxo 77Scutus103. unguis, L 77Fissurella104. jukesii. Reeve 77105. s<strong>in</strong>gaporensis, Reeve . . 77106. quadriradiata, Reeve . . 78Chit<strong>on</strong>107. jugosus, Gould 78108. curtisianus, sp. n 78109. adelaidensis, Reeve .... 79110. antiquus. Reeve 79111. copp<strong>in</strong>geri, sp. u 80112. sp<strong>in</strong>iger, So2v 81113. <strong>in</strong>canus, Goidd 81114. <strong>in</strong>cisus, So2v 82115. costatus, Adams 83116. asbestoides, sp. n 83117. fortiliratus, Reeve 84118. striatus, Lani 84119. burrowi, sp. n 85Tornatella120. soUdula, Z 86Cylicbna121. aracMs, Q. ^ G 86Atys122. naucum, L 86Ham<strong>in</strong>ea123. cuticulifera, Smith .... 87Akera124. soliita, sp. n 87Doridium125. marmoratum, sp. n 87Pleurobranchus126. angasi, sp. n 88Dolabella127. rumpbii, Ctw 89Aplysia128. spars<strong>in</strong>otata, sp. n 89129. piperata, sp. n 89130. denis<strong>on</strong>i, sp. n 89Stylocbeilus131. sp 90Mianiira132. nobilis, Bergh 90Ceratosoma133. tenue, Abraham 90


SYSTEMATIC INDEX.Doris134. iufi-apicta, sp. n 91Plocamophorus135. <strong>in</strong>signis, sp. n 91Boruella13G. digitata, Ad. ^ Reeve . . 93Oncidium137. punctatiim ?, Q.^G... 92TeredoCONCHIFERA.1. antarctica ?, Hutt<strong>on</strong> .... 93Saxicava2. arctica, L 93"Venus3. lamellaris, Schum 934. toreuma, Gould 935. torresiaua, sp. n 946. giadstoueusis, Angus . . 947. snbuodulosa, Hanley . . 94Cy<strong>the</strong>rea8. coxeni, sp. n 959. alb<strong>in</strong>a, Lat7i 95Dos<strong>in</strong>ia10. Mstrio, (rm.jvar. alba . . 9G11. deshayesii, Adams .... 96Circe12. pect<strong>in</strong>ata, L 9613. australis, Sotv 9614. castrensis, L 96Tapes15. hiantiua, Lam 9616. malabarica, C'hemn 9717. variegata, Soio 9718. araneosa, Phil 9719. textrLx, Chemn 97"Venerupis20. crenata, Lam 97Trapezium21. vellicatum, J2eeve, var. . . 97Petricola22. lapicida, Chemn 98Psammobia23. modesta, Desk 9824. gracilenta, sp. n 98Tell<strong>in</strong>a25. semen, Hanley 99Syndosmya26. elliptica, Soio 99Mactra27. eximia, Eeevc 10028. producta, Angas, var. . . 10029. copp<strong>in</strong>geri, sp. n 101Mactr<strong>in</strong>ula30. angulifera, Desk 101PagpCardium31. reevianum, Dunker .... 10132. hystrix, Heeve 10133. sp. juii 10234. maculosum, Wood, var. . 10235. multisp<strong>in</strong>osum, Sow. . . 10236. unedo, L 103Ohama37. divaricata, Reeve 10238. pulchella, Reeve 102Corbula39. tunicata, H<strong>in</strong>ds 10340. fortisulcata, (S^niY/i .... 10341. scaphoides, Reeve 103Luc<strong>in</strong>a42. ornata, Reeve 103Diplod<strong>on</strong>ta43. subcrassa, sp. n 10444. sublateralis, sp. n 104Kellia45. jacks<strong>on</strong>iana, sp. n 105. . 108Sc<strong>in</strong>tilla46. cuvieri, Desh 10547. aurantiaca, Desh 10648. alberti, sp. n 107Crassatella49. pulchra, Reeve 107Modiola50. sp. . . . 10851. glaberrima, DunkerModiolaria52. miranda, sp. n 10853. varicosa, Gould 109Litbodomus54. teres, Phil 109Area55. navicularis, Bruff 10956. imbricata, Brug 11057. lima, Reeve 11058. tenebrica, Reeve 11059. symmetrica, Reeve .... Ill60. tortuosa, L IllLeda61. darw<strong>in</strong>i, sp. n IllMalleus62. legumeu, Reeve 112Avicula63. lata, Grarj 11264. rufa, Dunker 1 1365. smaragd<strong>in</strong>a. Reeve .... 11366. zebra, Reeve 113Mel<strong>in</strong>a67. cum<strong>in</strong>gii, Reeve 113Crenatula68. nigr<strong>in</strong>a. Lam 113


xuSYSTEMATIC riTDEX.Sp<strong>on</strong>dylus69. multisetosus, Reeve .... 11470. victorife, Soto 114Pecten71. leopardus, Reeve 11472. s<strong>in</strong>gapor<strong>in</strong>us, Sow 11673. dr<strong>in</strong>gi, Reeve 11574. funebris, Reeve 116PageAmussium75. pleur<strong>on</strong>ectes 116Lima76. fragilis, Chemn 116Placuna77. lobata, Sow., var 116PhyllacanthusECHINODERMATA.ECHINOIDEA.1. anuulifera, Lmnk 118Diadema2. setosum, Gray 118Salmacis3. bicolor, Af/ns 1184. sulcata, A(/as 1185. alexandri, Affas 118Temnopleurus6. toreumaticus, iesA;e . . . . 1197. granulosus, Gray 1198. bothryoides, Ayas 119Ech<strong>in</strong>us9. angulosus, Leske 12110. damleyensis, Woods . . 121Tripneustes11. angulosus, Leske 121Str<strong>on</strong>gylocentrotus12. erythrogranimus, Val. . . 121Ech<strong>in</strong>ometra13. lucunter, Leske 122Fibularia14. volva, Agas 122Olypeaster15. bumilis, Leske 122Laganum16. depressum, Ar/as 12217. decagouale, Less 122Echiu<strong>on</strong>eus18. cyclostomus, Leske .... 123Maretia19. planulata, Lamk 123Lovenia20. el<strong>on</strong>gata, Gray 123Breynia21. australasise, Leach .... 123Ech<strong>in</strong>ocardium22. australe, Gray 123ASTEROIDEA.By F. Jeffrey Bell.2. polyplax, M. Sf Tr. .Asterias1. calamaria, Gray 123


...8. mirabilisPect<strong>in</strong>ura(?), Ludwig . 1499. sacellus,1. gorg<strong>on</strong>ia, M.^ Tr 134Selenka 14910. okeni, sp.2. mfernalis, M. ^ Tr. . 134n 1493. megaloplax, sp. n 134Thy<strong>on</strong>idivim11. schmeltzii,Ophiop<strong>in</strong>ax,Ludioig .... 150u. g.4. stellatus, Ljn 136Orcula12. cucumiformis,OphiopezaSemper. 150Pliyllophorus5. c<strong>on</strong>jungens, sp. n 13713. proteus, sp. n 150Ophiolepis6. aunulosa, M. 8f Tr 138Stereodenna14. validimi, sp.Ophioplocusu 1507. imbricatus, M. ^ Tr. . 138Stichopus15. variegatus,OphiactisSemper .... 151SYSTEMATIC INDEX,xmPageActmocucumis7. difficilis, sp. n 148Ophiuboidea.Thy<strong>on</strong>eHolotliuria8. savignii, M. i^ Tr 13816. l<strong>in</strong>eata,OpM<strong>on</strong>ereisLudwig 15217.9. dubia,peregr<strong>in</strong>a,M. ^- Tr 138Ludwig .... 15218. Opbiocomamodesta (?), Semper . . 15219.10. brevipes, Peters 139macleari, sp. n 15211. scolopendriua, A(/as. . 140OpbiarthrumCb<strong>in</strong>oidea.12. elegans, Peters 140Anted<strong>on</strong>Opbiothrix1. ade<strong>on</strong>ae, Miiller 15613. fumaria, M. ^ Tr 1402. milberti, Midler 15614. csespitosa, Lyman .... 1413. p<strong>in</strong>niforiuis, Carpenter 15615. martensi, Lyman 1414. carpenteri, sp. n 15716. striolata, Grube 1425. pumila, sp. n 1.5717. galateae, Ltk 1426. bidens, sp. n 15818. ciliaris, 3L ^ Tr 1427. loveni, sp. n 15819. rotata, Martens 1428. decipiens, sp. n 15920. punctolimbata, Martens. 1439. regiuse, sp. n IGO21. l<strong>on</strong>gipeda, M. ^- Tr. . 14310. articulata, Miill 16022. mici'oplax, sp. u 14311. gyges, sp. n 10023. darw<strong>in</strong>i, sp. n 14412. irregularis, sp. u 16124. melanograuima, sp. n. . 14513. elegans, sp. u 16225. cacaotica, Lyman 14514. biiareus, sp. n 163Euryale15. microdiscus, sp. n 16326. aspera, Lamk 146Act<strong>in</strong>ometra16. Solaris, Lamh 16417. <strong>in</strong>termedia, sp.HOLOTHUROIDEA.n 16618. robusta, Carpenter .... 167Synapta19. strota. Carpenter 16720. cvun<strong>in</strong>gii, Miill 16721. coppiugeri, sp. n 168. 1471. grisea, SenijJer 146Cucumaria2. maculata, Semper 1463. semperi, sp. n 147Ocnus4. sp 147Colochirus5. tuberculosus, Semper .6. australis, Ludwig .... 14822. jukesi, Carpenter 16823. parvicirra, Carpenter . 16824. alternans. Carpenter . 16925. paucicirra, sp. n 16926. multifida, Midi 16927. variabilis, sp. n 16928. sp. juv 170


XIVCRUSTACEA.SYSTEMATIC INDEX.


8TSXEMATIC riTDEX.XV. . 230Neptunus6Q. pelagicus, L 22967. hastatoides, Fabr 229Achelous68. granulatus, M.-Edtv.TJbalamita69. admete, Herbst 2-3070. sima, M.-Edto 23171. stimps<strong>on</strong>ii, A. M.-Edio. 2.3272. crenata, Riipp 232G<strong>on</strong>iosoma73. variegatum, Fabr 2-3274. sp<strong>in</strong>iferiiru, sp. n 233Nectocarc<strong>in</strong>us75. <strong>in</strong>tegrifr<strong>on</strong>s, Latr 234Lupocyclus76. rotimdatus, Ad. 8f W... 234Kraussia77. nitida, Stimps 235Telphusa78. crassa ?, A. M.-Edio. . . 235Gelasimus79. signatus, Hess 236Ocypoda80. ceratoplithalma, Pallas . 23781. kulilii, Be Haan 237Macrophthalmus82. punctulatus, sp. n 237Euplax83. boscii, Audotdn 238Camptoplax, g. n.84. coppiiigeri, sp. u 239Pseudorhombila85. vestita, var. sexdentata,Hastvell 24086. sulcatifr<strong>on</strong>s, var. n. australiensis242Ceratoplax87. arcuata, sp. u 24388. ? Ifevis, sp. n 244Metopogi-apsus89. messor, Forsk 245Chasmagnathus90. laevis, Dana 246Sesarma91. bidens, De Haan ? 246P<strong>in</strong>no<strong>the</strong>res92. villosulus, Guer.-M<strong>in</strong>ev. 247Mycteris93. l<strong>on</strong>gicarpus, Latr 248Halicarc<strong>in</strong>us94. ovatus, Stimjjs 248Leucosia95. oceUata, Bell 24996. whitei, 5e/^ 24997. craniolaris, var. n. Isevimana250PageMyra98. car<strong>in</strong>ata, Bell 25099. aff<strong>in</strong>is, Bell 250100. niammillaris, Bell .... 251101. australis, Haswell ? . . , . 251Plilyxia102. crassipes, Bell 252103. lambriformis, Bell 252Nursia104. s<strong>in</strong>uata, Miers 252Nursilia105. dentata, Bell 253Iphiculus106. sp<strong>on</strong>giosus, Ad. i^ W. . 253Aj'cania107. pulcherrima, Haswell . . 253Lithadia108. sculpta, Haswell 254Oreophorus109. reticiilatus, Ad. 8f W... 264110. fr<strong>on</strong>talis, sp. n 254Matuta111. victrix, 2^«5>- 256112. <strong>in</strong>ermis, sp. u 256Calappa113. hepatica, L 257Dorippe114. dorsipes, L 257115. australiensis, sp. n 258CryptodromiaAnomura.1. lateralis, Gray 259Petalomera"2. pulchra, sp. n 260Paratymolus3. bituberculatus, var. n.gi-acilis 2614. sexsp<strong>in</strong>osus, sp. n 261Diogenes5. rectimanus, sp. n 262Pagurus6. imbricatus, M.-Edio. . . 2647. hessii, sp. n 264Clibauarius8. t;eniatus, M.-Ediv 265Eupagurus9. compressipes, sp. n 26610. kirldi, sp. n 267Petrolis<strong>the</strong>s11. jap<strong>on</strong>icus, De Haan, var.<strong>in</strong>ermis, Hasivell 26812. lamarckii, Leach 26813. haswelli, sp. n 26914. annulipes. White 27016. coraUicola, Haswell ? . . 271


XVISYSTEMATIC INDEX.Poly<strong>on</strong>yx16. obesulus, WhUe 272Pachycheles17. pulchellus, Haswell 273PorceUana18. nitida, var. n. rotundifr<strong>on</strong>s27419. dispar, St<strong>in</strong>ips 27520. quadrilobata, sp. n 276. . 277Galatliea21. australiensis, Stimps.22. eleg-ans, Wliite 278Munida23. sp<strong>in</strong>ulifera, sp. n 279Mastig-ocliii'us24. quadrilobatus, Mieis .GebiaMacru7'a.. 2801. car<strong>in</strong>icauda, Stimps. . . 280Gebiopsis2. darw<strong>in</strong>ii, sp. n 281Axius3. plectrorhynchus, Strahl. 282Thalass<strong>in</strong>a4. anomala, Herhst 283Alpbeus5. edwardsii, Auclou<strong>in</strong>. . . . 2846. obesomanus, Dana .... 2877. gracilipes, Stimps 2878. m<strong>in</strong>or, var. neptunus,Dana 2889. comatiilarum, Haswell , 28910. villosus, M -Edwards . . 290P<strong>on</strong>t<strong>on</strong>ia11. tridacnse, Peters 290Harpilius12. iuermis, sp. n 291Anchistia13. petittbouarsi, Audou<strong>in</strong> ? 293Coralliocaris ?14. tridentata, sp. n 294Palsem<strong>on</strong>15. <strong>in</strong>termedius, Stimps. . . 295Sicy<strong>on</strong>ia16. oceUata, Stimps. ...... 295Penaeus17. granulosus, Hasioell .... 29518. velut<strong>in</strong>us, Dana 29619. batei, sp. n 296SquillaStomatopoda.1. uepa, Latr 298GouodactylusLigia2. cbiragra, Fabr 298•'J. grapburus, Wliite (<strong>in</strong>ed.),Miers 298ISOPODA.1. gaudicbaudii, var. australiensis,Dana ? .... 299Ceratotboa2. imbricata, Fabr 800Cirolana3. multidigitata, Dana . . 3014. scbiodtei, sp. u 3025. tenuistylis, sp. n 3036. lata, var. n. Integra. . . . 304Roc<strong>in</strong>ela7. orientalis, Sclmdte8fMe<strong>in</strong>ert 304Oymodocea8. l<strong>on</strong>gistylis, sp. n 305Cerceis9. bidentata, var. n. aspericaudata306Cilicsea10. latreillei, Leach 30811. latreillei, var. crassicaudata,Haswell 309Haswellia12. carnea, Hasioell 311ParanthuraAnisopoda.1. australis, Haswell .... 311EpbippipboraAmphipoda.1. kroyeri, WJiite 312Leucothoe2. sp<strong>in</strong>icarpa, var. couimensalis,Hasivell 3123. brevidigitata, sp. u 313Melita4. australis, Haswell .... 316Moera5. ramsayi, Haswell 3156. rubromaculata, Stimps. . 315Megamoera7. suensis, Hasivell ? .... 3178. tboms<strong>on</strong>i, sp. n 318Podocerus9. australis, Haswell .... 319Caprella10. sequilibra, Say 32011. attenuata, Dana ? .... 320


.SYSTEMATIC DTOEX.Cyprid<strong>in</strong>aOSTBACODA.Acasta1. albo-maculata, Baird .BalanusClBBIPEDIA.1. trig<strong>on</strong>us; Dario<strong>in</strong> . .2. amaryllis, Darw<strong>in</strong> . .


xvmSYSTEMATIC HTDE. . 402Hipposp<strong>on</strong>gia5. derasa, sp. n 382Stelosp<strong>on</strong>gus6. excavatus, sp. n 3837. implexus, sp. n 3848. <strong>in</strong>tertextus, Hyatt .... 385Carterisp<strong>on</strong>gia9. otahitica, Esper 38510. lamellosa, Es^ier 38611. fissurata, Lamk 386Hirc<strong>in</strong>ia12. horrens, Selenha 38713. sp 387Dysidea14. favosa, Marsh 38815. fusca, Carter 38816. digitifera, sp. n 38917. semicanalis, sp. n 389Psammopemma18. densum, Marsh., var. n.subfibrosa 390Aplysiiia19. membranosa, Pallas . . . 391lan<strong>the</strong>lla20. flabeUiformis, Pallas . . 392Chal<strong>in</strong>a21. m<strong>on</strong>ilata, sp. n 394Cladochal<strong>in</strong>a22. arrugiera, Duch 39423. sp 39524. uuda, sp 395, var. n. abruptispiciila39625. subarmigera, sp. u 39726. pergamentacea, Ridley. . 398Acervochal<strong>in</strong>a, g. n.27. f<strong>in</strong>itima, Schmidt 399Tuba28. bullata, Lamh 39929. c<strong>on</strong>fcederata, Lam 400Siph<strong>on</strong>ocbal<strong>in</strong>a30. tubulosa, Esper, var. . . 401Tubulodigitus31. communis, Carter .... 401Toxochal<strong>in</strong>a, g. n.32. folioides, Bowerbank33. robusta, sp. n 40334. mvirata, sp. n 404Pacbychal<strong>in</strong>a35.*lobata, Esjyer 40436. macrodactyla, Lamk. . . 405Reniera37. m&istmctn., Bowerh.,^far. 40738. scypbouoides, Lamk. . . 40739. ferula, Bowo-b 40840. aquseductus, Schmidt . . 409Page41. testud<strong>in</strong>aria, Lamk. . . 40942. sp 41043. sp. 41044. sp 411Pell<strong>in</strong>a45. muricata, sp. n 41146. aliformis, sp. n 41247. sp 41348. sp...... 41349. eusipb<strong>on</strong>ia, sp. n 414Protoscbmidtia50. liispidula, sp. n 414Scbmidtia51. variabilis, sp. n 415Amorpb<strong>in</strong>a52. megalorrbapbis, Carter , 416Tedauia53. digitata, Schm., var. . . 417Rhizocbal<strong>in</strong>a54. tistulosa, Boioerb., var. n.iufradensata 42055. s<strong>in</strong>gaporensis, Carte)-,y&r. 42156. spatbulifera, sp. n 42157. canalis, sp. n 422Gellius58. coucbi, Boioerb., var. cerat<strong>in</strong>a,n 42359. varius, Boioerb 42460. fibulatus, Schmidt .... 42461. cymiformis, Esper .... 425|Gelliodes, g. n.62. fibulata, Carter? 427Ampbilectus63. tibiellifer, sp. n 42864. bispidulus, sp. n 429Myxilla65. arborescens, sp. n 4-30Orella66. scbmidti, sp. n 432lotrocbota, g. n.67. purpurea, Bowerb 43468. baculifera, sp. n 435Esperia66. parisbi, Bmverb 43670. pellucida, sp. n 43771. obscura, Carter 438Phoriosp<strong>on</strong>gia72. fibrosa, sp. n 439Opblitispougia73. australieusis, sp. n 442Clathria74. aculeata, sp. u 44375. tuberosa, Boxverb 44476. coppiugeri, sp. u 44577. re<strong>in</strong>wardti, Vosm., var.subcyl<strong>in</strong>drica . 446


.STSTEMATIC INDEX.. . 457re<strong>in</strong>wardti, var. palmata44778. fr<strong>on</strong>difera, Botoerb 448Rhaphidophlus79. arborescens, sp. n 45080. pi'ocenis, sp. n 45181. sp 452Acamus82. teriiatus, sp. u 453Ech<strong>in</strong>i )dictyiim83. bilamellatum, Lamk. . .84. costiferum, Lamk45445585. glomeratum, sp. n 456, var. subglobosum 45786. caucellatum, Lamk.Raspailia87. bifurcata, sp. n. ...... 45988. australiensis, sp. n, .... 46089. clathrata, sp. n 461Ax<strong>in</strong>ella90. echidusea, Lamk 462Acan<strong>the</strong>lla91. sp 463LeucopMoeus92. fenestratus, sp, ii 464, var 464Suberites93. carnosus, Johnst 46594. epiphytum, Lamk 465Hymeniacid<strong>on</strong>95. canmciila, Boioerb 46696. agmiaata, sp. n 46697. sp 467Spirastrella98. vagabuuda, sp. n 46899. c<strong>on</strong>geuera, sp. n 469100. decu<strong>in</strong>bens, sp. n 470Stelletta101. purpurea, sp. u 473, var. retroflexa . . 473102. clavosa, sp. n 474103. sp 476. 480Stellettiiiopsis104. carteri, sp. n 476Tetbyopsis105. dissimilis, sp. n 477Greodia106. globosteUifera, Carter .Placosp<strong>on</strong>gia107. cariuata, Bowerh 481Leucetta108. primigenia, Hdckel, var.microrrbapbis, id. .... 482Leucaltis109. batbybia, Hackel, var.australiensis, u 482Leuc<strong>on</strong>ia110. saccbarata, Hdckel . . . 482Part II.COLLECTIONS FROM THE WESTERN INDIANOCEAN.BIRDS.By R. Bowdleb Sharpe.Foudia1. madagascariensis, L. . . 483CritbagTa2. cbrysopyga, Stoa<strong>in</strong>s. . . 483Francol<strong>in</strong>us3. pouticerianus, Gm 483Sterna4. melanaucben, T. 484Zosterops5. madagascariensis, L. . . 484Corvus6. scapulatus, Daud. .... 484Turtur7. copp<strong>in</strong>geri, sp. n 484Strepsilas8. <strong>in</strong>terpres, L 484Ardea9. atricapilla, Afzel 48510. bubulcus, Sciv 485


I.SYSTEMATIC INDEX.PageStrepsilas11. iuterpres, L 485Puff<strong>in</strong>us1^. chlororhyiiclius, Less. . . 485Sterna13. anaes<strong>the</strong>ta, Scop 485Gygis14. alba, Sparrm 485Anous15. stolidus, L 485EEPTILIA.By Albert Gun<strong>the</strong>b.Hemidactylus1. frenatus 486Gerrhouotusariensis 486C<strong>on</strong>usMOLLUSCA.Gastropoda.1. arenatus, Hwass 4872. hebrseus, L 4873. tiirriculatus, Sow 4874. miliaris, Hivass 4885. literatus, L 4886. millepunctatus, iam. . . 4887. flaviclus, Lam 4888. tessellatus, Born 4889. striatus, L 48810. martensi, sp. n 48811. articulatus, Sow 489Pleurotoma12. grisea, sp. n 489Terebra13. babyl<strong>on</strong>ica, Lam 49014. cerith<strong>in</strong>a, Lam 49015. dimidiata 49016. bruguieri, Desh 49017. casta, H<strong>in</strong>ds 491Murex18. adustus, Lam 49119. pumilus, Adams 49120. <strong>in</strong>faus, sp. n 49121. darrosensis, sp. n 492Pisania22. ignea, Gm 49223. uudosa, L 492Columbella24. turtui<strong>in</strong>a. Lam 49225. nympba, Kiener 49326. seychellensis, sp. n 49327. molecul<strong>in</strong>a, Duclos .... 49328. c<strong>in</strong>c<strong>in</strong>nata. Martens. . . . 49429. rufopiperata, sp. n 49430. amirantium, sp. u 49431. c<strong>on</strong>spersa, Gasko<strong>in</strong> ... 49532. albocaudata, sp. u 495By Edgar A. Smith.Nassa33. arcularia, L 49634. grauifera, Kiener 49635. gaudiosa, H<strong>in</strong>ds 49636. stigmaria, var 496Phos37. nodicostatus, var 496Purpura38. hippocastauum 49639. sertum, Brug 496Sistrum40. ric<strong>in</strong>us, L 497Coralliophila41. madreporarum, Sow. . . 49742. amirantium, sp. n 497Leptocouclius43. rostratus, Adams 497Fasciolaria44. filamentosa, Lam 497Latirus45. nassatula, Lam 497Oliva46. episcopalis, Lam 497Harpa47. m<strong>in</strong>or 498Mitra48. episcopalis, L 49849. cor<strong>on</strong>ata, Chemn 49850. luctuosa, Adams 49851 tenuis, Sow 498Turricula52. exasperata, Chemn 49853. mucr<strong>on</strong>ata, Sioa<strong>in</strong>s 49854. modesta, Reeve 49955. bipartita, sp. n 499Marg<strong>in</strong>ella56. picturata, G. ^ H. Nevill . 499Dolium57. pomum, L 499


PageRanella58. pusilla, var 500Trit<strong>on</strong>59. cancell<strong>in</strong>us, Hoissij .... 500SYSTEMATIC INDEX.60. tessellata, Phil 500Cyprsea61. aseUus,i 500Trivia62. scabriuscula, Gray .... 500Erato63. corrugata, H<strong>in</strong>ds 500Littor<strong>in</strong>a64. glabrata, Phil 500Ceritliium65. ech<strong>in</strong>atum, Lam 50066. columna, Sow 50067. albovaricosum, sp. n. . . 50168. amirantium, sp. n 50169. acutiuodulosum, sp. n.. . 50170. kochi, PM 502Triphoris71. mirificus, Desk 50272. mouilifer, H<strong>in</strong>ds 50273. elegans, H<strong>in</strong>ds 50274. maxillaris, H<strong>in</strong>ds 502Strombus75. maiiritianus, Lam 50276. gibberulus, L 50377. floridus, Lam 50378. columba, Lam 503Pterocera79. aiirantia, Lam 503Calyptraea80. cicatricosa, Reeve 603Nerita81. plexa, Chemn 50382. plicata, Chemn 50383. polita, L 50384. albiciUa, i 503Nerit<strong>in</strong>a85. rangiana, Recluz 503Turbo86. bistrio, Reeve 50387. tiirsicus, Reeve 50488. cor<strong>on</strong>atus, Gm 504Pbasianella89. sethiopica, Phil 504Trocbus90. amirantium, sp. n 50491. australis, Lam 50592. labio, Z 505Cylicbna93. protracta, Goul d 505Tornat<strong>in</strong>a94. voluta, Quoy ^ Gaim, , . 505PyramideUa95. maculosa, Lam 50596. terebellum, Midler 50597. sulcatus, Adams 505Obemnitzia98. copp<strong>in</strong>geri, sp. n 505PbyUidia99. varicosa, Lam 506Doris100. coriacea, Abraham .... 506101. mabilla, Abraham .... 506CytbereaCONCHrFERA.1. obliquata, Hanley 506Circe2. pect<strong>in</strong>ata, L 5063. gibbia, var 606Tell<strong>in</strong>a4. elegans, Wood 5075. semilsevis, Martens .... 5076. staurella, Lam 5077. rugosa, Born 5078. scob<strong>in</strong>ata, L 5079. gxatiosa, Romer 507Cardium10. fornicatum, So^o 50711. pulcbrum, Reeve 507Gastrocbfena12. mytiloides, Lam 507Luc<strong>in</strong>a13. exasperata, Reeve 50714. punctata, L 50815. clausa, Phil 50816. cum<strong>in</strong>gii, var 508Modiola17. auriculata, Kraiiss .... 50818. elegans, Gray 508Area19. divaricata, Smo 508Cucullsea20. c<strong>on</strong>camerata, Chemn. . . 508ECHINODERMATA. By F. Jeffrey Bell.(Page 509.)Neoplax opbiodes, g. et sp. n 512


.AchgeusDecapoda.Brachyura.SYSTEMATIC INDEX.CRUSTACEA, -^^y E. J. Miebs.Page. 5301. Isevioculis, sp. n 520Camposcia2. retusa, Latr 520Huenia3. pacifica, Miers 520Mensethius4. m<strong>on</strong>oceros, Latr 521Stilbognatbus_5. martensii, sp. n 521Paramitlirax6. l<strong>on</strong>gisp<strong>in</strong>iis, De Haan,var. bituberculatus .... 522Hyastenus7.o^j^,A.M.-Edio 5228. ovatus, Dana 522Naxia9. petersii, Hilgendorf .... 523Eurynome10. stimps<strong>on</strong>ii, sp. n 523Micippa11. tbalia, ^e/'6s^, var. haani,Stimps 524Paramicippa12. asperi<strong>in</strong>anus, sp. n 525Entom<strong>on</strong>yx, g. n.13. sp<strong>in</strong>osus, sp. n 526Lambrus14. calappoides, vld^fF/t.? 527Euxanthus15. exsculptus, Herhst, var.rugosus, n 527Lophacta?a16. semigranosa, Heller .... 527Lophozozymus17. dodoue, Herhst 527Lioiuera18. punctata, M.-Udto 528Actfea19. rufopunctata, M.-JEdto. . . 628Atergatopsis20. granulatus, A. M.-Ed^v. 529Xantbodes21. lamarckii, M.-Edio 529Carpilodes22. rugatus, M.-Ediv 529Actseodes23. tomentosus, M.-Edw. .Leptodius24. exaratus, M.-Edw 530. .25. exaratus, var. gracilis,Dana ....Phymodius26. rugipes, HellerChlorodius27. niger, Forsk28. miliaris, A. M.-Edw..Chlorodopsis29. melanodactylu8,^.il!f.-^.30. areolatus, M.-EdwEtisodes31. electra, HerbstOymo32. andreossii, AiidActumnus33. setifer, DeHaanEiu-iippellia34. annulipes, M.-EdtoOzius35. fr<strong>on</strong>talis, M.-EdwEriphia36. Isevimanus, M.-Edw. . .37.,var. smitbii, Mac-Leay38. scabricula, DanaTrapezia39. cymodoce, Herhst . . . ,40. ferrug<strong>in</strong>ea, Latr41. rufopunctata, Herhst .Tetralia42. cavimanus. Heller ...Xipb<strong>on</strong>ectes43. vigilans, Dana, var. obtusidentatus,n ,Scylla44. serrata, ForskAcbelous45. granulatus, M.-Edw. . .G<strong>on</strong>iosoma46. natator, HerhstThalamita47. sima, M.-Edio.48. quadrilobata, sp. n. . . .49. Integra, Dana50. crenata, Hiipp51. picta, StimjjsLissocarc<strong>in</strong>us52. orbicularis, DanaGelasimus53. annulipes, M.-Ediv. . . .54. dussumieri, M.-Edw. .Ocypoda55. ceratophthalma, Prt/Z«s.Page530531531531531532582632533.533533634536535535, 536636637538. 538. 538. 539. 639. 539. 540. 540. 540. 641. 541. 541. 642


..SYSTEMATIC INDEX.56, cordimanus, Desm 542Macrophthalmus67. parvimauus, M.-Edio. . . 542Euplax58. boscii, Aud. 542Dotilla59. fenestrata, Hilgendorf . . 543Carc<strong>in</strong>oplax60. Integra, sp. u 543Grapsus61 maculatus, Cateshj .... 54462. strigosus, Herbst 544Geograpsus63. grayi, M.-Edw 545Metopograpsus64. messor, Forsk 545Liolophus65. plauissimus, Herbst .... 645Xauthasia66. <strong>in</strong>urigera, White 546PLilyra67. rectaugularis, sp. n 546Pseudophilyra68. polita, sp. n 547Nursilla69. deutata, Bell 548Arcauia70. imdecimsp<strong>in</strong>osa,i)e^aa?t 648Ebalia71. granulata, liilppell .... 549Calappa72. liepatica, L<strong>in</strong>n 65073. gallus, Herbst, yar. bicoruis550Cymopolia74. wbitei, sp. n 551DromidiaAn<strong>on</strong>iura.1. sp<strong>on</strong>giosa, Sfi7}i2)s., var. ?stimps<strong>on</strong>ii, n 552Di'omia2. TiUgaris, M.-Edw. . . . 553Homalodromia, g. n.3. copp<strong>in</strong>geri, sp. n 554Birgus4. latro,' X 555Ccenobita5. perlata, M.-Edio 555Pagurus6. punctidatus, M.-Edxo. . . 5557. guttatus, Olivier ? .... 555Oalc<strong>in</strong>us8. tibicen, Herbst 557Petrolis<strong>the</strong>s9. lamarckii, Leach 65710. , var. asiaticus,Leach 55711. annulipes, Miers 55812. maculatus, M.-Edw. . . 55813. villosus, Richters ? .... 559Polyouyx14. biunguiculatus, Dana . . 559Gala<strong>the</strong>a15. sp<strong>in</strong>osirostris, Dana ? . . 560Munida16. edwardsii, sp. u 560ttAlpbeusMacrura.1. obesomanus, Dana .... 5612. edwardsii, Audou<strong>in</strong> .... 5013. Isevis, Randall 5614. m<strong>in</strong>or, var. neptuuus,Dana 562P<strong>on</strong>t<strong>on</strong>ia5. brevirostris, sp. n 562Coralliocaris6. gram<strong>in</strong>ea, Dana 563Penseus7. canaliculatus, Olivier . . 5638. richtersii, sp. n 564Stomatopoda.G<strong>on</strong>odactylus1 cbiragra, Fabr 5652. graphurus, Miers 5663. elegans, sp. n 566MceraAmphipoda.1. diversimanus, sp. n 567COLEOPTEEA.By C. 0. Waterhouse.Cratopus adspersus, sp. n 576


SrSTEMATIC HfBEX.Deiopeia lactea, sp. nLEPIDOPTEKA.By A. G. Butleb.Page577ALC YONARIA,By Stuabt 0. Ridley.Sp<strong>on</strong>godes1. unicolor, Oray 5792. studeri, sp. n 579, var. Isevior 579Neplithya3. sp 5794. sp 579Muricea5. bifurcata, sp. n 579Juncella6. gemmacea, M.-JEdw. . . 580Wrightella7. clarysantlius, Gi-ay .... 5818. cocc<strong>in</strong>ea, Gray 581SPONGIIDA.By Stuabt O. Ridley.Cacosp<strong>on</strong>gia1. cavernosa, Schmidt 590Hipposp<strong>on</strong>gia2. <strong>in</strong>test<strong>in</strong>alis, Lamk., var. . 5903. s<strong>in</strong>uosa, Pallas 591, var. Biauritiana . . 591, var. deeidua, Hyatt 692Phyllosp<strong>on</strong>gia4. papyracea, Esper 5935. madagascareusis, Hyatt 594,var.supraoculata,n. 594Carterisp<strong>on</strong>gia6. otahitica, Esper 5957. mantelli, Boiverh 6958. peunatula, Lamk 595Hirciuia9. fusca, Carter 59610. byssoides, Lamk 59611. sp 59712. c<strong>on</strong>ica, Bowerb 59713. gumm<strong>in</strong>ea, sp. n 597Oligoceras14. c<strong>on</strong>ulosum, sp. n 599Aplys<strong>in</strong>a15. fusca, Carter 60016. paUasi, sp. n 600lantbeUa17. flabelliformis, Pallas . . 601Ch<strong>on</strong>drilla18. mixta, ScJmlze ? 602Cbal<strong>in</strong>a19. el<strong>on</strong>gata, Lamk. ..*.... 00320. sp. 603Acervochal<strong>in</strong>a21. fiuitima, Schmidt, var. . . 604Reiiiera22. <strong>in</strong>dist<strong>in</strong>cta, Boioerh., var. 60523. rosea, Boioerb 60524. camerata, sp. n 60525. cribriformis, sp. n 60626. sp 607Pell<strong>in</strong>a27. sp 607Tedania28. digitata, Schmidt 607Rbizochal<strong>in</strong>a29. pellucida, sp. n 608Des<strong>in</strong>acid<strong>on</strong>30. rimosa, sp. n 609lotrochota31. purpurea, Bowerb 61032. baculifera, sp. n 610Esperia33. gelat<strong>in</strong>osa, s^. n 611Clathria34. froudifera, Bowerb 61235. decumbens, sp. n 61236. mseandr<strong>in</strong>a, sp. u 614Acarnus37. ternatus, sp. n 615Ech<strong>in</strong><strong>on</strong>ema38. sp 61639. gracilis, sp. n..'.617Ax<strong>in</strong>ella40. spiculifera, Lamk 61741. proliferans, sp. n 618Leucophloeus42. proteus, sp. n 62043. fenestratus, var 621Suberites44. sp 622


SYSTEMATIC INDEX.XXVPageVioa45. schmidti, Ridley 62240. transitovia, sp. n 62347. punctulata, sp. n G23Tethva48!^ clift<strong>on</strong>i, JBowerh 624Tetilla49. dactyloidea, Carter G25Erylus50. cyl<strong>in</strong>drigerus, sp. u 026Stelletta51. acervus, JBotverb 027Page52. purpurea, var. parviStella627Leucetta53. primip:eiiia, var. megalirrhaphis,Ilcickel 628Leucaltis54. bathybia, Hdckel, var.mascarenica 628Leucortia55. angu<strong>in</strong>ea, .sp. n 629Leuc<strong>on</strong>ia50. ecliiuata, Sclmffner .... 030


THEZOOLOGICALCOLLECTIONSojH.M.S.'ALERT.'SUMMARY OF THE VOYAGE.BYR. W. COPPINGER, M.D., Staff-Surge<strong>on</strong> R.N.Dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> summer of 1878 it was resolved by <strong>the</strong> Admiralty toequip a vessel for <strong>the</strong> performance of special survey<strong>in</strong>g-work <strong>on</strong><strong>the</strong> western shores of Patag<strong>on</strong>ia, am<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> South-<strong>Pacific</strong> Islands,and <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> eastern and nor<strong>the</strong>rn shores of Australia; <strong>in</strong> additi<strong>on</strong>to which, it was <strong>the</strong> wish of <strong>the</strong> Hydrogra])her of <strong>the</strong>Navy, Capta<strong>in</strong> (now Sir Frederick) Evans, F.R.S., that no opportunityshould be lost of collect<strong>in</strong>g objects of natural history whenever<strong>the</strong> requirements of <strong>the</strong> survey brought <strong>the</strong> vessel <strong>in</strong>to regi<strong>on</strong>swhose zoology was hi<strong>the</strong>rto but imperfectly known. It was <strong>in</strong>accordance \vith <strong>the</strong>se views that <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> 20th August, 1878, H.M.S.'Alert' was commissi<strong>on</strong>ed at Sheerness, with a complement of120 officers and men, by Capta<strong>in</strong> Sir George IS'ares, who, by a happyco<strong>in</strong>cidence, had commanded <strong>the</strong> same vessel <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Polar Expediti<strong>on</strong>of 1875-76. On <strong>the</strong> 20th of <strong>the</strong> follow<strong>in</strong>g m<strong>on</strong>th we sailed fromPlymouth.On <strong>the</strong> outward voyage we touched for a few days at Madeira andSt. V<strong>in</strong>cent respectively ; and at both of <strong>the</strong>se places some shallowwaterdredg<strong>in</strong>g was accomplished, result<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> acquisiti<strong>on</strong> of asmall collecti<strong>on</strong> of mar<strong>in</strong>e <strong>in</strong>vertebrates, <strong>in</strong> which, as might havebeen expected, <strong>the</strong>re was little, if any th<strong>in</strong>g, of special <strong>in</strong>terest.B


—Z VOYAGE OF H.M.3. ' ALERT.Dur<strong>in</strong>g our fur<strong>the</strong>r voyage through <strong>the</strong> South Atlantic a coursewas held which brought us over <strong>the</strong> Hotspur and Victoria Bankssubmei-ged coral-reefs which are situated between <strong>the</strong> parallels ofITg" and 12° S. lat., and are about ISO miles from <strong>the</strong> east coast ofBrazil. In <strong>the</strong>se two places we plied our dredges <strong>in</strong> depths rang<strong>in</strong>gfrom 35 to 39 fathoms, obta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>reby a large number of <strong>zoological</strong>specimens, am<strong>on</strong>g which were several novelties <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> classesof Sp<strong>on</strong>ges and Polyzoa. The collecti<strong>on</strong> <strong>made</strong> at <strong>the</strong>se stati<strong>on</strong>sproved to be of special <strong>in</strong>terest, as it helped to fill up a gap unavoidablyleft by <strong>the</strong> Challenger ' ' expediti<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> mar<strong>in</strong>e zoology of<strong>the</strong> South Atlantic.On <strong>the</strong> 27th November we anchored <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> esti;ary of <strong>the</strong> riverPlate, off M<strong>on</strong>te Video, where we rema<strong>in</strong>ed until <strong>the</strong> 14th December.Sail<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> latter date, we shaped a course for <strong>the</strong> FalklandIslands, and arrived at Stanley Harbour <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> 26th <strong>in</strong>st. A fewweeks prior to <strong>the</strong> time of our visit to <strong>the</strong> Falklands a peculiaravalanche of semifluid peat had poured down from <strong>the</strong> summitof <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> low hills, lay<strong>in</strong>g waste a porti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> settlement.AVe aga<strong>in</strong> put to sea <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> even<strong>in</strong>g of <strong>the</strong> 27th December, andsteer<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> eastward, entered <strong>the</strong> Strait of ]\[agellan <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>first day of <strong>the</strong> year 1S79. After stopp<strong>in</strong>g for a few days at <strong>the</strong>Chilian settlement of Sandy Po<strong>in</strong>t, we proceeded to our survey<strong>in</strong>ggroundam<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> channels <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> west coast of Patag<strong>on</strong>ia. Herewe spent <strong>the</strong> greater porti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> two succeed<strong>in</strong>g years, execut<strong>in</strong>gsurveys of previously uncharted waters, and add<strong>in</strong>g to those whichhad been partially eflPected by our predecessors <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> same field ;but dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> more rigorous w<strong>in</strong>ter m<strong>on</strong>ths we each year proceedednorth to Coquimbo, <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> Chilian coast, where our ship was refittedand fresh supplies of stores were obta<strong>in</strong>ed *. As <strong>the</strong> requirementsof <strong>the</strong> survey necessitated our visit<strong>in</strong>g and anchor<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> a greatmany bays and <strong>in</strong>lets <strong>in</strong> this remote regi<strong>on</strong>, frequent opportunitiesoccurred for shallow-water dredg<strong>in</strong>g, so that we were able to makea large collecti<strong>on</strong> of mar<strong>in</strong>e <strong>in</strong>vertebrates— a branch of research towhich our attenti<strong>on</strong> was more especially directed, as we were awarethat <strong>in</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r departments of biology <strong>the</strong> work d<strong>on</strong>e by <strong>the</strong> Erebus ''and ' Terror,' ' Nassau,' and Challenger ' ' of our own navy, as wellas by many foreign vessels, left little to be desired.Dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> m<strong>on</strong>th of March 1880 a visit extend<strong>in</strong>g over a fewdays was <strong>made</strong> to Skyr<strong>in</strong>g Water, a large and almost completelylandlocked sheet of water situated to <strong>the</strong> eastward of <strong>the</strong> Cordillera,and, so far as we yet know, <strong>on</strong>ly accessible by ship through anarrow channel by which it communicates with <strong>the</strong> ma<strong>in</strong> Strait ofMagellan. And here I should remark that <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> m<strong>on</strong>th of July1879, and dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> surplus time allotted for refitt<strong>in</strong>g our ship <strong>on</strong><strong>the</strong> Chilian coast, a brief visit was <strong>made</strong> to <strong>the</strong> island of St. Ambrose,which lies about 500 miles to <strong>the</strong> north-west of Coquimbo.* Dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> w<strong>in</strong>ter of 1879-80 Sir George Nares returned to England, andwas succeeded <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> command of <strong>the</strong> 'Alert ' by Capta<strong>in</strong> Maclear, formerly of<strong>the</strong> Challenger ' ' Expediti<strong>on</strong>.


eiTMMARr. 3Ou <strong>the</strong> 14th June, 1880, we bade adieu to <strong>the</strong> South-Americaacoast and sailed for Tahiti, spend<strong>in</strong>g much time <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> way <strong>in</strong>search<strong>in</strong>g for <strong>the</strong> so-called M<strong>in</strong>erva Eeef, which was reputed toexist some 60 miles to <strong>the</strong> north-east of Manga Eeva, <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong>Paumotu group. Arriv<strong>in</strong>g at Tahiti <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> 6th of August, we <strong>made</strong>a stay of twelve days at that <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g island, when we aga<strong>in</strong> gotunder way and pursued a circuitous route towards <strong>the</strong> great Fijigroup.The first place at which we touched <strong>on</strong> this voyage was NassauIsland, whence we proceeded to <strong>the</strong> Uni<strong>on</strong> group, <strong>in</strong> 80^° S. lat.,pass<strong>in</strong>g with<strong>in</strong> sight of Tema Reef and <strong>the</strong> Danger Islands, whichwere found to be <strong>in</strong>correctly placed <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> charts. We <strong>made</strong> a shortstay at Oatafu, <strong>the</strong> most westerly island of <strong>the</strong> Uni<strong>on</strong> group, and<strong>the</strong>nce proceeded to Fiji.We anchored off <strong>the</strong> settlement of Levuka <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> island of Ovalau,Fiji, <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> 18th of September, and rema<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>the</strong>re until <strong>the</strong> 10thof October, We <strong>the</strong>n steamed over to T<strong>on</strong>gatabu, <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> FriendlyIslands, where wo <strong>made</strong> a pleasant stay of ten days, but subsequentlyspent some very dull weeks, aggravated by unusuallyboisterous wea<strong>the</strong>r, <strong>in</strong> an uneventful search for <strong>the</strong> La Eance Bank,<strong>the</strong> n<strong>on</strong>-existence of which was, however, satisfactorily dem<strong>on</strong>strated.We returned to Levuka <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> 4th of December, andrema<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong> harbour for ten days, when we entered up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> lastporti<strong>on</strong> of our <strong>Pacific</strong> cruise, viz. <strong>the</strong> voyage from Fiji to Sydney.We arrived at Sydney <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> 23rd of January, 1881, and rema<strong>in</strong>ed<strong>the</strong>re, refitt<strong>in</strong>g, until <strong>the</strong> 15th of April, when we steamedup <strong>the</strong> east coast of Australia to our next survey<strong>in</strong>g-ground.Dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> ensu<strong>in</strong>g six m<strong>on</strong>ths we visited Port Curtis, PortMoUe, and Port Denis<strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> east coast of Queensland ; LizardIsland, Fl<strong>in</strong>ders Island, Clack Island, Bird Island, Percy Islands,Clairem<strong>on</strong>t Islands, and Albany Island, adjo<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> coast ; andwhile engaged <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> survey of <strong>the</strong> Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel, <strong>in</strong>Torres Straits, we anchored off Wednesday, Thursday, Friday,Home, West, Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales, Hamm<strong>on</strong>d, Goode, and Booby-Islands. In aU <strong>the</strong>se localities mar<strong>in</strong>e specimens were collected, aswell as <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> more open parts of <strong>the</strong> Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel,where <strong>the</strong> depth rarely exceeds 30 fathoms. A good many <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>gspecimens were also obta<strong>in</strong>ed through <strong>the</strong> assistance of <strong>the</strong>pearl-shell divers, who have an extensive and lucrative <strong>in</strong>dustry <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong>se waters.On leav<strong>in</strong>g this channel we proceeded westwards through <strong>the</strong>Arafura Sea, sound<strong>in</strong>g and dredg<strong>in</strong>g, until we reached Port Darw<strong>in</strong>,<strong>in</strong> North-west Australia. Here we rema<strong>in</strong>ed from <strong>the</strong> 3rd to <strong>the</strong>ISth of November, when we aga<strong>in</strong> got under way and steamedthrough <strong>the</strong> Eastern Archipelago to S<strong>in</strong>gapore. We reached thisport <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> 18th November, 1881, and rema<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>the</strong>re for two anda half m<strong>on</strong>ths, spend<strong>in</strong>g most of <strong>the</strong> time <strong>in</strong> dock, where ourship underwent an extensive refit. We now received orders toundertake a survey of <strong>the</strong> Amirantes and neighbour<strong>in</strong>g islands andreefs <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> South-Indian <strong>Ocean</strong>, us<strong>in</strong>g Seychelles as our base forb2


TOYAGE OF H.M.S. ' ALERT,'supplies. We accord<strong>in</strong>gly sailed from S<strong>in</strong>gapore <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> 5th February,1882, and steered for <strong>the</strong> Seychelle Islands, touch<strong>in</strong>g ou <strong>the</strong>way at Colombo,On <strong>the</strong> 4th of March we reached Bird Island, <strong>the</strong> most nor<strong>the</strong>rlyof <strong>the</strong> Seychelle group ; and as we rema<strong>in</strong>ed at anchor <strong>the</strong>re untiltlie follow<strong>in</strong>g morn<strong>in</strong>g, we had an opportunity, am<strong>on</strong>g o<strong>the</strong>r th<strong>in</strong>gs,for explor<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> island and accomplish<strong>in</strong>g some dredg<strong>in</strong>g-work <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> shallow water about <strong>the</strong> ship. On <strong>the</strong> next day we steamedover to Mahe, <strong>the</strong> chief island of <strong>the</strong> group. After some days spen<strong>the</strong>re <strong>in</strong> provisi<strong>on</strong><strong>in</strong>g and coal<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> ship, dur<strong>in</strong>g which time ourboats did some useful dredg<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> channel between Mahe andSt. Anne's Islands, we steamed over to <strong>the</strong> Amirante group, <strong>the</strong> mostnor<strong>the</strong>rly of which is <strong>on</strong>ly about a day's run from Mahe, \Ye hadorders to make a survey of <strong>the</strong> Amirantes, and, as far as time wouldpermit, of <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r coral islailds which extend <strong>the</strong>nce <strong>in</strong> an irregularcha<strong>in</strong> southward towards Madagascar.The Amirante group c<strong>on</strong>sists altoge<strong>the</strong>r of twenty-<strong>on</strong>e low coralislets, rest<strong>in</strong>g, with <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong> of He des Eoches (which is separatedby a deep channel), <strong>on</strong> an extensive coral bank, which is 89miles <strong>in</strong> length, with an average breadth of 19 miles, and whosel<strong>on</strong>g axis lies <strong>in</strong> a N,N.E. and S.S.W. directi<strong>on</strong>. It is <strong>in</strong>cluded between<strong>the</strong> limits of 4° 50^' and 6° 12^-' S. lat., and 53° 45' and52° 50|' E. l<strong>on</strong>g., and is thus about 700 miles distant from <strong>the</strong>nearest part of <strong>the</strong> East-African coast. Some of <strong>the</strong> islets andsand-cays of which it is composed, and which are <strong>in</strong>cluded <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>above enumerati<strong>on</strong>, are so arranged <strong>in</strong> clusters that for all practicalpurposes <strong>the</strong> group may be regarded as c<strong>on</strong>sist<strong>in</strong>g of n<strong>in</strong>e islets,which have been named African, Eagle, Darros, Des Roches, Poivre,Etoile, Marie Louise, Des Neufs, and Boudeuse Islands.From <strong>the</strong> Amirantes we moved over to Alph<strong>on</strong>se Island, whichoccupies an isolated positi<strong>on</strong> (50 miles S.W. by S. of <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>rn,extremity of <strong>the</strong> Amirante Bank ; and <strong>the</strong>nce proceeded to ProvidenceIsland, which is about 240 miles from <strong>the</strong> Amirantes <strong>in</strong>a S.W. by S. directi<strong>on</strong>, and about 2(J0 miles from Cape Amber, <strong>in</strong>Madagascar. After a short stay at each of <strong>the</strong>se islands, we steamedover to <strong>the</strong> Glorioso group, which c<strong>on</strong>sists of three islands, also ofcoral formati<strong>on</strong>, and situated about 120 miles W. by N. of <strong>the</strong>nor<strong>the</strong>rn extremity of Madagascar. Every effort was <strong>made</strong> to<strong>in</strong>vestigate <strong>the</strong> fauna and flora of <strong>the</strong>se islands as far as time ando<strong>the</strong>r circumstances would permit, so that sufficient materials wereaccumulated to c<strong>on</strong>nect <strong>the</strong>ir natural history with that of Seychellesto <strong>the</strong> northward and Madagascar to th^ southward.With our departure from <strong>the</strong> Glorioso Islands <strong>the</strong> survey<strong>in</strong>g operati<strong>on</strong>sof <strong>the</strong> ' Alert ' were brought to a close. On <strong>the</strong> 12th of Maywe reached Mozambique, whence, after a stay of a few days, weproceeded <strong>on</strong> our homeward voyage, stopp<strong>in</strong>g en route at AlgoaBay,Sim<strong>on</strong>'s Baj^, Cape of Good Hope, St. Helena, and Fayal (<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>Azores), and arrived <strong>in</strong> Plymouth Sound <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> 3rd of September,1882, after an absence of nearly four years.


—6 COLLECTIONS FR03I IIELANESIA.Subbrachycephalic, prognathous, just above leptorb<strong>in</strong>e.Glabella prom<strong>in</strong>ent, about No. 3 of Broca's scale. Ini<strong>on</strong> scarcelydeveloped.This skull is unusually broad for a Melanesian, and has a somewhatlow nasal <strong>in</strong>dex ; it agrees, however, very well with No. 1193of Prof. Plower's Catalogue * (" The cranium of a Papuan, from <strong>on</strong>eof <strong>the</strong> islands <strong>in</strong> Torres Strait, c? "), and its extreme prognathismshows that it undoubtedly bel<strong>on</strong>gs to <strong>the</strong> Melanesian race. It hasunderg<strong>on</strong>e c<strong>on</strong>siderable occipital flatten<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> left side, ei<strong>the</strong>rfrom sleep<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong> a hard wooden pillow or some similar cause ; andthis has no doubt caused <strong>the</strong> bra<strong>in</strong>-case to be abnormally broad.The present specimen is said to be <strong>the</strong> skull of <strong>the</strong> last chief of<strong>the</strong> island of Nagheer, and is ornamented with two l<strong>on</strong>g str<strong>in</strong>gs ofglass beads and tassels of red calico hang<strong>in</strong>g from <strong>the</strong> zj'gomata. Ithas its orbits filled with red clay, <strong>on</strong> which are fastened obl<strong>on</strong>g bitsof mo<strong>the</strong>r-of-pearl for eyes ;<strong>the</strong>re is an artificial nose carved <strong>in</strong>wood and pa<strong>in</strong>ted red, and a red band of pa<strong>in</strong>t passes across <strong>the</strong>forehead. The right upper can<strong>in</strong>e, lost after death but befoi'e <strong>the</strong>preparati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> skull, has been replaced by a wooden tooth. Thefour posterior teeth <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> right lower jaw have all been lost dur<strong>in</strong>glife, and <strong>the</strong>ir alveoli have quite closed up.2. Skull of Torres-Straits Islander. (Plates I, & II. fig. B.)Male [?]. Adult." Native woman of Nagheer Island, Torres Straits."R. W. GLength 178 ;gl. occ. 181. Breadth 136. Height 137. Maximumfr<strong>on</strong>tal breadth 112; m<strong>in</strong>imum fr<strong>on</strong>tal breadth 95.Horiz<strong>on</strong>tal circumferences — pi'caurieidar 230, total 503.Transverse arcs—fr<strong>on</strong>tal 283, bregmatic 300, parietal 320,occipital 207. L<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al arcs—fr<strong>on</strong>tal 130, parietal 120,occipital 112. Foramen magnum—length 38, width 31. Bas<strong>in</strong>asallength 103. Basialveolar length 105. Bizygomaticbreadth 129. Height of—face 86, malar 24, alveolus 16. Auriculo-orbitallength 68. Nasal height 49, width 26. Maxilla—length 61, breadth 63.Mandible—bic<strong>on</strong>dylar width 117, big<strong>on</strong>iac width 93, symphysialheight 31, molar height 24, cor<strong>on</strong>oid height 52, g<strong>on</strong>io-symphysiallength 88. Hamus—height 64, antero-posteriorbreadth 31. Big<strong>on</strong>iac arc 197.Indices—latitud<strong>in</strong>al 76-4, altitud<strong>in</strong>al 77*0, fr<strong>on</strong>tal 69*9, gnathic101-9, nasal 53-1.Subdolichocephalic, hypsicephalic, mesognathous, and platyrh<strong>in</strong>e.Glabella low, about No. 1. No <strong>in</strong>i<strong>on</strong>. Median l<strong>in</strong>e of nose veryprom<strong>in</strong>ent.Similarly prepared to <strong>the</strong> last, <strong>the</strong> <strong>on</strong>ly differences be<strong>in</strong>g that<strong>the</strong> str<strong>in</strong>gs of beads from <strong>the</strong> zygomata are shorter and withoutOp. cit. p. 222.


—MAMMALIA. 7tassels, and <strong>the</strong>re is a blue crescent-shaped mark <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> glabella,just below <strong>the</strong> supraorbital red l<strong>in</strong>e.Although stated to be a " woman of Nagheer," <strong>the</strong>re can bo littledoubt, from its general appearance, that this skull is that of a man.It is a remarkably f<strong>in</strong>e and typical head, and has <strong>the</strong>refore beenthought worthy of a figure. The peculiar roof-like shape of <strong>the</strong>crown is noticeable, a state of skull called " ill-filled " by Dr.Cleland." These skulls are placed <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> graves where <strong>the</strong> bodies of <strong>the</strong>irorig<strong>in</strong>al possessors lie, and are surrounded with idols, models ofsnakes, &c., which are supposed to guard <strong>the</strong> dead."3. Cranium of Solom<strong>on</strong> Islander.Female. Adult." Solom<strong>on</strong> group ;particular island unknown." R. W. C.Length 187; gl. occ. 187. Breadth 130. Height 133. Maximumfr<strong>on</strong>tal breadth 110 ; m<strong>in</strong>imum fr<strong>on</strong>tal breadth 100.Horiz<strong>on</strong>tal circumferences — preauricular 243, total 510. Transversearcs— fi'<strong>on</strong>tal 276, bregmatic 294, parietal 304, occipital265. L<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al arcs—fr<strong>on</strong>tal 133, parietal 126, occipital117. Foramen magnum—length 33, breadth 28. Bas<strong>in</strong>asallength 102. Basialveolar length 102. Bizygomatic breadth129. Height of—face 80, malar 21, alveolus 12. Auriculoorbitallength 68. Orbit—width* 39, height* 34. Xasalheight 47, width 25. Maxilla—length oQ, width 63.Indices— latitud<strong>in</strong>al 69*5, altitud<strong>in</strong>al Tl'l, fr<strong>on</strong>tal 76-9, gnathic100-0, orbital 87-2, nasal 53-2.Dolichocephalic, mesognathous, platyrh<strong>in</strong>e ; orbit mesoseme.Glabella low, about No. 1 of Broca's scale. Nasal sp<strong>in</strong>e l<strong>on</strong>g,No. 4. Occipital crest scarcely visible.4. Cranium of Mallicollo Islander, New Hebrides.Male. Aged. All <strong>the</strong> teeth g<strong>on</strong>e and alveoli closed up.Length 170 ;gl. occ. 182. Breadth 128. Height 138. Maximumfr<strong>on</strong>tal breadth 107 ;m<strong>in</strong>imum fr<strong>on</strong>tal breadth 91.Horiz<strong>on</strong>tal circumferences — preauricular 232, total 481.Transverse arcs—fr<strong>on</strong>tal 276, bregmatic 301, parietal 320.L<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al arcs—fr<strong>on</strong>tal 131, parietal 139, occipital 104.Foramen magnum—length 29, width 2o. Bas<strong>in</strong>asal length103. Bizygomatic breadth 137. Height of malar 22. Auriculo-orbitallength 68. Orbit—width 39, height 35. Nasalheight 48, width 30.Indices—latitud<strong>in</strong>al 75-3, altitud<strong>in</strong>al 81-2, fr<strong>on</strong>tal 71-1, orbital89*7, nasal 62*5.Subdolichocephalic, hypsicephalic, very platyrh<strong>in</strong>e ; orbit megaseme.Glabella very thick and gorilla-like, approach<strong>in</strong>g No. 4 of Broca's* Flower, Cat. Coll. Surg. i. p. xviii.


—8 COLLECTIOKS PKOM MELATs'ESIA.scale. Ini<strong>on</strong> l<strong>on</strong>g and recurved, between Nos. 4 and 5. Suturesall very simple, <strong>in</strong> marked c<strong>on</strong>trast to those of <strong>the</strong> nextBpecimcn. Zygomata very prom<strong>in</strong>ent. Squamosals widelyseparated from fr<strong>on</strong>tal.Pemale.5. Skull of MallicoUo Islander, New Hebrides.Adult,Length 173 ;gl. occ. 178. Breadth 135. Height 134. Maximumfr<strong>on</strong>tal breadth 101 ; m<strong>in</strong>imum fr<strong>on</strong>tal breadth 95.Horiz<strong>on</strong>tal circumferences — preauricular 218, total 488.Transverse arcs— fr<strong>on</strong>tal 252, bregmatic 293, parietal 336.L<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al arcs—fr<strong>on</strong>tal 134, parietal 137, occipital 104.Foramen magnum— length 34, width 29. Bas<strong>in</strong>asal length90. Basialveolar length 91. Bizygomatic breadth 129. Heightof— face 82, malar 19, alveolus 16. Auriculo-orbital length 61.Orbit—width 36, height 33. Nasal height 42, width 24,Maxilla—length 50, breadth 60.Mandible—bic<strong>on</strong>dylar width 116, big<strong>on</strong>iac width 97, symphysialheight 25, molar height 21, cor<strong>on</strong>oid height 56, g<strong>on</strong>io-symphysiallength 81. Ramus— height 49, antero-posterior breadth33. Big<strong>on</strong>iac arc 177.Indices—latitud<strong>in</strong>al 78-0, altitud<strong>in</strong>al 77'5, fr<strong>on</strong>tal 70"4, gnathic101-1, orbital 91-7, nasal 57-1.Subdolichocephalic, mesognathous, platyrh<strong>in</strong>e ; orbit megaseme.Glabella about No. 1. Nasal sp<strong>in</strong>e No. 3. No <strong>in</strong>i<strong>on</strong>.Occipital prom<strong>in</strong>ent, lambdoid suture full of large Wormian b<strong>on</strong>es.Epipteric b<strong>on</strong>es <strong>on</strong> both sides. Auditory meatus flattened andoval-shaped, evidently ow<strong>in</strong>g to pressure applied to <strong>the</strong> mandible.These two last specimens, presented to Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>gerby Mr. Boyd,of Ovalau, show <strong>the</strong> artificially produced absence of forehead andgeneral depressi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>tal and prom<strong>in</strong>ence of <strong>the</strong> parietal andoccipital regi<strong>on</strong>s characteristic of Mallicollo skulls, and describedby Prof. Busk <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> ' Journal of <strong>the</strong> Anthropological Institute ' *.Prof. Flower has also figured some m<strong>on</strong>umental heads from <strong>the</strong> sameisland, show<strong>in</strong>g a similar artificial deformity f.6. Skull of Banks Islander.Young. Basilar suture open and wisdom teeth still hidden <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>b<strong>on</strong>e." MerilavaJ, Banks group ;presented by Mr. Boyd, of Ovalau."B. W. C.Length 170, gl. occ. 172. Breadth 124. Height 133. Maximumfr<strong>on</strong>tal breadth 108 ; m<strong>in</strong>imum fr<strong>on</strong>tal breadth 89.Horiz<strong>on</strong>tal circumferences — preauricular 230, total 470. Trans-* vi. p. 200, pis. ix.-xii. (1877).t J. A. I. xi. p. 85, pi. vi. (1882).I Also spelt " Meralaba " (Wliitmee, J. Anthr. Inst, viii., map fac<strong>in</strong>g p. 261 :1878).


—MAMMALIA. 9verse arcs—fr<strong>on</strong>tal 270, bregmatic 291, parietal 313, occipital2(30. L<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al arcs— fr<strong>on</strong>tal 130, parietal 111, occipital112. Foramen magnum— length 34, breadth 29. Eas<strong>in</strong>asallength 97. Basialveolar length 91. Bizygomatic breadth 120.Height of—face 86, malar 17, alveolus 17. Auriculo-orbitallength 66. Orbit,—width 36, height 34. Nasal height 51,width 22. Maxilla—length 50, width 62.Mandible—bic<strong>on</strong>dylar width 110, bigouiac width 72, symphysialheight 27, molar height 23, cor<strong>on</strong>oid height 54, g<strong>on</strong>io-symphysiallength 82, c<strong>on</strong>dylo-cor<strong>on</strong>oid length 33. Big<strong>on</strong>iac arc 175.Indices— latitud<strong>in</strong>al 72-9, altitud<strong>in</strong>al 78*2, gnathic 93*8, orbital94-4, nasal 434.Lambdoid suture unusually complicated, with numerous "Wormianb<strong>on</strong>es.7. Skull of Banks Islander.Still younger than 6." Merilava, Banks group ;presented by Mr. Boyd, of Ovalau."B. W. G.Length 163 ;gl. occ. 166. Breadth 123. Height 124. Maximumfr<strong>on</strong>tal breadth 98 ; m<strong>in</strong>imum fr<strong>on</strong>tal breadth 92.Total circumference 455. Transverse arcs—fr<strong>on</strong>tal 242, bregmatic267, parietal 300, occipital 244. Foramen magnumlength 32, breadth 27. Bas<strong>in</strong>asal length 84. Basialveolarlength 81. Bizvgomatic breadth 111. Auriculo-orbital length57. Orbit—width 33, height 32. Nasal height 36, width 23.Maxilla—length 44, width 55.Mandible—bic<strong>on</strong>dylar width 100, syrnphysial height 21, cor<strong>on</strong>oidheight 45, g<strong>on</strong>io-symphysial length 69, c<strong>on</strong>dylo-cor<strong>on</strong>oidlength 23.Indices—latitud<strong>in</strong>al 75*5, altitud<strong>in</strong>al 76-1, gnathic 96-4, orbital97-0, nasal 63-9.These two Banks-Island skulls are of great <strong>in</strong>terest, as show<strong>in</strong>ga dist<strong>in</strong>ct tendency towards (probably a youthful stage of) <strong>the</strong> artificialdeformity noticed <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> MallicoUo skulls, and hi<strong>the</strong>rto supposedto be peculiar to <strong>the</strong> natives of that island. The presentspecimens, however, prove that <strong>the</strong> flatten<strong>in</strong>g process is also practisedto a certa<strong>in</strong> extent <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> neighbour<strong>in</strong>g island of Merilava.8. Calvaria of Fijian.Male. Middle-aged. Cor<strong>on</strong>al suture nearly closed." From an old tumulus near <strong>the</strong> village of Buretta, Ovalau."R. W. C.Length 197 ;gl. occ. 200. Breadth 132. Height 141. Maximumfr<strong>on</strong>tal breadth 114, m<strong>in</strong>imum 103, Horiz<strong>on</strong>tal circumferences—preauricular 250, total 542. Transverse arcs—fr<strong>on</strong>tal 312,bregmatic 318, parietal 327, occipital 280. L<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al arcsfr<strong>on</strong>tal 130, parietal 152, occipital 120. Bas<strong>in</strong>asal length 109.


——10 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.Indices—latitud<strong>in</strong>al 67*0, altitud<strong>in</strong>al 71*6, fr<strong>on</strong>tal 78-0, Stephanie90-4.DoKchoeeplialic and hypsicephalic.Glabella not prom<strong>in</strong>ent, No. 2 of Broca's scale. Ini<strong>on</strong> No. 1.This skull has unfortunately lost all <strong>the</strong> b<strong>on</strong>es of <strong>the</strong> face ; butnever<strong>the</strong>less <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>formati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> bra<strong>in</strong>-case is such as to show itsnear relati<strong>on</strong>ship to <strong>the</strong> pure Melanesians of Viti Levu, agree<strong>in</strong>g veryclosely with <strong>the</strong> male " Kai Colo " skulls described by Prof. Flower.The forehead is slightly broader than <strong>in</strong> any of his specimens (1U3aga<strong>in</strong>st 99 millim.), and <strong>the</strong> altitud<strong>in</strong>al <strong>in</strong>dex is somewhat lower(70 "5 aga<strong>in</strong>st 72*2). O<strong>the</strong>rwise <strong>the</strong> present skull agrees with Prof.Flower's figures and descripti<strong>on</strong>.9. Cranium of Fijian.Female. Middle-aged. Posterior teeth lost dur<strong>in</strong>g life." Kai Colo, from cave at Liv<strong>on</strong>i, Ovalau, Fiji." R. W. G.Length 175 ;gl. occ. 175. Breadth 121. Height 130. Maximumfr<strong>on</strong>tal breadth 100, m<strong>in</strong>imum 83. Horiz<strong>on</strong>tal circumferences— preauricular 218, total 475. Transverse arcs—fr<strong>on</strong>tal274, bregmatic 281, parietal 294, occipital 245. L<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>alarcs—fr<strong>on</strong>tal 123, parietal 128, occipital 110. Foramen magnum—length32, breadth 2(). Bas<strong>in</strong>asal length 93. Basialveolarlength 95. Bizygomatic breadth 117. Height of face81, malar 19-2, alveolus 11. Auriculo-orbital length 68. Orbit—width 30, height 32. Nasal height 46, width 25.Indices—latitud<strong>in</strong>al 69*1, altitud<strong>in</strong>al 74*3, fr<strong>on</strong>tal 68'6, Stephanie83-0, gnathic 102-2, orbital 88-9, nasal ^i:-'6.Dolichocephalic, hypsicephalic, mesognathous ; orbit just belowmegaseme ; and platyrh<strong>in</strong>e.Glabella low, No. 1 of Broca's scale. Parietal em<strong>in</strong>ences prom<strong>in</strong>ent.This cranium is <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g as bel<strong>on</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> " KaiColos," or pure-blooded mounta<strong>in</strong>eers of Fiji, whose cranial charactershave been fully worked out by Prof. Flower (J. Anthr. Inst.X. p. 153: 1881). It agrees very closely with <strong>the</strong> skulls from VitiLevu described by that author, most of <strong>the</strong> actual dimensi<strong>on</strong>s and<strong>in</strong>dices com<strong>in</strong>g with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> very narrow limits of variati<strong>on</strong> found by him<strong>in</strong> his five female Kai Colos. The forehead, however, is very muchnarrower than usual, <strong>the</strong> m<strong>in</strong>imum fr<strong>on</strong>tal diameter be<strong>in</strong>g, as givenabove, <strong>on</strong>ly 83 millim., with a fr<strong>on</strong>tal <strong>in</strong>dex of 68'6 (Broca, Iristr.Cran. p. 172), while Prof. Flower's five female Kai Colos averagefor <strong>the</strong>se numbers 94 millim. and 77'0 p. c, <strong>the</strong> lowest breadthbe<strong>in</strong>g 89 millim. and <strong>the</strong> lowest <strong>in</strong>dex 75-U." The Kai Colos were <strong>the</strong> old hill-<strong>in</strong>habit<strong>in</strong>g tribes of Fijians, andwere dist<strong>in</strong>ct from <strong>the</strong> coast-tribes, with whom <strong>the</strong>y were frequentlyat war. Their power was broken by <strong>the</strong> renowned Fijian chief' Cacobau,' now dead. Liv<strong>on</strong>i, <strong>in</strong> Ovalau Island, was <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong>irstr<strong>on</strong>gholds, where <strong>the</strong>se skulls were found by Mr. M'Corkill, asettler, who presented <strong>the</strong>m to me."- R. W. C.


—;11BIRDS.BTR. BOWDLER SHARPE.The birds were obta<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> islands of Torres Straits, at PortMoUe and Port Curtis <strong>in</strong> Queensland, and at Port Darw<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong> NorthwesternAustralia. In <strong>the</strong> follow<strong>in</strong>g notes <strong>the</strong> references to o<strong>the</strong>rworks have been limited to <strong>the</strong> ' Catalogue of Birds <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> BritishMuseum,' as far as this work is published, and to Mr. Ramsay'suseful list of Australian birds (Proc. L<strong>in</strong>n. Soc. N. S. W. vol. ii.pp. 177-203), where <strong>the</strong> best illustrati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong>ir geographicaldistributi<strong>on</strong> is to be found.1. Cerchneis cenchroides (V. ^ IT.).Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 431.T<strong>in</strong>nunculus cenchroides, Bamsay, Pr. L<strong>in</strong>n. Soc. N. S. W. ii. p. 177.a. Port Denis<strong>on</strong>, May 1881.2. N<strong>in</strong>ox pen<strong>in</strong>sularis, Salvad.a. 5 Thursday Island, Torres Straits. Bill yellow with black•tip ; feet and iris yellow.The British Museum c<strong>on</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>s a good series of this apparentlywell-marked species, which differs from Niuox c<strong>on</strong>nivens by <strong>the</strong>rufous streaks <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> lower parts. The follow<strong>in</strong>g is a descripti<strong>on</strong>of Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger's specimen :Adah female. General colour above dull sooty brown, darker <strong>on</strong><strong>the</strong> head, which is blackish brown, form<strong>in</strong>g a tolerably dist<strong>in</strong>ct cap ;scapulars brown like <strong>the</strong> back, with large white mark<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>outer web, form<strong>in</strong>g a c<strong>on</strong>t<strong>in</strong>uous white l<strong>in</strong>e <strong>on</strong> each side of <strong>the</strong>back; w<strong>in</strong>g-coverts almost entirely uniform, with <strong>on</strong>ly here and<strong>the</strong>re a spot of white, a little pla<strong>in</strong>er <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> outer web of <strong>the</strong> medianand greater coverts, <strong>the</strong> latter of which are washed with pale rufous ;bastard-w<strong>in</strong>g fea<strong>the</strong>rs and primary-coverts uniform sooty brownquills dark brown, barred <strong>on</strong> both webs with lighter brown, tak<strong>in</strong>g<strong>the</strong> form of whity-brown notches <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> outer web ; <strong>in</strong>ner sec<strong>on</strong>dai'iesspotted with white <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> outer and barred witli white <strong>on</strong><strong>the</strong>ir <strong>in</strong>ner webs ; lower back and rump sooty brown, with more orless c<strong>on</strong>cealed spots of white ; upper tail-coverts deep brown ; tailfea<strong>the</strong>rsdark brown, pla<strong>in</strong>ly though narrowly barred and tippedwith whity brown, <strong>the</strong>se light bars be<strong>in</strong>g eight <strong>in</strong> number besides<strong>the</strong> term<strong>in</strong>al <strong>on</strong>e ; lores, base of forehead, and plumes over <strong>the</strong> eye


;12 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.and round <strong>the</strong> fore and lower part of <strong>the</strong> latter white, with hairlikeblack shaft-l<strong>in</strong>es ; ear-coverts dark brown ; ch<strong>in</strong> and cheekswhite, <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>der part of <strong>the</strong> latter streaked with dusky brownlower throat t<strong>in</strong>ged with yellow and streaked with blackish centresto <strong>the</strong> fea<strong>the</strong>rs ; rema<strong>in</strong>der of under surface white, slightly t<strong>in</strong>gedwith yellow and broadly streaked with dark brown <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> fore neckand chest and with rufous-brown <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> breast and abdomenthighs and tarsal plumes yellowish, spotted with brown ;under tailcovertswhite, with a few heart-shaped spots iitar <strong>the</strong> end of <strong>the</strong>fea<strong>the</strong>r ; axillaries and under w<strong>in</strong>g-coverts deep yellowish buff,broadly streaked with chocolate-brown, <strong>the</strong> central mark<strong>in</strong>gs moreor less irregular <strong>in</strong> shape ;quills dusky brown, barred with white,somewhat ashy whitish <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> quills, but very pure white <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>lower series of under w<strong>in</strong>g-coverts, which resemble <strong>the</strong> lower surfaceof <strong>the</strong> quills <strong>in</strong> appearance. Total length 15 <strong>in</strong>ches, culraen 0-85,w<strong>in</strong>g 10'2, tail 6'5, tarsus 1--15.3. Corvus cor<strong>on</strong>oides, F. ^ U.Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. ill. p. 20.a. (S ad. Port MoUe, Queensland, May 1881.4. Oriolus flavic<strong>in</strong>ctus {K<strong>in</strong>g).Sharpe, t. c. p. 206.Mimeta flavoc<strong>in</strong>cta, Ramsay, t. c. p. 188.a. 2' ^^^^ Darw<strong>in</strong>, Oct. 1881. Bill flesh-colour; legs and feetslaty grey ; iris bright red.A smaller bird than <strong>the</strong> Cape-York examples (w<strong>in</strong>g 5*2 <strong>in</strong>ches),with ra<strong>the</strong>r a smaller alar speculum. The black centres to <strong>the</strong>fea<strong>the</strong>rs of <strong>the</strong> upper surface are wider, and <strong>the</strong> bird c<strong>on</strong>sequentlyappears darker ; but this is probably due to abrasi<strong>on</strong> and wear<strong>in</strong>gaway of <strong>the</strong> plumage.^ 5. Spheco<strong>the</strong>res flaviventris, Gould.Sharpe, t. c. p. 225 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 188.a,h. $. Thursday Island, Aug. 1881. Iris black.rt, 6. c?6. Chibia bracteata {Gould).Sharpe, t. c. iii. p. 236; Ramsay, t. c. p. 182.. Friday Island, Aug. 1881.c. .(S Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, Oct. 1881. Iris orange-colour.7. Grall<strong>in</strong>a picata {Lath.).Sharpe, t. c. p. 272 ; Ramsay, f. c. p. 180.o. J. Port Curtis, April 1881.


BIRDS. 138. P<strong>in</strong>arolestes rufigaster {Gould).Sharpe, t. c. p. 296.Colluric<strong>in</strong>cla rufigaster, Ramsay, t. c. p. 181.a. Thursday Island, June 10, 1881.a. 59. Graucalus hypoleucus, Gould.Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. 3Ius. iv. p. 36 ;Ramsay, t. c. p. 180.• Thursday Island, August 1881.10. Graucalus melanops {Lath.).Sharpe, t. c. p. 30; Ramsay, t. c. p. 180.a. S iram. Port Molle, Queensland, May 1881.h. $ imm. Thursday Island, July 1881.11. Lalage leucomelaena {V. Sf H.).Sharpe, t. c. p. 106.Campephaga leucomela, Ramsay, t. c. p. 181.a. 2 ad. Friday Island, Sept. 1881. Iris dark brown ; bill black ;legs and feet dark grey.h. $ juv. Thursday Island, July 1881. Iris black; bill black;legs and feet dark grey.Count Salvador! (Orn. Papuasia, ii. p. 163) separates <strong>the</strong> Australianform of this species from <strong>the</strong> Papuan, which he callsLalaye Icaru (Less.), This view seems to me to be correct, for <strong>the</strong>Papuan race appears to have less white <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> w<strong>in</strong>g-coverts and tobe permanently barred below, whereas <strong>the</strong> adult male of <strong>the</strong> AustralianLalage is uniform <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> under surface.12. Lalage tricolor {Swa<strong>in</strong>s.).Sharpe, t. c. p. 92.Campephaga humeralis, Ramsay, t. c. p. 181.a. (S imm- Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, Oct. 24, 1881.13. Pseudogeryg<strong>on</strong>e magnirostris {Goidd).Sharpe, t. c. p. 223.Gerj'g<strong>on</strong>e magnirostris, Ramsay, t. c. p. 133.a. Thursday Island, Sept. 1881.14. Myiagra latirostris, Goidd.Sharpe, t. c. p. 381 ;Ramsay, t. c. p. 182.J.WestIsland, Sept. 1881.


14 COLLEJTIONS FROM MELANESIA.15. Myiagra nitida, Gould.Sharpe, t. c. p. 375 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 182.a. S . Fitzroy Island, May 1881.16. Myiagra rubecula (Lath.).Sharpe, t. c. p. 373 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 182.a. S • Percy Island, April 1881.b. J. Port Molle, May 1881.17. Myiagra c<strong>on</strong>c<strong>in</strong>na, Gould.Sharpe, t. c. p. 374 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 182.a. S• Booby Island, Aug. 31, 1881.6.5. Booby Island, Aug. 1881.c. .(S "West Island, Sept. 1881.d. Priday Island, July 1881.e. c?. Friday Island, Aug. 1881./. Thursday Island, Sept. 1881.The differences between this species and 31. rubecula are, to mym<strong>in</strong>d, not satisfactorily established ; but until better specimens reach<strong>the</strong> British Museum from N.W. Australia (<strong>the</strong> habitat of <strong>the</strong> typical31. c<strong>on</strong>c<strong>in</strong>na) it will be difficult to settle <strong>the</strong> questi<strong>on</strong>.18. Rhipidura rufifr<strong>on</strong>s (Lath.).Sharpe, t. c. p. 310 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 182.a. c?. Booby Island, Aug. 1881.19. Rhipidura tricolor ( F.).Sharpe, t. c. p. 339.Sauloprocta motacilloides, Ramsay, t. c. p. 182.a, 6, c. Port Curtis, April 1881.d. 2- Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, Ocb. 1881.20. Piezorhynchus nitidus, Goidd.Sharpe, t. c. p. 41G ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 182.a. $. Horn Island, Torres Straits, Sept. 1881. Iris orange-red;bill greenish grey ; legs and feet dark.b. 5 . Thursday Island, Aug. 1881. Iris dark ; biU horn-colour,black at tip ; legs and feet grey.21. Piezorhynchus medius, sp. n.a. 6- Port MoUe, May 1881. Iris black; bill light grey ; legsand feet dark.


P. melanura and its allies, P. clio, P. macrorhyncha , and P. ohiensis,aU of which he unites toge<strong>the</strong>r as a s<strong>in</strong>gle species. Count Salvadorihas kept <strong>the</strong>m dist<strong>in</strong>ct ; and <strong>the</strong>ir specific characters I have endea-——«'. Upper tail-coverts black.a'^.1-2 <strong>in</strong>ch.a'^.ends ;a. N. Australia (not labelled).A specimen <strong>in</strong> w<strong>in</strong>ter plumage.Gadotv, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. viii. p. 95.Cracticus robustus, Ramsay, t. c. p. 180.Gadoic, t.c. p. 185; Ramsay, t.c, p. 181.a. c? . West Island, Sept. 1881.h, c, . (SBooby Island, Aug. 1881.voured to set forth <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> follow<strong>in</strong>g " Key ":BIRDS. 15Agrees with P. trivirgatus of Timor ia its black upper tail-coverts,which <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> type specimens of P. gouldi are grey.In <strong>the</strong> 'Catalogue of Birds ' (vol. iv. p. 419) I united Gould's3I<strong>on</strong>arc?ia albiventris with Piezorhi/ncJius gouldi, but I now believethat I was wr<strong>on</strong>g <strong>in</strong> do<strong>in</strong>g so. It may be a matter of op<strong>in</strong>i<strong>on</strong>whe<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong> three forms here alluded to are more than local races orsubspecies ; but it is certa<strong>in</strong> that <strong>the</strong> white-flanked <strong>in</strong>dividuals, P.albiventris ( Gould), have <strong>the</strong> upper tail-coverts blackish, whereas <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> rufous-flanked birds, P. gouldi (Gray), <strong>the</strong> tail-coverts are grey.Thus my " Key to <strong>the</strong> Species " (t. c. pp. 413, 414) will have to bemodified as follows :White endiug to outer tail-fea<strong>the</strong>rs notexceed<strong>in</strong>g an <strong>in</strong>ch <strong>in</strong> length.6". White end<strong>in</strong>g to outer tail-fea<strong>the</strong>rs I'O-Four outer tail-fea<strong>the</strong>rs white at <strong>the</strong>ends ;black throat-stripe narrow . . trivirgatus.v. Three outer tail-fea<strong>the</strong>rs white at <strong>the</strong>black throat-stripe broad,a*. Sides of body orange-rufous .... medius.6*. Sides of body white albiventris,b". Upper tail-coverts grey ; sides of bodyorange-rufousgouldi,22. Cisticola exilis, Vig, Sf Horsf.Sharpe, Cat, B. Brit. 3Ius. vii. p. 269 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 185.23. Cracticus nigrigularis (Ooidd),a, 6 . Port Curtis, Queensland, April 1881. Iris black ; bill grey,with <strong>the</strong> tip black ; legs and feet black.24. Pachycephala melanura, Goidd.I am unable to follow Dr. Gadow <strong>in</strong> his c<strong>on</strong>clusi<strong>on</strong>s respect<strong>in</strong>g


16 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.a. Upper tail-coverts olive-yellow like <strong>the</strong> back ;outer aspect of secoadaries dist<strong>in</strong>ctly grey;pectoral collar jo<strong>in</strong>ed to ear-covertsh. Upper tail-coverts black ;outer aspect of sec<strong>on</strong>dariesolive-yellow, with which <strong>the</strong>y are marg<strong>in</strong>edor washed externally.melarwra.. ohiensis.a'. Pectoral collar jo<strong>in</strong>ed to ear-coverts clio.b'. Pectoral collar separated from ear-coverts.a". Upper surface olive-greenish ; w<strong>in</strong>gs externallywashed with greenish grey .... macrorhyncha.b". Upper surface golden olive ; w<strong>in</strong>gs externallywashed with <strong>the</strong> same colour .After hav<strong>in</strong>g g<strong>on</strong>e over <strong>the</strong> series <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> British Museum, whichlikewise served as <strong>the</strong> basis of Dr. Gadow's studies, I regret that Imust entirely disagree with him. He appears to me to have arguedfrom immature specimens when he tries to show <strong>the</strong> variati<strong>on</strong> of<strong>the</strong> species and attempts to prove that <strong>the</strong>y run <strong>on</strong>e <strong>in</strong>to ano<strong>the</strong>r.If it were possible to f<strong>in</strong>d <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> same island examples of <strong>the</strong>se Pachycephalcewith <strong>the</strong> black breast-band united to <strong>the</strong> ear-covertsand o<strong>the</strong>rs with this disunited, all be<strong>in</strong>g fidly adult birds, <strong>the</strong>n Dr.Gadow would have proved his po<strong>in</strong>t ; but this is exactly what doesnot take place, <strong>the</strong> difference <strong>in</strong> colorati<strong>on</strong> be<strong>in</strong>g accompanied by adifferent habitat. It is not right to compare immature birds of <strong>on</strong>eform with adults of ano<strong>the</strong>r, because <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir young stages all <strong>the</strong>sespecies are unquesti<strong>on</strong>ably very difficult to dist<strong>in</strong>guish apart ; but iffully adult birds are compared, I do not th<strong>in</strong>k <strong>the</strong>re ought to beany difficulty <strong>in</strong> determ<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g four dist<strong>in</strong>ct species.Aga<strong>in</strong>, with regard to his observati<strong>on</strong>s that <strong>the</strong> colour<strong>in</strong>g of <strong>the</strong>upper tail-coverts " is of no specific importance," some attenti<strong>on</strong>must be given to <strong>the</strong> age and c<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> specimens. In<strong>the</strong> group with <strong>the</strong> upper tail-coverts black, it will be found that<strong>the</strong> basal <strong>on</strong>es are always more or less tipped with olive, and thatit is <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>g <strong>on</strong>es which are black. If, <strong>the</strong>refore, <strong>the</strong> latter areshot away, a superficial observer would jump at <strong>on</strong>ce to <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>clusi<strong>on</strong>that <strong>the</strong> upper tail-coverts are olive-yellow. Even <strong>in</strong> this case<strong>the</strong> yellow-washed quills (<strong>in</strong>stead of grey) would enable <strong>on</strong>e to dist<strong>in</strong>guish<strong>the</strong> P.-macrorhgncha group from P. mekmura. Then,aga<strong>in</strong>, it would appear from moult<strong>in</strong>g specimens that <strong>the</strong> upper tailcovertswhen first grown have more olive-yellow <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong>sthan <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> fully adult bird. Therefore <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>se Pach/ycephalce, as<strong>in</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r birds, <strong>on</strong>ly fully plumaged specimens should be compared,if <strong>on</strong>e is to understand <strong>the</strong> relati<strong>on</strong>s of <strong>the</strong> various species.There can be no doubt that <strong>the</strong> locality " Celebes " attached to<strong>the</strong> specimen from <strong>the</strong> Gould Collecti<strong>on</strong> is err<strong>on</strong>eous ; and Mr.Wallace has remarked <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> absence of <strong>the</strong> genus <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> aboveisland, <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> essay quoted by Dr. Gadow.


—17a. (Sb. (Sc. $25. Pachycephala rufiventris (Lath.).Gadoiv, t. c. p. 208; Ramsay, t. c. p. 181.. Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, October 1881.. Port Darwiu, October 1881.. Port Molle, May 3, 1881.26. C<strong>in</strong>nyris frenata {Mull.).Qadow, Cat. B. Brit. Mas. ix. p. 85; Ramsay, t. c. p. 191.a. (Sb,c. c? ?. Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Island, Aug. 1881,. Thursday Island, July 11, 1881.27. Myzomela obscura, Gould.Gadow, t. c. p. 143 ; Ramsay, i. c. p. 190..(S Thursday Island, Aug. 1881.rt, h.c. $. Thursday Island, Aug. 1881.The follow<strong>in</strong>g are <strong>the</strong> measurements of <strong>the</strong> sexes :


18 COLLECTIONS FKOM MELANESIA.different islands <strong>in</strong> Torres Straits, <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> localities menti<strong>on</strong>ed by<strong>the</strong> last-named anthor be<strong>in</strong>g Warrior Island, whence <strong>the</strong> orig<strong>in</strong>altype of Z. alhiventris came.29. Zosterops lutea, Gould.S/iarpe, t. c. p. 183; Ramsay^ t. c. p. 191.a. 2- Tort Darw<strong>in</strong>, Oct. 1881. Bill horn-colour ; legs grey.This specimen is ra<strong>the</strong>r duller <strong>in</strong> colour than a male fromCape York, and much paler yellow below, this brighter colourbe<strong>in</strong>g probably due to sex, as <strong>the</strong> Cape-York bird is evidentlyan adult male. The female measures:—Total length 4*1 <strong>in</strong>ches,culmen 0'-t5, w<strong>in</strong>g 2-2, tail 1-65, tarsus 0-6,30. Manorh<strong>in</strong>a garrula {Lath.).Gadotv, t. c. p. 260.Myzantha garrula, Ramsay, t. c. p. 191.a. c? . Port Curtis, Queensland, April 1881.b. .S Port Curtis, April 1881.Young birds are washed <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> back with olive-yellow, and aremuch darker above and below, not show<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> whitish bars at <strong>the</strong>tips of <strong>the</strong> man tie- fea<strong>the</strong>rs.31. Stigniatops ocularis {Gould).Ramsay, t. c. p. 189.Glyciphila ocularis, Gadotv, t. c. p. 213.a. cJ. Percy Island, April 1881,32. Stigniatops subocularis, Gould.Ramsay, t. c. p. 189.Glyciphila subocularis, pt., Gachxo, t. c. p. 215.a. cJ. Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, Nov. 1881. Bill, legs, and feet black.Dr. Gadosv has united <strong>the</strong> present species to S. oadaris, and c<strong>on</strong>sidersthat <strong>in</strong>termediate forms occur between <strong>the</strong>m. This I d<strong>on</strong>ot f<strong>in</strong>d from an exam<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> series <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> British Museum,for I have found no difficulty <strong>in</strong> referr<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> specimens ei<strong>the</strong>rto <strong>on</strong>e or <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r of <strong>the</strong> above-named species. On <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rhand, Count Salvadori seems to be quite right <strong>in</strong> unit<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> Aru-Island birds with <strong>the</strong> Australian, as <strong>the</strong>y are <strong>on</strong>ly a littlelarger and somewhat darker <strong>in</strong> colour. He adds that <strong>the</strong> specimensmarked PtUotis limbata, Temm., from Timor, <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> LeidenMuseum, are also identical with <strong>the</strong> Australian *S'. ocularis. Timor


'BIRDS. 19specimens are certa<strong>in</strong>ly very closely allied to <strong>the</strong> latter, but havera<strong>the</strong>r a clearer grey throat and a more pr<strong>on</strong>ounced cheek-stripe ; but<strong>in</strong> any case it appears to me better to place P. limhata <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> genusStif/matops, al<strong>on</strong>g with its c<strong>on</strong>gener S. ocularis, and not to c<strong>on</strong>siderit a Ptilotis, as Dr. Gadow has d<strong>on</strong>e. His plate <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> ' Cataloguegives too much of a brown colour to <strong>the</strong> bird, and <strong>the</strong> orange spotbeh<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong> eye is too str<strong>on</strong>gly pr<strong>on</strong>ounced.Nor can I agree with Dr. (iadow c<strong>on</strong>cern<strong>in</strong>g his G. chJoris, <strong>the</strong><strong>on</strong>ly actual specimens of which <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> British Museum are <strong>the</strong> twofrom Mysol, those from <strong>the</strong> Aru Islands and Lombock be<strong>in</strong>g trueS. ocularis.33. Ptilotis notata, Gould.Gould, Ann. ^- Mag. Nat. Hist. xx. p. 269 (1867) ; Ramsay, t. c.p. 189.Ptilotis analoga, pt., Gadoio, t. c. p. 227.a. .S Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Island, Aug. 1881.b. 6 • Thursday Island, July 7, 1S81.This is <strong>the</strong> species which Count Salvador! unites under <strong>the</strong> name'of P. analoga (lleichenb.) <strong>in</strong> his Ornitologia della Papuasia(vol. ii. p. 327), and <strong>in</strong> all his identificati<strong>on</strong>s he is followed byDr. Gadow, who even goes fur<strong>the</strong>r than Count Salvador! <strong>in</strong> hissuppressi<strong>on</strong> of species, and adds P. Jlavirictus of <strong>the</strong> latter author asa f<strong>in</strong>al offer<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> manes of <strong>the</strong> dom<strong>in</strong>ant form, P. analoga. Itseems doubtful, however, to me whe<strong>the</strong>r Dr. Gadow has really everseen <strong>the</strong> true P. jlavirictus of Count Salvador!, which is from <strong>the</strong>Fly Eiver, <strong>the</strong> specimens which he supposes to bel<strong>on</strong>g to that speciesbe<strong>in</strong>g from South-eastern New Gu<strong>in</strong>ea : Salvador! refers all hisspecimens from this part of <strong>the</strong> island to P. analoga.Putt<strong>in</strong>g aside <strong>the</strong> questi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> length of bill, which certa<strong>in</strong>lyvaries very much, even <strong>in</strong> specimens from <strong>the</strong> same locality, <strong>the</strong>shape of <strong>the</strong> ear-tuft ought not to be overlooked ; and we f<strong>in</strong>d that<strong>the</strong>re are two dist<strong>in</strong>ct forms, <strong>the</strong> birds from Dorey, Mysol, and"Waigiou hav<strong>in</strong>g an el<strong>on</strong>gated yellow ear-tuft. This is accompaniedby a very Bulbul-like character, viz. a fluffy rump with str<strong>on</strong>glymarked subterm<strong>in</strong>al shades of blackish brown, <strong>the</strong> lateral featlierstipped with white, and rem<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong>e of P<strong>in</strong>arocichla or Poliolophus.All specimens exam<strong>in</strong>ed by me from o<strong>the</strong>r localities have a roundedyellow ear-tuft <strong>in</strong>stead of a l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al <strong>on</strong>e, and may be classedunder three head<strong>in</strong>gs 1st. P. aruensis, nob. (Hah. Aru Islands),where <strong>the</strong> rump is mottled, as <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> New-Gu<strong>in</strong>ea birds ; and 2nd,P. notata, Gould. The latter species embraces two forms, a large<strong>on</strong>e and a small <strong>on</strong>e {P. gracilis, Gould), <strong>the</strong> last-named be<strong>in</strong>gapparently <strong>on</strong>ly foimd <strong>in</strong> South-eastern New Gu<strong>in</strong>ea and <strong>the</strong> Cape-York Pen<strong>in</strong>sula. Nei<strong>the</strong>r of <strong>the</strong> two forms of P. notata show <strong>the</strong>mottl<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> rump of P. aruensis or P. analoga.1 mar add that <strong>the</strong> specimens from Cape York, referred by <strong>the</strong>c2


20 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.late Mr. Forbes to P. clirysotis (P. Z. S. 1878, ji. 124, and <str<strong>on</strong>g>Report</str<strong>on</strong>g>Voy. H.M.S. ' Challenger,' ii, p. 88) really bel<strong>on</strong>g to P. notata.34, Ptilotis lew<strong>in</strong>ii, Siva<strong>in</strong>s.Jlamjiay, t. e. p. 189 ; Oadow, t. c. p. 229.a h. Port Molle, Queensland, May 1881,35. Ptilotis fasciogularis, Gould.Gould, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 285; Ramsay, t. c. p. 189; Gadotv, t. c.p. 240.a. $. Port Curtis, Queensland, April 1881.36. Ptilotis flava, Gould.Ramsay, t. c. p. 189 ; Gadouj, t. c. p. 246.a. 2 ' Port Denis<strong>on</strong>, Queensland, May 1881.37. Ptilotis unicolor, Gould.Gadow, t. c, p. 249.Stomiopera unicolor, Ramsay, t. c. p. 189.a. S ad. Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, Nov. 2, 1881.38. Philem<strong>on</strong> argentiiceps (Gould).Ramsay, t. c. p. 190; Gadow, t. c. p. 272.rt. c?. Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, Oct. 1881.j.39. Philem<strong>on</strong> buceroides, Swa<strong>in</strong>s.Ramsay, t. c. p. 190 ; Gadotv, t. c. p. 272.a, $. Thursday Island, Torres Straits, July 1881.40. Philem<strong>on</strong> citreogularis (Gould).Ramsay, t. c. p, 190; Gadow, t. c. p. 277.a. c?. Port Curtis, Queensland, April 1881.b. 2 • Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, Oct, 1881.It would seem that <strong>the</strong> yellow throat is strictly peculiar to <strong>the</strong>young, and is accompanied by an absence of <strong>the</strong> white l<strong>in</strong>ear tuftsto <strong>the</strong> breast-fea<strong>the</strong>rs. The latter are often assumed, however,before <strong>the</strong> yellow <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> throat has disappeared.


BIRU3. 2141, Dicaeum hirund<strong>in</strong>aceum, Shaw.Ramsay, t. c. p. 191.a, b. (S Thursday Island, July 1881.c. ? . Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, October 1881.42. Petrochelid<strong>on</strong> nigricans ( F.).Hylochelid<strong>on</strong> uigricans, Ramsay, t. e. p. 179.a. (S ad. Port Molle, Queensland, May 1881.43. D<strong>on</strong>acicola castaneothorax, Gould,D<strong>on</strong>acola castaneothorax, Ramsay, t. c. p. 187.a,h. •S Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, Nov. 1881.c. d. Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, Oct. 1881.d,e. $ . Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, Oct. 1881./. c?. West Island, Oct. 1881.g. .c? Thursday Island, June 1881.h, i, h, I. Thursday Island, July 1881.44. Artamus leucorhynchus (Z.).Artamus leucopygialis, Ramsay, t. c. p. 179.a. •S Port Denis<strong>on</strong>, May 1881.6. .5 Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, Nov. 1881. Iris brown.45. Pitta simillima, Gould.Ramsay, t.c. p. 187.a. S. West Island, Sept. 1881.46. Merops ornatus, Lath.Ramsay, t, c. p. 179.a. $ . West Island, Oct. 1881.b. $. Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Island, Aug. 21, 1881.47. Dacelo gigas (Bodd.).Ramsay, t.c. p. 179.a. S• Port Curtis, Queensland, April 1881.Ramsay, t. c. p. 179,48. Dacelo leacMi, Vig. Sf H.a. 2 • Possessi<strong>on</strong> Island, Endeavour Strait, July 1881. Billbrown ; legs and feet grey ; iris red.


—;;22 COLLECTIONS l^'ROM MELANESIA.This <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g specimen is not easy to determ<strong>in</strong>e, be<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> sizelike D. cerv<strong>in</strong>us and <strong>in</strong> colour like D. leacliii. As I endeavourto show below, <strong>the</strong>se species, however, run <strong>in</strong>to each o<strong>the</strong>r somuch that it is impossible to def<strong>in</strong>e <strong>the</strong> exact characters ofeach.S<strong>in</strong>ce I wrote my M<strong>on</strong>ograph 'of <strong>the</strong> K<strong>in</strong>gfishers,' our knowledgeof <strong>the</strong> great Laugh<strong>in</strong>g Jackasses of Australia has not been much<strong>in</strong>creased. The range of true Daceh has been extended to Sou<strong>the</strong>asternNew Gu<strong>in</strong>ea, where Dacelo <strong>in</strong>termed<strong>in</strong>s of Salvadori replacesD. cerv<strong>in</strong>us of <strong>the</strong> Australian c<strong>on</strong>t<strong>in</strong>ent; but o<strong>the</strong>rwise <strong>the</strong> numberof species <strong>in</strong> Australia has rema<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>the</strong> same as it was <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> completi<strong>on</strong>of that work.A comparis<strong>on</strong>, however, of <strong>the</strong> large series of Laugh<strong>in</strong>g K<strong>in</strong>gfishersnow <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> British Museum raises great doubts <strong>in</strong> my m<strong>in</strong>das to <strong>the</strong> validity of some of <strong>the</strong> species admitted by me up to 1871and I <strong>the</strong>refore add a few notes <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> birds now before me.The chief difference between D. cerv<strong>in</strong>us and D. leacliii is supposedto c<strong>on</strong>sist <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> smaller size, <strong>the</strong> buif-coloured breast, and <strong>the</strong> blueouter web of <strong>the</strong> external tail-fea<strong>the</strong>r of <strong>the</strong> former. It seems to menow that this last is a character of no value ; for it is evident that<strong>the</strong> young males commence with a rufous tail like <strong>the</strong> old females,and that <strong>the</strong>y ga<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir blue tails by <strong>the</strong> gradual expansi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong>blue cross bands, which unite by degrees until <strong>the</strong> whole tail becomesuniform blue. Thus <strong>the</strong>re arrives a time <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> development of <strong>the</strong>tail when <strong>the</strong> outer web of <strong>the</strong> tail-fea<strong>the</strong>r has not cjuite lost itsbars before becom<strong>in</strong>g uniform, and thus <strong>the</strong> barr<strong>in</strong>g of <strong>the</strong> tail, c<strong>on</strong>sideredto be a specific difference between D. cerv<strong>in</strong>us and D. leachii,is of very little importance. As regards <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r characters, weshall see what <strong>the</strong>y are worth ; and <strong>in</strong> order to trace <strong>the</strong> developmentof <strong>the</strong> species, I add a descripti<strong>on</strong> of a young D. cerv<strong>in</strong>us :NestUnri. General colour above dark brown, with scarcely perceptiblelighter brown edges to <strong>the</strong> fea<strong>the</strong>rs of <strong>the</strong> mantle andscapulars ; least w<strong>in</strong>g-coverts brown like <strong>the</strong> back ; median andgreater series brown, tipped with pale verditer-blue or light greenishcobalt ; bastard-w<strong>in</strong>g brown, washed with blue ;primary-covertsblackish, externally greenish blue ;quills blackisb, externally deepblue, greener <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> primaries, which are white near <strong>the</strong> bases ofboth webs ; <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>daries edged with white at <strong>the</strong> tips, <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>ner<strong>on</strong>es brown like <strong>the</strong> back ; lower back and rump pale silvery cobaltupper tail-coverts bright rufous, barred with black ; tail-fea<strong>the</strong>rsbright rufous, paler at <strong>the</strong> ends, barred with dark blue, <strong>the</strong>seblue bands marg<strong>in</strong>ed above and below with black, <strong>the</strong> bandsbroader near <strong>the</strong> base and narrower towards <strong>the</strong> ends ; <strong>the</strong> bluebands at <strong>the</strong> base of <strong>the</strong> middle fea<strong>the</strong>rs already coalesc<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>to <strong>on</strong>euniform blue base ; head nearly uniform dark brown, <strong>the</strong> fea<strong>the</strong>rsbroadly centred with blackish, <strong>the</strong> edges somewhat mottled withreddish-brown mark<strong>in</strong>gs ; <strong>the</strong> nape lighter, <strong>the</strong> crest- fea<strong>the</strong>rs be<strong>in</strong>gwhiter, with narrow dark-brown centres ; h<strong>in</strong>d neck clear fulvous,with more or less dist<strong>in</strong>ct zigzag cross l<strong>in</strong>es of brown ; lores tawnybuff, as also <strong>the</strong> fea<strong>the</strong>rs below <strong>the</strong> eye, <strong>the</strong> latter with blackish


BIRDS. 23shaft-streaks ; ear-coverts dusky brown ; cheeks clear fulvous, withcentral streaks of light brown, break<strong>in</strong>g up <strong>in</strong>to irregular cross l<strong>in</strong>es<strong>on</strong> some of <strong>the</strong> fea<strong>the</strong>rs ; throat and fore neck white, with irregularzigzag cross l<strong>in</strong>es of light brown ; rema<strong>in</strong>der of under surface of bodyunder tail-covertsclear fulvous, crossed with zigzag l<strong>in</strong>es of brown ;uniform and deeper buff ; axillarics like <strong>the</strong> breast and barred across<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> same manner; under w<strong>in</strong>g-covcrts whiter and crossed dist<strong>in</strong>ctlywith blackish bars, broader and form<strong>in</strong>g a dist<strong>in</strong>ct patch <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>median lower coverts near <strong>the</strong> edge of <strong>the</strong> w<strong>in</strong>g.The above descripti<strong>on</strong> is taken from a young male shot near PortEss<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong>.An old bird, with more than half his tail-fea<strong>the</strong>rs blue, has hisplumage very much abraded and <strong>the</strong> crest-fea<strong>the</strong>rs reduced tohair-like broAvn plumes. The blue ends to <strong>the</strong> w<strong>in</strong>g-coverts arealmost entirely worn off ; but <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> breast he is replac<strong>in</strong>g hisfaded plumage by a clean moult, <strong>the</strong> new fea<strong>the</strong>rs be<strong>in</strong>g verybroadly centred with blackish ; <strong>the</strong> under surface of <strong>the</strong> body isdirty buff, with brown zigzag cross bars, becom<strong>in</strong>g less dist<strong>in</strong>ct <strong>on</strong><strong>the</strong> throat.Compared with young birds, <strong>the</strong> old D. cerv<strong>in</strong>a are very muchpaler buff below and less dist<strong>in</strong>ctly barred underneath, <strong>the</strong> collarround <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>d neck is nearly uniform, with scarcely any rema<strong>in</strong>sof zigzag cross-barr<strong>in</strong>g, while <strong>the</strong> head and crest are white orbuffy white, streaked with brown down <strong>the</strong> centre of <strong>the</strong> fea<strong>the</strong>rs ;but <strong>the</strong> whole head is dist<strong>in</strong>ctly streaked, <strong>in</strong>stead of be<strong>in</strong>g uniformbrown as <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> young birds. The cobalt-blue <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> shoulders is,of course, much more brilliant and more developed than <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>young <strong>on</strong>es.The mode <strong>in</strong> which <strong>the</strong> barr<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> under surface becomesless and <strong>the</strong> head more streaked is well shown <strong>in</strong> an immature malebird, which has <strong>the</strong> head los<strong>in</strong>g its uniformity for <strong>the</strong> streakedstage, and yet reta<strong>in</strong>s <strong>the</strong> rufous upper tail-coverts of <strong>the</strong> immaturestage, while <strong>the</strong> tail is <strong>on</strong>ly half overshaded with blue.The differences between <strong>the</strong> young and old specimens of Dacelocerv<strong>in</strong>us seem to me perfectly comprehensible ; but <strong>the</strong> relati<strong>on</strong>s ofD. leacMi and D. occidentalis are not so clear. There is c<strong>on</strong>siderablevariati<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong> length of w<strong>in</strong>g throughout <strong>the</strong> whole series.All our specimens of D. leachii have more or less rema<strong>in</strong>s of <strong>the</strong>irold rufous-barred tail, but <strong>the</strong>y are all complet<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>ir change to<strong>the</strong> uniform blue tail, and c<strong>on</strong>sequently <strong>the</strong> outer fea<strong>the</strong>rs are <strong>in</strong>more or less irregularly blue-banded stages ; but every proof is furnishedthat <strong>the</strong> outer fea<strong>the</strong>r will become perfectly blue, like <strong>the</strong>corresp<strong>on</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g stage <strong>in</strong> D. cerv<strong>in</strong>us, so that <strong>the</strong> character of <strong>the</strong> barredouter tail-fea<strong>the</strong>r will not hold.Undoubtedly D. leachii is a larger and more powerful bird thanD. cerv<strong>in</strong>us. It is often similarly fulvous <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> breast ; but <strong>the</strong>zigzag bars are coarser and are c<strong>on</strong>t<strong>in</strong>ued higher up <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> throat,as well as be<strong>in</strong>g str<strong>on</strong>gly developed <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> collar round <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>dneck. The older <strong>the</strong> bird becomes, however, it is evident that, as <strong>in</strong>D. cerv<strong>in</strong>us, <strong>the</strong> cross-mark<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>se parts become more and more


24 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.obsolete, and <strong>the</strong>re is no difference between <strong>the</strong> two species except<strong>in</strong>g<strong>the</strong> hxrger size and whiter under surface of D. leacJiii.The types of D. oecidentalls from <strong>the</strong> Gould Collecti<strong>on</strong> are now<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Museum ; and for <strong>the</strong> same reas<strong>on</strong> that I dismissed <strong>the</strong>barred outer tail-fea<strong>the</strong>r as a character for separat<strong>in</strong>g Z>. leachii fromD. ccrv<strong>in</strong>vs, so I must refuse to c<strong>on</strong>sider it a mark of dist<strong>in</strong>cti<strong>on</strong>between D. cer^v<strong>in</strong>ns and D. occidentalis. The nearly uniform colorati<strong>on</strong>of <strong>the</strong> under surface is a much more peculiar feature ; but <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> female <strong>the</strong>re are some zigzag mark<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> flanks. That thisuniform under surface is somewhat accidental is proved by <strong>the</strong> factthat n<strong>on</strong>e of Dr. Elsey's specimens <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> British Museum, procured<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> same locality as Mr. Gregory's birds, are entirely withoutcross bars below.In <strong>the</strong> species from South-eastern New Gu<strong>in</strong>ea <strong>the</strong> appearance ofcross bars <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> under surface seems to be <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong> and not<strong>the</strong> rule, <strong>the</strong> collar round <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>d neck be<strong>in</strong>g also perfectly uniform.As with <strong>the</strong> Australian species, <strong>the</strong> cross bars are a sign ofimmaturity, be<strong>in</strong>g accompanied by a more uniform brown head.It would appear <strong>the</strong>refore, from a c<strong>on</strong>siderati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> aboveseries, that not <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> characters employed for <strong>the</strong> separati<strong>on</strong> of<strong>the</strong>se four Laugh<strong>in</strong>g K<strong>in</strong>gfishers is of permanent value. The barr<strong>in</strong>gof <strong>the</strong> tail-fea<strong>the</strong>rs must be set aside, be<strong>in</strong>g merely dependent up<strong>on</strong>age ; but tak<strong>in</strong>g D. cerv<strong>in</strong>us as <strong>the</strong> central form or lead<strong>in</strong>g type of<strong>the</strong> blue-tailed Jackasses of Australia, we f<strong>in</strong>d that eastwards (<strong>in</strong>Queensland) it varies to <strong>the</strong> extent of becom<strong>in</strong>g a larger bird, whiterunderneath, and always more or less barred <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> under surface,<strong>the</strong> throat <strong>in</strong>cluded {D. leachii). In <strong>the</strong> western part of its range <strong>the</strong>bird has a tendency to become uniform underneath {D. occidentalis) ;but this may be due to <strong>the</strong> bleach<strong>in</strong>g effect of <strong>the</strong> climate, and it isevident that D. <strong>in</strong>termedius can <strong>on</strong>ly be looked up<strong>on</strong> as ano<strong>the</strong>r palerace, be<strong>in</strong>g led up to by <strong>the</strong> western specimens of D. cerv<strong>in</strong>us.49. Halcy<strong>on</strong> sanctns (V. Sf H.).Ramsay, t. c. p. 179,a, 6. 2 . Thursday Island, Aug. 7, 1881.c. (S Thursday Island, July 1, 1881.Ramsay, t. c, p. 179.50. Halcy<strong>on</strong> macleayi, J. 6,- S..a. (S . Thursday Island, Aug. 1881.51. Halcy<strong>on</strong> sordidus {Gould).Ramsay, f. c. p. 179.a. ?. Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, Nov. 1881.


BIRDS. 2552. Centropus phasianus {Lath.).Ramsay, t. c. p. 192.a. 2. Possessi<strong>on</strong> Island, Endeavour Strait, July 1881.h. .5 Port Molle, Queensland, May 1881.53. Cacatua galerita {Lath.).Gould, Ilandh. B. Austr. ii. p. 2.Plyctoloplius galerita, Ita<strong>in</strong>sai/, t. c. p. 192.a. 2 ' Hamm<strong>on</strong>d Island, Torres Straits, Aug. 1881.54. Trichoglossus novae hollandiae {Om.).Ramsaif, t. c. p. 194.a. Sh. •S Port Molle, May 1881.. Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Island, July 1881.55. Triclioglossus chlorolepidotus (Kuhl).Ramsay, t. c. p. 195.a. $ ad. Port Curtis, Queensland, April 1881.56. Macropygia phasianella, Temm.Ramsay, t. c. p. 190.a. $ . Port Molle, Queensland, May 1881.57. Geopelia humeralis {Temm.).Erytbrauchena humeralis, Ramsay, t. c. p. 196.a. (S. Port Curtis, Queensland, April 1881. Iris bright yellow.h. c. Sd. Je. 2• Horn Island, Torres Straits. Iris red.. Thursday Island, June 10, 1881. Cere purplish red.. Friday Island, July 16, 1881. Iris yellow.58. Geopelia tranquilla, Gould.Ramsay, t. c. p. 196.a. .$ Port Curtis, Queensland, April 1881. Iris dark.h. •S Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, Nov. 1881.59. Ptilopus swa<strong>in</strong>s<strong>on</strong>i, Gould.Got/Id, Ilandb. B. Austr. ii. p. 106 ;Ramsay, t. c. p. 195.a. (S ad. Port Molle, May 1881. Iris light yellow; bill green;legs and feet grey.


;26 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.b. 5 imm. Port MoUe, May 1881. Legs and feet greenish grey.c. 2 juv. Port Molle, May 1881. Legs and feet red; bill black.d. Pull. Thursday Island, July 1881. Bill, legs, and feet blackiris brown.e. S j^iv. Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Island, Aug. 1881. Iris reddish orange;bill greenish black ; legs and feet olive-brown./. S ad. Booby Island, Aug. 1881. Soft parts as <strong>in</strong> preced<strong>in</strong>g.g. 6 juv. Booby Island, Aug. 1881. Legs and feet greenish grey.The very <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g series collected by Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger ranges from<strong>the</strong> t<strong>in</strong>y nestl<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> fully adult bird. The age of a specimen iseasily determ<strong>in</strong>ed by its under tail-coverts, which are yellow <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>immature birds and deepen <strong>in</strong>to rich orange <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> adult <strong>on</strong>es. Itwill be noticed that young birds were found, both <strong>in</strong> May andAugust, just beg<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g to put <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> bright plumage of <strong>the</strong> breastthose killed <strong>in</strong> August are gett<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> rose-coloured crown. Thisei<strong>the</strong>r shows that <strong>the</strong> breed<strong>in</strong>g-times are not identical <strong>in</strong> TorresStraits and at Port Molle, or that more than <strong>on</strong>e brood is reared <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> year.60. Megapodius duperreyi, Less.Oustalet, Bibl. Haiites Ehccles, xxii. p. 17 (1881).Megapodius assimilis, Masters ; Ramsay, t. c, p. 196.a. 5. Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Island, Torres Straits, Aug. 1881. Billreddish brown, with yellow edges ; legs bright orange ; irislight reddish brown ; scales of toes dark reddish brown.h.


;2764. Hsematopus l<strong>on</strong>girostris, F.Ramsay, t. c. p. 197.a. 5 . Weduesday Island, July 1881. Iris deep orange ;eyelidred.65. .ffigialitis m<strong>on</strong>golicus (Pall.).Ratnsay, t. c. p. 197.2. Channel Rock, June 1881.rt, h.c. 2- Port Molle, May 1881.66. Cliaradrius fulvus (Gm.).Charadrius l<strong>on</strong>gipes, Ramsay, t. c. p. 197.a. 2 Suva, Fiji, Oct. 12, 1880.h. T<strong>on</strong>gatabu, Nov. 1880.o. 5 .67. Totanus <strong>in</strong>canus, Gm.Tetanus brevipes, Ramsay, t. c. p. 197.WestIsland, Torres Straits, Sept. 1881.Ramsay, t. c. p. 201.68. Larus novaB lioUandiae, Stcph.a. 9 ad. Thursday Island, July 1881. Iris white ; eyelid red.6. 2 ad. Thursday Island, Aug. 1881. Iris light grey ; eyelidoi'ange ; bill blood-red, with dark tips ; legs and feet orangered.c. S juv. Thursday Island. Iris dark ; bill dark horn-colourlegs and feet grey, with black claws.d. Pull. Channel Rock, June 1881. Iris brown; bill horn-colour ;legs and feet light brown.69. Anous stolidus {L.).Sharpe, Rep. Trans. Venus, Birds, p. 9; Saunders, P. Z. S, 1876,p. GG9 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 202.a. 6. Torres Straits, Oct. 4, 1881.70. Sterna hergii, LicJit.Saunders, P. Z. S. 187G, p. G57 ;Ramsay, t. c. p. 201.a. $ . T<strong>on</strong>gatabu, Nov. 1880.h. 9 . Suva, Fiji, Oct. 12, 1880.c. 2 Port Molle, Queensland, May 1881.d, e. 6 juv. Port Denis<strong>on</strong>, Queensland, April 1881.


.28 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.71. Sterna dougalli, M<strong>on</strong>t.Saunders, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 652 ; Ramsaij, t. c. p. 201.a. (^ juv. Channel Rock, Torres Straits, June 1881.A very iuterest<strong>in</strong>g specimen of <strong>the</strong> lioseate Tern <strong>in</strong> young plumage.It has been identified, like <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r Terns, bj Mr. HowardSaunders.Pamsa)/, t, c. p. 20172. Sterna caspia, Pall.a. 2 ' Channel Rock, June 1881.73. Sterna anaes<strong>the</strong>ta (Scop.).Saunders, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 664 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 201.a. $ juv. Off Booby Island, Torres Straits, Aug. 16, 1881. BiUand feet black ; iris lead-colour.b. 6 ad. Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel, Torres Straits, Sept. 1881.Ramsay, t. c. p. 199.74. Nycticorax caled<strong>on</strong>icus (Lath.).a. S . Thursday Island, June 1881. Iris orange-colour ; spaceround eyes greenish yellow.Ramsay, t. c. p. 199.75. Demiegretta sacra (Om.).a.S. Thursday Island, June 1881. Iris yellow.76. Butorides javanica (Horsf.).Ramsay, t. c. p. 199.a. $. Thursday Island, June 1881. Legs and feet yellow ; irisyellow.77. Microcarbo melanoleucus (V.).Salvad. Om. Papuasia etc. iii. p. 410.Graculus melanoleucus, Ramsay, t. c. p. 203.a. 2 ad. Horn Island, Torres Straits, Sept. 1881. Iris dark;bill and throat olive-green ; legs and feet dark olive-green.


—29KEPT ILIA,BATRACHIA,ANDPISCES.BYALBERT GUNTHER.The Rephles collected <strong>in</strong> Torres Straits bel<strong>on</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> follow<strong>in</strong>gspecies :Chel<strong>on</strong>ia viridis. Varanus goiildii (Thursday Isl.), Varanustimorensis (Thursday and Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of AVales Isls.), Varanus pras<strong>in</strong>us(New Gu<strong>in</strong>ea), Lialis hurt<strong>on</strong>ii (Thursday Isl.), Gijmnodactylusplati<strong>in</strong>ts (Pt. Curtis).Of Diemenla torqaata, a Snake hi<strong>the</strong>rto known from a s<strong>in</strong>gleexample <strong>on</strong>ly, a sec<strong>on</strong>d specimen was obta<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong> Queensland.Two species of Tree-Feogs were obta<strong>in</strong>ed—<strong>the</strong> comm<strong>on</strong> andwidely spread Uyla ca;rulea <strong>on</strong> Thursday Isl., and <strong>the</strong> allied JlyladolicJiopsis <strong>in</strong> New Gu<strong>in</strong>ea.The collecti<strong>on</strong> of Fishes comprised fifty species, <strong>the</strong> majority ofwhich were previously known to <strong>in</strong>habit this district of <strong>the</strong> <strong>Indo</strong>-<strong>Pacific</strong>. Those to which <strong>the</strong> greatest <strong>in</strong>terest is attached are twospecies of Branchiostoma ; three Teleosteans seem to be undescribed.Trachynotus copp<strong>in</strong>geri. (Plate III. fig. A.)D.6|l.A.2|,^.The height of <strong>the</strong> body is a little less than <strong>on</strong>e half of <strong>the</strong> totallength (without caudal), <strong>the</strong> length of <strong>the</strong> head is c<strong>on</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>ed thriceand three fourths <strong>in</strong> it. Scales very c<strong>on</strong>spicuous, arranged aboveand below <strong>the</strong> lateral l<strong>in</strong>e <strong>in</strong> a regular series, which is composed ofabout 85 scales. The snout is ra<strong>the</strong>r l<strong>on</strong>ger than <strong>the</strong> eye, and lessobtuse than <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> typical species of <strong>the</strong> genus. The eye issituated far below <strong>the</strong> upper profile of <strong>the</strong> head, and two n<strong>in</strong>ths of<strong>the</strong> length of <strong>the</strong> head. Cheeks covered with m<strong>in</strong>ute scales ; <strong>the</strong>rema<strong>in</strong>der of <strong>the</strong> head scaleless. Dorsal and anal lobes produced,po<strong>in</strong>ted, but not extend<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> posterior end of <strong>the</strong> f<strong>in</strong>s ; caudallobes l<strong>on</strong>g, two fifths of <strong>the</strong> length of <strong>the</strong> body. Uniform silvery ;f<strong>in</strong>s grej'ish.A s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen, 6 <strong>in</strong>ches l<strong>on</strong>g, was obta<strong>in</strong>ed at Percy Island <strong>on</strong><strong>the</strong> coast of Queensland.


—30 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.S3nignathus trachypoma.D. 21. Osseous r<strong>in</strong>gs 18 + 33.Allied to S. grayi. Base of <strong>the</strong> dorsal f<strong>in</strong> elevated. The length of<strong>the</strong> snout is two fifths of that of <strong>the</strong> head, its upper surface is armedwith several sp<strong>in</strong>es ; forehead high, abruptl)^ descend<strong>in</strong>g towards<strong>the</strong> snout. Eyes large, with broad prom<strong>in</strong>ent supraciliaries whichbear several dentieulati<strong>on</strong>s ou <strong>the</strong>ir edges ; <strong>the</strong> space between <strong>the</strong>eyes is very broad and deeply c<strong>on</strong>cave. Occiput high, with largetubercles, <strong>the</strong> middle of which are arranged <strong>in</strong> a l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al crest.Operculum with radiat<strong>in</strong>g stria?, <strong>the</strong> upper and str<strong>on</strong>gest of which isbent upwards. Humerus raised <strong>in</strong>to a high prom<strong>in</strong>ence which, likeall <strong>the</strong> surround<strong>in</strong>g scutes, is deeply pitted. Body not deeper thanbroad ; edges of <strong>the</strong> scutes prom<strong>in</strong>ent and str<strong>on</strong>gly serrated. Tailnot much l<strong>on</strong>ger than <strong>the</strong> body <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> head. Vent below<strong>the</strong> middle of <strong>the</strong> dorsal f<strong>in</strong>, which stands <strong>on</strong> four r<strong>in</strong>gs. Caudal f<strong>in</strong>small. The prom<strong>in</strong>ent porti<strong>on</strong>s of <strong>the</strong> head, <strong>the</strong> upperside of <strong>the</strong>body and tail, and perhaps also <strong>the</strong> side of <strong>the</strong> trunk are providedwith lacerated tentacles. No well-def<strong>in</strong>ed mark<strong>in</strong>gs can be dist<strong>in</strong>guished,<strong>the</strong> colorati<strong>on</strong> c<strong>on</strong>sist<strong>in</strong>g of marbl<strong>in</strong>g of brown withmo<strong>the</strong>r-of-pearl patches. The tentacles are of <strong>the</strong> same colour as<strong>the</strong> body.One specimen was obta<strong>in</strong>ed at Thursday Island, two o<strong>the</strong>rs atPr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Island. The dimensi<strong>on</strong>s of <strong>the</strong> largest are :Total length50 l<strong>in</strong>es.Length of tail 29 ,,Length of head 7 ,,Length of snout 2| „Doryichthys serialis. (Plate III. fig. B.)D. 21. Osseous r<strong>in</strong>gs 14-}- 20.This is a short species with a compressed body and short tail.The ridges are dist<strong>in</strong>ct, but slightly sp<strong>in</strong>ous <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> tail <strong>on</strong>ly.Lateral l<strong>in</strong>e un<strong>in</strong>terrupted, pass<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> lower ridge of <strong>the</strong> tail.Snout more than half as l<strong>on</strong>g as <strong>the</strong> head, straight ; eye of moderatesize ; <strong>in</strong>terorbital space narrow. Head half as l<strong>on</strong>g as <strong>the</strong> trunk ;b<strong>on</strong>es of <strong>the</strong> head pitted and irregularly sculptured. Operculumwith a very dist<strong>in</strong>ct straight ridge al<strong>on</strong>g its middle. Vent midwaybetween <strong>the</strong> end of <strong>the</strong> gill-cover and <strong>the</strong> root of <strong>the</strong> caudal, andbeh<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong> middle of <strong>the</strong> dorsal f<strong>in</strong>. Dorsal f<strong>in</strong> stand<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong> six r<strong>in</strong>gs,four of which bel<strong>on</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> trunk. Caudal very short. Each sideof <strong>the</strong> body is ornamented by two series of black dots, <strong>on</strong>e seriesbe<strong>in</strong>g above and <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r below <strong>the</strong> lateral l<strong>in</strong>e ; <strong>on</strong>e pair of dotscorresp<strong>on</strong>ds to each of <strong>the</strong> r<strong>in</strong>gs. Some o<strong>the</strong>r <strong>in</strong>c<strong>on</strong>stant black dotsare scattered about between <strong>the</strong> two series ; a black band runsthrough <strong>the</strong> eye from <strong>the</strong> upper end of <strong>the</strong> operculum al<strong>on</strong>g eachside of tho snout.


——PISCES, 31are :Two specimens were collected at Port MoUe. Their dimensi<strong>on</strong>sTotal length27 l<strong>in</strong>es.Length of tail Hi ,,Length of head 5 „Length of snout ^| „BRANCHIOSTOMA.The recent discovery of a sec<strong>on</strong>d undoubtedly dist<strong>in</strong>ct species ofLeptocardian <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> coast of Australia {Epig<strong>on</strong>iclithijs cultellus)as well as <strong>the</strong> acquisiti<strong>on</strong> of several well-preserved examples, forwhich we are <strong>in</strong>debted to Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger, <strong>in</strong>duced me to reexam<strong>in</strong>eall <strong>the</strong> specimens <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> British Museum, which, hav<strong>in</strong>g been preserved<strong>in</strong> spirit for a great many years, Avere by <strong>the</strong>mselves notreliable evidence as to <strong>the</strong> questi<strong>on</strong> whe<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong> European Lancelotis a cosmopolitan form, or represented by several dist<strong>in</strong>ct species <strong>in</strong>o<strong>the</strong>r parts of <strong>the</strong> globe.J. Miiller (' Ueber d. Ban d. BrancJiiostoma,' p. 84) was unable toobserve any differences between Brazilian and European specimens ;and I not <strong>on</strong>ly took <strong>the</strong> same view, but c<strong>on</strong>sidered specimens fromIndian and Australian localities to be referable to <strong>on</strong>e species <strong>on</strong>ly.I have now c<strong>on</strong>v<strong>in</strong>ced myself that this view (Cat. Pish. viii.p. 513) is <strong>in</strong>correct, and that Sundevall was quite right <strong>in</strong> draw<strong>in</strong>gattenti<strong>on</strong> to <strong>the</strong> number of myocommas as an excellent tax<strong>on</strong>omiccharacter. This number can be ascerta<strong>in</strong>ed even <strong>in</strong> specimens <strong>in</strong>an <strong>in</strong>different state of preservati<strong>on</strong>, and varies very little ; whilst<strong>the</strong> extent <strong>in</strong> depth and length of <strong>the</strong> delicate f<strong>in</strong> which surrounds<strong>the</strong> posterior part of <strong>the</strong> tail is a much less reliable character, subjectto much alterati<strong>on</strong> by <strong>the</strong> spirit, if great care is not taken <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>preservati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> specimens.The species of Bramhiostoma would <strong>the</strong>n be <strong>the</strong> follow<strong>in</strong>g :1. Brancliiostoma el<strong>on</strong>gatum.Sundevall, (Efvers. Vet.-Akad. Forhandl. 1852, p. 147; and 1853,p. 12.Myocommas 49 + 18 + 12=79.Coast of Peru.Of this species I have not seen specimens.2. Branchiostoma bassanum.Myocommas 44 + 13 + 18 = 75, or43 + 15 + 17=75, or45 + 14+17=76.Body lower than <strong>in</strong> B. lanceolatum ; dorsal and anal f<strong>in</strong>s low,with <strong>the</strong> caudal porti<strong>on</strong> slightly wider ; vent lateral ;(oral cirrhi10 + 11).These are <strong>the</strong> specimens from Bass-tStraits which I formerlyreferred to B. lanceolatum.


32 COLLECTIONS FROM MULANTJSIA.3. Branchiostoma belcheri.Amphioxus belcheri, Gray, P. Z, S. 1847, p. 35.Brancliiostoma belcheri, Gray, Ch<strong>on</strong>dropt. p. 150.Myocommas 37-1-14 + 13=64 (Borneo).37 + 14 + 14 = 05 (Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Isl.).This Lancelot is very similar to, biit ra<strong>the</strong>r more el<strong>on</strong>gate than,B. lanceolatmn, and <strong>the</strong> f<strong>in</strong>s, <strong>in</strong>stead of be<strong>in</strong>g dilated beh<strong>in</strong>d, graduallydecrease <strong>in</strong> width towards <strong>the</strong> extremity of <strong>the</strong> tail.The specimens were collected partly by Sir E. Belcher dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>cruise of H.M.S. ' Samarang ' <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> coast of Borneo, partly byDr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger at Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Island, Torres Straits.4. Branchiostoma caribaeum.Sundemllf I. c. 1853, p. 12.Myocommas 37 + 14 + 9 = 60 (Sundevall).37 + 14 + 9 = 60.37 + 13+9=59.Dist<strong>in</strong>guished from B. belcheri and lanceolatum by <strong>the</strong> shortnessof its tail and by <strong>the</strong> attenuated form of <strong>the</strong> extremities of <strong>the</strong> body.St. Thomas ; Rio de Janeiro ; mouth of <strong>the</strong> Plate river.I am <strong>in</strong>debted for specimens of this species to <strong>the</strong> k<strong>in</strong>dness ofProf. Ed. Van Beneden, who obta<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>the</strong>m <strong>in</strong> great numbers<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Bay of Botafogo ; <strong>the</strong>y are <strong>the</strong> same species <strong>on</strong> wliich Moreau<strong>made</strong> his researches <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> structure of <strong>the</strong> notochord (Bull. Ac.Roy. Belg. 1875, p. 312). The name of Amphioxus mulleri (Kroyer,MS.) was adopted for <strong>the</strong>m ; but, as this has never been described,it is doubtful W'he<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong> name was <strong>in</strong>tended for this or someo<strong>the</strong>r species.Coasts of Europe ;5. Branchiostoma lanceolatum {Fall.).Myocommas 35 + 12+12=59 (Polperro).36 + 14 + 11 = 61 (Scand<strong>in</strong>., Sundevall).34 + 13 + 13=60 (Jv^aples).35+12+13=60 (Naples)*.Atlantic coasts of North America.6. Branchiostoma cultellum.Epig<strong>on</strong>ichthys cultellus, Peters, Berl. MB. 1876, p. 327 (c.Myocommas 32 + 10 + 10 = 52, or31 + 11 + 10=52.fig.).Anterior part of <strong>the</strong> dorsal fi.n high ; f<strong>in</strong> between branchial porus* I take this opportunity of correct<strong>in</strong>g an error <strong>on</strong> p. 03 of Studj ' ofFishes,' where <strong>in</strong> fig. 28 <strong>the</strong> letters b and c have <strong>in</strong>adrertentlv been reversed.


FISHES.-33and extremity of tail verj' nidimentary or partly absent. Vent <strong>in</strong>,or nearly <strong>in</strong>, <strong>the</strong> median l<strong>in</strong>e.Moret<strong>on</strong> Eay (Peters) ; Thursday Island (Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).In our specimens <strong>the</strong> f<strong>in</strong> occupy<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> median l<strong>in</strong>e between <strong>the</strong>branchial or abdom<strong>in</strong>al pore and <strong>the</strong> caudal extremity is ra<strong>the</strong>rmore dist<strong>in</strong>ct than would seem to have been <strong>the</strong> case <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> specimensdescribed and figured by Peters ; and c<strong>on</strong>sequently <strong>the</strong> positi<strong>on</strong> of<strong>the</strong> vent is, at least <strong>in</strong> some of our specimens, ra<strong>the</strong>r lateral thanmedian. Whe<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong>se differences are ow<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> better state ofpreservati<strong>on</strong> of our specimens, or related to <strong>the</strong> difference of locality,I am not prepared to decide ; but assum<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> latter to be <strong>the</strong> case,I should not c<strong>on</strong>sider <strong>the</strong>m sufficient for specific dist<strong>in</strong>cti<strong>on</strong>. Fur<strong>the</strong>r,as our specimens show dist<strong>in</strong>ct traces of a postanal f<strong>in</strong> and a sublateralpositi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> vent, <strong>the</strong>y clearly <strong>in</strong>dicate that Epig<strong>on</strong>iclithyscannot be ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>ed as a dist<strong>in</strong>ct genus.


34MOLLUSC A.BYEDGAE A. SMITH.With <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong> of Mr. John Brazier's report <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> Molluscaof <strong>the</strong> ' Chevert ' expediti<strong>on</strong> * <strong>the</strong>re does not appear to have beenpublished any work of importance treat<strong>in</strong>g exclusively <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> formsof North and North-eastern Australia. Dr. Tappar<strong>on</strong>e-Canefri haswritten a few papers <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> fauna of Papua, and a large number ofspecies have, at various times, been described <strong>in</strong> different worksand periodicals by Reeve, A. Adams, "Wats<strong>on</strong>, and o<strong>the</strong>rs, from PortEss<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong>, Torres Straits, and <strong>the</strong> coast of Queensland.Many of <strong>the</strong> species found <strong>in</strong> this district range as far as, or ovenfur<strong>the</strong>r north than, <strong>the</strong> Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands, and westward to SwanEiver, and, even <strong>in</strong> a few cases, to Ceyl<strong>on</strong> and <strong>the</strong> Mauritius ; but<strong>the</strong> general character of <strong>the</strong> fauna may be regarded as Malayan,although many of <strong>the</strong> species appear to be limited <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir distributi<strong>on</strong>and not as yet met with <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Archipelago.I. CEPHALOPODA.1. Octopus polyzenia. (Plate IV. figs. A-A 3.)Gi-ay, Cat. Ceplial. Antepcd. Brit. Mus. p. 13.Animal small (perhaps young), m<strong>in</strong>utely and closely granulatedup<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> back of <strong>the</strong> body, head, arms, and c<strong>on</strong>nect<strong>in</strong>g web ; <strong>the</strong>lower surface of <strong>the</strong> body, head, funnel, and web above it be<strong>in</strong>g moresparsely granulated. Body (<strong>in</strong> spirit) wider than l<strong>on</strong>g, rounded at<strong>the</strong> end, exhibit<strong>in</strong>g a fa<strong>in</strong>t central ventral groove from <strong>the</strong> open<strong>in</strong>gat <strong>the</strong> neck to <strong>the</strong> extremity. Head broad but narrower than <strong>the</strong>body, with a s<strong>in</strong>gle papilla near <strong>the</strong> upper h<strong>in</strong>der edge of <strong>the</strong> ocularopen<strong>in</strong>g. Arms not very l<strong>on</strong>g ; three upper pairs subequal <strong>in</strong>length, ventral pair ra<strong>the</strong>r l<strong>on</strong>ger. Lower surface and membranebetween <strong>the</strong>m very m<strong>in</strong>utely granulous. Membrane between <strong>the</strong>arms extend<strong>in</strong>g about <strong>on</strong>e third <strong>the</strong>ir length and also <strong>in</strong> a narrowstrip up <strong>the</strong> side of <strong>the</strong>m, but between <strong>the</strong> dorsal pair it is almostentirely want<strong>in</strong>g. Cups <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> upper arms gradually decreas<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>size from near <strong>the</strong> mouth to <strong>the</strong> extremity, <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> three o<strong>the</strong>r pairsof arms enlarg<strong>in</strong>g gradually as far as <strong>the</strong> sixth pair (<strong>the</strong>se be<strong>in</strong>gnearly twice as large as any <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> dorsal pair), and <strong>the</strong>n gradually* Proc. L<strong>in</strong>n. Soc. New youth Wales, vols. ii. and iii.


;MOLLUSCA. 85lessen<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> diameter towards <strong>the</strong> tips ; about <strong>on</strong>e hundred <strong>in</strong>number <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>gest arms, ra<strong>the</strong>r prom<strong>in</strong>ent, especially <strong>the</strong> largest,alternat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> two series, almost, if not quite, from <strong>the</strong> commencement.Length from end of <strong>the</strong> body to angle between <strong>the</strong> upperarms 20 millim., width of body 13, length from subsiph<strong>on</strong>al open<strong>in</strong>gto <strong>the</strong> extremity <strong>on</strong>ly 10 ; largest arm, from mouth to tip, 40millim.Hah. Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 4-5 fathoms, sandy bottom{'Alert'); Port Ess<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong> {B. Mus.).This species (<strong>in</strong> spirit) is of a pale dirty olive t<strong>in</strong>t <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> ventralsurface and very much darker above. The <strong>in</strong>ner surface of <strong>the</strong>arms is also light olive, <strong>the</strong> suckers hav<strong>in</strong>g a brown hue. At firstI was <strong>in</strong>cl<strong>in</strong>ed to c<strong>on</strong>sider that this olive colour might be <strong>the</strong> resultof sta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g by <strong>the</strong> juices of an Aplysia which was c<strong>on</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>same bottle. On exam<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> type from Port Ess<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong>, which Ihad not an opportunity of do<strong>in</strong>g when draw<strong>in</strong>g up <strong>the</strong> abovedescripti<strong>on</strong>, I f<strong>in</strong>d that <strong>the</strong> same colour prevails.2. Octopus tenebricus. (Plate IV. figs. B-B 3.)Animal of a uniform dark purplish chocolate-colour. Body (<strong>in</strong>spirit) l<strong>on</strong>ger than wide, smooth, bear<strong>in</strong>g up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> back and sidesscattered cirri.Head as broad as <strong>the</strong> body, very prom<strong>in</strong>ent at <strong>the</strong>eyes, much c<strong>on</strong>stricted <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t and beh<strong>in</strong>d <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> cervical regi<strong>on</strong>also ornamented with a few tufts, <strong>the</strong> largest <strong>on</strong>e be<strong>in</strong>g placed abovebut slightly beh<strong>in</strong>d each eye, A small <strong>on</strong>e <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t of each eye anda similar <strong>on</strong>e just beh<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong>m appear to be c<strong>on</strong>stant <strong>in</strong> positi<strong>on</strong><strong>the</strong>se are simple el<strong>on</strong>gate papillae, whilst <strong>the</strong> larger <strong>on</strong>es are branched.The web between <strong>the</strong> arms is ra<strong>the</strong>r small, externally papillose, andextends <strong>in</strong> a narrow strip up tlie back of <strong>the</strong> arms, form<strong>in</strong>g a sort ofacute car<strong>in</strong>a. Upper or dorsal pair of arms smallest and shortest,<strong>the</strong> two lateral pairs about equal and <strong>the</strong> ventral <strong>on</strong>ly a trifleshorter, all gradually taper<strong>in</strong>g to very f<strong>in</strong>e po<strong>in</strong>ts. Lower surfacesnarrower, bear<strong>in</strong>g two rows of very prom<strong>in</strong>ent suckers, of which <strong>the</strong>first four form a s<strong>in</strong>gle series, <strong>the</strong> rest (about 120 <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>gestarms) alternat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> positi<strong>on</strong>. The first cup is very small, <strong>the</strong> nexta trifle larger, and so <strong>on</strong> until about <strong>the</strong> tenth is reached, when <strong>the</strong>yatta<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir greatest diameter, namely Ij millim. ; this size isma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>ed a short distance up <strong>the</strong> arm, when <strong>the</strong> cups graduallydim<strong>in</strong>ish as <strong>the</strong> extremity is approached.Dimensi<strong>on</strong>s. Body, from base of funnel to extremity, 13 millim.,width 11 ; l<strong>on</strong>gest arm 72 milhm., shortest 50 <strong>in</strong> length.llah. Port Ucnis<strong>on</strong>, N.E. Australia, 3-4 fathoms, sand and rockbottom.This species bears c<strong>on</strong>siderable resemblance to 0. aculeatus ofd'Orbigny, but may be dist<strong>in</strong>guished by <strong>the</strong> difl^er<strong>on</strong>ce of colour, <strong>the</strong>different relative length of <strong>the</strong> arms, <strong>the</strong> narrowness of <strong>the</strong>ir lowersurface, <strong>the</strong> greater prom<strong>in</strong>ence of <strong>the</strong> suckers, <strong>the</strong> regularity of <strong>the</strong>uuiserial four at <strong>the</strong> base, and <strong>the</strong> smaller number of <strong>the</strong> externalcirri or papillae.d2


36 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.3. Octopus maculosus. (Plate IV. fig. C.)Hoyle, Trans. Roy. Physical Soc. Ed<strong>in</strong>h. 1884.Body short, about as broad as loug, dirty buff beneath, of a darkbluish slate-colour up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> back, m<strong>in</strong>utely dotted <strong>on</strong> both sides, <strong>the</strong>dots be<strong>in</strong>g scarcely visible to <strong>the</strong> naked eye except up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> paleventral surface, smooth below and above, merely wr<strong>in</strong>kled by c<strong>on</strong>tracti<strong>on</strong>of <strong>the</strong> sk<strong>in</strong>, without granulati<strong>on</strong> or cirri. Head narrowerthan <strong>the</strong> body, a little prom<strong>in</strong>ent at <strong>the</strong> sides or eyes, of <strong>the</strong> samecolour above as <strong>the</strong> body. Siphuncle buff. Arms alternately bandedwith dark slaty blue and buff, <strong>the</strong> former colour predom<strong>in</strong>at<strong>in</strong>g,ornamented here and <strong>the</strong>re with pale, more or less ovate r<strong>in</strong>gs up<strong>on</strong>some of <strong>the</strong> dark bands. Dorsal pair ra<strong>the</strong>r shorter than <strong>the</strong> rest,which are subequal, c<strong>on</strong>nected by a str<strong>on</strong>g <strong>in</strong>terbrachial membrane,which jo<strong>in</strong>s <strong>the</strong> two ventral arms a httle lower down than <strong>the</strong>se and<strong>the</strong> two adjo<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g. Cups alternat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> two rows, very slightlyprom<strong>in</strong>ent, close toge<strong>the</strong>r, buff <strong>on</strong> a slaty-blue ground, and thus c<strong>on</strong>spicuous,about <strong>on</strong>e hundred <strong>in</strong> number <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>gest arms and afew less <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> dorsal pair, of <strong>the</strong> same size <strong>on</strong> all <strong>the</strong> arms, <strong>the</strong>largest of <strong>the</strong>m situated towards <strong>the</strong> lower part, <strong>the</strong> rest graduallylessen<strong>in</strong>g towards <strong>the</strong> extremity.Length of body 22 millim., diam. 26 ; length from end of bodyto membrane between lower pair of arms 43 millim. ; diam. ofhead 20 ; length of l<strong>on</strong>gest arm from <strong>the</strong> mouth to <strong>the</strong> tip 78millim. ; largest cup If wide.Hah. Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>.The peculiarity of <strong>the</strong> colour of this species readily dist<strong>in</strong>guishesit from all o<strong>the</strong>rs previously described.II.GASTROPODA.1. C<strong>on</strong>ns lizardensis.Crosse, Joiirn. de C<strong>on</strong>ch. 1865, vol. xiii. p. 305, pi. ix. fig. 5 ; Soiccrby,Tlies. C<strong>on</strong>. iii. pi. 288. fig. 642.Hab. Lizard Island, N.E. Australia (Crosse); Arafura Sea,N. Australia, 32-36 fath. {Copp<strong>in</strong>gcr).The s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen from <strong>the</strong> latter locality is about <strong>the</strong> samesize as <strong>the</strong> type described by M. Crosse, but differs <strong>in</strong> hav<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>spire less elevated, although c<strong>on</strong>sist<strong>in</strong>g of an equal number of whorls.The twofold character of <strong>the</strong> spiral ridges, <strong>the</strong> str<strong>on</strong>g raised l<strong>in</strong>es of<strong>in</strong>crement, and <strong>the</strong> f<strong>in</strong>e sculpture up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> top of <strong>the</strong> voluti<strong>on</strong>s areall ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>ed.2. C<strong>on</strong>us aculeiformis.Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. pi. 44. figs. 240 a, b ; Sowerby, Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, iii.pi. 202. fig. 370.Hah. Island of M<strong>in</strong>danao, Philipi><strong>in</strong>es {Cum<strong>in</strong>g); Arafura Sea,32-36 fath. (Gopp<strong>in</strong>ger).


MOLLTJSCA, 37In form <strong>the</strong> specimen obta<strong>in</strong>ed by Dr, Copp<strong>in</strong>ger agrees to a greatextent with G. acnleiformis, Reeve, but almost entirely lacks <strong>the</strong>lateral <strong>in</strong>cl<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> anterior narrowed extremity. The spiralsulci <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> body-whorl are narrower, and exhibit a decidedly lessamount of subpunctate sculpture caused by <strong>the</strong> impressed l<strong>in</strong>es ofgrowth. The raised <strong>in</strong>terstices are markedly flatter and broader,and do not exhibit <strong>the</strong> brown dott<strong>in</strong>g so characteristic of Reeve'sspecies. These differences may probably be accounted for by <strong>the</strong>younger state of <strong>the</strong> s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen from <strong>the</strong> Arafura Sea, which,be<strong>in</strong>g dredged <strong>in</strong> a dead c<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong>, has <strong>in</strong> a great degree lost itscolorati<strong>on</strong>. The spire offers scarcely any differences, <strong>the</strong> proporti<strong>on</strong>ateheight, <strong>the</strong> cor<strong>on</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> of three or four whorls succeed<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>smooth glossy nucleus, <strong>the</strong> smooth ridge immediately below <strong>the</strong>suture, <strong>the</strong> f<strong>in</strong>er lira beneath it <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>cavity of <strong>the</strong> whorls, and<strong>the</strong> elevated marg<strong>in</strong> beneath this be<strong>in</strong>g precisely as <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> largershell described by Reeve, with <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> ridge beneath<strong>the</strong> suture, which is ra<strong>the</strong>r broader and more flattened.3. Terebra exigua.Deshayes, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 301 ; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. pi. 26.fig. 84.Hah. Thursday Island, Torres Straits {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger); East xiustralivi'iDesha lies) ; Andaman Islands (Col<strong>on</strong>el Wihner <strong>in</strong> Brit. Mus.).The type of this species is described as hav<strong>in</strong>g a length of 19millimetres, but <strong>the</strong> s<strong>in</strong>gle shell <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Cum<strong>in</strong>gian collecti<strong>on</strong> is scarcely15 l<strong>on</strong>g. One from <strong>the</strong> Andaman Islands measures 21 millimetres,and <strong>the</strong> <strong>on</strong>e now recorded from Torres Straits exceeds that <strong>in</strong> lengthby four.4. Pleurotoma (Drillia) torresiana. (Plate IV. figs. D-D 1.)Shell fusiform, str<strong>on</strong>g, robust, l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>ally costate and spirallyUrate, hav<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> ribs white or yellow, sta<strong>in</strong>ed ei<strong>the</strong>r with brightred or brownish black <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>terstices, and ornamented with twobands of <strong>the</strong> same colour up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> last whorl. Voluti<strong>on</strong>s 12, hav<strong>in</strong>ga duplex wavy ridge above, beneath which <strong>the</strong>y are excavated and<strong>the</strong>n c<strong>on</strong>vex at <strong>the</strong> sides ; <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>cavity is ra<strong>the</strong>r deep and traversedby three or four spiral strioe. The costa3 are obsolete <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>cavity,a trifle oblique, thickest above, attenuat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>ferior^,thirteen <strong>in</strong> number <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> last two whorls, two of <strong>the</strong>m <strong>on</strong> eachbe<strong>in</strong>g large swollen white varices. The ribs are crossed by spirallime, <strong>the</strong>re be<strong>in</strong>g seven or eight <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> penultimate, and abouttwenty-four <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> last whorl, besides <strong>on</strong>e or more f<strong>in</strong>er <strong>on</strong>es <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong><strong>in</strong>terstices between <strong>the</strong>m. The columella is smooth, covered with ath<strong>in</strong> callus, developed <strong>in</strong>to a tubercle at <strong>the</strong> upper part. Labrals<strong>in</strong>us deepish<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>cavity above. Length 34 millim., width 10;aperture 13 l<strong>on</strong>g.Bah. Friday Island, Torres Straits, and Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel,7-9 fathoms.


:38 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.This is a more robust species than P. varicosa of Reeve, is differentlycoloured, has more prom<strong>in</strong>ent spiral ridges, a larger numberof costaj, fewer swollen varices, and a more undulat<strong>in</strong>g duplex ridgeborder<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> whorls above. These two, toge<strong>the</strong>r with Drilliatiiberosa, Smith, from Japan, form a small group of species peculiar<strong>on</strong> account of <strong>the</strong> varicose ribs which streng<strong>the</strong>n <strong>the</strong> shell at<strong>in</strong>tervals.*5. Pleurotoma (Drillia) laterculata. (Plate IV. figs. E-E 1.)Pleurotoma laterculata, Sotverby, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 253.Hab. Ch<strong>in</strong>a Seas (Soiverby) ; var. Port Molle, Queensland,12-20 fms., rocky bottom {Gopp<strong>in</strong>ger).As <strong>the</strong> descripti<strong>on</strong> given by Sowerby is altoge<strong>the</strong>r <strong>in</strong>adequate, Iherewith append a more detailed <strong>on</strong>e drawn up from <strong>the</strong> typespecimen presented by Mrs. Lombc Taylor to <strong>the</strong> British Museum.Shell fusiform, whitish, much spotted and variegated with reddishbrown, pr<strong>in</strong>cipally between <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al ribs, with a light violetaperture. Whorls probably 11 ; two apical broken away ; <strong>the</strong>rest verj;- c<strong>on</strong>cave above, angulated at <strong>the</strong> middle, a little c<strong>on</strong>vexbeneath and c<strong>on</strong>tracted towards <strong>the</strong> suture, streng<strong>the</strong>ned withra<strong>the</strong>r oblique costse (about 10 or 11 <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> upper whorls), irregularlyc<strong>on</strong>t<strong>in</strong>uous up <strong>the</strong> spire, somewhat obsolete <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>cavityof <strong>the</strong> whorls, which are also ornamented with two thread-likepale lirae round <strong>the</strong> middle form<strong>in</strong>g a k<strong>in</strong>d of double angle, c<strong>on</strong>t<strong>in</strong>uousbetween and up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> costce, where <strong>the</strong>y become subacutelyprom<strong>in</strong>ent ; beneath <strong>the</strong>se, <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> penultimate and <strong>the</strong> antepenultimatevoluti<strong>on</strong>s, <strong>the</strong>re is a third near <strong>the</strong> suture. Last whorl encircledwith a]iout thirteen similar pale liroe, besides <strong>in</strong>tcrly<strong>in</strong>g f<strong>in</strong>er<strong>on</strong>es, and several at <strong>the</strong> extremity which are very oblique. Canalstraight, feebly recurved, toge<strong>the</strong>r with <strong>the</strong> aperture equall<strong>in</strong>g lessthan half <strong>the</strong> whole length of <strong>the</strong> shell. Columella perpendicular,covered with a th<strong>in</strong> callosity, developed <strong>in</strong>to a tubercle close to <strong>the</strong>upper extremity of <strong>the</strong> outer lip. The latter is th<strong>in</strong> at <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong>,has a str<strong>on</strong>g swollen varix beh<strong>in</strong>d, arcuately prom<strong>in</strong>ent at <strong>the</strong>middle, with a well-marked s<strong>in</strong>us above <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>cavity. Length80 millim., width 10 ; aperture with canal 14 l<strong>on</strong>g.Variety. Shell of similar form and with <strong>the</strong> same sculpture, butmuch less highly variegated. Of a dirty white colour, sta<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>cavity of <strong>the</strong> whorls at <strong>the</strong> lower part next <strong>the</strong> suture andround <strong>the</strong> middle of <strong>the</strong> last between <strong>the</strong> ribs with pale olive-brown.Extremity of <strong>the</strong> body-whorl and <strong>the</strong> swollen varix suff'used with areddish t<strong>in</strong>t. Aperture pale lilac or whitish. The entire surfaceof this species is seen, by <strong>the</strong> aid of a lens, to be striated withm<strong>in</strong>ute spiral stri?e, crossed by l<strong>in</strong>es of growth. The most strik<strong>in</strong>gfeature is <strong>the</strong> two white f<strong>in</strong>e lirati<strong>on</strong>s at <strong>the</strong> middle of <strong>the</strong> whorlsand although at times <strong>the</strong>re may be <strong>on</strong>e or two beneath <strong>the</strong>m, n<strong>on</strong>eappear to be found <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>cavity above. The two apical whorlsare smooth, glossy, and c<strong>on</strong>vex.


MOLLUSC A. 396. Pleurotoma (Glyphostoma) spurca. (Plate IV. figs. F-F 1.)Clavatula spurca, Himh, Voy, ' Sulphur,'' p. 17, pi. 5. fig. 14 ; Reeve,C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 312.Pleurotoma rava, JReeve (n<strong>on</strong> H<strong>in</strong>ds), C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 250.Hab. Port Molle, Arafura Sea, N. Australia, 32-36 fms., andPort Darw<strong>in</strong>, N.W. Australia ( Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).This <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g species is subject to c<strong>on</strong>siderable variati<strong>on</strong> both<strong>in</strong> form and sculpture, but is never<strong>the</strong>less generally very easilyrecognized by <strong>the</strong> transverse plaits <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> columella and <strong>the</strong> largedeep and laterally directed s<strong>in</strong>us near <strong>the</strong> upper end of <strong>the</strong> muchthickened labrum, which is armed with<strong>in</strong> with five or six denticlesor short limp not reach<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> crenulated edge. The basal canal isc<strong>on</strong>tracted and a little recurved. The type has ten costoe up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>last whorl, but this number is sometimes exceeded by two more.The pr<strong>in</strong>cipal lirse are normalljr two <strong>in</strong> number up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> uppervoluti<strong>on</strong>s, <strong>on</strong>e be<strong>in</strong>g at <strong>the</strong> middle, <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r below, nodulous up<strong>on</strong><strong>the</strong> costse. Above <strong>the</strong>se, occupy<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> upper part of <strong>the</strong> whorls,are a few un<strong>in</strong>terrupted thread-like lira3, about four up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>penultimate and antepenultimate whorls. The body-whorl hasabout fifteen pr<strong>in</strong>cipal spiral lirse, two of which pass above <strong>the</strong>extremity of <strong>the</strong> outer lip. Some varieties have three or even foursubequal pr<strong>in</strong>cipal lirte <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> lower half of <strong>the</strong> upper whorls, andtwenty to twenty-four up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> last, but all agree <strong>in</strong> hav<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>f<strong>in</strong>er l<strong>in</strong>es above, which also at times exceed <strong>the</strong> typical number.The largest specimen c<strong>on</strong>siderably exceeds <strong>the</strong> dimensi<strong>on</strong>s of H<strong>in</strong>ds'stype. It is ] 8 millim. <strong>in</strong> length and 6 <strong>in</strong> width, measur<strong>in</strong>g above<strong>the</strong> aperture, which is 8 l<strong>on</strong>g. Ano<strong>the</strong>r smaller example is remarkablefor <strong>the</strong> shortness of <strong>the</strong> mouth : it is 12 l<strong>on</strong>g, 4 broad,with an aperture 4| <strong>in</strong> length.7. Pleurotoma ( ?) gracilenta, var.Pleurotoma gTacilenta, Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 114.Var. = PI. c<strong>on</strong>tracta, Reeve, I. c. fig. 116.Var. = PI. fusoides, Reeve, I. c. fig. 349.Hah. Arafura Sea, N". Australia, 32-36 fms. ; bottom—sand, mud,and shells {Copp<strong>in</strong>rjer); Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands (Cum<strong>in</strong>r/).This species does not c<strong>on</strong>veniently fall <strong>in</strong>to any of <strong>the</strong> recognizedgroups of Pleurotomidaj. In form it resembles some species ofDajyJmelJa, but has not <strong>the</strong> m<strong>in</strong>utely reticulated nuclear whorls ofthat secti<strong>on</strong>, and <strong>the</strong> labral notch is hardly at, but a trifle below, <strong>the</strong>suture. I fail to perceive any sufficient characters to separatespecifically <strong>the</strong> three so-called species described by Keeve ; <strong>in</strong>deedPI. co)itracta and PL fnsoides are all but identical. The type ofP. gracilenta is a trifle more attenuated than <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r two, butscarcely differs <strong>in</strong> any o<strong>the</strong>r respect. All are l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>ally costateand spirally Urate, <strong>the</strong> costiB number<strong>in</strong>g about twelve <strong>on</strong> a whorl,attenuated above at <strong>the</strong> suture, and becom<strong>in</strong>g obsolete up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>body-voluti<strong>on</strong> towards <strong>the</strong> narrowed anterior end ; <strong>the</strong> pr<strong>in</strong>cipal


40 COLLECTTONS FROM MELANESIA.transverse lirje are nodose <strong>on</strong> cross<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> ribs, tliree <strong>in</strong> numbernp<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> upper whorls, a fourth be<strong>in</strong>g present up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> lower partof <strong>the</strong> penultimate and sixteen to eighteen <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> last. Ano<strong>the</strong>rfeature worth notic<strong>in</strong>g is <strong>the</strong> presence of a f<strong>in</strong>er thread-like l<strong>in</strong>eabove <strong>the</strong> uppermost of <strong>the</strong> chief lirse, which runs <strong>in</strong> a slight c<strong>on</strong>cavityat <strong>the</strong> upper part of <strong>the</strong> whorls.The aperture is narrow, as is <strong>the</strong> shell itself, not greatly c<strong>on</strong>tractedat <strong>the</strong> canal, and occupies ra<strong>the</strong>r less than half <strong>the</strong> length of <strong>the</strong>shell. The columella is subperpendicular, a little tortuous andsmooth, without lira; or tubercles. The outer lip is thickened withan exterior rib, but th<strong>in</strong> and sharp at <strong>the</strong> extreme marg<strong>in</strong>. It iswidely and semicircularly notched above just below <strong>the</strong> suture <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> fa<strong>in</strong>t c<strong>on</strong>cavity of <strong>the</strong> whorl, and generally <strong>in</strong> adult shells bearsa small tubercle with<strong>in</strong> close to or just below <strong>the</strong> s<strong>in</strong>us, with whichexcepti<strong>on</strong> it is smooth.8. Pleurotoma (Daphnella) axis.Plem'otoma axis, Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 311.Hah. Port Molle, 14 fms. (Copjy<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Philipp<strong>in</strong>es (Cum<strong>in</strong>g).The apical whorls of this, as <strong>in</strong> all <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r species of <strong>the</strong>group Daphnella, are microscopically cancellated by oblique crisscrossl<strong>in</strong>es. The four or five succeed<strong>in</strong>g voluti<strong>on</strong>s are coarsely cancellatedby l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al costse and spiral ridges, <strong>the</strong> po<strong>in</strong>ts of <strong>in</strong>tersecti<strong>on</strong>be<strong>in</strong>g subnodose. Bey<strong>on</strong>d this <strong>the</strong> rema<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g whorls (aboutthree <strong>in</strong> number) are destitute of <strong>the</strong> costse, exhibit<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong>ly spiralridg<strong>in</strong>g of different degrees of f<strong>in</strong>eness and <strong>in</strong>termediate f<strong>in</strong>er striaecrossed <strong>on</strong>ly by <strong>the</strong> l<strong>in</strong>es of growth.One of <strong>the</strong>se ridges towards <strong>the</strong> upper part of <strong>the</strong> whorls isespecially prom<strong>in</strong>ent, giv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>m a somewhat shouldered appearauce,and between this and <strong>the</strong> upper thicl-ened marg<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>re is a decidedc<strong>on</strong>cavity. The aperture is el<strong>on</strong>gate, c<strong>on</strong>tracted anteriorly <strong>in</strong>to adist<strong>in</strong>ct and somewhat recurv<strong>in</strong>g canal, toge<strong>the</strong>r occupy<strong>in</strong>g a littleless than half <strong>the</strong> total length of <strong>the</strong> shell. The labrum is a triflethickened, present<strong>in</strong>g exteriorly a slightly swollen appearance, hasa ra<strong>the</strong>r deep slit above at <strong>the</strong> suture, is smooth with<strong>in</strong>, and crenulatedf<strong>in</strong>ely al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> edge.9. Pleurotoma (Daphnella) arafurensis. (Plate IV. fig. G.)Shell fusiform, whitish, fa<strong>in</strong>tly banded with light brown, spirallyridged and striated and marked with <strong>the</strong> flcxuous l<strong>in</strong>es of growth.Whorls 7 ; two apical globose, microscopically reticulated, but appear<strong>in</strong>gsmooth under an ord<strong>in</strong>ary lens, ra<strong>the</strong>r large ; <strong>the</strong> rema<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>gfive are c<strong>on</strong>vex, a little c<strong>on</strong>stricted beneath <strong>the</strong> suture, andspirally ridged and striated. The upper whorls have four or fivepr<strong>in</strong>cipal l<strong>in</strong>r, <strong>the</strong> uppermost fall<strong>in</strong>g just beneath <strong>the</strong> slight c<strong>on</strong>stricti<strong>on</strong>,and <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rs below at equal distances. The whorls arethickened at or immediately under <strong>the</strong> sut'jral l<strong>in</strong>e with an elevated


MOLLtrsCA. 41ridge, and between this and <strong>the</strong> first lira and <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>tersticesbetween <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r lir;x) <strong>the</strong> surface is f<strong>in</strong>ely striated. The lastwhorl is el<strong>on</strong>gate, has about thirty-<strong>on</strong>e ridges <strong>in</strong> additi<strong>on</strong> to <strong>the</strong>m<strong>in</strong>ute <strong>in</strong>fcerstriati<strong>on</strong>. The aperture is narrow, c<strong>on</strong>tracted anteriorly<strong>in</strong>to a short, broadish canal, toge<strong>the</strong>r equall<strong>in</strong>g almost half<strong>the</strong> total length of <strong>the</strong> shell. The columella is perpendicular,curv<strong>in</strong>g a little to <strong>the</strong> left <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t, and coated with a very tli<strong>in</strong>callosity. The labrum is thickened exteriorly, arcuate <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> middle,fa<strong>in</strong>tly s<strong>in</strong>uatcd towards <strong>the</strong> lower extremity, and ra<strong>the</strong>r deeplynotched <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> slight c<strong>on</strong>stricti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> whorl near but not at <strong>the</strong>suture.Length 15 millim., diam, of last whorl above <strong>the</strong> mouth 4g ;aperture 7 l<strong>on</strong>g, 2 wide.Hah. Arafura Sea, N". Australia, 32-36 fms.This species is peculiar <strong>on</strong> account of <strong>the</strong> absence of l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>alcosta?. The outer lip is smooth <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen at hand, but<strong>in</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r and more mature shells it might be more or less dentatewith<strong>in</strong>.10, Cythara cyl<strong>in</strong>drica, var, (Plate IV. figs. H-H 1.)Mangelia cyl<strong>in</strong>drica, JReeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. sp. 9.Var.=M. lyrica, Reeve, I. c. sp. 30.Hah. Port Curtis, 7 fms, {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ;Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands{C^^m^ng\This species differs from <strong>the</strong> typical Ci/tharce <strong>in</strong> hav<strong>in</strong>g no transverselirpe <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> columella, <strong>in</strong> this respect agree<strong>in</strong>g with C. hornheckii,Reeve, C. turricula, E,eeve, and G. vitiensis, Smith.The variety (C. lyrica) is a trifle larger than <strong>the</strong> normal form,and <strong>the</strong> riblets are ra<strong>the</strong>r str<strong>on</strong>ger at <strong>the</strong> upper term<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong>. With<strong>the</strong>se feeble dist<strong>in</strong>cti<strong>on</strong>s <strong>the</strong> differences end. In both forms am<strong>in</strong>ute tubercle is sometimes, but not always, met with up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>upper part of <strong>the</strong> columella, and about fifteen f<strong>in</strong>e lira3 may becounted with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> exteriorly thickened labrum, which is shaUowlys<strong>in</strong>uated near <strong>the</strong> suture, and prom<strong>in</strong>ently arcuated when viewedlaterally. The l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al costse number about fourteen <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>penultimate whorl, and <strong>the</strong> pr<strong>in</strong>cipal transverse thread-like lirajabout eight, but up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> last voluti<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>re are as many as twentysix.The entire surface is beautifully cancellated with m<strong>in</strong>uteraised l<strong>in</strong>es of growth and microscopic spiral lira;, a feature seen<strong>on</strong>ly <strong>in</strong> well-preserved shells and under a powerful lens. Thesculptured whorls are six <strong>in</strong> number, <strong>the</strong> rema<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g two apical <strong>on</strong>esbe<strong>in</strong>g smooth and glassy.The s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen, <strong>in</strong> beautifnl c<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong>, from Port Curtis,presents certa<strong>in</strong> differences which it may be as well to menti<strong>on</strong>.At <strong>the</strong> upper part <strong>the</strong> whorls exhibit a fa<strong>in</strong>t c<strong>on</strong>cavity a littlebeneath <strong>the</strong> suture, of which I perceive a trace <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> type of <strong>the</strong>species, but not <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> variety (C. lyrica), and <strong>the</strong> cost?e are ra<strong>the</strong>rmore numerous, <strong>the</strong>re be<strong>in</strong>g about 17 up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> penultimate whorl,


•:42 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.but <strong>the</strong> spiral lir?e are normal <strong>in</strong> this respect. The measurementsare:-—Type : length lOg millim., diameter 3.Var. from Port Curtis : length 12|, diam. 4.11. Murex tenuispira.Lamarch; Kilsfer, C<strong>on</strong>.-Cab. p. 27, pi. 11. fig. 3, and pi. 20. fig. 3;Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 85; Kiener, pi. 7. fig. 1; Soioerby, Gen. Rec.Foss. Shells, pi. 225. fig. 2 ; Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, pi. 380. fig. 7.8fHab. Torres Straits, 7-10 fms. {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Darnley Islands,Torres Straits, 20-30 fms. (Brazier) ; Ambo<strong>in</strong>a (Qiioy df Gaimard);Moluccas (Kiener).12. Murex copp<strong>in</strong>geri. (Plate V. fig. A.)Shell clavately fusiform, whitish, <strong>in</strong>dist<strong>in</strong>ctly banded with palebrown. Whorls 9-9|, three apical smooth, slightly c<strong>on</strong>vex, glassy ;<strong>the</strong> rest angulated near <strong>the</strong> middle, slop<strong>in</strong>g above, somewhat c<strong>on</strong>tractedbelow at <strong>the</strong> suture, trivaricose, bicostate between <strong>the</strong> varices<strong>the</strong> latter have a s<strong>in</strong>gle upturned sp<strong>in</strong>e aris<strong>in</strong>g at <strong>the</strong> angle, whichis marked by a prom<strong>in</strong>ent ridge. The ribs are ra<strong>the</strong>r obsoleteabove <strong>the</strong> angle, and a trifle oblique below it. The slope of <strong>the</strong>whorls is traversed by about four thread-like lirse, which are moststr<strong>on</strong>gly developed up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> upper part of <strong>the</strong> varices. The lowerpart of <strong>the</strong> whorls is ornamented with a few similar lirte. Thethree varices <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> last whorl bear eight pr<strong>in</strong>cipal sp<strong>in</strong>es : of<strong>the</strong>se <strong>the</strong> uppermost is l<strong>on</strong>gest and stoutest ; three rest up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>labrum, and five up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> right side of <strong>the</strong> canal. In additi<strong>on</strong> to<strong>the</strong>se are four or five sec<strong>on</strong>dary or smaller <strong>in</strong>termediary sp<strong>in</strong>es <strong>on</strong><strong>the</strong> outer lip, and a small erect <strong>on</strong>e between each of tliose ujj<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>canal. The body-whorl is transversely Krato throughout, <strong>the</strong> lirsebe<strong>in</strong>g unequal, <strong>the</strong> larger runn<strong>in</strong>g parallel with <strong>the</strong> larger sp<strong>in</strong>es,which are somewhat acutely ridged beh<strong>in</strong>d and of a brownish t<strong>in</strong>t.The aperture is white, exhibit<strong>in</strong>g traces of three pale brownishz<strong>on</strong>es. The outer lip is th<strong>in</strong> at <strong>the</strong> edge and denticulated. Thecanal is straight, curv<strong>in</strong>g a little to <strong>the</strong> right near <strong>the</strong> tip. Length58 millim. ; aperture and canal 41 l<strong>on</strong>g.Hah. Arafura Sea, Dundas Straits, 17 fms.This may prove eventually a remarkable variety of M. 7iigrisp<strong>in</strong>osaof Ileeve, <strong>the</strong> <strong>on</strong>ly species it is likely to be c<strong>on</strong>founded with.That species, although atta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g a larger size, c<strong>on</strong>sists of <strong>on</strong>ly eightwhorls, whilst <strong>in</strong> M. copp<strong>in</strong>geri I count n<strong>in</strong>e and a half. Thenucleus of <strong>the</strong> latter c<strong>on</strong>sists of two and a half, which are a littlec<strong>on</strong>vex, toge<strong>the</strong>r form<strong>in</strong>g a Idunt-topped c<strong>on</strong>e. In <strong>the</strong> formerspecies <strong>the</strong>re are two nuclear voluti<strong>on</strong>s very c<strong>on</strong>vex, form<strong>in</strong>g a globoseapex. Both species have three varices to a whorl ; but <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong><strong>in</strong>terstices <strong>in</strong> M. nigrisp<strong>in</strong>osa three or even more nodose costae aremet with, whilst <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> present species <strong>the</strong>re are but two, and <strong>the</strong>se


MOLLUSC A. 43are not nodulous. The whorls <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> latter are not so rounded,decidedly more angular above, much more f<strong>in</strong>elj^ spirally ridged,and bear up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> varices shorter, thicker, and more curvedsp<strong>in</strong>es, which are not purple-black tipped, but white, exceptal<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> back, where <strong>the</strong>re is a slight ridge of pale brown.M. trihidus has a different apex, more c<strong>on</strong>vex whorls, differentcolorati<strong>on</strong>, and much coarser and nodose spiral ridg<strong>in</strong>g. Thenumber and positi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> sp<strong>in</strong>es is seen to be very similar <strong>in</strong>all three species when closely and carefully compared.13. Murex acanthostephes. (Plate V. fig. B.)Murex (Tribuliis) acanthostephes, Wats<strong>on</strong>, Jqurn. L<strong>in</strong>n. Soc, Zool.vol. xvi. p. 596.Hah. Arafura Sea, N.W. Australia, <strong>in</strong> 32-36 fms. ;bottom—mud,sand, and shells.The ' Challenger ' specimen was dredged very near <strong>the</strong> same spot,<strong>in</strong> 28 fms.Shell <strong>in</strong> form and general aspect ra<strong>the</strong>r like M. tenuisp<strong>in</strong>n,Lamarck, but with a shorter spire, fewer sp<strong>in</strong>es, and a n<strong>on</strong>-canaliculatesuture ; whitish, sta<strong>in</strong>ed irregularly with light olive-brown.Whorls c<strong>on</strong>vex, subangular and car<strong>in</strong>ated above <strong>the</strong> middle, withtwo or three f<strong>in</strong>e spiral raised l<strong>in</strong>es above <strong>the</strong> angle up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>slop<strong>in</strong>g and somewhat flattened upper porti<strong>on</strong>, and two or threesimilar l<strong>in</strong>es below <strong>the</strong> angle. Varices three <strong>on</strong> a whorl, bear<strong>in</strong>gfive sp<strong>in</strong>es up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>vex part and six <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> verj- straight beak,with threeor four m<strong>in</strong>ute sec<strong>on</strong>dary <strong>on</strong>es reflesed and appressed to<strong>the</strong> surface. The uppermost of all, aris<strong>in</strong>g from <strong>the</strong> car<strong>in</strong>a at <strong>the</strong>upper part of <strong>the</strong> whorls, is <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>gest, slightly curved, very erect,and almost parallel with <strong>the</strong> axis of <strong>the</strong> shell. The next, No. 2, ism<strong>in</strong>ute, jN^o. 3 a little shorter than No. 1 and arcuate, No. 4 muchsmaller, and No. 5 a little smaller than No. 3.The sp<strong>in</strong>es <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> cauda are straighter than those above, horiz<strong>on</strong>tal,or at right angles to <strong>the</strong> axis, <strong>the</strong> third, count<strong>in</strong>g fromabove, be<strong>in</strong>g a trifle <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>gest, <strong>the</strong> rest <strong>on</strong> each side becom<strong>in</strong>gsuccessively shorter. The body-whorl is transversely lirate throughout,<strong>the</strong> lira; vary<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> coarseness, <strong>the</strong> str<strong>on</strong>gest corresp<strong>on</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g to<strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>gest sp<strong>in</strong>es, and be<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong>ly slightly wavy, whilst some of <strong>the</strong><strong>in</strong>termediary <strong>on</strong>es are almost subnodular. The three nuclear whorlsarc light brown, glossy, and larger than those of M. tenidsp<strong>in</strong>a.The fourth whorl has about eleven short, open, and a little upturnedsp<strong>in</strong>es, form<strong>in</strong>g a very pretty cor<strong>on</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> at a subcentral angle, andhas no spiral l<strong>in</strong>es above or below it, but a sec<strong>on</strong>d series of hollowsp<strong>in</strong>es below at <strong>the</strong> suture, smaller than those above. Length37millim. ; diameter 12, exclusive of sp<strong>in</strong>es.M. tenuisjj<strong>in</strong>a, a near ally, has l<strong>on</strong>ger and more numerous sp<strong>in</strong>es,a l<strong>on</strong>ger and more po<strong>in</strong>ted spire term<strong>in</strong>at<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> a smaller apex, ac<strong>on</strong>spicuously channelled suture, and its sculpture is more pr<strong>on</strong>ounced,<strong>the</strong> spiral ridges be<strong>in</strong>g more granular and <strong>the</strong> l<strong>in</strong>es of


44 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.growth more c<strong>on</strong>spiciious. In M. acantliosteplies, at <strong>the</strong> base of <strong>the</strong>sp<strong>in</strong>es <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> canal <strong>the</strong>re is a small dark spot <strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong>e side, which isbest seen when <strong>the</strong> sliell is wetted.14. Murex macgillivrayi. (Plate V. fig. C.)Dohrn, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 203.Murex macgillivrayi (Miirch !), Sowerbt/, Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, vol. iv. p. 3,fig. 162 (wr<strong>on</strong>gly coloured).Hah. Lizard Island {Maegillivray). Port Curtis, Queensland,0-11 fms. ; Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, 8-12 fms. ; and Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of "Wales Channel,Torres Straits, 7-9 fms. {Copj'^<strong>in</strong>ger).The figure <strong>in</strong> Sowerby's Thesaurus ' ' gives no idea of <strong>the</strong> colourThe specimens described by Dohrn are overcleaned,of this species.and much of <strong>the</strong> pa<strong>in</strong>t<strong>in</strong>g is removed. These were <strong>in</strong> c<strong>on</strong>sequencecorrectly characterized as " white, with yellowish lirse.'' The shellscollected by Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger at Port Curtis are <strong>in</strong> fresh and perfectc<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong>, and show <strong>the</strong> true colour<strong>in</strong>g of <strong>the</strong> species. It is a yellowishshell, exhibit<strong>in</strong>g throe purplish-brown bands <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> bodywhorl,of which <strong>the</strong> uppermost is <strong>the</strong> broadest, be<strong>in</strong>g situated around<strong>the</strong> broadest part of <strong>the</strong> voluti<strong>on</strong>. The central <strong>on</strong>e is <strong>the</strong> narrowest<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> four specimens under exam<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong>, and placed midway between<strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r two, <strong>the</strong> lowermost fall<strong>in</strong>g at <strong>the</strong> base of <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>vexity, or,<strong>in</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r words, immediately below <strong>the</strong> third sp<strong>in</strong>e <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> varices.The spiral lirae are f<strong>in</strong>e, reddish, <strong>in</strong> some examples more deeplycoloured than <strong>in</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rs, and tern<strong>in</strong>ate at <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong> of <strong>the</strong> labrum<strong>in</strong> red dots, which fall between <strong>the</strong> lobe-like prol<strong>on</strong>gati<strong>on</strong>s. O<strong>the</strong>rlarger examples from Port Darw<strong>in</strong> have <strong>the</strong> three purplish-brownbands less pr<strong>on</strong>ounced and <strong>the</strong> general t<strong>in</strong>t paler. All have <strong>the</strong>canal blotched with brown <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t belo.v <strong>the</strong> sp<strong>in</strong>e <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> dextralmarg<strong>in</strong>. One of <strong>the</strong>se blotches, situated between <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d and thirdsp<strong>in</strong>es, is c<strong>on</strong>stantly <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>gest. With<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> aperture <strong>the</strong> externalband<strong>in</strong>g is seen, and <strong>the</strong> cavity of <strong>the</strong> last varix, when not filled withcallus, is almost black, form<strong>in</strong>g a dark submarg<strong>in</strong>al stripe. The canalis l<strong>on</strong>g and straight, taper<strong>in</strong>g, and blotched with brown <strong>in</strong> two orthree places.The specimens from Torres Straits are paler than <strong>the</strong> Port-Curtisexamples, have but little trace of <strong>the</strong> bands, and have <strong>the</strong> uppermostsp<strong>in</strong>e l<strong>on</strong>ger, curved, and upturned.15. Murex axicornis.Lamarck ; Kicnei-'s Coq. Viv. pi. 42. fig. 2 ; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. pi. 15.fig. 37, pi. 10. fig. 37, var. ; Kiister's C<strong>on</strong>.- Cab. pi. 21. fig. 3 ; Sowerhy,Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, pi. 382. fig. 31.Hah. Moluccas ; Philipp<strong>in</strong>es {Reeve) ; Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel,5-7 fms., and Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 4 fms. (Copj^<strong>in</strong>ger);Palm Island, N.E. Australia (Brazier).


MOLLFSCA, 45This shell is remarkably prickly when <strong>in</strong> perfect c<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong>, byreas<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> scaly character of tlie transverse ridges. The s<strong>in</strong>gleand ra<strong>the</strong>r young shell from Thursday Island has <strong>the</strong> spire of a delicatep<strong>in</strong>k colour. A sec<strong>on</strong>d example, from Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel,bel<strong>on</strong>gs to <strong>the</strong> black-brown variety figured by Reeve (pi. x. fig. 37).IG.Murex cervicornis.Lamarck ; Kiener's Coq. Viv. pi. 20, fig. 2 ; Soiverhy, Oenera Rec. Foss.Shells, fig. 4; id. Then. C<strong>on</strong>ch, pi. 382. fig. 30; lieeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch.Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 06; Kobelt, C<strong>on</strong>ch.- Cab. pi. 31. figs. 5, 6.Hab. Thursday Island, 4 fms. ; Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel ; TorresStraits, 7-9 fms.; Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, 8-12 fms.; and Clairmout Island,11 fms. (Gopp<strong>in</strong>ger) ;Darnley Island, Torres Straits, 20-30 fms.(Brazier).One specimen obta<strong>in</strong>ed by Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger is peculiar <strong>on</strong> account of<strong>the</strong> unusual shortness of <strong>the</strong> canal, and <strong>the</strong> presence of <strong>on</strong>e, <strong>in</strong>steadof two, sp<strong>in</strong>es up<strong>on</strong> it. Ano<strong>the</strong>r example is remarkable for itsuniform rich brown t<strong>in</strong>t, <strong>the</strong> ord<strong>in</strong>ary colour of this <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>gspecies be<strong>in</strong>g c<strong>on</strong>siderably paler.17. Murex territus.Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 167 a, b ; Sowei-bi/, Thes. C<strong>on</strong>. pi. 9. tig. 77(fr<strong>on</strong>ds <strong>on</strong> varices <strong>in</strong>correct).M urex nubilus (= territus, fun.), Sowerhj, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 428,pi. 49. fig. 4 ;Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, fig. 71.Hah. Wide Bay and Port Curtis {Mus. Cum<strong>in</strong>g) ; Port MoUe,15 fms., and Port Curtis, 0-11 fms. {Oopp<strong>in</strong>ger).Although <strong>the</strong> figures respectively represent<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> types of M.territus and M. nubilus would not lead <strong>on</strong>e to c<strong>on</strong>sider <strong>the</strong>m <strong>the</strong>same species, still <strong>on</strong> actual comparis<strong>on</strong> such proves bey<strong>on</strong>d a doubtto be <strong>the</strong> case.The shell described by Eceve is a t<strong>in</strong>e specimen (alas ! like verymany of Mr. Cum<strong>in</strong>g's shells, terribly spoiled by acid <strong>in</strong> clean<strong>in</strong>g),with <strong>the</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>dose varices weU developed. The three brown baudsso c<strong>on</strong>spicuous <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> young shell {M. nubilus) are <strong>on</strong>ly visible<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> varices <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> adult. The canal is a little arcuate, nearlyclosed, and somewhat recurved, and bears three pr<strong>in</strong>cipal sp<strong>in</strong>es, asmenti<strong>on</strong>ed by Sowerby <strong>in</strong> his descripti<strong>on</strong> of M. nubilus. Only twoare seen <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> figures of M. territus, a result due to a fi'acture of<strong>the</strong> third <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> shell figured ; but <strong>the</strong> presence of it is seen <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>penultimate varix <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> same illustrati<strong>on</strong>. Although, ds a rule,<strong>the</strong>re is but a s<strong>in</strong>gle tubercle between <strong>the</strong> varices, yet <strong>in</strong> some specimensa sec<strong>on</strong>d smaller <strong>on</strong>e is developed. The two nuclear whorlsare smooth, c<strong>on</strong>vex, and reddish.


46 COLLECTIONS PEOM MELANESIA.18. Murex m<strong>on</strong>od<strong>on</strong>.Soioerby ; Heeve^s C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 21 a,b ; Sowerbi/, Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, iv.pi. 385. fio-s. 55, 56; Kiister, C<strong>on</strong>.-Cah. pi. 10. figs. 1, 2.Mui-ex aranea, Kiener, Coq. Vic. pi. 30. fig. 1.Hah. Albany Island, North Australia, 3-8 fms, {Oopp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Dupuch'sIsland, Torres Straits {Reeve).A s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen from Albany Island bel<strong>on</strong>gs to <strong>the</strong> pale variety(fig. 21 «, C<strong>on</strong>. Ic<strong>on</strong>.) with a reddish-p<strong>in</strong>k peristome, and has a remarkablefr<strong>on</strong>d <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> labrum, <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d from <strong>the</strong> top, measur<strong>in</strong>g55 millimetres <strong>in</strong> length. The tooth <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> labrum exhibits aremarkable development <strong>in</strong> this species.19. Fusus hanleyi.Troph<strong>on</strong> hanleyi, Angas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1807, p. 110, pL xiii. fig. 1.Fusus hanleyi (-£". Smith .'), Sowerby, Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, p. 83, fig. 145.Hah. Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> {Angas and Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Port Curtis {Oopp<strong>in</strong>ger).Mr. Sowerby err<strong>on</strong>eously attributes this species to me ; <strong>the</strong> coarsenessof his figure renders it of but little use, that <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> ' Proceed<strong>in</strong>gs'be<strong>in</strong>g far preferable.20. Fusus heptag<strong>on</strong>alis.Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 2Qa,h; Soioerby, Thes, C<strong>on</strong>ch, fig. 132.Hah. ? Port Molle, Queensland {Oopp<strong>in</strong>ger).The colour<strong>in</strong>g of Sowerby's figure is totally <strong>in</strong>correct, and it is notnearly so accurate with regard to sculpture as that <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> CouchologiaIc<strong>on</strong>ica.' This species is not always heptag<strong>on</strong>al, <strong>the</strong> number'of ribs <strong>in</strong> three cases out of four be<strong>in</strong>g eight <strong>in</strong>stead of seven. When<strong>in</strong> f<strong>in</strong>e c<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> spiral ridges of this species are f<strong>in</strong>ely imbricatelyscaled by <strong>the</strong> parallel wavy l<strong>in</strong>es of growth. The <strong>on</strong>ly specimenobta<strong>in</strong>ed by Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger is <strong>in</strong> a bad state of preservati<strong>on</strong>,and of a c<strong>on</strong>siderably more dwarfed or stunted growth than <strong>the</strong> typeand two o<strong>the</strong>r specimens <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Eritish Museum. It is, however,adult, exhibit<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> thickened lip and eight lirao with<strong>in</strong> of an adultshell. The canal, too, is short, and <strong>the</strong> last whorl has an <strong>in</strong>c<strong>on</strong>spicuouspale z<strong>on</strong>e around <strong>the</strong> middle, also observable <strong>in</strong> <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rspecimens above referred to.21. Fusus cereus. (Plate V. fig. D.)Shell short, ovately fusiform, pale yellowish, ribbed, and transverselyscabrously lirate. Whorls about 8, <strong>the</strong> rema<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g sixthickened beneath <strong>the</strong> suture by a stout ridge, <strong>the</strong>n obliquely slop<strong>in</strong>g,angled at <strong>the</strong> middle and c<strong>on</strong>tracted at <strong>the</strong> base, streng<strong>the</strong>nedwith eight stout costa3, which are obliquely c<strong>on</strong>tiuuous up <strong>the</strong> spire,and crossed by four spiral squamose liraD, two of <strong>the</strong>m aroi<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong>lower half of <strong>the</strong> whorls be<strong>in</strong>g twice as thick as <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r two above,and particularly prom<strong>in</strong>ent up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> ribs. The last voluti<strong>on</strong>, <strong>in</strong>


MOLLUSCA. 47additi<strong>on</strong> to <strong>the</strong>se four, has about n<strong>in</strong>e o<strong>the</strong>r equally stout liraj, exclusiveof four or five f<strong>in</strong>er <strong>on</strong>es up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> extremity ; all are prettilysealed. The aperture is ovate, c<strong>on</strong>tracted anteriorly <strong>in</strong>to a shortcanal, which is much <strong>in</strong>cl<strong>in</strong>ed to <strong>the</strong> left. The columella is smooth,covered with a th<strong>in</strong> callus, and <strong>the</strong> outer lip is armed with<strong>in</strong> withabout six coarsish liroe. Length 18 millim., width 8g millim. ; apertureand canal 9 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g, 3 millim. wide.Hah. Port Curtis, 7 fms,22. Urosalp<strong>in</strong>x c<strong>on</strong>tracta.Bucc<strong>in</strong>um c<strong>on</strong>tractum, Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ico)i. fig. 53.? Bucc<strong>in</strong>um funiculatum, Reeve, I. c. fig. 61.Var. = Urosalp<strong>in</strong>x iuuotabilis, Smith, Proc. Zool. 8oc. 1879, pi. xx.tig. 32.Hah. Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel, 5-7 fms. {Gopp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Philipp<strong>in</strong>eIslands {Reeve) ; Bombay ( W. T. Blanford) ; Japan for U. <strong>in</strong>notahilis.The operculum of this species resembles that of Purpura. Thespecies is ra<strong>the</strong>r variable <strong>in</strong> form, <strong>the</strong> number of costs), <strong>in</strong> colour, and<strong>the</strong> length of <strong>the</strong> basal or anterior canal.The typical form is ra<strong>the</strong>r l<strong>on</strong>ger, and has a more prol<strong>on</strong>ged canalthan <strong>the</strong> variety from Japan, has more brown colour<strong>in</strong>g, and anadditi<strong>on</strong>al l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al rib. All have from seven to eight el<strong>on</strong>gatedenticles or lira) with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> labrum, which is thickened with<strong>in</strong> andwithout, and acute and crenulated al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong>.23. Trit<strong>on</strong>idea curtisiana. (Plate V. fig. E.)Shell ovate-fusiform, yellow, banded with white round <strong>the</strong> middleof <strong>the</strong> last whorl, with <strong>the</strong> ribs subaltern ately white also. Voluti<strong>on</strong>sabout 8, obliquely coarsely costate, and spirally closely ridged, atrifle c<strong>on</strong>vex. Costse n<strong>in</strong>e <strong>on</strong> a whorl, attenuated and producedalmost to <strong>the</strong> base of <strong>the</strong> last. Sj)iral lira) prom<strong>in</strong>ent <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> ribs,four <strong>in</strong> number <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> upper whorls, and about sixteen <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> last.A])erture small, ovate, narrowed anteriorly, bluish white. Lipthickened, furnished with about n<strong>in</strong>e f<strong>in</strong>e l<strong>in</strong>e reach<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong>,which is dotted with dark brown between <strong>the</strong>m. Columellacovered with a th<strong>in</strong> callosity, up<strong>on</strong> which rest eight or n<strong>in</strong>e transversetubercles, with brown dots between <strong>the</strong>m. Length 14 millim.,diam. G| millim. ; aperture with canal 7 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g.Hah. Port Curtis, 1-11 fms. {Coppnnger).This speciesis represented <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> present collecti<strong>on</strong> by a s<strong>in</strong>glespecimen : and it is remarkable <strong>on</strong> account of <strong>the</strong> peculiarity of itscolour, its small size, and comparative solidity.24. Columbella fulgurans, LammxlcHah. West Island, Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel, Torres Straits {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).


48 COLLECTIONS PKOM MELANESIA.This species has also been recorded from several localities <strong>in</strong>North-cast Australia by Mr. Brazier <strong>in</strong> his account of <strong>the</strong> MoUuscaof <strong>the</strong> ' Chevert ' expediti<strong>on</strong>.25. Columbella scripta, Lamarck.Hah. Port Molle, Queensland, and Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel,5-7 fms.C. versicolor, Sowerby, C. variegata, Menke, 0. hidentata, Menke,and C. tiyriaa, Duclos, appear to be syn<strong>on</strong>ymous with this species.26. Colimihella pardal<strong>in</strong>a.Lamarck; Duchs, M<strong>on</strong>og. pi. 2. figs. 13, 14 ;Kiener, pi. 4. fig. 3 ;Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 75a-c.Hah. Port Molle, <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> reef (Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands(Cum<strong>in</strong>g).A s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen from Port Molle is somewhat narrower thanspecimens from <strong>the</strong> Philipp<strong>in</strong>es collected by Mr. Cum<strong>in</strong>g.27. Nassa cor<strong>on</strong>ata, Bruguiere.Hah. Port Molle, Queensland, <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> beach.A s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen from this locality is of a uniform light brownt<strong>in</strong>t, with a blotch of a darker colour <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> back of <strong>the</strong> bodywhorl.28. Nassa <strong>the</strong>rsites, Bruguiere.Hah. Port Denis<strong>on</strong>, <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> beach.29. Nassa algida, var.Reeve, Cdnch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. pi. 22. figs. 145 «, 6.Hah. West Island, Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of "Wales Channel, Torres Straits (Coj)-p<strong>in</strong>ger).This pretty variety is not so broad a shell as <strong>the</strong> type, almostwhite, up<strong>on</strong> which colour <strong>the</strong> rows of squarish, light brownish spotsappear more c<strong>on</strong>spicuous than usual. There are n<strong>in</strong>e whorls, ofwhich <strong>the</strong> two apical are smooth and c<strong>on</strong>vex, <strong>the</strong> four succeed<strong>in</strong>g<strong>on</strong>es str<strong>on</strong>gly ribbed and transversely grooved a little beneath <strong>the</strong>suture, <strong>the</strong> furrow divid<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> ribs <strong>in</strong>to two unequal parts. Thethree last voluti<strong>on</strong>s are smooth, and a little more c<strong>on</strong>vex than <strong>the</strong>sculptured <strong>on</strong>es above. The length is 20 millim., and <strong>the</strong> diameterU millim.30. Nassa unicolor.Bucc<strong>in</strong>um laeve s<strong>in</strong>uatum, Chemnitz, C<strong>on</strong>.-Cab. iw. pp. 54, 59, pi. 125.figs. 1194, 1195.Bucc<strong>in</strong>um uuicolorum, Kiener, Coq. llv. p. 60.Bucciuuui unicolor, id. I. c. pi, 19. fig. 69.


MOLLUSCA. 49Nassa (Alectrioii) uiiicolor, A. Adams, P. Z. S. \So\, p. 100.Nassa unicolorata, Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 1 7.Nassa rutilaiis, Reeve, I. c. p. 147.Nassa Isevis, If. 4' -4. Adams, Genera Mol. vol. i. pp. 110 & 119,pi. V2. fig._7.Nassa (Zeuxis) unicolora, Kiener, Adams, I.e. p. 119.Hah. Cape York, N, Australia {Juices) ; Torres Straits {Brazier);Port Curtis and Port Molle, Queensland, 12-20 fms, (Coppiiiijer);Sir C. Hardy's Island (Jukes).New Zealand, <strong>the</strong> locality given by Reeve for N. rutilans, isprobably<strong>in</strong>correct.The operculum of this species is unguiculate, curved, with a term<strong>in</strong>alnucleus and simple unserrated edges.31. Nassaria suturalis, var.H<strong>in</strong>dsia suturalis, A. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1853, p. 183 ; Sowerhy,Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, iii. pi. 220. tigs. 15, IG ; Kobelt,<strong>in</strong> Kiisters C<strong>on</strong>.-Cab.,Purpwacea, pi. 77. tigs. 11, 12.Iliudsia bitubercularis, A. Adams, P. Z. S. 1853, p. 183 j Soioerhy,I. c. tig. 5 ; Kubelt, I. c. tigs. 9, 10.Nassaria recurva, Soicerh/, I. c. tigs. 17, 18.Nassaria s<strong>in</strong>ensis, Soiverbi/, Thesaurus, tigs. 8, 9; Kobelt, tig. 8.Hah. Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, North-west Australia, 8-12 fms. {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger);Ch<strong>in</strong>a Sea, Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands, and Ceyl<strong>on</strong> {Adams and Soiverby).A s<strong>in</strong>gle sjiecimen from Port Darw<strong>in</strong> agrees precisely with <strong>the</strong>variety s<strong>in</strong>ensis. After a careful exam<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> so-called specieswhich I have united above, I cannot detect any c<strong>on</strong>stant differences.The above variety I believe to be founded <strong>on</strong> n<strong>on</strong>-adult shells fortwo reas<strong>on</strong>s :—first, I f<strong>in</strong>d <strong>on</strong>ly six whorls, exclusive of <strong>the</strong> smoothapical <strong>on</strong>es, be<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong>e less than <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> typical suturalis ; and,sec<strong>on</strong>dly, <strong>the</strong> aperture is larger, a result due to <strong>the</strong> less degree ofthicken<strong>in</strong>g of <strong>the</strong> labrum and columella. It is true that <strong>the</strong> sutureis less excavated, but this c<strong>on</strong>cavity is variable <strong>in</strong> specimens undoubtedlynormal. The number of costte is also <strong>in</strong>c<strong>on</strong>stant, vary<strong>in</strong>gfrom n<strong>in</strong>e to twelve <strong>on</strong> a whorl ; <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> former case, as might be expected,be<strong>in</strong>g thicker than <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> latter. The tuberculati<strong>on</strong> andlirati<strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> columella depend for <strong>the</strong> amount of <strong>the</strong>ir develojimentup<strong>on</strong> age, adult shells hav<strong>in</strong>g a larger quantity and a greater expansi<strong>on</strong>of <strong>the</strong> free columellar caQosity than young specimens, but <strong>the</strong>lirae with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> outer lip, wlien countable, are generally about n<strong>in</strong>eiu number,32. Phos scalaroides.A. Adams; Sowerhy'' s Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, vul. iii. pi. 221. tig. 13.Hah. Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of "Wales Channel, Torres Straits, 9 fms, i^Copp<strong>in</strong>r/er).This form 1 cannot separate satisfactorily from P. plicatus andP. textilis, both of A. Adams ;and I am of op<strong>in</strong>i<strong>on</strong> that w ere tlieE


50 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.series before me larger, <strong>the</strong>re would be little difficulty <strong>in</strong> show<strong>in</strong>g<strong>the</strong> specific identit}'.The s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen from Torres Straits is smaller than <strong>the</strong> type<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Cum<strong>in</strong>gian collecti<strong>on</strong>, and c<strong>on</strong>sists of n<strong>in</strong>e whorls, three ofwhich form <strong>the</strong> smooth p<strong>in</strong>kish nucleus. The brown z<strong>on</strong>e around<strong>the</strong> middle of <strong>the</strong> body-whorl is un<strong>in</strong>terrupted, and passes up <strong>the</strong>spire just above <strong>the</strong> suture, beneath which <strong>the</strong> whorls are alsosta<strong>in</strong>ed with <strong>the</strong> same colour. The columella is smooth, Avith <strong>the</strong>excepti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>on</strong>e or two el<strong>on</strong>gate tubercles at <strong>the</strong> upper part ; and<strong>the</strong> labrum is armed with<strong>in</strong> with about fifteen f<strong>in</strong>e lira?, runn<strong>in</strong>g farwith<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> aperture.33. Phos senticosus, var.Murex senticosus, L<strong>in</strong>n.Var. = Phos muriculatus, Gould.Var. = Phos angulatus, Sowerby.Hah. West Island, Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel, Torres Straits(Co2:>p{n(/er) ; Port Ess<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong>, 7 fms. {Juices <strong>in</strong> Brit. Mus.).The variety muricuUttus cannot, I th<strong>in</strong>k, be distiuguished from<strong>the</strong> well-known P. senticosus, of which it has <strong>the</strong> aspect of be<strong>in</strong>g adwarfed form. The style of colorati<strong>on</strong> is similar, and <strong>the</strong> dift'erence<strong>in</strong> sculpture is very slight <strong>in</strong>deed, not sufficient to warrant, <strong>in</strong> myop<strong>in</strong>i<strong>on</strong>, a specific separati<strong>on</strong>. In <strong>the</strong> British Museum I f<strong>in</strong>d aseries graduat<strong>in</strong>g from <strong>the</strong> short stumpy form of P. muriculatus to<strong>the</strong> more graceful el<strong>on</strong>gate outl<strong>in</strong>e of P. senticosus, <strong>the</strong> latter c<strong>on</strong>sist<strong>in</strong>gof eight whorls, exclusive of <strong>the</strong> smooth apex, and <strong>the</strong> formerof six, o<strong>the</strong>r specimens <strong>in</strong>termediate with regard to length hav<strong>in</strong>gseven. P. angulatus appears to offer very slight differences bey<strong>on</strong>d<strong>the</strong> absence <strong>in</strong> a greater or less degree of colour.34. Purpura bitubercularis, var.Lamarck ; Kiener, Coq. Viv. pi. xi. fig. 32 ;Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Lc. fig. 37 ;Kdster, C<strong>on</strong>ch.-Cab. pi. 31 a. figs. 3-8.= Purpura kienerii, Deshnyes, Anim. sans Vert. vol. x. p. 101.Var. = Purpura undata, Heeve (? Lamarck), C<strong>on</strong>ch. Le<strong>on</strong>. fig. 43.Hab. Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands (Cum<strong>in</strong>g); Port Ess<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong> (Juhes);Arakan coast {Blanford) ; Pelew Islands (Dr. K<strong>in</strong>g) ; Port Molle,Uueensland ( Co^^p<strong>in</strong>ger).This species varies c<strong>on</strong>siderably <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> length and development of<strong>the</strong> tubercles. The two small specimens from Queensland have<strong>the</strong>m short and obtuse, as represented <strong>in</strong> fig. 3 of Kiister. Someo<strong>the</strong>r forms, which have been described under various names, mayeventually be c<strong>on</strong>sidered c<strong>on</strong>specific with this : such are P. luteostoma,Chemnitz, P. alveolata, Heeve, P. clavigera, Kiister, andperhaps P. br<strong>on</strong>ni, Dunker. I cannot, however, agree with Try<strong>on</strong>that P. hippocastanum should also be classed with this species. Ishould here observe that <strong>the</strong> specimen figured by Eeeve as P. undataof Lamarck is unquesti<strong>on</strong>ably a variety of this species (bitubercularis),


MOLLUSC A. 51and appears to corresp<strong>on</strong>d with Kiener's idea of <strong>the</strong> Lamarckianshell (Coq. Viv. fol. 34, f. 81) and also with <strong>the</strong> specimen figured byKiister (C<strong>on</strong>.-Cab. pi. 23. f. 5). But whe<strong>the</strong>r all or n<strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong>sefigures del<strong>in</strong>eate <strong>the</strong> true P. undata appears to me questi<strong>on</strong>able.However, I do not believe that <strong>the</strong> West-Indian shell which hasbeen assigned to it by d'Orbigny (Eam<strong>on</strong> de la Sagra's Hist. Cuba,vol. ii. p. 145) and those figured by Try<strong>on</strong> (Man. Couch, f. 82, 100103, and 109) can bey<strong>on</strong>d a doubt be c<strong>on</strong>sidered Lamarck's sj)ecies.The dimensi<strong>on</strong>s he gives, namely 22 l<strong>in</strong>es <strong>in</strong> length, exceed thoseof <strong>the</strong> West-Indian examples; nor does <strong>the</strong> descripti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> colour," albo et fusco-nigricante l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>aliter undatimque picta,'' applywell to those shells, but admirably suits <strong>the</strong> specimens figured byKiister, Reeve, and Kiener. The locality, " M<strong>on</strong>te Christi, WestColumbia,'' given by Reeve for his shell is no doubt err<strong>on</strong>eous, andapplies to two o<strong>the</strong>rs <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> same tablet, c<strong>on</strong>sidered by Cum<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>same species, but which <strong>on</strong> careful exam<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> prove to be withoutdoubt examples of P. biserialis, Ela<strong>in</strong>ville { = P. bicostalis. Reeve,? of Lamarck). This species has a character not found <strong>in</strong> P. hituhercularisand its varieties, namely <strong>the</strong> oblique plicati<strong>on</strong>s <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>lower part of <strong>the</strong> columella ; and P. fasciata of Reeve, which is alsoc<strong>on</strong>specific with P. undata^ d'Orb. (n<strong>on</strong> Lamk.), and P. forbesii,Dunker, also has <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> columella a dist<strong>in</strong>guish<strong>in</strong>g character whichhas not been noticed, viz. a small brown sta<strong>in</strong>, most observable <strong>in</strong>fresh specimens, at <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>ferior end, and an oblique mark of <strong>the</strong>same colour <strong>in</strong> a l<strong>in</strong>e with <strong>the</strong> raised ridge at <strong>the</strong> base of <strong>the</strong> bodywhorl.85. Purpura (Cr<strong>on</strong>ia) amygdala.Purpura amygdala, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 39, pi. 10. fig. 26 ;Chenu,Man. de C<strong>on</strong>ch, fig. 807.Bucc<strong>in</strong>um amygdala, Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 60.Hah. Port Denis<strong>on</strong>, 4 fms. {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Home Islands, off CapeGrenville, N.E. Australia, also Moretou Bay, Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>, andPort Darw<strong>in</strong> (Brazier).The operculum of this species is normally Purpuroid, although<strong>the</strong> basal channel of <strong>the</strong> aperture is unusually narrower than <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>genus.36. Sistrum undatum, var.Ric<strong>in</strong>ula fiscellum, Reeve (n<strong>on</strong> Chenmitz), C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. pi. 4. fig. 28.Hah. Port Darw<strong>in</strong> {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Port Ess<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong> (Jiil-es <strong>in</strong> Brit.Mus.).This variety is ulso (juoted from <strong>the</strong> north coast of Australia byG. and H. Xevill (Journ. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, 1875, vol. xliv, pt. 2,p. 83). It differs from <strong>the</strong> typical form of this well-known s])ecies<strong>in</strong> its greater bi'eadth, <strong>in</strong> hav<strong>in</strong>g fewer and larger nodose plicati<strong>on</strong>s,and <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> f<strong>in</strong>eness and closeness of <strong>the</strong> transverse squamoseridges.E 2


52 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.37. Sistrum tuberculatum.Purpura tubercxilatum, Blamville, N<strong>on</strong>v. Arch, clu Mvs. vol. i. 1832,p. 204, pi. 9. fig. 3.Riciuula tuberculata, Heeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 11.Purpura tuberculata, Kiener, C'oq. Vh\ pi. 5. fig. 10.Purpura gi-auulata, Duclos, Ami. Sci. Nat. 1832, vol. xxvi. pi. 2.fig. 9.? Purpura margiualba, Blamville, I. c. p. 212, pi. 10. fig. 6.Ifab. Lord Hood aud Elizabeth Islands (Cummg); Madagascarand Red Sea {Bla<strong>in</strong>ville) ; New Holland and <strong>the</strong> Friendly Islands{Kiener) ; Port Ess<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong>, Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>, Brisbane, Japan, StewartIsland, and Lord Hood's Island (Bnt. 2Ins.) ; Port Molle and PortCurtis, Queensland {Copij<strong>in</strong>cfer); Seychelles and Amirantes Islands(Dufo) ; Reuni<strong>on</strong> (Deshayes) ; Mauritius (Martens).38. Latirus angustus. (Plate Y. fig. F.)Shell narrow, fusiform, of a rich brown colour. Whorls llg ; <strong>the</strong>two apical <strong>on</strong>es smooth, form<strong>in</strong>g a bluutish apex, <strong>the</strong> rest str<strong>on</strong>glyribbed and spirally ridged. liibs a little oblique, very broad,rounded, with scarcely any <strong>in</strong>terstices, not reach<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> upperboundary of <strong>the</strong> whorls. Transverse lirac or ridges str<strong>on</strong>g : threepr<strong>in</strong>cipal <strong>on</strong>es <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> upper whorls ; <strong>the</strong> uppermost, or that almostbound<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> suture, a little wavy, scarcely afl:ected by <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>alcostoe ;<strong>the</strong> two otbers situated round <strong>the</strong> middle of <strong>the</strong>whorls, prom<strong>in</strong>ent, and ra<strong>the</strong>r acute <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> ribs ; between <strong>the</strong>seare f<strong>in</strong>e thread-like lirae, generally <strong>on</strong>e <strong>in</strong> each <strong>in</strong>terstice. Last whorlsimilarly lirated throughout with large and small ridges. The entiresurface of <strong>the</strong> shell exhibits between <strong>the</strong> transverse lirje coarse l<strong>in</strong>esof growth. Aperture small, subpyriformly ovate, brownish whitewith<strong>in</strong>, with about four slender white lirse not reach<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong>marg<strong>in</strong> of <strong>the</strong> labrum, which is crenulated and dotted with brownat <strong>the</strong> ends of <strong>the</strong> exterior ridge. Columella covered with a prom<strong>in</strong>entbrownish callosity bear<strong>in</strong>g two f<strong>in</strong>e transverse plaits, <strong>on</strong>e at <strong>the</strong>middle and <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r below it. Canal almost straight and nearlyclosed. Length 38 millim., diameter 9.Hab. Eitzroy Island, Queensland ( (7opjw;(/fr) ; Andaman Islands(teste G. B. Sowerby,jun.).This species may be recognized by its slender form, <strong>in</strong> whichrespect it somewhat resembles L. lancea. Viewed with <strong>the</strong> unassistedeye, <strong>the</strong> wborls appear to bo encircled by three transverseprom<strong>in</strong>ent liroe, of which <strong>the</strong> uppermost is nearly simple, whilst<strong>the</strong> two <strong>in</strong>ferior <strong>on</strong>es are undulate up<strong>on</strong> aud between <strong>the</strong> ribs.The specimen said to have come from <strong>the</strong> Andaman Islands, apparentlyadult, is smaller than that from Queensland, be<strong>in</strong>g 20 millim.l<strong>on</strong>g and 6^ broad, but <strong>in</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r respects similar.


;MOLLUSCA. 6339. Turb<strong>in</strong>ella (Tudicula) armigera. (Plate V. fig. G.)Tudicla armigera, A. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1855, p. 221 ; Kobelt,C<strong>on</strong>ch.-Cali., Furpuracea, ii'i. p. 20 ; Tri/<strong>on</strong>, Man. C<strong>on</strong>ch, vol. iii.p. 144, pi. 58. fig. 411.Hab. Moret<strong>on</strong> Bay {Strange) ; Port Curtis, 0-11 fms., and PortMoUe, 14 fms. {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).As <strong>the</strong> Latiu diagnosis given by Adams is defective <strong>in</strong> severalimportant po<strong>in</strong>ts, I here give a more ample descripti<strong>on</strong> of thisremarkable species.Shell clavately fusiform, whitish, l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>allystreaked with reddish brown, clo<strong>the</strong>d with a ra<strong>the</strong>r th<strong>in</strong>, somewhatfibrous, yellowish ejndcrmis. Spire short, c<strong>on</strong>cavely c<strong>on</strong>ical, obtuseand mamillated at <strong>the</strong> apex. Whorls G ; <strong>the</strong> two nuclear <strong>on</strong>essmooth, c<strong>on</strong>vex ; <strong>the</strong> three follow<strong>in</strong>g nearly flat or a little c<strong>on</strong>caveand slop<strong>in</strong>g, angled at <strong>the</strong> lower part near <strong>the</strong> suture, bear<strong>in</strong>g at <strong>the</strong>angle a series of upturned, slightly recurved hollow sp<strong>in</strong>es, ornamentedwith f<strong>in</strong>e wavy spiral lirati<strong>on</strong>s both above and below <strong>the</strong>angle. Last whorl like <strong>the</strong> three preced<strong>in</strong>g at <strong>the</strong> upper part, buthav<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> sp<strong>in</strong>es, about n<strong>in</strong>e <strong>in</strong> number, much l<strong>on</strong>ger, <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong> length with <strong>the</strong> growth of tlie shell ; body of whorl a triflec<strong>on</strong>vex, <strong>in</strong>dist<strong>in</strong>ctly variced or costate beneath each sp<strong>in</strong>e, bear<strong>in</strong>gthree to five lirse armed with numerous short hollow sp<strong>in</strong>es, <strong>the</strong><strong>in</strong>terstices be<strong>in</strong>g ornamented with two or three thread-like lirati<strong>on</strong>slower part of <strong>the</strong> whorl prol<strong>on</strong>ged <strong>in</strong>to a straight canal occupy<strong>in</strong>gabout half <strong>the</strong> length of <strong>the</strong> entire shell, bear<strong>in</strong>g two obli(iue rowsof sp<strong>in</strong>es, those of <strong>the</strong> upper series be<strong>in</strong>g c<strong>on</strong>siderably l<strong>on</strong>gest : athird row is also <strong>in</strong>dicated at <strong>the</strong> lower part, and <strong>the</strong> entire rostrumis obliquely lirated throughout. Aperture ovate, white or p<strong>in</strong>kishwhite. Outer lip thickened, crenulated at <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong>, with abouteight lirse with<strong>in</strong>. Columella covered with a large erect spread<strong>in</strong>gcallosity extend<strong>in</strong>g from <strong>the</strong> upper extremity of <strong>the</strong> labrura to i.helower end of <strong>the</strong> aperture, armed with three plaits, of which <strong>the</strong>lowermost is <strong>the</strong> thickest. Operculum ovate, acute at <strong>the</strong> nucleus,which is term<strong>in</strong>al, brown. Length G5 millim., greatest diam. 30.This beautiful shell was orig<strong>in</strong>ally placed <strong>in</strong> Tudicla, <strong>on</strong>e ofthose n<strong>on</strong>-admissible divisi<strong>on</strong>s of Bolt<strong>on</strong>, and subsequently a newgenus, Tudicula, was proposed by H. and A. Adams (P. Z. S. 1863,p. 429) for <strong>the</strong> recepti<strong>on</strong> of this and a sec<strong>on</strong>d species, T.sp<strong>in</strong>osa, alsofrom Port Curtis. A third form, T. <strong>in</strong>ermis, has more recently beendescribed by Mr. G. P. Angas, presumed to have come from S<strong>in</strong>gapore.All of <strong>the</strong>se species have <strong>the</strong> plaits <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> columella, <strong>the</strong>mamillated apex, and <strong>the</strong> largely developed and prom<strong>in</strong>ent callosity<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>ner lip as <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> typical forms of Turb<strong>in</strong>ella., e. g. T.pyrumand T. rapa., and differ ma<strong>in</strong>ly <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> greater length of <strong>the</strong> canal.The operculum, too, is essentially <strong>the</strong> same ; and <strong>the</strong>refore <strong>the</strong> utilityof this generic divisi<strong>on</strong> becomes very questi<strong>on</strong>able.


54 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.40. Turb<strong>in</strong>ella (Tudicula) sp<strong>in</strong>osa. (Plate V. fig. H.)Tudicla (Tudicula) sp<strong>in</strong>osa, H.


MOLLrSCA. 65aga<strong>in</strong> below this by about seventeen o<strong>the</strong>rs, hav<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> furrowsbetween <strong>the</strong>m sculptured like those of <strong>the</strong> spire. The aperture isnarrow, brownish with<strong>in</strong>, about half as l<strong>on</strong>g as <strong>the</strong> shell. Thecolumella is four-plaited, and <strong>the</strong> outer lip crenulated at <strong>the</strong> edges.Length 37 millim., diam. 13.Hah. Port Curtis, Queensland {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; island of Ticao,Philipp<strong>in</strong>es {Cum<strong>in</strong>g).The above descripti<strong>on</strong> has been drawn up from two specimensdiffer<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> certa<strong>in</strong> particulars from <strong>the</strong> type, <strong>on</strong>e from each of <strong>the</strong>above localities. In <strong>the</strong> British Museum <strong>the</strong>i'e are two examplesof <strong>the</strong> typical form from Kurrachee and Bombay, presented byW. T. Blanford, Esq., by whom <strong>the</strong>y were collected. The varietydiffers <strong>in</strong> hav<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> spire ungradated, a feature giv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> outl<strong>in</strong>e avery different form, and <strong>in</strong> hav<strong>in</strong>g some of <strong>the</strong> upper liraa up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>last and preced<strong>in</strong>g whorls double ; both forms have that immediatelybeneath <strong>the</strong> suture more or less tripartite <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> last voluti<strong>on</strong>, but<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> variety this peculiarity extends to <strong>the</strong> penultimate whorl.42. Mitrai peasei.Dohrn, Proc. Soc. Zool. 1800, p. 366; Soxcerby, Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, iv.pi. 357. fig. 76.Hah. Port MoUe {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Australia (Dohrn).The figure <strong>in</strong> Mr. Sowerby's work of this species represents <strong>the</strong>spire too suddenly taper<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>the</strong> aperture too wide, and <strong>the</strong> plaits<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> columella should be less equal <strong>in</strong> size and five <strong>in</strong> number<strong>in</strong>stead of four. The specimen from Port MoUe is not absolutelyidentical with <strong>the</strong> type described by Dohrn ; it is ra<strong>the</strong>r shorter,yellowish, with a white z<strong>on</strong>e at <strong>the</strong> upper part of <strong>the</strong> whorls, andano<strong>the</strong>r round <strong>the</strong> middle of <strong>the</strong> body-whorl. But <strong>the</strong> pr<strong>in</strong>cipaldifference lies <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> greater coarseness of <strong>the</strong> spiral ridges : of<strong>the</strong>se <strong>the</strong> upper voluti<strong>on</strong>s have three, <strong>the</strong> penultimate four, and <strong>the</strong>last about twenty-four ;<strong>the</strong> uppermost beneath <strong>the</strong> suture is aduplex <strong>on</strong>e, and those up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> body-whorl become gradually f<strong>in</strong>ertowards <strong>the</strong> anterior end. The five plaits <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> columella graduallydim<strong>in</strong>ish <strong>in</strong> size until <strong>the</strong> lowermost is almost obsolete, <strong>in</strong>deed <strong>in</strong><strong>on</strong>e specimen <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Cum<strong>in</strong>gian collecti<strong>on</strong> it is entirely want<strong>in</strong>g.The grooves between <strong>the</strong> ridges are crenulated by elevated l<strong>in</strong>es ofgrowth, which <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> specimen from Port Molle are particularlystr<strong>on</strong>gly developed.43. Mitra (Turricula) corrugata.Mitra corrugata, Lamarck ; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 57 a, b ;Kiener,Coq. Viv. Yil 22. tig. 67; Sowerby, Tlies. C<strong>on</strong>ch, vol. iv. pi. 354.figs. 41, 42.Hah. Port !Molle, <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> beach.A specimen from <strong>the</strong> above locality, of immature growth, is peculiar<strong>in</strong> want<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> fourth small lowermost fold <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> columella* usuallymet with <strong>in</strong> this species, <strong>in</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r respects accord<strong>in</strong>g very closelywith <strong>the</strong> form depicted by Reeve's figure 57 h.


5GCOLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.44. Voluta volva, var. (Plate V. fig. K.){Chemnitz ?), Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>eh. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 24.Yoluta pallida, Grai/, Kiener, Coq. Viv. pi. 48.Hah. Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 3-4 fathoms.Typical specimens of V. volva should be uniformly of a fleshy bufft<strong>in</strong>t, exhibit<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> slightest <strong>in</strong>dicati<strong>on</strong> of two bands of a somewhatdarker colour across <strong>the</strong> body-whorl ; <strong>the</strong> normal voluti<strong>on</strong>s shouldbe spotted with dark brown immediately beneath <strong>the</strong> suture, andsta<strong>in</strong>ed with yellowish brown above it, and <strong>the</strong> aperture at a shortdistance from <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong> of <strong>the</strong> lip should be of a lighter brown.Two specimens from Swan River, presented to <strong>the</strong> British Museumby Capt. Mangles, E.N., possess <strong>the</strong> above characteristics, but <strong>in</strong>additi<strong>on</strong> have numerous, more or less wavj'^ and zigzag palebrownish l<strong>in</strong>es, most c<strong>on</strong>spicuous up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> two <strong>in</strong>dist<strong>in</strong>ct transversez<strong>on</strong>es, extend<strong>in</strong>g downwards from <strong>the</strong> suture, but not reticulat<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong> a l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al directi<strong>on</strong>. The <strong>on</strong>ly specimen obta<strong>in</strong>ed by Dr.Copp<strong>in</strong>ger, although hav<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> labrum much broken away, stillpossesses c<strong>on</strong>siderable <strong>in</strong>terest <strong>in</strong> that it resembles <strong>the</strong> specimensjust menti<strong>on</strong>ed, but with all <strong>the</strong> t<strong>in</strong>ts much darkened, <strong>in</strong> whichrespect it approximates more closely to V. reticulata, Reeve ; <strong>in</strong>deed<strong>the</strong> group of Volutes from North, North-west, and West Australia<strong>in</strong>cludes a number of species which appear to have several characters<strong>in</strong> comm<strong>on</strong>, and present c<strong>on</strong>siderable difficulty of dist<strong>in</strong>cti<strong>on</strong> :such are, <strong>in</strong> additi<strong>on</strong> to those previously menti<strong>on</strong>ed, V. tarneri,Gray, V. pra^texta. Reeve, and V. ellioti, Sowerby.45. Ranella rana.Murex rana, L<strong>in</strong>n., Hanley, Ipsa L<strong>in</strong>n. C<strong>on</strong>ch, p. 284.Eanella albivaricosa, Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>, fig. 2; Kohelt, C<strong>on</strong>.-Cab,p. 183 pi. 38. figs. 4, 6, 8, 9.Bursa sueus<strong>on</strong>ii, Morch, Cat. Yoldi, p. 106.Var. = Ranella subgranosa, Beck, Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 1 ;Co7ich. III. fig. 18; Kobelf, C<strong>on</strong>.- Cab. p. 135, pi. 39. fig. 2.= Ranella beckii, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 5, pi. 4. fig. 1.Soiverbi/yHub. Port Molle, Queensland, 14 fms., rock.O<strong>the</strong>r localities attributed to this species are Ch<strong>in</strong>a and Ceyl<strong>on</strong>(albivaricosa) ; Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands and Ch<strong>in</strong>a (subgranosa) ; NicobarIslands {suens<strong>on</strong>ii).46. Eanella pulchella.Forbes, Voyaeje of <strong>the</strong> ' Rattlesnake; vol. ii. (1852), p. 382, pi. 3.figs. 6 alb.Ranella jucunda, A. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1853, p. 70.ffccb. North Australia (Adams); dredged <strong>in</strong> 8 to 11 fms. water,<strong>on</strong> a bottom of sand and shells, between Cumberland Island andPo<strong>in</strong>t Slade (lat. 21° S., l<strong>on</strong>g. 149° 20' E.) (Forbes) ; Port Curtis,


MOLLUSCA. 5711 fms., and Port Molle, 14 fms. {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Palm Island, CapeYork, Cape Grenville, Darnley Island, &;c. (Brazier)."The two embry<strong>on</strong>ic whorls of this pretty species are smooth,glossy, and very c<strong>on</strong>vex. The colour of <strong>the</strong> fresh specimen fromPort Curtis is light yellowish brown, with a dark brown band at<strong>the</strong> upper part of <strong>the</strong> whorls immediately beneath <strong>the</strong> suture. Theoperculum is ovate, ra<strong>the</strong>r acum<strong>in</strong>ated below, c<strong>on</strong>centrically striated,with <strong>the</strong> nucleus near, but not at, <strong>the</strong> lower extremity.47. Natica (Lunatia) plumbea.Natica plumbea, Lamarck, Philippi <strong>in</strong> Kilster^s C<strong>on</strong>.-Cab. p. 61, pi. 8.figs. 3, 4 ; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 34 a, b.Natica strangei, Reeve, I. c. figs. 81 a, h.Exemplum distortura= Natica leucophaea, Reeve, I, c. figs. 51 a, b.Hah. Port Denis<strong>on</strong>, Queensland, <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> shore {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; CapeUpstart, and from north of Cape Hillsboro', N.E. Australia, crawl<strong>in</strong>g<strong>on</strong> sand- or mud-banks at low-water mark {J. B. Jukes <strong>in</strong> Brit.Mus.) ; Port Essiugt<strong>on</strong> (Capt. Wiclcham, E.N.) ; Brisbane Water(Strange) ; New South Wales (Angas), &c.48. Natica limpida. (Plate V. fig. L.)Shell subglobose, th<strong>in</strong>nish, semitransparent, whitish, somewhatnarrowly unbilicated, glossy, sculptured with f<strong>in</strong>e l<strong>in</strong>es of growth.Spire small, culm<strong>in</strong>at<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> an obtuse apex. Whorls 3|, veryc<strong>on</strong>vex, rapidly <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g, separated by a simple l<strong>in</strong>ear suture,beneath which <strong>the</strong>re is a narrow opaque-white marg<strong>in</strong>. Aperturera<strong>the</strong>r more than semicircular, narrower above than at <strong>the</strong> lowerpart. Columella slightly oblique, straightish or <strong>on</strong>ly feebly arcuate,a little thickened, somewhat expanded at <strong>the</strong> upper part, and jo<strong>in</strong>edto <strong>the</strong> extremity of <strong>the</strong> outer lip by a th<strong>in</strong> callosity. Outer lip(viewed laterally) a trifle oblique, and exhibit<strong>in</strong>g near <strong>the</strong> suturea small shallow s<strong>in</strong>uati<strong>on</strong>. Umbilicus ra<strong>the</strong>r narrow, without any<strong>in</strong>ternal ridge. Operculum unknown. Length 8 millim. ;greatestdiameter i), smallest 6^.Hah. West Island, Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel, Torres Straits,7 fms.This may prove eventually to be <strong>the</strong> young state of <strong>the</strong> species,a suppositi<strong>on</strong> partly based up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> larger size of <strong>the</strong> nuclear whorlsand partly up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> th<strong>in</strong> semitransparent character of <strong>the</strong> shell.49. Natica (Mamma) columnaris.Natica columnaris, Rech(z, Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 19 a, b.Hah. Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel, 9 fms. (Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Philipp<strong>in</strong>eIslands (Cum<strong>in</strong>g) ; Ceyl<strong>on</strong> (E. W. H. Holdsworth iji Brit. Mus.).


58 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.50. Natica (Mamma) cum<strong>in</strong>giana.Natica cum<strong>in</strong>giana, Eecluz, Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 13 fi, h ;Philippi,C<strong>on</strong>. -Cab. p. 47, pi. 7. fig. 5.Var. = Natica powisiana, Itechtz, Reeve, I. c. figs. 22 a, b; Fhilippi, I. c.p. 4G, pi. 7. fig. 4.Var.=Natica draparnaudi, Recluz, Journ. de C<strong>on</strong>ch, vol. ii. pi. 5. fig.11 ; Reeve, I. c. figs. 44 a, b.Hah. Port Molle, Queensland.The <strong>on</strong>ly specimen from this locality is half-grown, white, with abroad and gradually enlarg<strong>in</strong>g band of a rich brown colour round<strong>the</strong> body-whorl, with ano<strong>the</strong>r narrower yellowish <strong>on</strong>e beneath <strong>the</strong>suture, and a third, also of a yellowish t<strong>in</strong>t, border<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> car<strong>in</strong>acircumscrib<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> umbilicus ; this is less open than <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> adultshell figured by Reeve.51. Eulima mart<strong>in</strong>ii, var.A. Adams, Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, pi. 109. fig. 5; Sotverby, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 6.Shell el<strong>on</strong>gate-pyramidal, slightly recurved and laterally flexuoustowards <strong>the</strong> apex, white, ra<strong>the</strong>r transparent beh<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong> varices(perhaps due to <strong>the</strong> youth of <strong>the</strong> specimen), which are <strong>in</strong> a s<strong>in</strong>gleoblique series from <strong>the</strong> labrum upwards. Whorls very slightlyc<strong>on</strong>vex, eleven rema<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> s<strong>in</strong>gle shell under exam<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong>,which may not be full-grown ; apical <strong>on</strong>es broken off. Outl<strong>in</strong>es of<strong>the</strong> spire for <strong>the</strong> most part rectil<strong>in</strong>ear, but a little c<strong>on</strong>tracted near<strong>the</strong> summit, thus giv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> shell a somewhat club-shaped appearance.Last whorl broad, <strong>in</strong>dist<strong>in</strong>ctly obtusely angled at <strong>the</strong> periphery.Aperture pyriform, oblique. Outer lip prom<strong>in</strong>ent near <strong>the</strong>middle, feebly s<strong>in</strong>uated above. Columella arcuate, thickened witha reflexed callosity which jo<strong>in</strong>s <strong>the</strong> upper term<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> labrum.Length 19 millim., diam. 7 ; aperture h\ l<strong>on</strong>g, 3^ wide.Hah. Warrior Reef, Torres Straits, <strong>on</strong> a bottom of pearl-shells(Avieida marr/aritifera) {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger); Ch<strong>in</strong>a Sea (^Adams); DarnleyIsland, Torres Straits {Brazier).This is as broad a shell as E. mart<strong>in</strong>ii of A. Adams, and is solelydist<strong>in</strong>guished by <strong>the</strong> greater height of <strong>the</strong> whorls. Hav<strong>in</strong>g but<strong>on</strong>e specimen (and that probably not adult) to base an op<strong>in</strong>i<strong>on</strong>up<strong>on</strong>, it would be unwise to hold it dist<strong>in</strong>ct <strong>on</strong> account of thiss<strong>in</strong>gle difference. Sowerby gives <strong>the</strong> locality of this species " St.Helena," which is unsupported by any authority and almost certa<strong>in</strong>lya mistake.52. Strombus campbelli.Gray, Griffith's An. Kim/., Moll. pi. 25. fig. C ; Sotverby, Thes.C<strong>on</strong>ch, pi. 6. figs. 22, 23 ;Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 45 ; Chenu,Manuel, tig. 1600.Hah. Port Denisou (4 fms,). Port Molle, and Friday Island,


.;MOLLUSCA. 69Torres Straits (Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Cape Grenville, North-east Australia(15 fms.), and L<strong>on</strong>g Island, Torres Straits {Brazier).The operculum is narrow, deeply and acutely serrate <strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong>emarg<strong>in</strong>, smooth <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r, and has a raised ridge runn<strong>in</strong>g from<strong>the</strong> smaller end almost to <strong>the</strong> opposite extremity.53. Terebellum suhulatum, Lamardc.Hah. Fl<strong>in</strong>ders Is., Clairm<strong>on</strong>t Is., North-east Australia, 11 fms.{Copjj<strong>in</strong>ge^-),54. C3rpr£ea arabica, L<strong>in</strong>n.Hah. Port Molle coral-reef.55. Cyprasa lynx, L<strong>in</strong>n.Hab.Port Molle coral-reef.Hah.Port Molle coral-reef.56. Cyprasa annulus, L<strong>in</strong>n.57. Cypraea err<strong>on</strong>es, L<strong>in</strong>n.Hah. Port Molle, Queensland (Oopp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; New South Wales,rare ! {Angus)The <strong>on</strong>ly example of this species from <strong>the</strong> above locality is ofunusually small size. It is <strong>on</strong>ly 19 millim. <strong>in</strong> length and 10 i wide.58. Cypraea walkeri.Gray, Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 50 a, b, &c.Hab. Fl<strong>in</strong>ders Is., Clairm<strong>on</strong>t Is., North-east Australia, 11 fms.,sand and mud {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger); Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands {Sowerby, Thes.) ;Palm Island and Cape Grenville, North-east Australia, also DarnleyIsland, Torres Straits {Brazier).59. Ovnla (Radius) angasi.Ovulum angasi, Adams, Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 43 a, b.Volva angasi, Angas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1807, p. 207,Hab. Port Curtis, 11 fms., sand and shell bottom {Coppitiger)Port Curtis {Reeve) ; Wats<strong>on</strong>'s Bay, New South AVales, <strong>on</strong> a branchof red Gorg<strong>on</strong>ia, am<strong>on</strong>gst <strong>the</strong> rocks at extreme low water {Angas).In <strong>the</strong> brief descripti<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> C<strong>on</strong>chologia Ic<strong>on</strong>ica ' ' <strong>on</strong>e ortwo important characters are not noticed. The dorsal surface of<strong>the</strong> shell towards both ends is very prettily sculptured <strong>in</strong> anoblique directi<strong>on</strong> with f<strong>in</strong>e wavy strife, as <strong>in</strong>dicated <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> figure<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> above work, <strong>the</strong> wav<strong>in</strong>ess be<strong>in</strong>g due to <strong>the</strong> f<strong>in</strong>e transversel<strong>in</strong>es of growth. The colour is white, more or less transparent.


60 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.with <strong>the</strong> extreme tips t<strong>in</strong>ged with orange or p<strong>in</strong>k. The ventralsurface is peculiarly humpy near <strong>the</strong> middle, ow<strong>in</strong>g to a c<strong>on</strong>siderabledeposit of callus. Figure 43 a represents <strong>the</strong> dextral outl<strong>in</strong>era<strong>the</strong>r too prom<strong>in</strong>ent, and both this and fig. 43 b del<strong>in</strong>eate <strong>the</strong> shelltoo broad and <strong>the</strong> outer lip too thick.60. Littor<strong>in</strong>a scabra.L<strong>in</strong>n., Philippi's Ahbild. vol. ii. p. 221, pi. 5. figs. 3-7 ; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch.Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 21 a-d.Hob.Thursday Island, Torres Straits, <strong>in</strong> mangrove-swamps.61. Littor<strong>in</strong>a filosa.Soioerly, Genera Rcc. 8f Foss. Shells, fig. 5 ; Heere, Co7ich. Syst.pi. 212. fig. 5 ; C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 24 a-c; Philippi, Ahhild. vol. iii.pp. 46 & 55, pi. 6. fig. 4, and pi. 7. figs. 1, 2.Hah. Eoko Island, Endeavour Strait, North Australia, <strong>in</strong> mangrove-swamps.62. Littor<strong>in</strong>a mauritiana, Lamarclc(Var, diemenensis.)Hah. Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> {Oopp<strong>in</strong>rjer).This species is very variable <strong>in</strong> size, <strong>the</strong> difi^erence <strong>in</strong> this respectbe<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> <strong>on</strong>ly dist<strong>in</strong>cti<strong>on</strong> between <strong>the</strong> typical form and <strong>the</strong> varietynamed L. diemenensis by Quoy and Gaimard {vide Philippi's excellentm<strong>on</strong>ograph of this genus <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Abbild. und Beschreib. neuer'C<strong>on</strong>ch.' vol. ii. p. 195). L. antipodum of Philippi (?. c. pi. 4. fig. 2)and L. acuta of Menke are also small varieties. The EuropeanL. neritoides of L<strong>in</strong>n. ( = Turho cceridescens of Lamarck) is c<strong>on</strong>sidered<strong>the</strong> same species by Mr, Tenis<strong>on</strong>-Woods (Proc. L<strong>in</strong>n. Soc. N. S.Wales, vol. iii. pp. 65-72) ; but this determ<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong>, I th<strong>in</strong>k, requiresstill fur<strong>the</strong>r substantiati<strong>on</strong>, and I ra<strong>the</strong>r <strong>in</strong>cl<strong>in</strong>e with Philippi toreta<strong>in</strong> that form as dist<strong>in</strong>ct. Littor<strong>in</strong>a siczac is a well-knownWest-Indian species, but is also recorded from <strong>the</strong> Ked Sea andKangaroo Island, South Australia, by Philippi, who remarks that itis scarcely separable from L. mauritiana, with <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong> ofcolour and, <strong>in</strong> most cases, a slight difference <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> transverse striati<strong>on</strong>(?. c. p. 165). Mr. Tenis<strong>on</strong>-Woods believes it to be <strong>on</strong>ly avariety, but at <strong>the</strong> same time is not prepared to assert this positively.He also fails to see any specific difference between this shelland L. africayia (Krauss), Philippi. I should here po<strong>in</strong>t out that <strong>the</strong>shell figured by Keeve (C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 37 a, b) is not <strong>the</strong> truePhilippian species, but merely L. mauritiana ; and c<strong>on</strong>sequently ifMr. Tenis<strong>on</strong>-Woods based his op<strong>in</strong>i<strong>on</strong> up<strong>on</strong> that figure he is certa<strong>in</strong>lycorrect. L. africana is compared by its author with L. neritoides,from which it is said to differ <strong>in</strong> sculpture, form, and <strong>the</strong> columella.


;MOLLUSCA. 61The L. Jcevls of Reeve is also L. viaiir'itiana, and quite dist<strong>in</strong>ct from<strong>the</strong> L. Icevis of Philippi (?. c. vol. iii. p. 10, pi, 6. fig. 6), which isalso from <strong>the</strong> Mauritius. L. unduJata of Gray is also c<strong>on</strong>sidered avariety of L. mauritiana by Mr. Tenis<strong>on</strong>-Woods (l. c. p. 72) ; bu<strong>the</strong>re I th<strong>in</strong>k he overstra<strong>in</strong>s <strong>the</strong> power of variati<strong>on</strong>. Besides <strong>the</strong>difference <strong>in</strong> form and colour, <strong>the</strong> violet columella and sculpturereadily dist<strong>in</strong>guish that shell. In adopt<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> Lamarckian nameL. ccfndescens, even suppos<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> Mediterranean and Australianshells were <strong>the</strong> same species, I th<strong>in</strong>k Mr. Tenis<strong>on</strong>-Woods is wr<strong>on</strong>g,c<strong>on</strong>sider<strong>in</strong>g what is said up<strong>on</strong> this po<strong>in</strong>t by Philippi (op. cit. vol. ii.p. 166), Hanley ('Ipsa L<strong>in</strong>nsei C<strong>on</strong>chylia,' p. 326), Jeffreys, ando<strong>the</strong>rs.63. Risella lutea.Trochus luteus, Quo)/ Sf Gaimard, Voij. ^Astrolabe,'' vol. iii. p. 271,pi. 62. figs. 8-11 ;'Kiener, Coq. Viv. pi. 38. fig. 2.Trochus cicatricosus, J<strong>on</strong>as, rhilipprs Ahbild. pi. 2. fig. 2.Bembiciiim hiteum, Philippi, Zeitsch. Mnl. 1846, p. 132.Risella lutea, Philippi, Kiider's C<strong>on</strong>.-Cah. p. 4, pi. 1. figs. ], 2.Risella kielmannseggi, Zelehor, J^erhandl. zool.-botan. Gesellsch. Wien,1866, vol. xvi. p. 913 ;Voy. Novara,' ' pi. xi. figs. 11 a-d.Hah. Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>, Port Denis<strong>on</strong>, Port Curtis, and Port Molle(Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).This genus has been suppressed by Mr. Tenis<strong>on</strong>-Woods (Proc.L<strong>in</strong>n. Soc. N. S. Wales, 1879, vol. iii. p. 61); but, <strong>in</strong> my judgment,it may be reta<strong>in</strong>ed with advantage as dist<strong>in</strong>ct from Littor<strong>in</strong>a. TheTrochoid form and flattened base of <strong>the</strong> species is not approached <strong>in</strong>that genus, and <strong>the</strong> character of <strong>the</strong> columella is very different.Accord<strong>in</strong>g to Mr. Tenis<strong>on</strong>-Woods <strong>the</strong>re is but <strong>on</strong>e species ot Risella<strong>in</strong> Australia (H. melanostoma of Gmel<strong>in</strong>), under which name he<strong>in</strong>cludes fifteen varieties or species, which have been named anddescribed by Lamarck, Quoy, Gray, Philippi, and o<strong>the</strong>rs.Although <strong>the</strong> separati<strong>on</strong> of many species or c<strong>on</strong>stant local formsseems impossible, we must not <strong>the</strong>refore ignore <strong>the</strong>ir existence.Riaella bruni is a South-Australian shell, and does not atta<strong>in</strong> anyth<strong>in</strong>g like <strong>the</strong> size of several of <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r species, e. g. R. nana,R. mdanostoma, and R. imhricata. Although it might be possibleto get toge<strong>the</strong>r an immense series of specimens which would unitestep by step <strong>the</strong> two most extreme forms, never<strong>the</strong>less <strong>the</strong> R. hruniwould still rema<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> small species from South Australia, and <strong>the</strong>o<strong>the</strong>r, <strong>the</strong> R. imhricata from Sydney, Port Stephens, &c., would alsobe recognizable as such.I am far from admitt<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> validity of all <strong>the</strong> described speciesbut <strong>the</strong>re are some, I th<strong>in</strong>k, which may be reta<strong>in</strong>ed, at all events,with c<strong>on</strong>v.'nience. It is not my <strong>in</strong>tenti<strong>on</strong> now to discuss this subjectfur<strong>the</strong>r, but, <strong>in</strong> c<strong>on</strong>clusi<strong>on</strong>, will call attenti<strong>on</strong> to Philippi's m<strong>on</strong>ographof <strong>the</strong> genus, w^hich has been altoge<strong>the</strong>r overlooked by Crosse(Journ. de C<strong>on</strong>ch. 1864) aud by Tenis<strong>on</strong>-Woods ; it was published<strong>in</strong> 1853 <strong>in</strong> Kiister's C<strong>on</strong>chylien-Cab<strong>in</strong>et,' and 'c<strong>on</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>s <strong>the</strong> follow<strong>in</strong>g


.——62 - COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.species, not menti<strong>on</strong>ed by <strong>the</strong> above authors R. Jimbriata,:JR. flavescens, R. grisea, and R. plicatula. Ano<strong>the</strong>r species whichhas also escaped attenti<strong>on</strong> is <strong>the</strong> Trochus melanostoma of Reeve(Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 185 ; C<strong>on</strong>ch. Sjst. vol. ii. pi. 218. fig. IG).This is <strong>the</strong> same as RiseJla fimbriata of Philippi, which I th<strong>in</strong>kshould be regarded as a large form of R. melanostoma, Gmel<strong>in</strong> ;andwith this species I would also unite R. fiavescens and R. pUcatida ofPhilippi. Dunker has also described a species from Sydney under<strong>the</strong> name of R. crassa, which appears to be remarkable <strong>on</strong> accountof a thickened channelled lip (Mai. Bliit. 1861, vol. viii. p. 42).R. Jcielmannseggl, Zelebor, is <strong>the</strong> R. lutea, Quoy, of which R.imbricata may be a variety. The two follow<strong>in</strong>g species resembleRisella <strong>in</strong> form, but have <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>centric multispiral operculumof Ti'ocJms, from which <strong>the</strong>y are dist<strong>in</strong>guished by <strong>the</strong>ir n<strong>on</strong>-pearlyapertures Trochus tantillus, Gould, and Risclla isseli, Semper.The Tectarhis luteus of Gould, Risella <strong>in</strong>fracostata, Issel, R. parvula,Dunker (?= tantillus), and Trochus c<strong>on</strong>oidaUs of Pease willprobably have similar opercula ;<strong>the</strong>se four species differ fromRisella not <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> operculum, but <strong>in</strong> be<strong>in</strong>g narrowly perforated.The statement with regard to Risella aurata be<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>male of R. nana (although both are hermaphrodite) <strong>made</strong> byMr. Tenis<strong>on</strong>-Woods (Proc. L<strong>in</strong>n, Soc. N. S. Wales, vol. i. p. 244),and that " cdl breed freely with <strong>on</strong>e ano<strong>the</strong>r," seems to me to requiresome fur<strong>the</strong>r corroborati<strong>on</strong>. He himself hesitates to assertpositively that ei<strong>the</strong>r of <strong>the</strong>se two forms are <strong>in</strong>capable of reproduc<strong>in</strong>g<strong>the</strong>ir own k<strong>in</strong>d, " for <strong>the</strong>re are many places <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> coastwhere no species can be found except <strong>the</strong> variety now known asR. aurata." This, <strong>in</strong> my judgment, proves that that species at allevents is self-propagat<strong>in</strong>g ;yet Mr. Tenis<strong>on</strong>-Woods says thatspecimens of this species kept <strong>in</strong> glass jars for a few weeks did notbecome fertile. Experiments miide for so short a time are far fromc<strong>on</strong>clusive, especially when <strong>made</strong> under such artificial c<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong>s.64. Eisso<strong>in</strong>a clathrata.A. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. 18-51, p. 265; Schwartz v<strong>on</strong> Muhrenstern,Denkschrift. Akad. Wissenschaft. Wien, 1861, vol. xix. pt. 2, p. 154,pi. vi. tig. 49 ;S^nith, Journ. L<strong>in</strong>n. Soc. vol. xii. p. 553.Hab. Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel, 7 fms. {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Philipp<strong>in</strong>eIslands {^Cum<strong>in</strong>g) ; var. m<strong>in</strong>or, from <strong>the</strong> Carol<strong>in</strong>e Islands (J.Brazier)The specimen obta<strong>in</strong>ed by Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger is of a yellow-waxcolour, fa<strong>in</strong>tly t<strong>in</strong>ged with rose towards <strong>the</strong> apex and at <strong>the</strong> aperture.It has <strong>the</strong> upper whorls broken off, <strong>the</strong> rema<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g four anda half measur<strong>in</strong>g 10 miUim. <strong>in</strong> length. The figures <strong>in</strong> KUster'a'C<strong>on</strong>chylieu-Cab<strong>in</strong>et,' pi. iv. figs. 12, 13, do not give <strong>the</strong> fa<strong>in</strong>testidea of this species, and probably represent ano<strong>the</strong>r.


'MOLLUSCA. 0365. Risso<strong>in</strong>a curtisi. (Plaie Y. fig. M.)Shell el<strong>on</strong>gate, thick, white, very coarsely cancellated. Numberof whorls unknown, <strong>the</strong> apex be<strong>in</strong>g broken off ; <strong>the</strong> rema<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g fourare obliquely slop<strong>in</strong>g at <strong>the</strong> upper part, and, with <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong> of<strong>the</strong> last, biangulated at <strong>the</strong> sides, <strong>the</strong> angles be<strong>in</strong>g caused by <strong>the</strong>prom<strong>in</strong>ence of two spiral liraj up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al costse. A thirdlira is seen at <strong>the</strong> base of <strong>the</strong> whorls at <strong>the</strong> suture. The costoe areabout fourteen <strong>on</strong> a whorl, about as thick as <strong>the</strong> transverse ridges,and nodulous at <strong>the</strong> po<strong>in</strong>ts of <strong>in</strong>tersecti<strong>on</strong>. The body-whorl hasfive spiral lir?e, <strong>the</strong> lowermost be<strong>in</strong>g separated from those above bya broad smooth furrow, <strong>in</strong> which <strong>the</strong> costas are almost obsolete.Aperture obliquely subovate, ra<strong>the</strong>r widely channelled <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t.Columella oblique, covered with a th<strong>in</strong> callosity, which at <strong>the</strong> baseforms <strong>the</strong> s<strong>in</strong>istral side of <strong>the</strong> canal. Labrum much thickened exteriorly,acute at <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong>, and (viewed laterally) is produced to<strong>the</strong> left at <strong>the</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t part.Probable length about 7 millira. ; actual length of rema<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g fourwhorls 5| millim., width 2g.Hah. Port Curtis, 7 fms.This species might be c<strong>on</strong>sidered a dwarfed, str<strong>on</strong>gly cancellatedform of 11. clathrata ; it is less slender, has fewer and stouter costse,and <strong>the</strong> spiral lirte are also thicker and two <strong>in</strong> number up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>upper whorls exclusive of those at <strong>the</strong> suture, whilst <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> speciesreferred to <strong>the</strong>re are three. The outer lip is much thickened and<strong>the</strong> aperture ra<strong>the</strong>r more c<strong>on</strong>tracted.66. Cerithium morus.Lamarck, Am'ni. suits Vert, ed, 2, vol. ix. p. 302 ; Kiciier, Coq. Viv.p. 52, pi. 15. fig. 1 ; Soiverby, Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, figs. 159-161 ; id. C<strong>on</strong>ch.Ic<strong>on</strong>. tig. 42.Var. ^ Cerithium m<strong>on</strong>iliferum, Dvfresne, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 49,pi. 16. fig. 3; Sowerhy, Thes. figs. 163, 165 ; id. C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic. fig. 20.Var. = Cerithium carb<strong>on</strong>arium, Sowerhy (n<strong>on</strong> Philippi), C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>.fig. 59.Uab. Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands (Cttm<strong>in</strong>r/) ; Samoa Islands (Hev. S. J.Whitmee <strong>in</strong> Brit. Mus.) ; Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>, 7 fms. ; Friday Island,Roko Island, Endeavour Strait, and West Island, Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of WalesChannel, Torres Straits (Coj>2r<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Dungeness Island, TorresStraits (Brazier) ; Hall Sound, New Gu<strong>in</strong>ea {Brazier).The small group of species to which C. moms bel<strong>on</strong>gs, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>gC. tuherculatum of L<strong>in</strong>naeus as def<strong>in</strong>ed by Hanley (' Ipsa L<strong>in</strong>na^iC<strong>on</strong>chylia,' p. 276, pi. iv, fig. 4), C lemniscatum, C. breve, and C.variegatam, Quoy and Gaimard, O. petrosum and 0. riigosum ofWood (n<strong>on</strong> Lamarck) =G.patiens, Bayle, C. m<strong>on</strong>iliferurii,~K\ei\cr, G.gemma, C. purpurascens, C. bifasciatum, C. pupa, and C. nigrofasciatumof Sowerby, is very perplex<strong>in</strong>g, ow<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> great similarity<strong>in</strong> sculpture of <strong>the</strong> various species.1. C. tuherculatum, to which I unite as varieties C. variegatam,


64 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.C. pupa, and C. petrosum, may be recognized <strong>in</strong> all its forms by <strong>the</strong>oblique varix <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> back of <strong>the</strong> body-whorl, a feature not found <strong>in</strong>C. morns and C.patiens ( = 7-iif/osum). The typical form and <strong>the</strong>variety G. variegatum are pupit'orm, hav<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> sjiire acutely c<strong>on</strong>icaltowards <strong>the</strong> apex and <strong>the</strong> last whorl scarcely broader than <strong>the</strong>preced<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong>e. The granulati<strong>on</strong>s appear to be never <strong>in</strong> more thanthree rows <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> upper whorls, but <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> penultimate a fourth isfrequently, but not always, observable adjo<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> lower suture.The bodj'-whorl has normally seven pr<strong>in</strong>cipal series of granules ;bub <strong>in</strong> many <strong>in</strong>stances <strong>the</strong> m<strong>in</strong>or or <strong>in</strong>termediate series atta<strong>in</strong> aslarge a size as <strong>the</strong> pr<strong>in</strong>cipal <strong>on</strong>es, when <strong>the</strong> number of rows may ben<strong>in</strong>e to a dozen or even more. The variati<strong>on</strong>s <strong>in</strong> colour are c<strong>on</strong>siderable: normal specimens are whitish varied with black, brown, andwhite tubercles.The var. variegatuyn is irregularly blotched with light or darkbrown, and some specimens are almost entirely of a uniform darkbrown (Couch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 41 a). Ano<strong>the</strong>r has a light brown band immediatelybeneath <strong>the</strong> suture and a sec<strong>on</strong>d broader <strong>on</strong>e at <strong>the</strong> baseof <strong>the</strong> body-whorl, as <strong>in</strong> C. p?


;MOLLtrsCA. 65Cop])ii)ger at Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> are like fig. 59 <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. (C. carh<strong>on</strong>arium,Sow. n<strong>on</strong> Phil.), but a little narrower, and those fromAVest Island <strong>in</strong> Torres Straits are of a peculiar short stuntedgrowth.3. O. patient, Bayle, = C. rugosum, Wood (n<strong>on</strong> Lamarck), ofwhich species C. breve, Quoy and Gaimard, appears to be a variety,may be <strong>on</strong>ly a form of C. moras ; still <strong>the</strong>re is a character about<strong>the</strong> coarse ribb<strong>in</strong>g and granulati<strong>on</strong> and <strong>the</strong> blotchy irregularity of<strong>the</strong> pa<strong>in</strong>t<strong>in</strong>g which seems to demand <strong>the</strong>ir separati<strong>on</strong>. Besides,M!M, Quoy and Gaimard state that <strong>the</strong> animals present certa<strong>in</strong>differences.In c<strong>on</strong>clusi<strong>on</strong>, I should observe that <strong>the</strong> C.taherculdtum of Sowerby(C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 21 a, b) is a peculiarly coloured specimen of thisspecies (C. patiens) ; also that <strong>the</strong> shell figured as G. bornii (Thes.fig. 175 ; C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 26) is <strong>the</strong> true C. carb<strong>on</strong>ariam of Philippi,fig. 59 of <strong>the</strong> C<strong>on</strong>ch, Ic<strong>on</strong>, not represent<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> latter species, butmerely, as already stated, a form of C. moras.C. tuherculatum, as def<strong>in</strong>ed by Lamarck and Kiener, is a comm<strong>on</strong>Red-Sea species, which has been named C. cteruleum by Sowerby(Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, vol. ii. p. 860, pi. 179. figs. 61, 62).67. Cerithium nigro-halteatum. (Plate V. fig. N.)Shell el<strong>on</strong>gate, pyramidal, white, banded with brownish blackabove <strong>the</strong> suture, around <strong>the</strong> middle and base of <strong>the</strong> last whorl.Voluti<strong>on</strong>s about twelve, c<strong>on</strong>stricted above at <strong>the</strong> suture, l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>allystr<strong>on</strong>gly costate and spirally ridged and sulcated. The costceare prom<strong>in</strong>ent, about n<strong>in</strong>e <strong>in</strong> number <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> upper wliorls, somewhat<strong>in</strong>terrupted by <strong>the</strong> depressi<strong>on</strong> beneath <strong>the</strong> suture. The spiral ridgesare ra<strong>the</strong>r prom<strong>in</strong>ent up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> costae and unequal <strong>in</strong> thickness<strong>the</strong>re are about four pr<strong>in</strong>cipal <strong>on</strong>es and several smaller <strong>in</strong>terven<strong>in</strong>g<strong>on</strong>es. On <strong>the</strong> body-whorl (<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen under exam<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong>)<strong>the</strong> costse are ra<strong>the</strong>r f<strong>in</strong>er and about eleven <strong>in</strong> number—<strong>on</strong>e, alittle stouter than <strong>the</strong> rest <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> left side, extend<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> baseand form<strong>in</strong>g a lateral varix, <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rs becom<strong>in</strong>g obsolete a littlebelow <strong>the</strong> middle, where <strong>the</strong> whorl is somewhat angnlated and c<strong>on</strong>cavebelow <strong>the</strong> angle. The transverse pr<strong>in</strong>cipal lira) number aboutsix, of which <strong>the</strong> two lowermost are granulous, white, and situatedbetween <strong>the</strong> dark base and <strong>the</strong> z<strong>on</strong>e above <strong>the</strong> middle. The lowerpart of <strong>the</strong> whorl is f<strong>in</strong>ely c<strong>on</strong>centrically striated and lirate. Aperturebroadly suboval, oblique. Basal canal short, oblique, slightlyrecurved. Columella obliquely arcuate, blackish. Labrum thickenedby <strong>the</strong> last costa, grooved and lirate with<strong>in</strong>. Length 15 millim.,diameter 6.JIab. Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of AYales Channel, 5-7 fms.This species is readily recognized by <strong>the</strong> peculiarity of its colours,<strong>the</strong> depth of <strong>the</strong> sabsutural dcpi'essi<strong>on</strong>, and <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>cave base of <strong>the</strong>last whorl.


66 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.68. Cerithium torresi. (Plate V. fig. 0.)Shell el<strong>on</strong>gate-pyramidal, white, blackish towards <strong>the</strong> apex,ornamented with transverse series of dark-brown dots up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>lira) between <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al granose costte. Whorls 11, veryslightly c<strong>on</strong>vex, separated by a deej^ish suture, costate and transverselylirate, <strong>the</strong> po<strong>in</strong>ts of <strong>in</strong>tersecti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> ribs and ridges be<strong>in</strong>gdeveloped <strong>in</strong>to prom<strong>in</strong>ent white nodules. The spiral lirai whichbecome nodulous are three <strong>in</strong> number <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> upper whorls, <strong>the</strong>uppermost be<strong>in</strong>g situated close to <strong>the</strong> suture, <strong>the</strong> next a little above<strong>the</strong> middle, and <strong>the</strong> lowermost below it, but more remote from <strong>the</strong>suture than <strong>the</strong> uppermost. In additi<strong>on</strong>, <strong>the</strong>re are <strong>on</strong>e or moresimple thread-like l<strong>in</strong>es revolv<strong>in</strong>g between <strong>the</strong> granulous ridges,which arc also articulated with brown. The body-whorl has abouteight pr<strong>in</strong>cipal transverse ridges, of which <strong>the</strong> three uppermost are<strong>the</strong> thickest, <strong>the</strong> two next ra<strong>the</strong>r f<strong>in</strong>er and also granulous, <strong>the</strong>three rema<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong>es be<strong>in</strong>g still more slender and more feeblynodulous. The l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al ribs are about twelve <strong>on</strong> a whorl, <strong>on</strong>eof <strong>the</strong>m be<strong>in</strong>g swollen or varicose. The last varix <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> bodywhorlis situated <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> left of <strong>the</strong> aperture ; this is small, obliquelyoval, term<strong>in</strong>at<strong>in</strong>g anteriorly <strong>in</strong> a short, oblique, and ver)^ slightlyrecurved canal. The columella is c<strong>on</strong>siderably arched, white,covered with a th<strong>in</strong> callosity, developed at <strong>the</strong> upper part <strong>in</strong>to anel<strong>on</strong>gate ridge which runs with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> aperture. Labrum varixedexternally, also thickened a little with<strong>in</strong> and shallowly grooved,<strong>the</strong> grooves corresp<strong>on</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g with <strong>the</strong> external ridges. Length l-ikmillim., diam. 5 ; aperture 4| l<strong>on</strong>g and 2| wide.Hab. Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel, Torres Straits, 3-4 fms.69. Cerithium (Col<strong>in</strong>a) macrostoma.Cerithium macrsotoma, H<strong>in</strong>ds, Voi/. 'Sulphur,' p. 27, pi. xvi. figs. 11,12 ; Stnoerhy, Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, pi. 184. fig. 219 ; id. C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>, figs.U8a,b.Var. = Col<strong>in</strong>a pupiformis, A. Ada7ns, Proc. Zool. Sac. 1853, p. 17G,pi. XX. tig. 14 (enlarged).= Cerithium pupEeforme (A. Adams), Sowerhy, Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch.vol. ii. pi. 184. fig. 221 ; id. C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 122 a, h (bad !).Var. = Col<strong>in</strong>a costata, A. Admns, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 86.= Cerithium costiferum, Sotcerby, Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, vol. ii. pi. 184.figs. 222; id. C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 117 «, b.Var. = Col<strong>in</strong>a pygmaea, H, Adams, P)-oc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 308,pi. 19. fig. 19.Ilab. Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 5-7 fms. {Copp<strong>in</strong>rn'r) :Straits of Macassar, 11 fms, (H<strong>in</strong>ds); Damaguete, Philipp<strong>in</strong>eIslands (Cum<strong>in</strong>f/ for C. pupif<strong>on</strong>nis) ; Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands {Cum<strong>in</strong>gfor C. costata) ; Borneo (//. Adams for C. pygmcea).The above-named and so-called species I believe to be merevariati<strong>on</strong>s of <strong>on</strong>e and <strong>the</strong> same shell. Compare <strong>the</strong> extreme forms(C. macrostoma and C. pygmcea), and <strong>on</strong>e perceives a vast difference<strong>in</strong> outl<strong>in</strong>e and <strong>the</strong> number of whorls ; but even here several features<strong>in</strong> comm<strong>on</strong> will be fgund, namely <strong>the</strong> spotted expanded outer lip,


MOLLTTSCA. 67<strong>the</strong> oblique pale brown stripes <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> narrowest extremity of <strong>the</strong>body-whorl, <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al more or less nodulous costoe subobsolete<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> last whorl, and <strong>the</strong> transverse striati<strong>on</strong> and lira). Thenumber of whorls seems to vary very c<strong>on</strong>siderably <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> ten specimensunder exam<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong>, and <strong>the</strong> apex of <strong>the</strong> spire appears to be<strong>in</strong>variably broken off. When this has occurred <strong>the</strong> animal closes<strong>the</strong> top with a smooth, shelly, spiral callosity, and it becomesa matter of uncerta<strong>in</strong>ty how many whorls may have been lost.This will account for <strong>the</strong> great difference <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> number oi remam<strong>in</strong>gvoluti<strong>on</strong>s <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> follow<strong>in</strong>g specimens :—No. 1 (<strong>the</strong> type of C. pygnuvafrom <strong>the</strong> collecti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> late Henrj^ Adams) has six and ahalf normal whorls left ; Nos. 2, 3, and 4 have seven each, 5 and 6have eight each, No. 7 has n<strong>in</strong>e. No. 8 ten, No. 9 eleven, andNo. lU has twelve. The number of whorls represented <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>figures of C. macrostoma are not reliable, as fig. 12 representsseventeen, whilst fig. 11 (evidently taken from <strong>the</strong> same specimen)exhibits but fifteen. The costa) are also somewhat vai'iable <strong>in</strong>number and prom<strong>in</strong>ence, but <strong>in</strong>variably become more or less obsolete<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>tracted body-whorl, where, be<strong>in</strong>g crossed by <strong>the</strong> spiralsulci, <strong>the</strong>y present <strong>the</strong> granular aspect described by A. Adams <strong>in</strong> hisdiagnosis of G. costata. The outer lip, which is very liable to bebroken away, is expanded, thickened but not varixed, grooved externallyand spotted with red l<strong>in</strong>es, which for <strong>the</strong> most part fall <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> grooves referred to. With<strong>in</strong> it is smooth, and <strong>in</strong> full-grownspecimens exhibits a slight tubercular prom<strong>in</strong>ence, above which asmall s<strong>in</strong>us is observable, close to <strong>the</strong> suture.70. Cerithium (Rh<strong>in</strong>oclavis) fasciatura.Cerithimn ftisciatiira, Brug., Kiener, Coq. Viv. pi. 20. figs. 1-1 c;Suwerby, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>., Vertagus, figs. 9 a, 9 h.Ilah. Friday Island, Torres Straits.The young specimen from this locality is very like Sowerby'afigure 9 h, but <strong>the</strong> lower part of <strong>the</strong> last whorl is white entirely.71. Cerithium (Rh<strong>in</strong>oclavis) vertagus.Cerithium vertagus, L<strong>in</strong>n., Kiencr, Coq. Viv. pi. 18. fig. 2.Vertagus vulgaris, Schumacher, Essai Nouv. Syst. p. 228; Adams,Genera, i. p. 285, pi. 30. figs. 1-1 c.Hah. Port Molle, Queensland, and Friday Island, Torres Straits,<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> beach.72. Cerithium (Kh<strong>in</strong>oclavis) koclii.Cerithium kocbi, Philippi, Ahhild. iii. pi. 1. fig. 3; Sowerhy, Thes.Cmich. vol. ii. pi. 176. figs. 13-15 ; id. ifi Reeve's C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>., Vertagus,figs. 26 a, h.Ilah. Red Sea (MacAndrew) ; East Africa (Philijipi) ; Mauritiusi^Mobius) ;Amirantes Islands, at Poivre Island <strong>in</strong> 20 fms., and He


68 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.des Roches <strong>in</strong> 13 fms., also Friday Island and Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of WalesChannel (5-7 fms.), Torres Straits {Gopp<strong>in</strong>ger) ;Zebu, Philipp<strong>in</strong>es(Mas. Cum<strong>in</strong>g); Nagasaki (LischJce) ; Matoza Harbour, Japan,6 fms. {Capt. St. John).73. Cerithium granosum.Kiener, Coq. Viv. pi. 4. fig. 3 ; Soiocrhij, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 73.Hah. Friday Island, Torres Straits {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger);{Brit. Mus.); Red Sea (Kiener).Port Ess<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong>74. Cerithium novse-hoUandiaB.A. Adams ; Soivei'hy^s Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, vol. ii. pi. 178. fig. 54 ; Beeve,C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 30.Hah. Port Molle, Queensland, Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel, andFriday Island, Torres Straits {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger); Cape York, Mud Bay,N. Australia {Brazier).75. Lampania australis.Cerithium australe (Q. Sf G.); Kiener, Coq. Viv. pi. 8. fig. 2.Hah.Port Curtis.76. Pyrazus sulcatus, Bom.Hah. Thursday Island, Poke Island, <strong>in</strong> mangrove-swamps (Copp<strong>in</strong>ger); Dungeness Island, Torres Straits (Brazier).Hah.77. Telescopium fuscum, Schumacher.Eoko Island, Endeavour Straits, <strong>in</strong> mangrove-swamps.78. Siliquaria angu<strong>in</strong>a, L<strong>in</strong>n.Sowerhy, C<strong>on</strong>ch, Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 7 a-1 c.above locality bel<strong>on</strong>gs to <strong>the</strong> pur-Hah. Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, 8-12 fms.The s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen from <strong>the</strong>plish-rose variety of <strong>the</strong> species,79. Siliquaria p<strong>on</strong>derosa.Morch ; Sowerhjs C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. pi. 2. fig. 3.Hah. Port Molle, Queensland, and Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel,Torres Straits, 5-7 fms.80. Narica cancellata.Chemnitz ; Ercluz, Mar/, de Zool. 1845, pi. 119 ; Sowerhy, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>.figs. la,b (Vamkoro).Hah. Port Molle, 12-20 fms. (Copp<strong>in</strong>ger); Moluccas and Lord


MOLLUSCA. 69Hood's Island (i?^t7»r) ; Oomaga Reef {Juices) ; Mauritius (J/fl7-«(?/is) ;Home Islands, off Cape Greuville, N.E. Australia, and DarnleyIsland, Torres Straits (Brazier).With this species If. cidaris and N. petitiana have very closerelati<strong>on</strong>ship, and, <strong>in</strong>deed, at present I cannot appreciate <strong>the</strong>ir po<strong>in</strong>tsof dist<strong>in</strong>cti<strong>on</strong>.81. Nerita chrysostoma.Recluz ; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. pi. iv. figs. 18 a, b.Hab. Friday and Thursday Islands, Torres Straits, and EndeavourStraits, N. Australia {Coiyp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands {Cum<strong>in</strong>g).\yith this species should probably be united N, Le guillouana,N. savieana, N. l<strong>on</strong>gti, N. aurantia (all of Recluz), and N. funiculata,Reeve.82. Nerita melanotragns.Nerita atrata, Reeve {nun Chemnitz), C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. \Qn,b; Hrdt<strong>on</strong>,Mamial 3Ioll. New Zealand, p. 89 ; Anr/as, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1865,p. 175 ; op. cif. 1867, p. 212.Nerita nigra {Quoy Sf Gaimard), Graij^ DieffenhacNs New Zealand,vol. ii. p. 240.Hah. New Zealand, comm<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> north, not found south ofWell<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong> (Ifutf<strong>on</strong>) ; Australia and Tasmania {Hutt<strong>on</strong>) ; PortJacks<strong>on</strong> {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger, Angus., Sfc); Norfolk Island {BrencJiJeg)',Raoul or Sunday Island, Ker<strong>made</strong>c Islands {McccGiUivray, Voy.of H.M.S. Herald '')•I am <strong>in</strong>cl<strong>in</strong>ed with Deshayes * and Martens f to c<strong>on</strong>sider <strong>the</strong> shellfigured by Reeve not <strong>the</strong> N. atrata of Chemnitz. That authordescribes both lips as white, whereas <strong>the</strong> species figured by Reevehas <strong>the</strong> outer lip remarkably marg<strong>in</strong>ed with black. Besides, <strong>the</strong>localities quoted <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> C<strong>on</strong>chylicn-Cab<strong>in</strong>et,' namely <strong>the</strong> coast of'Gu<strong>in</strong>ea and <strong>the</strong> West Indies, do not support Reeve's identificati<strong>on</strong>.It is not, however, improbable that <strong>the</strong> Nerita menti<strong>on</strong>ed byChemnitz <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g paragraph of his descripti<strong>on</strong> ma}- havebeen <strong>the</strong> N. atrata of Reeve, for he states it to have been boug htfrom <strong>the</strong> South Seas by <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> expediti<strong>on</strong>s under Capta<strong>in</strong> Cook.I cannot f<strong>in</strong>d any species described by Quoy and Gaimard under<strong>the</strong> name N. nigra quoted by Gray <strong>in</strong> Dicffenbach's work, although<strong>the</strong>y figure <strong>the</strong> animal <strong>on</strong>ly of a Nerite noirdtre <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Voyage de'I'Uranie et la Physicienne.' The shell of that species <strong>the</strong>y do notdescribe, <strong>on</strong> account of its bad c<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong>. The N. punctata, Q. & G.,from <strong>the</strong> Mauritius is placed as a syn<strong>on</strong>ym of <strong>the</strong> present speciesby Mr. Angas (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1865, p. 175); but that species Ic<strong>on</strong>sider perfectly dist<strong>in</strong>ct, be<strong>in</strong>g probably <strong>the</strong> same as <strong>the</strong> N. nigerrimaof Chemnitz as figured by Reeve, which varies to a c<strong>on</strong>siderableextent <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> amount of white dott<strong>in</strong>g. Tlie spire of N. punctatais described as "fojii'f.ra, prom<strong>in</strong>enti."' The aperture is said to be* Anim. sans Vprtcbre.'


70 COLLi:CTIONS FROM MELANESIA." blanche, quelquefois un pen jaunutre, avec des 2^^^s en arriere,"and <strong>the</strong> oi^erculum is " rougeatre." N<strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong>se features arepresent <strong>in</strong> iV. melanotragus ; its spire is scarcely raised above <strong>the</strong>last whorl, <strong>the</strong> labrum is marg<strong>in</strong>ed with <strong>in</strong>tense black, <strong>the</strong> columellais white and destitute of <strong>the</strong> " plis en arriere," and <strong>the</strong> operculumis flesh-coloured, marked with two arcuate purplish-blackstripes. Not f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g any name which can be reta<strong>in</strong>ed for thisspecies, I have imposed up<strong>on</strong> it that of N. melanotrafjiis, beiugdescriptive of <strong>the</strong> black labrum. The name JV. nigra appears <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>' C<strong>on</strong>chylicn-Cabiuet,' and was given by Chemnitz to ano<strong>the</strong>r species.If such were not <strong>the</strong> case I would have applied it to t<strong>in</strong>s species, aswas d<strong>on</strong>e by Gray to specimens brought home by Dr. Dieffenbachfrom New Zealand.83. Nerita costata.Chemnitz ; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch, Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 6 a, h.Hah.N.E. Australia, beach.84. Nerita l<strong>in</strong>eata.Chemnitz ; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 13.Hah. Straits of Malacca {Chemnitz)', Port Ess<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong> and Philipp<strong>in</strong>eIslands {Reeve) ; Port Molle, 12-20 fms., and Port Curtis, <strong>in</strong>mangrove-swamps above high -water mark {CopjpvKjer).85. Nerita squamulata.Le Gillou, Revue Zool. 1841, p. 344 ; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. G3 a-f.Hah. Port Curtis, Port Denis<strong>on</strong>, Port Molle, Queensland, 12-20 fms., <strong>on</strong> a rocky bottom {Gopp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; S<strong>in</strong>gapore and Philipp<strong>in</strong>eIslands {Reeve) ; Samoa Islands {Brenchley) ; Pelew Islands {K<strong>in</strong>g).^Q.Nerita sigiiata.Maclcay ; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. pi. x. figs. 44 a, h.Hah. Friday Island, Torres Straits, <strong>in</strong> mangrove-swamps.One small specimen, obta<strong>in</strong>ed at <strong>the</strong> above locality, has <strong>the</strong> ridgesof a blackish colour articulated with creamy white, <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>tersticesbe<strong>in</strong>g of a dirty white colour.87. Turbo c<strong>on</strong>c<strong>in</strong>nus.Philipjn, C<strong>on</strong>.- Cab. p. 44, pL xi. fig. 6 (published <strong>in</strong> Lief. 65 <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>year 1847).=T. articulatus, Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. sp. 39 (1848).Hah. Port Molle, Queensland, <strong>on</strong> a coral-reef {Gopp<strong>in</strong>ger).The operculum of this species is solid, c<strong>on</strong>vex, more or less palegreenish, coarsely granular, especially near <strong>the</strong> outer marg<strong>in</strong>, andexhibits a slight, obliquely arcuate depressi<strong>on</strong> extend<strong>in</strong>g trom <strong>the</strong>centre to <strong>the</strong> opposite or <strong>in</strong>ner side.


MOLLUSCA. 7188. Trochus (Isanda) cor<strong>on</strong>ata. (Plate V. figs. P-P 2.)A. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1853, p. 189, & 1854, pi. 27. %. 5 ; GeneraRec. Moll. pi. 46. fig. 2 Ch<strong>on</strong>n. Man. C<strong>on</strong>ch, fig. 2G1G.;Var.=I. lepida, A. Adams, P. Z. S. 1853, p. 190.Hah. Port Curtis, 7 fms., and Priday Island, Torres Straits, ou<strong>the</strong> beach {Gopp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; South Australia {Cam<strong>in</strong>g).With <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong> of differences <strong>in</strong> colour and <strong>the</strong> height of <strong>the</strong>spires, <strong>the</strong>re ajjpears to be little or no sufficient reas<strong>on</strong> why <strong>the</strong> twoabove-named forms should be specifically separated. The subangulati<strong>on</strong>of <strong>the</strong> body-whorl, said to exist <strong>in</strong> /. h-jrUia, is very slight andequally present <strong>in</strong> /. cor<strong>on</strong>ata. The types of <strong>the</strong> latter are describedas be<strong>in</strong>g ornamented with white transverse l<strong>in</strong>es and brown spots,arranged <strong>in</strong> transverse series and hav<strong>in</strong>g a broad white band at <strong>the</strong>sutures. This band is not <strong>in</strong> fiict at <strong>the</strong> suture, but just below <strong>the</strong>cor<strong>on</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> whorls, <strong>the</strong> latter porti<strong>on</strong> and <strong>the</strong> channelled topbe<strong>in</strong>g coloured like <strong>the</strong> greater part of <strong>the</strong> shell. This stylo ofpa<strong>in</strong>tiiig is far from c<strong>on</strong>stant. Two specimens presented to <strong>the</strong>British Museum by A. Adams, Esq., lack <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>spicuous whitebaud, but have <strong>the</strong> entire surface covered with oblique, slightlywavy, p<strong>in</strong>kish-brown stripes, rest<strong>in</strong>g up<strong>on</strong> a p<strong>in</strong>ky-wJiite ground.A s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen dredged by Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger at Port Curtis exhibits<strong>the</strong> typical colorati<strong>on</strong>, with <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong> of hav<strong>in</strong>g a sec<strong>on</strong>d whitetransverse z<strong>on</strong>e just below <strong>the</strong> periphery of <strong>the</strong> last voluti<strong>on</strong>.Ano<strong>the</strong>r example from Friday Island more nearly resembles <strong>the</strong>variety previously menti<strong>on</strong>ed ; but <strong>the</strong> oblique stripes are lessregular, be<strong>in</strong>g more <strong>in</strong>terrupted and <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> form of spots.Mr. Adams describes <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>ner lip of this genus as " straight,form<strong>in</strong>g an angle with <strong>the</strong> outer lip." This descripti<strong>on</strong> is scarcelyaccurate. All <strong>the</strong> specimens which I have exam<strong>in</strong>ed have <strong>the</strong>columella a little oblique, slightly <strong>in</strong>curved at <strong>the</strong> upper part andmiddle, and <strong>the</strong>n prom<strong>in</strong>ent anteriorly, term<strong>in</strong>at<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> an <strong>in</strong>dist<strong>in</strong>ctsubtruneati<strong>on</strong>, or, <strong>in</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r words, it is subnotched at <strong>the</strong> base at <strong>the</strong>term<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> double series of tubercles surround<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> umbilicus.It is very slightly expanded and c<strong>on</strong>nected with <strong>the</strong> upperextremity of <strong>the</strong> outer lip by a th<strong>in</strong> callosity (which is subtubercular<strong>in</strong> adult shells) up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> whorl close to <strong>the</strong> end of <strong>the</strong> columella.The aperture has a th<strong>in</strong> coat<strong>in</strong>g of nacre, which <strong>in</strong> worn shells isnot very apparent.89. Trochus (Calliostoma) speciosa.Ziziph<strong>in</strong>us speciosus, A, Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1854, p. 38 ;C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>., Zizyphiuus, sp. 9, figs. 9 a, h.Peeve,Hah. Port Curtis, Queensland, 1-\\ ims,. {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) \ Morct<strong>on</strong>Bay {Mr. Strange).In form this species a])proachcs 7'. couitus of Phi]ij)pi, whicli,however, <strong>in</strong> additi<strong>on</strong> to difference <strong>in</strong> colour, does not possess <strong>the</strong>peculiar smooth orange-yellow callosity at <strong>the</strong> umbilical regi<strong>on</strong> so


;72 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA,characteristic of T. speciosus. ZizipMnus comptas, A. Adorns, is adifferent species from that described hy I'hilippi, and has s<strong>in</strong>ce beendescribed by Souverbic under <strong>the</strong> name of T. poiqnneli.90. Trochus (Calliostoma) decoratiis.Trochus decoratus, Philij^jn, C<strong>on</strong>.- Cab. pi. 13. fig. 1.Zizyph<strong>in</strong>us decoratus, lieeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 28 ;A. Adams, Proc.Zool. Sac. 1851, p. 1G5.Hah. " ? " {Pliilippi) ; Brisbane waters, East Australia ( i?reve)Sj'duey and Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger and Lieut. A. Smith, li.N.).The <strong>in</strong>terior of <strong>the</strong> aperture of this species, close to <strong>the</strong> outer andbasal marg<strong>in</strong>, is thickened ^^ith a whitish and more or loss cloudypearly deposit, which c<strong>on</strong>ceals to some extent <strong>the</strong> beautiful iridescenceobservable fur<strong>the</strong>r with<strong>in</strong>.91. Trochus (Calliostoma) rubropunctatus.Ziziph<strong>in</strong>us rubropuuctatus, A. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. 1(37Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>di. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 56.Hah. ? {Adams t|' Reeve); Albany Island, F. Australia, <strong>in</strong>3-4 fms. <strong>on</strong> a muddy bottom, and Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, ^.W. Australia,8-12 fms. {Copp<strong>in</strong>gtr).This is a most charm<strong>in</strong>g little species, and readilj' recognized byits peculiar pa<strong>in</strong>t<strong>in</strong>g and remarkable sculpture. Adams describes<strong>the</strong> colour as " lutescens." I should ra<strong>the</strong>r c<strong>on</strong>sider it pale fleshyp<strong>in</strong>k, with dark red dots <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>terstices between <strong>the</strong> obliquecostre and <strong>the</strong> transverse or spiral ridges. The latter are said to befour <strong>in</strong> number <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> last whorl ; but <strong>on</strong> careful exam<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> I f<strong>in</strong>dsix, of which four are, however, more prom<strong>in</strong>ent than <strong>the</strong> rest.The tipper voluti<strong>on</strong>s are encircled by three pr<strong>in</strong>cipal liroe, and afourth sec<strong>on</strong>dary <strong>on</strong>e at <strong>the</strong> suture. The po<strong>in</strong>ts of <strong>in</strong>tersecti<strong>on</strong> of<strong>the</strong>se spiral ridges and <strong>the</strong> oblique costse are produced <strong>in</strong>to quiteacute nodules or prickles. The base of <strong>the</strong> shell is almost flat,ornamented with about six c<strong>on</strong>centric liroe, which are more or lessgranulous, with <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>terstices exhibit<strong>in</strong>g str<strong>on</strong>g l<strong>in</strong>es of growthand translucent nacre. The colour closely approaches <strong>the</strong> rest of<strong>the</strong> surface, varied with brown dots both up<strong>on</strong> and between <strong>the</strong>granules.92. Trochus (Thalotia) torresi. (Plate VI. fig. A.)Shell sharply c<strong>on</strong>ical, subperforated or with <strong>the</strong> perforati<strong>on</strong> c<strong>on</strong>cealed,greenish (sometimes p<strong>in</strong>kish red), with oblique white narrowstripes and darker green (or rosy black) spott<strong>in</strong>g at <strong>the</strong> base of <strong>the</strong>whorls and iip<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> angle of <strong>the</strong> last. Voluti<strong>on</strong>s about 8, flat,marg<strong>in</strong>ed at <strong>the</strong> lower part with two rows of closely packed granulesra<strong>the</strong>r more prom<strong>in</strong>ent than five o<strong>the</strong>rs above. Between <strong>the</strong>se, <strong>in</strong>well-preserved specimens, very f<strong>in</strong>e lira? (<strong>on</strong>e <strong>in</strong> each <strong>in</strong>terstice) andoblique l<strong>in</strong>es of growth are discernible. Last whorl ra<strong>the</strong>r acutelyangled at <strong>the</strong> periphery, beneath with about n<strong>in</strong>e c<strong>on</strong>centric rows of


MOLLUSC A. 73granules alternat<strong>in</strong>g with o<strong>the</strong>rs very much f<strong>in</strong>er, hav<strong>in</strong>g smallerand subobsolete tubercles. The aperture is obliquely subqnadrate.Columella a little arcuate at <strong>the</strong> upper part, white, retloxcd over<strong>the</strong> white umbilical regi<strong>on</strong> and subtrnncate anteriorly. Height12 millim., diam. Dg ; ano<strong>the</strong>r specimen is 13 high, and 12 <strong>in</strong>width.Hah. Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel, Torres Straits.There are two varieties of this pretty species, which may betermed <strong>the</strong> green and p<strong>in</strong>k. The foimer is represented by fourspecimens <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Museum (three bel<strong>on</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> Cum<strong>in</strong>gian collecti<strong>on</strong>)and <strong>the</strong> latter by two, which fact, however, can hardly boaccepted as <strong>in</strong>dicat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> relative abundance of <strong>the</strong> two forms.In <strong>the</strong> green variety <strong>the</strong> base <strong>in</strong> three out of <strong>the</strong> four examples issomewhat p<strong>in</strong>kish, radiatcly streaked with white, whilst <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>fourth specimen it is green with irregular strcalss and has a moretessellated aspect. The perforati<strong>on</strong> is small, and may ei<strong>the</strong>r be c<strong>on</strong>cealedby a th<strong>in</strong> callosity or rema<strong>in</strong> open.This is a smaller species than T. fra[/u7n (Phil.), has more numerousgranules (of which <strong>the</strong>re are. Jive <strong>in</strong>stead of four rows, besides<strong>the</strong> basal girdle), and <strong>in</strong>terven<strong>in</strong>g f<strong>in</strong>e lira; are generally to be metwith <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> spire, which are want<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Philippi's shell. I shouldalso observe that <strong>the</strong> columella of T. fragum, judg<strong>in</strong>g from <strong>the</strong>figure, is less <strong>in</strong>curved than <strong>in</strong> this form.93. Trochus (M<strong>on</strong>ilea) lifuana. (Plate VI. figs. B, B 1.)Fischer, Journ. de C<strong>on</strong>. 1878, vol. xxvi. p. G3.]\Iouilea lifuana, Fischer, I. c. 1879, vol. xxvii. p. 30, pi. 3. fig. 5.Trochus lifuauus, Fischer <strong>in</strong> Kiener^s Coq. Viv. p. 3S8, pi. IIG.fig. 4.Shell suborbicular, <strong>on</strong>ly slightly elevated, moderately thick, narrowlyumbilicated, spirally lirate and striated throughout, andmarked with ra<strong>the</strong>r dist<strong>in</strong>ct l<strong>in</strong>es of growth, p<strong>in</strong>kish white, variedwith large brownish blotches and transverse l<strong>in</strong>es articulated withwhite and dark purplish brown. Whorls 5^-6, c<strong>on</strong>vex, separatedbj' a deepish suture. Last whorl compressed, c<strong>on</strong>vex and c<strong>on</strong>centricallystriated beneath, obtusely subangled at <strong>the</strong> periphery. Spirenot much elevated, hav<strong>in</strong>g slightly c<strong>on</strong>vex outl<strong>in</strong>es. Umbilicusnarrow, perforate to <strong>the</strong> apex, marg<strong>in</strong>ed with a thickened spiralwhite or spotted callus and furnished with a sec<strong>on</strong>d more elevated<strong>on</strong>e with<strong>in</strong>, which termimites <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> columella <strong>in</strong> a lateral j'ellowishprojecti<strong>on</strong>. Aperture quadrat ely subcircular, oblique, <strong>on</strong>ly th<strong>in</strong>lynacreous with<strong>in</strong>. Columella oblique, arcuate, thickened by <strong>the</strong> endsof <strong>the</strong> two spiral callosities of <strong>the</strong> umbilicus and slightly reflcxed.Outer lip (viewed laterally) obliquely excurved above <strong>the</strong> peripheryand broadly s<strong>in</strong>iiated beneath. Height 6| millim. ;greatest diameter9, smallest 7|.Hctb. Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel, Torres Straits, 7 fms.The colour<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> two specimens from this locality is verysimilar, differ<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> amount and size of <strong>the</strong> blotches, which


74 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.have a somewhat radiat<strong>in</strong>g dispositi<strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> spire. Eoth speci<strong>in</strong>eushave a series of small patches around tlie periphery of <strong>the</strong> bodywhorland a sec<strong>on</strong>d below it <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> under surface. They are c<strong>on</strong>siderablysmaller than those described by Pischer, but may not befull-grown ; this is probably <strong>the</strong> case, as <strong>the</strong> umbilicus is moreopen than <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> shells from Lifu. The whorls also exhibit little orno trace of an angle above <strong>the</strong> middle.94, Trochus (M<strong>on</strong>od<strong>on</strong>ta) labio.L<strong>in</strong>n., Pkilipjn <strong>in</strong> Kiister^s Cun.-Cah. p. 166, pi. 27. figs. 1-3, & pi. 44.fig. 8. .Hah. West Island, Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel, Torres Straits {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger); Daruley Island (Brazier).95. Trochus (Labio) zebra, Menhe.Hah. Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> (Copp<strong>in</strong>ger Sf Angas).This species is <strong>the</strong> T. tceniatus of Quoy & Gaimard, 1S34 (notT. tceniatus, Wood, 1828), and Lahio porcata of A. Adams is <strong>on</strong>ly aslight variety.Philippi (C<strong>on</strong>.-Cab. p. 160) is <strong>in</strong>cl<strong>in</strong>ed to c<strong>on</strong>sider T. zehra merelya variati<strong>on</strong> of T. c<strong>on</strong>strictus, and possibly he is correct ; still I th<strong>in</strong>kfur<strong>the</strong>r evidence is requisite <strong>in</strong> order to place this suppositi<strong>on</strong> bey<strong>on</strong>da doubt.Specimens of this species are <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> British Museum from N.E.Australia, Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>, Port Phillip, Tasmania, and New Zealand.96. Trochus (Perr<strong>in</strong>ia) elisus.Trochus elisus, Gould, ProcBost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 1840, vol. iii p. 92 ;Otia C<strong>on</strong>ch, p. 57 ;Wilkes, Explor. Exped. Moll. p. 178, Atlas,pi. 13. figs. 216-216 c.Thalotia elisa, Goidd, Otia, p. 245.Hah. Port MoUe, Queensland, 12-20 fms. {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger); S<strong>in</strong>gapore(Gould) ; Island of Capul, Philipp<strong>in</strong>es, <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> reefs at low water(Cum<strong>in</strong>g).The two specimens of this beautiful species from Port Molle arepeculiar <strong>in</strong> hav<strong>in</strong>g four spiral lira; <strong>in</strong>stead of three up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> upperwhorls, and those beneath <strong>the</strong> periphery of <strong>the</strong> last ra<strong>the</strong>r f<strong>in</strong>er than<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Philipp<strong>in</strong>e examples. The deep suture and <strong>the</strong> character of<strong>the</strong> sculpture ra<strong>the</strong>r suggest Perr<strong>in</strong>ia than Thalotia as <strong>the</strong> secti<strong>on</strong>for this species.97. Trochus (Euchelus) atratus.Turbo atratus, Gmel<strong>in</strong>, Syst. Nat. p. 3601.Trochus atratus, Philippi, C<strong>on</strong>ch.- Cah. p. 174, pi. 27. fig. 14.^M<strong>on</strong>od<strong>on</strong>ta canaliculata, Lamarck, An. s. Vert. no. 20 ; Dekssert,Pecueil, pi. 37. fig. 1; Quay Sf Gaimard, Voy. Astrvlahe, pi. 64.figs. 21-25 (as Trochus).


—MOLLUSC A. 75Euchelus deuigratus, //. Sf A. Adams, Gen. Heo. Moll. i. p. 418,pi. 47. figs. 6-06.Var. = M<strong>on</strong>od<strong>on</strong>ta sulcifera, A. Adams, Proc. Zool. Sac. 18-)1, p. 175.Yar. m<strong>in</strong>or = Euchelus bruimeus, Adams i^- Angas, MS.? <strong>in</strong> Mus.Cum<strong>in</strong>y lij' Angas.Hah. Port Molle and Port Curtis, Queensland {Cop<strong>in</strong>nger).This species varies c<strong>on</strong>siderablj' <strong>in</strong> size and colour. The tj'picalforra, as figured by Philippi, is a small str<strong>on</strong>g shell of a black-browncolour, <strong>the</strong> spiral gvanulous ridges be<strong>in</strong>g articulated with yellowishwhite. The columellar tooth is well developed ; <strong>the</strong> aperture smalland str<strong>on</strong>gly sulcate with<strong>in</strong>, especially at <strong>the</strong> base. Ano<strong>the</strong>r formis c<strong>on</strong>siderably larger, hav<strong>in</strong>g a total length of 25 millim. In thisvariety, which is generally of a lilac-black colour, paler between <strong>the</strong>ridges, <strong>the</strong> articulati<strong>on</strong> u2)<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> latter is less c<strong>on</strong>spicuous, <strong>the</strong> tooth<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> columella smaller, <strong>the</strong> aperture more slightly sulcate, and <strong>the</strong>whole structure of <strong>the</strong> shell proporti<strong>on</strong>ally th<strong>in</strong>ner than <strong>the</strong> typicalform. M<strong>on</strong>od<strong>on</strong>ta sulcifera is a light-coloured variety, with verylittle articulati<strong>on</strong> or spott<strong>in</strong>g, and of immature growth. Thisaccounts for <strong>the</strong> words "labro tenui " and "columella ad bas<strong>in</strong> trisulcata' <strong>in</strong> Adams's diagnosis. The latter feature is not str<strong>on</strong>glymarked even <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> type, and <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> adult shell it becomes obliteratedby <strong>the</strong> depositi<strong>on</strong> of callus and nacre. Euchelus hrunneus,which appears to be a MS. name attached to shells <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Cum<strong>in</strong>giancollecti<strong>on</strong> and to a series presented to <strong>the</strong> British Museum byMr. G. F. Angas, is a dwarf variety, and with <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong> of size(10 millim. <strong>in</strong> length) agrees <strong>in</strong> all respects with <strong>the</strong> normal form.The follow<strong>in</strong>g is <strong>the</strong> geographical distributi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> species :Nicobar Islands {Chemnitz); T<strong>on</strong>ga-Tabou, Vanikoro (Quojf) ;K<strong>in</strong>gsmill Island, Timor, Plores (Martens) ; New Gu<strong>in</strong>ea, FijiIslands (Brit. 3Ius.); N.E. Australia, Torres Straits and PortEss<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong> (large var. <strong>in</strong> Brit. Mus.) ; Eoebuck Bay, North Australia(var. sulcifera) ; Moret<strong>on</strong> Bay (Angas) Snd Sydney (Mus. Cum<strong>in</strong>g)for var. brunnea.98. Bankivia (Leiopyrga) picturata. (Plate VI. figs. C-C 2.)Leiopyrga picturata, H. ^ A. Adams, Ann. Sf Mac/. Nat. Hist. 1863,vol. xi. p. 19; Angas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1865, p. 181, 1867, p. 216.Hah. St. V<strong>in</strong>cent's Gulf, South Australia (Angas) ; MiddleHarbour, Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> (Angas and Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Stuart Island, NewZealand (G. Traill).This is a very pretty species, present<strong>in</strong>g variati<strong>on</strong>s <strong>in</strong> colour<strong>in</strong>gvery similar to those of <strong>the</strong> comm<strong>on</strong> E. varians. The form orig<strong>in</strong>allydescribed by Adams is whitish, ornamented with f<strong>in</strong>e undulat<strong>in</strong>gl<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al red-brown or p<strong>in</strong>kish l<strong>in</strong>es, which, at <strong>the</strong> sutures andat <strong>the</strong> periphery of <strong>the</strong> last whorl, are darker and assume <strong>the</strong>appearance of spots.Ano<strong>the</strong>r variety has <strong>the</strong> middle of <strong>the</strong> whorls encircled by a pla<strong>in</strong>narrow z<strong>on</strong>e, without <strong>the</strong> scries of spots at <strong>the</strong> periphery of <strong>the</strong> last.


76 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.Messrs. Adams described <strong>the</strong>se spots as be<strong>in</strong>g " round '' <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>specimen <strong>the</strong>y exam<strong>in</strong>ed ; <strong>in</strong> those before me <strong>the</strong>y are ra<strong>the</strong>rangular, be<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> zigzag turn of <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al l<strong>in</strong>es. A thirdvariety has a pale band round <strong>the</strong> middle of <strong>the</strong> last voluti<strong>on</strong> whichfalls at <strong>the</strong> lower part of <strong>the</strong> upper <strong>on</strong>es, <strong>the</strong> upper porti<strong>on</strong> be<strong>in</strong>gp<strong>in</strong>kish or closely l<strong>in</strong>colatcd with p<strong>in</strong>k. The lower half of <strong>the</strong> bodywhorlhas a broad p<strong>in</strong>kish band beneath <strong>the</strong> cent ralwhite <strong>on</strong>e, whichis succeeded by a narrower pla<strong>in</strong> z<strong>on</strong>e, which <strong>in</strong> turn is followed byano<strong>the</strong>r f<strong>in</strong>e p<strong>in</strong>k <strong>on</strong>e.A fourth form, with <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> upper part of <strong>the</strong> spireand <strong>the</strong> umbilical regi<strong>on</strong>, is of a uniform greyish violet.The largest specimen is twelve millim. l<strong>on</strong>g, and c<strong>on</strong>sists ofeight whorls. The spiral sulcati<strong>on</strong> and ridg<strong>in</strong>g is much more developed<strong>in</strong> some specimens than o<strong>the</strong>rs. In <strong>the</strong> largest <strong>the</strong>re is quitea str<strong>on</strong>g keel near <strong>the</strong> base of <strong>the</strong> upper whorls, which graduallydim<strong>in</strong>ishes up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> last. In o<strong>the</strong>rs <strong>the</strong> whorls are almost smooth,with <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> base of <strong>the</strong> last, which <strong>in</strong>variably presentsa few sulci circumscrib<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> narrow umbilicus. The presence of<strong>the</strong> latter peculiarity and <strong>the</strong> very slight difference <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> columellado not appear to me sufficient characters to separate this speciesgenerically from Banlcivia. The general form of <strong>the</strong> shell, itstexture, and <strong>the</strong> style and variati<strong>on</strong> of pa<strong>in</strong>t<strong>in</strong>g are <strong>the</strong> same. O<strong>the</strong>rpo<strong>in</strong>ts of resemblance are <strong>the</strong> thicken<strong>in</strong>g or marg<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> whorlsat <strong>the</strong> suture, <strong>the</strong> striati<strong>on</strong> or sulcati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> base of <strong>the</strong> last, <strong>the</strong>n<strong>on</strong>-pearly aperture, and f<strong>in</strong>ally <strong>the</strong>ir geogi'aphical distributi<strong>on</strong>.A sec<strong>on</strong>d species (?) of <strong>the</strong> secti<strong>on</strong> Le'wpi<strong>in</strong>ia has been brieflydescribed by A. Adams (P. Z. S. 1863, p. 507) from Port Ess<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong>,under <strong>the</strong> name of L. c<strong>in</strong>gulata. It presents similar variati<strong>on</strong>s <strong>in</strong>colour<strong>in</strong>g as <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r species, and, <strong>in</strong>deed, might even be c<strong>on</strong>sideredano<strong>the</strong>r form of it with <strong>the</strong> car<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong>s and lirae more pr<strong>on</strong>ounced.99. Stomatella cancellata.Kmuss, Siidaf. 3IoU. p. 93, pi. 5. fig. 26 ; A. Adams <strong>in</strong> Sotivrhy'sThes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, vol. ii. p. 836, pi. 174. figs. 6-9 ; Soicerby, C<strong>on</strong>ch.Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 13 a, b.Hah. Table Bay, Cape of Good Hope (Krauss) ; Islands of Boholand Luz<strong>on</strong>, Philipp<strong>in</strong>es (JIus. Cumim/) ; Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel,Torres Straits, <strong>in</strong> 3-4 fms., and Port Curtis {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).100. Stomatia rubra.Lamarck; A. Adams <strong>in</strong> So7cerhys Thesaurtts, vol. ii. p. 842, pi. 175.figs. 53-56 ; Genera Rec. Moll. pi. 49. figs. 9-9 h (animal) ; Soiverby,C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 8 «, 6 ; Danker, Index Moll. 3Iar. Jap<strong>on</strong>. pi. vi.figs. 11-13.Ilnh. Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Is.' (Ch/h?'/)//) ; Korea (^4. ^c7.) ;Port Ess<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong>,7 fms., mud (Jukes <strong>in</strong> Brit. Mus.); Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, 8-12 fms., mudand sand {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).


MOLLUSCA. 77101. Haliotis (Te<strong>in</strong>otis) as<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>a, L<strong>in</strong>n.Hah. Port Molle <strong>on</strong> coral-reef.A s<strong>in</strong>gle jouiig specimen was collected, hav<strong>in</strong>g but five perforati<strong>on</strong>sopen. Tlie two nuclear whorls are fleshy p<strong>in</strong>k and smooth,and <strong>the</strong> radiat<strong>in</strong>g ridges are beset with f<strong>in</strong>e granules alternatelytilrquoise- blue and scarlet.102. Dentalium javanum.Sowerbi/,Thes.C<strong>on</strong>ch. vol. iii, p. 102, pi. 223. fig.l2 ;C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig.l4.Hab. Java (Sowh.) ; Malacca, coarse sand, 12 fms. (Cum<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>Brit. Mus.) ;Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, 8-12 fms., sand and mud {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).This species is very nearly related to D. octogomun of Lamarck.The eight ridges are c<strong>on</strong>spicuously acute, <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>terstices be<strong>in</strong>gflattish, and marked <strong>on</strong>ly with cross l<strong>in</strong>es or striae of growth. Thecolour of this shell is white, vary<strong>in</strong>g to pale green.103. Scutus unguis.Patella unguis, L<strong>in</strong>n. Syst. Nat. ed. 12, p. 12G0(part.) ;Ilanley, IpsaL<strong>in</strong>n. C<strong>on</strong>di, pi. 3. fig. 4.Hah. Fl<strong>in</strong>ders and Clairm<strong>on</strong>t Islands, N.E. Australia, 11 fms.{Copp<strong>in</strong>gi;r), also Thursday Island.For full syn<strong>on</strong>ymy of this species I would refer <strong>the</strong> reader to apaper by <strong>the</strong> author <strong>on</strong> this genus <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> 'Journal of C<strong>on</strong>chology,' vol. ii.pp. 252-264. The animals from <strong>the</strong> above locality are yellowish or,buif, copiously blotched and sta<strong>in</strong>ed irregularly with blackish grey,104. Fissurella jukesii.Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 45 (<strong>on</strong>ly half-growu).Juv. = F. fimbriata, Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 104.Hah. Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, N.W. Australia {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Port Molle,Queensland (Jid-es).•This species may be recognized by <strong>the</strong> elevated squamous characterof <strong>the</strong> radiat<strong>in</strong>g ridges, which are more or less t<strong>in</strong>ted with pale rose.In <strong>the</strong> young state <strong>the</strong> apex is more c<strong>on</strong>ical than <strong>in</strong> older shells, and<strong>the</strong> foramen (as is usually <strong>the</strong> case <strong>in</strong> immature specimens of thisgenus) is more central.105. Fissurella s<strong>in</strong>gaporensis.Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 100, 101.<strong>the</strong> sole of <strong>the</strong> foot be<strong>in</strong>g of a uniform buff t<strong>in</strong>t. The shells are of<strong>the</strong> same width (13 millim.) ;but <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong>m is 2o millim. l<strong>on</strong>g, <strong>the</strong>o<strong>the</strong>r <strong>on</strong>ly 23|, which gives to <strong>the</strong> former a more el<strong>on</strong>gate appearance.Hah. Port Molle, Queensland, coral-reef, Port Curtis beach, andPort Darw<strong>in</strong>, N.W. Australia, 8-12 fms. (dead) {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; S<strong>in</strong>gapore{Reeve).This form is allied to F. tica<strong>on</strong>ica, but may be separated <strong>on</strong>


78 COLLECTIONS FEOM MELANESIA.account of its more central and differently shaped foramen, wliich islarger, wider, and broadly ovate. The more median positi<strong>on</strong> of itc<strong>on</strong>siderably alters <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>tour of <strong>the</strong> shell.Beeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 108.106, Fissurella quadriradiata.Hah. Port Molle, Queensland {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Island of Negros,Philipp<strong>in</strong>es {Ciim<strong>in</strong>q).The s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen from Port Molle is ra<strong>the</strong>r more elevated than<strong>the</strong> type from <strong>the</strong> Philipp<strong>in</strong>es, but a sec<strong>on</strong>d example from <strong>the</strong> latterlocality has an equally high elevati<strong>on</strong>. The Australian shell is18 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g, 11| broad, and 10| <strong>in</strong> height. The typo has <strong>the</strong>same length and vridth as <strong>the</strong> preced<strong>in</strong>g specimen, but is <strong>on</strong>ly 8millim. high.F. ticaoiiica, Peeve, is ra<strong>the</strong>r more el<strong>on</strong>gate than this species, hasf<strong>in</strong>er radiat<strong>in</strong>g costfE, <strong>the</strong> foramen is ra<strong>the</strong>r more anterior andcircumscribed with <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> posterior end by a narrowdark olive l<strong>in</strong>e, which is more or less visible <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> exterior. F.quadriradiata is not always four-rayed, but may be altoge<strong>the</strong>r whiteor have <strong>the</strong> costse, pr<strong>in</strong>cipally <strong>the</strong> larger <strong>on</strong>es, spotted with oliveand flesh t<strong>in</strong>ts. However, judg<strong>in</strong>g from <strong>the</strong> few specimens underexam<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong>, where rays are present, <strong>the</strong>j' appear to be of <strong>the</strong>number and <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> positi<strong>on</strong>s depicted by Peeve.107. Chit<strong>on</strong> jugosus.Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. Ned. Hist. 1846, vol. ii. p. 142 ; Tf'ilkrs'gKrplor.Edpc'd. p. 317, fig. 430 ; Ofia, p. 3,& p. 242 (C. Lophyrus j.).Chit<strong>on</strong> c<strong>on</strong>ceutricus, Beeve, 1847, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. pi. 16. fig. 95.Hah. New South Wales {Gld.) ; New Zealand {Reeve); PortJacks<strong>on</strong> {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger, Angas, and Rev. R. L. K<strong>in</strong>g) ; Newcastle {Dr.Diejfenhach <strong>in</strong> Brit. Mus.).C<strong>on</strong>firmati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> New-Zealand locality of this species is stillwant<strong>in</strong>g.108. Chit<strong>on</strong> (Ischnochit<strong>on</strong>) curtisianus. (Plate YI. fig. D.)Shell oval, flatfish, of a dirty dark greyish colour, hav<strong>in</strong>g a c<strong>on</strong>spicuousblack broadish l<strong>in</strong>e from end to end down <strong>the</strong> middle of <strong>the</strong>back, with a pale <strong>on</strong>e <strong>on</strong> each side of it, and with <strong>the</strong> mantle patchedalternately light and dark, irregularly granulated throughout.Valves arched, not car<strong>in</strong>ate at <strong>the</strong> vertex, with very <strong>in</strong>dist<strong>in</strong>ctlateral areas, exhibit<strong>in</strong>g str<strong>on</strong>g c<strong>on</strong>centric l<strong>in</strong>es of growth, especiallyc<strong>on</strong>spicuous at <strong>the</strong> sides and anterior marg<strong>in</strong>s. Fr<strong>on</strong>t plate wellcurved anteriorly, <strong>the</strong> posterior marg<strong>in</strong> be<strong>in</strong>g broadly s<strong>in</strong>uafed.Sec<strong>on</strong>d plate l<strong>on</strong>ger than <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r <strong>in</strong>termediate valves, slightly<strong>in</strong>curved <strong>on</strong> each side, <strong>the</strong> central outcurved po<strong>in</strong>t <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t, ra<strong>the</strong>rpeaked <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> middle of <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>der edge. The third, fourth, fifth,sixth, and seventh valves are very short <strong>in</strong> comparis<strong>on</strong> with <strong>the</strong>irwidth <strong>in</strong> proporti<strong>on</strong> as 1 is to 3. The jugal s<strong>in</strong>us is large and


MOLLUSCA. 79arciiate. Last valve of a narrow acutely elliptic form, with <strong>the</strong>mucro probably near <strong>the</strong> centre. Interior of <strong>the</strong> plates greenishblue, sta<strong>in</strong>ed dark brown <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> middle. Lam<strong>in</strong>a of <strong>in</strong>serti<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>froi]t plate with about ten notches at unequal distances, leav<strong>in</strong>gdifferent-sized teeth between <strong>the</strong>m, which are striated <strong>on</strong> both sides,but more str<strong>on</strong>gly externally, <strong>the</strong>ir edges be<strong>in</strong>g sharp, but notsmooth. The central plates have a s<strong>in</strong>gle m<strong>in</strong>ute notcli <strong>on</strong> eachside, <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>serti<strong>on</strong>-lam<strong>in</strong>a be<strong>in</strong>g comparatively smooth <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> uppersurface and marked with a small brown spot <strong>on</strong> each side aga<strong>in</strong>st<strong>the</strong> edge of <strong>the</strong> valve. Tail-plate much thickened with<strong>in</strong> al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong>posterior edge, which is roughened by f<strong>in</strong>e cross stria^, <strong>the</strong>re be<strong>in</strong>gno prom<strong>in</strong>ent teeth, and of course no notches. Mantle-marg<strong>in</strong>covered with small subimbricat<strong>in</strong>g oval granules. Length withoutmarg<strong>in</strong> 10 millim. ; width of fourth plate 9.Hab. Port Curtis (Cojypiiir/e)-).The granules of <strong>the</strong> surface have an irregular c<strong>on</strong>centric dispositi<strong>on</strong>,follow<strong>in</strong>g to some extent <strong>the</strong> l<strong>in</strong>es of growth.109. Chit<strong>on</strong> (Ischnochit<strong>on</strong> ?) adelaidensis.Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 123.Uah. Port Molle, Queensland {Copp<strong>in</strong>fjer) ; Port Adelaide {Reeve).The entire surface of this species is m<strong>in</strong>utely granoscly reticulated,<strong>the</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t valve, <strong>the</strong> lateral areas of <strong>the</strong> narrow central valves, and<strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>der area of <strong>the</strong> posterior are <strong>in</strong> additi<strong>on</strong> somewhat irregularlyradiately sulcate. The prevail<strong>in</strong>g colour is pale greenish, streakedand dotted with red, <strong>the</strong> posterior marg<strong>in</strong> of <strong>the</strong> valves be<strong>in</strong>g palerthan <strong>the</strong> general t<strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> shell, and c<strong>on</strong>spicuously spotted with<strong>the</strong> same red colour. The gra<strong>in</strong>s of <strong>the</strong> mantle are smooth, arranged<strong>in</strong> alternate greenish and reddish patches, and <strong>in</strong>dividually have adark spot generally <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> outer side, which is <strong>on</strong>ly seen undera lens ; those near <strong>the</strong> valves are c<strong>on</strong>siderably smaller than thosesituated towards <strong>the</strong> edge of <strong>the</strong> girdle. Hav<strong>in</strong>g parted <strong>the</strong> valvesof <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> specimens I f<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t <strong>on</strong>e has <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong> of<strong>in</strong>serti<strong>on</strong> divided <strong>in</strong>to seventeen unequal, squarely cut, slightlycr<strong>in</strong>kled, sharp-edged teeth, of which <strong>the</strong> two outer <strong>on</strong> each side are<strong>the</strong> largest. The sixteen slits between <strong>the</strong> teeth are very small andshallow. The sec<strong>on</strong>d, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth valves have<strong>on</strong> each side a s<strong>in</strong>gle very small narrow central notch, from which agroove or depressi<strong>on</strong> runs to <strong>the</strong> apex of each valve ; <strong>the</strong> seventh isprobably abnormal, hav<strong>in</strong>g a s<strong>in</strong>gle notch <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> right side and two<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> left, and <strong>the</strong> term<strong>in</strong>al valve has n<strong>in</strong>eteen similar slits.110. Chit<strong>on</strong> (CallistocMt<strong>on</strong>) antiquus.Chit<strong>on</strong> antiquus, Heeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 1G9.Callistochit<strong>on</strong> sarcophagus, Carpenter, MS. <strong>in</strong> Coll. Cum<strong>in</strong>g.Hab. Australia (lleeve) ; Port Molle, Queensland {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger);Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>, rare (Anr/as).Reeve's figure of this species is much enlarged, <strong>the</strong> type shell


80 COLLECTIONS FROM MELAN-ESIA.be<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong>ly 14 millim. <strong>in</strong> length. The number of radiat<strong>in</strong>g ridges<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> term<strong>in</strong>al valves varies c<strong>on</strong>siderably : <strong>the</strong> type has ten <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t <strong>on</strong>e, and n<strong>in</strong>e <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> posterior ; <strong>the</strong> s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen fromPort Molle has <strong>the</strong> same number <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t, but <strong>on</strong>e less beh<strong>in</strong>d ; athird example has seventeen anterior and sixteen posterior <strong>on</strong>es.The central valves are arched, but exhibit a car<strong>in</strong>a at <strong>the</strong> vertex.The two radiat<strong>in</strong>g costae are sometimes more or less double at <strong>the</strong>outer ctrxemities. The l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al thread-like lira3 are ra<strong>the</strong>rgranular through be<strong>in</strong>g c<strong>on</strong>nected with <strong>the</strong> still f<strong>in</strong>er cross raisedl<strong>in</strong>es ; <strong>the</strong>y are fairly regular up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> greater part of <strong>the</strong> surface,but down <strong>the</strong> centre form an irregular network, not unlike <strong>the</strong>reticulati<strong>on</strong> of a thimble. The <strong>in</strong>terior of <strong>the</strong> valves is for <strong>the</strong> mostpart pale greenish white, but towards <strong>the</strong> straight posterior marg<strong>in</strong>of <strong>the</strong> central <strong>on</strong>es a buff t<strong>in</strong>t prevails. The lam<strong>in</strong>a of <strong>in</strong>serti<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t valve is divided (a s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen <strong>on</strong>ly has been exam<strong>in</strong>ed)by eight m<strong>in</strong>ute notches <strong>in</strong>to n<strong>in</strong>e subequal squarely-cut curvedteeth, toge<strong>the</strong>r form<strong>in</strong>g a festo<strong>on</strong>ed semicircle ; from each slit afeeble groove runs to <strong>the</strong> vertex corresp<strong>on</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g to an external rib.The central valves have a s<strong>in</strong>gle notch <strong>on</strong> each side immediatelybeneath <strong>the</strong> term<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> anterior of <strong>the</strong> two external ridges.The lam<strong>in</strong>a is turned outward at this po<strong>in</strong>t and also at <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rrib, form<strong>in</strong>g a little festo<strong>on</strong>. The last plate has n<strong>in</strong>e notches, <strong>on</strong>ecorrespoudiijg to each rib, with a s<strong>in</strong>gle (probably unusual) excepti<strong>on</strong>,where <strong>the</strong>re are two. The vertex <strong>in</strong> this valve is central. Thescales of tlie girdle are excessively m<strong>in</strong>ute, densely crowded, hardlyvisible under an ord<strong>in</strong>ary lens, and <strong>in</strong> alternate Hght and dark patches.111. Chit<strong>on</strong> (CallistocMt<strong>on</strong>) copp<strong>in</strong>geri. (Plate VI. fig. E.)Shell el<strong>on</strong>gate, greenish white, sta<strong>in</strong>ed with a dark green coloural<strong>on</strong>g each side near <strong>the</strong> girdle, with a paler <strong>in</strong>dist<strong>in</strong>ct stripe <strong>on</strong>each side of <strong>the</strong> central l<strong>in</strong>e, <strong>the</strong> apex of <strong>the</strong> valves be<strong>in</strong>g somewhatlivid. Central valves with a straight posterior marg<strong>in</strong>, arched, with<strong>on</strong>ly <strong>the</strong> fa<strong>in</strong>test <strong>in</strong>dicati<strong>on</strong> of a car<strong>in</strong>a at <strong>the</strong> vertex. Lateral areassomewhat raised, with two radiat<strong>in</strong>g rows of coarse transverse rugae,of which <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>der or marg<strong>in</strong>al are <strong>the</strong> largest. The surfacebetween <strong>the</strong>m is f<strong>in</strong>ely granular. Central areas c<strong>on</strong>vercd with amore or less criss-cross granulati<strong>on</strong>, <strong>the</strong> granules at <strong>the</strong> centre be<strong>in</strong>gvery m<strong>in</strong>nte, and gradually <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> size towards <strong>the</strong> sides,where <strong>the</strong>re is very little of <strong>the</strong> criss-cross arrangement seen at <strong>the</strong>vertex, but ra<strong>the</strong>r a l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al dispositi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong>m. The fr<strong>on</strong>tvalve is m<strong>in</strong>utely granulated and has about twenty f<strong>in</strong>e radiat<strong>in</strong>gridges, here and <strong>the</strong>re some of <strong>the</strong>m bifurcat<strong>in</strong>g near <strong>the</strong> circumference.Posterior valve ra<strong>the</strong>r large, c<strong>on</strong>cave beh<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong> subcentralmucro, <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t of which <strong>the</strong> surface is sculptured <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> samemanner as <strong>the</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t of <strong>the</strong> central valve, as is usual with most, ifnot all, Chit<strong>on</strong>s. The posterior half is f<strong>in</strong>ely gra<strong>in</strong>ed and sparselycovered with pustules of different shapes and sizes, <strong>the</strong> coarsestbe<strong>in</strong>g near <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong> and <strong>the</strong> smallest near <strong>the</strong> centre. The <strong>in</strong>serti<strong>on</strong>alplates are th<strong>in</strong>, with twelve slits <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> last, at unequal


;MOLLUSCA. 81distances, eleven <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t <strong>on</strong>e, and <strong>on</strong>e <strong>on</strong> each side of <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>termediatevalves. The <strong>in</strong>terior is pale blnish, <strong>the</strong> latter valves hav<strong>in</strong>gan olive-brown sta<strong>in</strong> radiat<strong>in</strong>g from <strong>the</strong> vertex beh<strong>in</strong>d <strong>on</strong> each side,and <strong>the</strong> two term<strong>in</strong>al valves have marks of <strong>the</strong> same colour near <strong>the</strong>middle.The girdle is covered with altcrnateh" p<strong>in</strong>kish and dark greyishpatches of f<strong>in</strong>e oval compressed imbricat<strong>in</strong>g scales, of which thosetowards <strong>the</strong> outer marg<strong>in</strong> are much smaller than those near <strong>the</strong>valves.Length without girdle 21 millim. ; diameter of fifth central 2)late 8.Hab. Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> {Co2)phu/er).This species is closely allied to C. avtiquus, but is diff'erently andmore f<strong>in</strong>ely sculptured and <strong>the</strong> scales <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> mantle are larger.112. Chit<strong>on</strong> (Acanthopleura) sp<strong>in</strong>iger.Chit<strong>on</strong> sp<strong>in</strong>iger, Sowerhy, C<strong>on</strong>ch. III. fig. 08; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>.fig. 7o; Gray, 1857, Giiide Moll. Brit. Mtis. p. 184 (Maugeria)|; Ball,Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. i. p. 80 (Acanthopleura).Chit<strong>on</strong> granatus, Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>di. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 24.Chit<strong>on</strong> macgillivrayi, A. Adams, Proc. Zool. Sac. 1855, p. 120.Acanthopleura glareosa, MS. <strong>in</strong> Mus. Cum<strong>in</strong>g.Maugeria owenii. Gray, (ruide Moll. p. 184.? Chit<strong>on</strong> borbouicus, Deshayes, Moll, de Reuni<strong>on</strong>, p. 37, pi. v. figs.12,13.? Chit<strong>on</strong> piceus, Reeve {n<strong>on</strong> Gmel<strong>in</strong>), C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 70.= Chit<strong>on</strong> obesus, Shidtleworth, Bern. Mit<strong>the</strong>il. 1853, p. 79.? Chit<strong>on</strong> cunniughamii, Reeve, I. c. fig. 18.Hcih. Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands (Cum<strong>in</strong>r/) ; Port Ess<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong> (Jnl-es);Port Molle and Clairm<strong>on</strong>t and Bird Islands (Cojip<strong>in</strong>r/er) ; Piji, forC. macgillivrayi.The specific difference, if it exist, between <strong>the</strong> West-IndianC. piceus of Gmel<strong>in</strong> and C. sp<strong>in</strong>iger is not very apparent. On closecomparis<strong>on</strong> I f<strong>in</strong>d that <strong>the</strong> central valves of <strong>the</strong> former are as a rulemore peaked posteriorly, <strong>the</strong> colour with<strong>in</strong> is bluish, with a c<strong>on</strong>spicuousmark, almost black, at <strong>the</strong> jugal s<strong>in</strong>us. On separat<strong>in</strong>g<strong>the</strong>se valves <strong>the</strong> greatest diameter is found to exist at <strong>the</strong> posteriormarg<strong>in</strong>, <strong>the</strong> lam<strong>in</strong>a3 of <strong>in</strong>serti<strong>on</strong> narrow<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t. On <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>trary,<strong>in</strong> C. sp<strong>in</strong>iger <strong>the</strong> greatest width is across <strong>the</strong> lam<strong>in</strong>a; anteriorto <strong>the</strong> lateral notch. There appears to be very little difference <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>serti<strong>on</strong>-teeth of <strong>the</strong> first and last valves of <strong>the</strong>se two forms.113. Chit<strong>on</strong> (Acanthopleura) <strong>in</strong>canus.Chit<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong>canus, Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 1846, vol. ii.p. 145'; Otia,'' pp. 6, 248 (Maugeria) ;Wilkes's Explor. Krped.p. 315, figs. 432, 432 «.Hab. New South Wales (Gould); Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> (Copp<strong>in</strong>ger)Stewart Island, New Zealand (C. Traill, Esq., <strong>in</strong> Brit. Mus.).Externally this species bears c<strong>on</strong>siderable resemblance to 0. sjnniger,both as regards <strong>the</strong> sculpture of <strong>the</strong> valves and <strong>the</strong> characterG


82 COLLECXIOJrs FROM MELANESIA.of <strong>the</strong> girdle. On part<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> valves a feature is at <strong>on</strong>ce discovered<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> posterior <strong>on</strong>e wliich enables us to dist<strong>in</strong>guish <strong>the</strong> species :<strong>in</strong> this <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong> is very much thickened with<strong>in</strong>, of a dark browncolour, smooth, flattened, and destitute of teeth, whilst <strong>in</strong> C. sp<strong>in</strong>iger<strong>the</strong> latter are str<strong>on</strong>gly developed and coarsely striated. The colourof <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>terior also differs : C. <strong>in</strong>caniis is sta<strong>in</strong>ed with dark brown,<strong>the</strong> centre of <strong>the</strong> valves exhibit<strong>in</strong>g a large def<strong>in</strong>ed black-brown markover <strong>the</strong> jugal s<strong>in</strong>us, <strong>the</strong> lam<strong>in</strong>a) of <strong>in</strong>serti<strong>on</strong> be<strong>in</strong>g whitish. Thecentral valves have a s<strong>in</strong>gle, very small slit <strong>on</strong> each side, and <strong>the</strong>fr<strong>on</strong>t <strong>on</strong>e has about n<strong>in</strong>e : <strong>the</strong> former, with <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong>seventh, are broadest across <strong>the</strong> posterior marg<strong>in</strong>, as is also <strong>the</strong> case<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> closely allied AYest-Indian C. piceus, whilst <strong>in</strong> 0. sp<strong>in</strong>iger<strong>the</strong> greatest diameter is across <strong>the</strong> lam<strong>in</strong>ae of <strong>in</strong>serti<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t of<strong>the</strong> notch. The jvigal s<strong>in</strong>us appears to be ra<strong>the</strong>r deeper than <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>hitter species. The specimens from IStewart Island, presented to<strong>the</strong> British Museum by Mr. C. Traill, agree <strong>in</strong> allrespects with thisspecies ; <strong>the</strong> form, sculpture, and <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>serti<strong>on</strong>-plates are quite <strong>the</strong>same.114. Chit<strong>on</strong> (SchizocMt<strong>on</strong>) <strong>in</strong>cisus.Chit<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong>cisus, Soiverby, Pi'or. Zvol. Soc. 1841, p. Gl ;Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch.Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 43.Chit<strong>on</strong> elougatus, Reeve, I. c. figs. 40 a, b.Schizochitou <strong>in</strong>cisus, Gray, Proc. Zoo/. Soc. 1847, p. 169 ; Shuttleworth,Bern. Mit.<strong>the</strong>il. 1853, p. G8 ;H. Sf A. Adams, Genera Rec.Moll. vol. i. p. 477, pi. 54. figs. 6, G a.Hah. Island of Zebu, Philipp<strong>in</strong>es {Cum<strong>in</strong>g); Ra<strong>in</strong>es Island,Torz'es Straits (Lice) ; Clairm<strong>on</strong>t and Bird Islands, N.E. Australia(Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).The mantle is thick, of a somewhat sp<strong>on</strong>gy texture, alternately buffand dark brown, <strong>the</strong> latter colour fall<strong>in</strong>g opposite <strong>the</strong> middle of <strong>the</strong>valves and form<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>terrupted irregular narrow stripes. The sp<strong>in</strong>esup<strong>on</strong> it are very short, scattered, and of two colours, brown andwhite. The raised ridges, generally six <strong>in</strong> number <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> term<strong>in</strong>alvalves, but sometimes vary<strong>in</strong>g to seven or eight, and two <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>central <strong>on</strong>es, are remarkable <strong>in</strong> be<strong>in</strong>g studded with m<strong>in</strong>ute blackishbeads. The l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al f<strong>in</strong>e ridges are peculiarly flat-topped,those <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> central areas be<strong>in</strong>g straight, whilst <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> lateral areasand <strong>the</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t valve <strong>the</strong>y are wavy or zigzag. The lam<strong>in</strong>a of <strong>in</strong>serti<strong>on</strong><strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t valve is th<strong>in</strong>, externally striated, with six notchescorresp<strong>on</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> radiat<strong>in</strong>g costa?. <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> outer surface. In <strong>the</strong>central valves <strong>the</strong> lam<strong>in</strong>a is c<strong>on</strong>siderably produced <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t, with as<strong>in</strong>gle small slit <strong>on</strong> each side : <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> last valve it is thickenedposteriorly, <strong>in</strong>terru])ted <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> middle by a large s<strong>in</strong>us, is coarselystriated <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> o,utside, and is slit <strong>in</strong> thiee or four places. The <strong>in</strong>teriorof <strong>the</strong> valves is greenish, staiiicd with brown <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> middle.


M0LLU8CA. 83115. Chit<strong>on</strong> (Macandrellus) costatus. (Plate VI. fig. F.)Acaiitliochites costatus, II. Adams *^- Angas, Froc. Zoo/. Soc. 1864,p. 194 ; Anffas, I. c. 1807, p. 224.Macaudrellus costatus, Z>«//, i)"«//. U.S. Nat. Mas. i. p. 81, fig. 40(dentiti<strong>on</strong>).JIab. Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> {Angas and Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).The s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen before me, preserved <strong>in</strong> spirit, shows <strong>the</strong>girdle to be of a pale buff colour, thick, fleshy, <strong>the</strong> outer marg<strong>in</strong>be<strong>in</strong>g delicately ciliated with a m<strong>in</strong>ute fr<strong>in</strong>ge of white spicules.The tufts of spicules arc seven <strong>in</strong> number al<strong>on</strong>g each side, and foursurround<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t valve. The middle of <strong>the</strong> central valves isoccupied by a raised, transversely substriated flattened ridge, <strong>on</strong> eachside of which <strong>the</strong> surface is granulated or ra<strong>the</strong>r squamose, <strong>the</strong>scales be<strong>in</strong>g flat, imbricat<strong>in</strong>g, ra<strong>the</strong>r large, and disposed <strong>in</strong> ra<strong>the</strong>rregular series. The lateral areas are well def<strong>in</strong>ed by a raised keel.The fr<strong>on</strong>t valve has five radiat<strong>in</strong>g costte, and apparently <strong>the</strong> samenumber of slits <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> th<strong>in</strong> lam<strong>in</strong>a of <strong>in</strong>serti<strong>on</strong>, of which <strong>the</strong> threecentral are quite dist<strong>in</strong>ct, and <strong>the</strong> two outer <strong>on</strong>es <strong>on</strong>ly feebly <strong>in</strong>dicated.The s<strong>in</strong>gle notch <strong>on</strong> each side <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>termediate valves isalso very slight. The posterior valve has a raised, somewhat excentricand po<strong>in</strong>ted mucro, from which six more or less dist<strong>in</strong>ctradiat<strong>in</strong>g ridges descend to <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong>, beneath which <strong>the</strong> lam<strong>in</strong>aof <strong>in</strong>serti<strong>on</strong> is scalloped by a similar number of notches.116. Chit<strong>on</strong> (Acanthochit<strong>on</strong>) ashestoides. (Plate VI. fig. G.)Shell small, greyish brown, with a pale l<strong>in</strong>e <strong>on</strong> each side <strong>the</strong>middle of <strong>the</strong> central valves, slightly c<strong>on</strong>verg<strong>in</strong>g beh<strong>in</strong>d, leav<strong>in</strong>g adark wedge-shaped space between <strong>the</strong>m. Surface covered with acoarsish granulati<strong>on</strong>, <strong>the</strong> granules be<strong>in</strong>g somewhat flattened, andthose at <strong>the</strong> vertex of <strong>the</strong> central valves ra<strong>the</strong>r smaller than <strong>the</strong>rest. The lateral areas are not def<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>se valves ; <strong>the</strong> posteriorcurved marg<strong>in</strong>s are produced <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> middle, at times almost form<strong>in</strong>ga right angle ; <strong>the</strong>ir <strong>in</strong>serti<strong>on</strong>-plates are large, th<strong>in</strong>, produced anteriorly,with a very slight notch quite close to <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>der marg<strong>in</strong> <strong>on</strong>each side ; <strong>the</strong> s<strong>in</strong>us between <strong>the</strong>m <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t is deep and arcuate.The first valve has a straighter posterior marg<strong>in</strong> than <strong>the</strong> succeed<strong>in</strong>g<strong>on</strong>es, and a semicircular outl<strong>in</strong>e <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t ; <strong>the</strong> lam<strong>in</strong>a of <strong>in</strong>serti<strong>on</strong>is ra<strong>the</strong>r deep, th<strong>in</strong>, feebly striated exteriorly, and <strong>in</strong>terruptedby five very small subequidistant notches. The last valve is c<strong>on</strong>spicuouslysmall, transversely subovate, depressed-c<strong>on</strong>ical, with anearly central mucro ; <strong>in</strong>serti<strong>on</strong>- plate very large, laterally produced,with <strong>on</strong>ly two notches beh<strong>in</strong>d. Interior of <strong>the</strong> valves bluish.Mantle very m<strong>in</strong>utely sp<strong>in</strong>ulose, bear<strong>in</strong>g very c<strong>on</strong>spicuous compacttufts of silky spicules al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> sides, not at all unlike <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir fibroustexture that of asbestos. Length 15 millim., width of <strong>the</strong> broadestcentral valve 5|.Hah. Fl<strong>in</strong>ders Island, Bass's Straits {Joseph MiUlgdn); PortMolle, Queensland [Copp<strong>in</strong>t/cr).g2


;84 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA,The s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen from <strong>the</strong> latter locality is ra<strong>the</strong>r more coarselygranulated than those from Fl<strong>in</strong>ders Island, which have been exam<strong>in</strong>edby <strong>the</strong> late Dr. P. P. Carpenter, and bear his manuscriptname ashestoides.117. Chit<strong>on</strong> (T<strong>on</strong>icia) fortiliratus.Chit<strong>on</strong> fortiliratus, Reeve, Couch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 112.Hub. Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, 8-10 fms., sand and mud {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ;Ra<strong>in</strong>es Island, Torres Straits {Reeve).The s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen collected by Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger is of a greyishp<strong>in</strong>kcolour, copiously blotched with black al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> sides of someof <strong>the</strong> valves. The head-plate is regularly well-curved forward,ra<strong>the</strong>r high, <strong>the</strong> posterior marg<strong>in</strong> be<strong>in</strong>g obtusely angled <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>middle. The <strong>in</strong>serted edge is much thickened, coarsely striatedexteriorly and <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> broad marg<strong>in</strong>, and divided <strong>in</strong>to n<strong>in</strong>e unequalparts by eight short narrow slits. The exterior surface is coarselysubsquamately granulated throughout, and exhibits numerous m<strong>in</strong>uteblack raised dots, disposed <strong>in</strong> ra<strong>the</strong>r irregular radiat<strong>in</strong>g series. Thesec<strong>on</strong>d valve is l<strong>on</strong>g <strong>in</strong> comparis<strong>on</strong> with those which follow, feeblypeaked beh<strong>in</strong>d ; <strong>the</strong> fourth, fifth, and sixth plates are about equal <strong>in</strong>width and a trifle broader than <strong>the</strong> third and seventh. All <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>termediatevalves are \ery coarsely ridged and sulcated <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> centralareas, and coarsely gra<strong>in</strong>ed and m<strong>in</strong>utely black-dotted at <strong>the</strong> sides.The ridges are flat-topped, clean-cut, nearly smooth, attenuatedposteriorly, wavy, c<strong>on</strong>verge <strong>on</strong> each side towards <strong>the</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t, and <strong>the</strong><strong>in</strong>terven<strong>in</strong>g grooves are f<strong>in</strong>ely punctate. All have <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>der marg<strong>in</strong>nearly straight, and but very feebly po<strong>in</strong>ted at <strong>the</strong> posterior apex.The lam<strong>in</strong>aD of <strong>in</strong>serti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong>se valves are th<strong>in</strong>, narrow at <strong>the</strong>sides, moderately deeply s<strong>in</strong>uated <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t, str<strong>on</strong>gly striated above<strong>in</strong> rear of and for a short distance <strong>in</strong> froijt of <strong>the</strong> s<strong>in</strong>gle m<strong>in</strong>utelateral slit <strong>on</strong> each side. The posterior valve is str<strong>on</strong>g and thick,obtusely mucr<strong>on</strong>ated at <strong>the</strong> centre, very coarsely striated and serratediip<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> thickened <strong>in</strong>serted marg<strong>in</strong>, which is subdivided byabout ten dist<strong>in</strong>ct notches. The <strong>in</strong>terior of <strong>the</strong> valves is light lividbluish, with a reddish sta<strong>in</strong> al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> middle of all, with <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong>of <strong>the</strong> last. The mantle, as described by Reeve, is simply" horny." Length without girdle IS millim., diameter of fifthvalve 9.The type is a larger specimen, be<strong>in</strong>g 24 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g, with an extremewidth of 13.118. Chit<strong>on</strong> (Chit<strong>on</strong>ellus) striatus.Cbit<strong>on</strong>ellus striatus, Lamarck, An. s. Vert. ed. 2, vol. vii. p. 481Sowerbif, Gen. fig. 4; id. C<strong>on</strong>ch. III. tig. 62 ; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>.fig. 4; C<strong>on</strong>ch. Syst. pi. 135. fig. 1.Chit<strong>on</strong>ellus oculatus, Reeve (? of QuoiJ), 1. c. figs. 7 a, b.Var. = Chit<strong>on</strong>elkis gunuii, Reeve, fig. 5.Chit<strong>on</strong>ellus rostratus, Reeve, tig. 6.


;MOLLUSC A.Cryptoplax striata, frunnii, rostrata, Adams, Genera,Angas, Proc. Zool. Sue. 18G7, pp. 224, 225.85vol. i. p. 434'-T^tk T?QiTi£»a Tala-nrl HPrwroc ftfvoifc / 7?/j/?irz3Hab. Ra<strong>in</strong>es Island, Torres Straits (Beeve, fnT* for f) C. rostratus andC. striatus), Port L<strong>in</strong>coln (J. B. Harvey), Newcastle {Dr. Dieffenbach),Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger, Richards<strong>on</strong>, Juhes, K<strong>in</strong>g)— all <strong>in</strong>Brit. Mus. ; H<strong>in</strong>ders Island (./. MilJigan) ; Tasmania {Reeve,C. gunnii) ; Tasmania {Mucgillivray and Gunn, <strong>in</strong> Brit. Mus.).The variety gunnii, from South Australia and Tasmania, may berecognized by <strong>the</strong> valves be<strong>in</strong>g narrower, with <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong>first two. This form also appears to atta<strong>in</strong> a larger size than specimensfrom New South Wales and o<strong>the</strong>r localities fur<strong>the</strong>r north. Aspecimen <strong>in</strong> spirit, from <strong>the</strong> mouth of <strong>the</strong> river Tamar, Tasmania,presented to <strong>the</strong> British Museiim by J. Macgillivray, exceeds four<strong>in</strong>ches <strong>in</strong> length. The mantle of <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>rn form also appears tobe ra<strong>the</strong>r less densely covered with <strong>the</strong> m<strong>in</strong>ute c<strong>on</strong>ical sp<strong>in</strong>es. Thenumber of gills <strong>on</strong> each side varies with age, and even <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>dividualspecimens : I have found 30 or 31 <strong>on</strong> each side <strong>in</strong> specimens ofequal size from both regi<strong>on</strong>s— that is, north and south ; and <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>largest specimen before referred to <strong>the</strong>re are 37 <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> right sideand 34 <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> left, and <strong>the</strong>re is no appearance of any hav<strong>in</strong>g beenremoved. The plates of <strong>in</strong>serti<strong>on</strong> offer no dist<strong>in</strong>cti<strong>on</strong>s, each hav<strong>in</strong>gthree slits <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t valve and n<strong>on</strong>e <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> rest, as is <strong>the</strong> case <strong>in</strong>all Chit<strong>on</strong>elli. The colour both of <strong>the</strong> valves and mantle seems toagree very closely <strong>in</strong> all <strong>the</strong> varieties, The 0. rostratus of ReeveI cannot <strong>in</strong> any way dist<strong>in</strong>guish from <strong>the</strong> shells figured by him asLamarck's C. striatus, and <strong>the</strong> same observati<strong>on</strong> also applies to hisnoti<strong>on</strong> of Quoy's 0. oculatus. What <strong>the</strong> latter may <strong>in</strong> reality be isan uncerta<strong>in</strong>ty to me at present, for I cannot identify any specimen<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> British Museum with it.119. CMt<strong>on</strong> (Chit<strong>on</strong>ellus) burrowi.Chit<strong>on</strong>ellus larvseformis, Reeve {n<strong>on</strong> Burrmv), C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 3.Hab. Port Molle {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Port Adelaide {Reeve).This curious species is known by <strong>the</strong> small size of <strong>the</strong> valves, <strong>the</strong>remoteness from <strong>on</strong>e ano<strong>the</strong>r of <strong>the</strong> fourth, fifth, and sixth, and <strong>the</strong>excessively short and densely packed sp<strong>in</strong>es <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> mantle. Thes<strong>in</strong>gle specimen <strong>in</strong> spirit, from Port Molle, is of a buff colour,copiously mottled with green : this accords with a specimen (also<strong>in</strong> spirit) menti<strong>on</strong>ed by Reeve, collected by Capt. Belcher <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>Straits of Macassar.The dried specimens are greyish, more or less rose-t<strong>in</strong>ted.The sculpture of <strong>the</strong> valves is very like that of 0. striatus, c<strong>on</strong>sist<strong>in</strong>gof a central smoothish ridge, with two or three f<strong>in</strong>er and moreor less wr<strong>in</strong>kled <strong>on</strong>es <strong>on</strong> each side, <strong>the</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t valve of course be<strong>in</strong>gwr<strong>in</strong>kled throughout and lack<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> central smooth ridge. Theyare yellowish at <strong>the</strong> mucro or posteriorly, and p<strong>in</strong>kish red <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t.The plates of <strong>in</strong>serti<strong>on</strong> are like those of C. striatus, and of a palegreenish colour.


86 COLLF.CTI0NS FROIT MELANESTA,C. larvcpformis (Bla<strong>in</strong>ville), <strong>in</strong> Burrow's Elements ' of C<strong>on</strong>chology'(1815), p. 191, pi. 28. figs. 2, 3, 4, is not this species assupposed by Reeve, but is bey<strong>on</strong>d questi<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> same as G. fasciatusof Qnoy, = G. ernfciformis, Sowerby (Genera Hec. & Foss. Shells,fig. 5),= C Icevis, Lamarck, 1819 (Anim. sans Vert. toI. vi. p. 317).The crude figure of G. larvcfformis <strong>in</strong> Bla<strong>in</strong>ville's ' Malacologie '(1827), pi. 87. fig. 6, is probably also merely a young specimen of<strong>the</strong> same species, judg<strong>in</strong>g from <strong>the</strong> sculpture and form of <strong>the</strong>detached valves. In <strong>the</strong> draw<strong>in</strong>g of <strong>the</strong>m m situ <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> back of <strong>the</strong>animal, <strong>the</strong> anterior <strong>on</strong>es are ra<strong>the</strong>r narrow. The valves figuredby Burrow are still preserved <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> British Museum ; but I caunotf<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong> dried animals or that <strong>in</strong> spirit which he menti<strong>on</strong>s.Bla<strong>in</strong>ville's figure represents <strong>the</strong> mantle as clo<strong>the</strong>d with comparativelyl<strong>on</strong>gish sp<strong>in</strong>es, and <strong>the</strong> gills extend nearly halfway up <strong>the</strong> sideof <strong>the</strong> foot. In G. burrowi, <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>trary, <strong>the</strong> gills are very short,do not occupy a third of <strong>the</strong> length, and are <strong>on</strong>ly 22 <strong>in</strong> number.G. oculatus of Quoy and Gaimard I believe to be a young stateIn <strong>the</strong> British Museum <strong>the</strong>re are some smallof <strong>the</strong>ir G. fasciatus.specimens of this species which answer very closely to <strong>the</strong> descripti<strong>on</strong>; <strong>the</strong>y have <strong>the</strong> two dark bands meet<strong>in</strong>g over <strong>the</strong> back, <strong>the</strong>posterior valves narrow and separated, and <strong>the</strong> three anterior <strong>on</strong>espale greenish and surrounded by a border of short black sp<strong>in</strong>eswith a pale z<strong>on</strong>e outside it. The o<strong>the</strong>r sp<strong>in</strong>es <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> mantle <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>smallest specimen are a trifle l<strong>on</strong>ger than usual and very closelypacked. The gills are said to number twenty <strong>on</strong> each side <strong>in</strong>G. oculatus, be<strong>in</strong>g three less than <strong>in</strong> G. fasciatus, a discrepancyaccounted for by age ; for <strong>in</strong> adult specimens of C. striatus I f<strong>in</strong>d afew more than <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> young.120. Tornatella solidula.L<strong>in</strong>n. ; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 3 a, b.V^ar.=T. cocc<strong>in</strong>ata, Reeve, I. c. figs. 1 a-c.Hah. Friday Island, Torres Straits, <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> beach ; also PortJacks<strong>on</strong>.This species has a wide geographical range, hav<strong>in</strong>g been recordedfrom many localities <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Indian and <strong>Pacific</strong> oceans. The socalledspecies T. afj<strong>in</strong>is, A. Adams, should, I th<strong>in</strong>k, be regardedas a small form of T. solichda.121. Cylichiia aracMs.Bulla arachis, Quoy 8fGaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. vol. ii. p. 361,pi. 26. figs. 28-30 ; A. Adams, Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, vol. ii. p. 590, pi. 125.tig. 134.Hab. Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> (Gopjnnger and Angas) ; Port K<strong>in</strong>g George{Q. 4' G.) ; Tasmania, Stewart Island, New Zealand {Brit. Mus.).122. Atys naucum.L<strong>in</strong>n. ; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. iigs. 1--1 c.Hah. Friday Island, Torres Straits {Gopp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; also recorded


;MOLLFSCA. 87fi'<strong>on</strong>i Torres Straits, New Irehuid, New Brita<strong>in</strong>, and Solom<strong>on</strong>Islands bj' Brazier.123. Ham<strong>in</strong>ea cuticulifera. (Plate VI. fig. H.)Smith, Ann. ^ May. Nat. Hist. 1872, ix. p. 350.Hah. Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> and New Zealand.Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger dredged this species at <strong>the</strong> first locality <strong>in</strong> 7fathoms. It must not be c<strong>on</strong>fused with //. hrevis, Quoy, which is ashorter shell with more c<strong>on</strong>vex outl<strong>in</strong>es. I would here call attenti<strong>on</strong>to a few <strong>in</strong>accuracies <strong>in</strong> Professor Hutt<strong>on</strong>'s English translati<strong>on</strong>of <strong>the</strong> orig<strong>in</strong>al Lat<strong>in</strong> diagnosis (' Manual of New-Zealand MoUusca,'p. 122). The epidermis was described by me as whitish, not" white," and I did not say it was " sh<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g near <strong>the</strong> vertex."The word sh<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g applied to <strong>the</strong> whole of <strong>the</strong> surface, and isfollowed by a comma which disc<strong>on</strong>nects it from <strong>the</strong> words " verticembasimque versus luteo t<strong>in</strong>cto " which succeed. " Incrementi l<strong>in</strong>eiset superius basique transversim subdistanter striata " is thus rendered—" transversely subdistantly striated with l<strong>in</strong>es of growth, bothabove and below." Capt. Hutt<strong>on</strong> makes <strong>the</strong> labrum " th<strong>in</strong>, thickened<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> middle," whilst no such th<strong>in</strong>g is said <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> diagnosis.The words are " labrum tenue, verticis medio junctum et ibi <strong>in</strong>crassatum."124. Akera soluta.Hah. Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger); Philii)p<strong>in</strong>es, North Australia,Zanzibar, Mauritius, Ceyl<strong>on</strong>.In additi<strong>on</strong> to <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r syn<strong>on</strong>yms of this species, I would addA. tenuis of A. Adams (Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, vol. ii. p. 573, pi. 121. fig. 45and C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 7 a, 7 b). I have carefully scrut<strong>in</strong>ized <strong>the</strong> typeand can see no dist<strong>in</strong>cti<strong>on</strong>. Angas (P. Z. 8. 1867, p. 227) comes toa similar c<strong>on</strong>clusi<strong>on</strong>. The more slender form referred to by Sowerby<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> C<strong>on</strong>ch. ' Ic<strong>on</strong>.' is altoge<strong>the</strong>r a variable character <strong>in</strong> this shell;<strong>the</strong> elevati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> spire above or its depressi<strong>on</strong> beneath <strong>the</strong> bodywhorlis likewise an unreliable characteristic.125. Doridium marmoratum. (Plate VI. figs. I-1 4.)Animal (<strong>in</strong> spirit) blackish, copiously mottled with a dirty buffcolour. Cephalic disk l<strong>on</strong>ger than wide, ra<strong>the</strong>r narrower <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>tthan beh<strong>in</strong>d, with a thicliened twofold marg<strong>in</strong> anteriorly and at<strong>the</strong> sides, more expanded and simple posteriorly. H<strong>in</strong>der dorsaldisk a little shorter than <strong>the</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t <strong>on</strong>e, lobed posteriorly <strong>on</strong> eachside, with an <strong>in</strong>termediate s<strong>in</strong>us, with a free marg<strong>in</strong> at <strong>the</strong> sides,but not <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t, where it is covered by <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>der free extensi<strong>on</strong>of <strong>the</strong> cephalic disk. Viewed posteriori)'', <strong>the</strong> animal is truncate,term<strong>in</strong>at<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> a curved expansi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> dorsal disk <strong>on</strong> each side,which c<strong>on</strong>ceal <strong>the</strong> gills beneatli <strong>the</strong>m. Foot (extend<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> wholelength of <strong>the</strong> animal, with a duplex marg<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t below tlie


88 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.mouth and for a short distance al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> sides, and <strong>the</strong>n simple andgradually <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> width of <strong>the</strong> expansi<strong>on</strong> towards <strong>the</strong>end, where it is very wide beneath <strong>the</strong> brauchia ; it is sta<strong>in</strong>ed withblack <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>side of <strong>the</strong> edge. Branchial plume posterior, c<strong>on</strong>cealedbetween <strong>the</strong> foot and <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>der lobes of <strong>the</strong> dorsal disk. Headpresent<strong>in</strong>g exteriorly a small lobe <strong>on</strong> each side <strong>the</strong> oral open<strong>in</strong>g.Shell <strong>in</strong>ternal, situated at <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>der extremity above <strong>the</strong> branchia,white, calcareous, uncoiled, c<strong>on</strong>sist<strong>in</strong>g of <strong>on</strong>e or two voluti<strong>on</strong>s,thickened at <strong>the</strong> free " sutural l<strong>in</strong>e," c<strong>on</strong>vex externally and c<strong>on</strong>cavewith<strong>in</strong>, cup-shaped at <strong>the</strong> commencement, with <strong>the</strong> outer edgeextended by a broadish membranous expansi<strong>on</strong>.Total length 33 millim. ; cephalic disk 18 l<strong>on</strong>g and 16 wide at<strong>the</strong> broadest part ; shell with a greatest diameter of 8 millim., andabout 2 <strong>in</strong> height.Hah. Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 4-5 fathoms, <strong>on</strong> a sandybottom.The <strong>on</strong>ly species which appears to have been recorded from <strong>the</strong>Australian coasts is Ar/laia l<strong>in</strong>eolata, figured by H. & A. Adams <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> Genera of Eecent Mollusca,' ' vol. iii. pi. 58. fig. 4. This differs,however, <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> form of <strong>the</strong> anterior dorsal disk and its smallsize <strong>in</strong> proporti<strong>on</strong> to <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>d part of <strong>the</strong> animal, <strong>in</strong> additi<strong>on</strong> towhich <strong>the</strong> colour and mark<strong>in</strong>gs appear to be quite dist<strong>in</strong>ct. AglaiagiglioUi, from Japan, described by Tappar<strong>on</strong>e-Canefri (Voj*. Magenta,p. 110, pi. l.fig. 18), may be dist<strong>in</strong>guished by <strong>the</strong> posterior lobati<strong>on</strong>of <strong>the</strong> cephalic disk, different colour, and apparent different positi<strong>on</strong>of <strong>the</strong> branchial plume.Doridium ct/aneum, D. nir/riim, and D. guttatum, described by Dr.V<strong>on</strong> Martens from <strong>the</strong> Indian <strong>Ocean</strong>, have not yet been figured.Until all <strong>the</strong>se exotic species have ei<strong>the</strong>r been compared or muchmore amply described and illustrated, <strong>the</strong>re will rema<strong>in</strong> much uncerta<strong>in</strong>tyrespect<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> identificati<strong>on</strong> of all or any <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong>m.126. Pleurohranchus angasi. (Plate VI. figs. K, K 1.)Animal (<strong>in</strong> spirit) uniformly pale buff, el<strong>on</strong>gate ovate. Mantleprobably smooth <strong>in</strong> life, wr<strong>in</strong>kled by c<strong>on</strong>tracti<strong>on</strong>, not very widelyproduced at <strong>the</strong> free marg<strong>in</strong>. Foot broad, taper<strong>in</strong>g beh<strong>in</strong>d, roundlysubtruncate <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t, where <strong>the</strong>re is a thicken<strong>in</strong>g form<strong>in</strong>g a doublemarg<strong>in</strong> beneath <strong>the</strong> proboscis. The fr<strong>on</strong>tal veil is straight <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t,angular at <strong>the</strong> sides, which are grooved. Tentacles shortish, slit at<strong>the</strong> outer side, with <strong>the</strong> m<strong>in</strong>ute eye-specks at <strong>the</strong>ir base beh<strong>in</strong>d.Branchial plume c<strong>on</strong>sist<strong>in</strong>g of about sixteen leaflets. Penis sp<strong>in</strong>elike,very acute, and slightly curved at <strong>the</strong> tip.Shell placed well forward, <strong>the</strong> pale apex be<strong>in</strong>g posterior. It isbrowii <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t, glossy, and beautifully iridescent <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> exterior.It c<strong>on</strong>sists of about a whorl and a half, <strong>the</strong> nucleus be<strong>in</strong>g spiral andhollow with<strong>in</strong>. The last whorl is much prol<strong>on</strong>ged by additi<strong>on</strong>alstr<strong>on</strong>gly def<strong>in</strong>ed c<strong>on</strong>centric layers, and also ornamented with f<strong>in</strong>eyet dist<strong>in</strong>ct transverse striae. The columella is arcuate, and has anumbilical groove parallel with it.


;MOLLFSCA. 89Length of animal 17 millim., diam. 7 ; length of shell, fromnucleus to opposite end, 4|.Hah. Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> (Coppiur/er).This may be <strong>the</strong> P deJicatus of Pease, but <strong>the</strong>re appear to be<strong>the</strong> two forms which may be ofcerta<strong>in</strong> differences <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> shells ofspecific value.127. Dolabella rumpMi.Olivier, Ann. du Mus. v. p. 437, pi. 29. fig. 1,Hah. N.E. Australia (Co/j/){»(7(?r) ; Moluccas (i?«n!p7mfs) ; Timor(Perou) ; Waigiou {Qkoij and (Jaimard) ; Mauritius {Rang and v<strong>on</strong>Martens).There is no <strong>in</strong>dicati<strong>on</strong> of any caudal prol<strong>on</strong>gati<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> specimenbefore me, <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>der end be<strong>in</strong>g (<strong>in</strong> spirit) very broad and obtuselycurved.The shell agrees with <strong>the</strong> figure given by Eang (Hist. Nat. desAplysiens, pi. 1).128. Aplysia spars<strong>in</strong>otata.Animal of a pale colour <strong>in</strong> spirit, varied with a few dark distantdots al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> sides, caudate posteriorly. Middle of back between<strong>the</strong> mantle-lobes <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t of <strong>the</strong> shell, also <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>ner surface of <strong>the</strong>anterior porti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> lobes <strong>the</strong>mselves, exhibit<strong>in</strong>g irregular brownishpatches. Lobes commenc<strong>in</strong>g a short distance beh<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong> dorsaltentacles, and tei'm<strong>in</strong>at<strong>in</strong>g beh<strong>in</strong>d at about <strong>the</strong> same distance from<strong>the</strong> end of <strong>the</strong> body. Oral tentacles moderately large and l<strong>on</strong>gposterior c<strong>on</strong>ical, acum<strong>in</strong>ate, not far apart.Shell el<strong>on</strong>gate, ra<strong>the</strong>r beaked beh<strong>in</strong>d, sharply arcuate <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t,15 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g, 10 broad. Animal about 45 <strong>in</strong> length.Hah. Same as A. <strong>in</strong>jierata.129. Aplysia piperata.Animal (<strong>in</strong> spirit) olivaceous, m<strong>in</strong>utely and closely dotted everywhere,with <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> foot, with black ; h<strong>in</strong>der thirdpart of <strong>the</strong> body sometimes paler than <strong>the</strong> rest, from which it ismarked off by a blackish band pass<strong>in</strong>g right round <strong>the</strong> animal.Lobes of <strong>the</strong> mantle narrowish <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t, where <strong>the</strong>y arise quite closeto <strong>the</strong> posterior tentacles, c<strong>on</strong>siderably dilated beh<strong>in</strong>d. Oral tentacleslarge, l<strong>on</strong>g, and po<strong>in</strong>ted ;posterior small, close toge<strong>the</strong>r,c<strong>on</strong>ical.Shell white, c<strong>on</strong>cave with<strong>in</strong>, subquadrate. Length 27 millim.,width 22. Animal about 80 l<strong>on</strong>g.Hah. Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 4-5 fms., sandy bottom.Peculiar <strong>on</strong> account of <strong>the</strong> positi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> posterior tentacles, closeto <strong>the</strong> orig<strong>in</strong> of <strong>the</strong> mantle-lobes.130. Aplysia denis<strong>on</strong>i.Body (<strong>in</strong> spirit) high, exhibit<strong>in</strong>g a dist<strong>in</strong>ct pedal disk, producedposteriorly <strong>in</strong>to a caudal term<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong>. The entire surface wr<strong>in</strong>kled,


90 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.dirty whitish, black-ve<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> wr<strong>in</strong>kles (? sta<strong>in</strong>s <strong>on</strong>ly). Mantlelobesmoderately large, commenc<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t some distance beh<strong>in</strong>d<strong>the</strong> posterior tentacles and term<strong>in</strong>at<strong>in</strong>g a little <strong>in</strong> advance of <strong>the</strong>Cauda. Anterior tentacles large, compressed, much dilated. Posteriortentacles large, cyl<strong>in</strong>drical, with <strong>the</strong> apical slit not extend<strong>in</strong>ghalfway down <strong>the</strong> outer side, placed a little nearer <strong>the</strong> oral tentaclesthan <strong>the</strong> beg<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g of <strong>the</strong> mantle-lobes. Eyes m<strong>in</strong>ute, situatednear <strong>the</strong> outer anterior base of tentacles.Shell very th<strong>in</strong>, straw-colour, 30 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g and 27 broad.Animal about three <strong>in</strong>ches <strong>in</strong> length <strong>in</strong> its c<strong>on</strong>tracted state.Hah. Port Denis<strong>on</strong>, Queensland.This species is remarkable for <strong>the</strong> large size of <strong>the</strong> oral tentacles.131. Stylocheilus, sp.Hah. Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 4-5 fms., <strong>on</strong> a sandybottom.There are four specimens from <strong>the</strong> above locality evidently bel<strong>on</strong>g<strong>in</strong>gto <strong>the</strong> genus Sti/loeheiJus, which, hav<strong>in</strong>g lost all colour and be<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong> ra<strong>the</strong>r poor c<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong>, I refra<strong>in</strong> from describ<strong>in</strong>g. One of <strong>the</strong>m,tlie smallest, differs from <strong>the</strong> rest <strong>in</strong> hav<strong>in</strong>g a decidedly largerbranchial open<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> mantle, which is not, I am of op<strong>in</strong>i<strong>on</strong>, dueto any c<strong>on</strong>tracti<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r three. All present a feature notmenti<strong>on</strong>ed by Gould <strong>in</strong> his descripti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> genus, viz. a duplicatureof <strong>the</strong> anterior marg<strong>in</strong> of <strong>the</strong> foot. In <strong>the</strong> figure, however, of S.querc<strong>in</strong>tis (Wilkes's Explor. Exjicd., Atlas, MoUusca, pi. 16. f. 271)this peculiarity is <strong>in</strong>dicated, of which a better idea is given <strong>in</strong>Savigny's figure of Aplysia sauigm/iana, Atlas to <strong>the</strong> Explorati<strong>on</strong>s<strong>in</strong> Egy]3t, pi. 2. figs. 2 2, also copied <strong>in</strong> Bang's Hist. jSTat. desAplysiens, pi. 20. f. 2.132. Miamira nobilis.£erf/h, Joiirn. Mus. Oodeffroy, 1874, Heft vi. pi. 1. fig. 5; 1875, Heftviii. p. 53, pi. 8. figs. 1-30, pi. 9. figs. 1-4 ; tScmper, Reisen Philipp<strong>in</strong>en,Bd. ii. pi. 33. fig. 2 ; Beryh <strong>in</strong> Semper's lieisen, vol. ii.Heft 10, p. 411.Hah. Port Denis<strong>on</strong>, Queensland, 4 fms. (Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).Only a s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen of this beautiful Nudibranch was obta<strong>in</strong>edby Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger. It still reta<strong>in</strong>s <strong>in</strong> spirit <strong>the</strong> vivid orange spots,which <strong>in</strong> time will probably disappear. Dr. Semper found thisspecies at <strong>the</strong> Philipp<strong>in</strong>es, and it has also been met with at Ambo<strong>in</strong>a(Martens) and <strong>the</strong> Samoa Islands.133. Ceratosoma tenue.Abraham, Ann. 8f Mag. Nat. Hist. 1876, vol. xviii. p. 141, pi. 7.figs. 5-5 6 ; Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 234.Hah. Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 4-5 fms.This species and (J. cahd<strong>on</strong>icuvi of Fischer (Journ. de C<strong>on</strong>ch.18 76, p. 92) may eventually prove to be identical, <strong>in</strong> which case


MOLLTTSCA. 91tho latter name should be reta<strong>in</strong>ed, hav<strong>in</strong>g a few m<strong>on</strong>ths' priority ofpublicati<strong>on</strong>.The s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen from Torres Straits agrees with <strong>the</strong> excellentdescripti<strong>on</strong> given by Mr. Abraham except <strong>in</strong> respect of <strong>the</strong> greaterproporti<strong>on</strong>al length of <strong>the</strong> caudal porti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> body, which equalshalt <strong>the</strong> entire length of <strong>the</strong> animal, and <strong>the</strong> greater breadth of <strong>the</strong>foot, two differences probably due to <strong>the</strong> various degrees of c<strong>on</strong>tracti<strong>on</strong>at death.134. Doris (Platydoris) <strong>in</strong>frapicta.Body flattened, el<strong>on</strong>gate oval. Mantle softish, fleshy, f<strong>in</strong>elygranular above, smooth beneath <strong>the</strong> widely expanded border. Footbroad, rounded at both ends, widely spread<strong>in</strong>g all round exceptbeneath <strong>the</strong> mouth, where it is more narrowly expanded, and has anarrow lam<strong>in</strong>a above, which is notched <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> middle and is produceda little <strong>in</strong> advance of <strong>the</strong> edge of <strong>the</strong> foot itself. Oral tentaclescompressed, curv<strong>in</strong>g forward. Eh<strong>in</strong>ophores short, with comparativelyfew lam<strong>in</strong>a?, po<strong>in</strong>ted at <strong>the</strong> apex. Branchial plume sixlobed,each lobe trifurcate above, surround<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> small centralyellow six (?)-lobed anus.Colour pale buff, variegated with a dirty brownish t<strong>in</strong>t above.Beneath, <strong>the</strong> mantle-expansi<strong>on</strong> is copiously sta<strong>in</strong>ed and blotched withdark chocolate-brown, except near <strong>the</strong> border, which is pale andunspotted. Foot spotted with <strong>the</strong> same colour, especially towards<strong>the</strong> centre, <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong> be<strong>in</strong>g pale and destitute of mark<strong>in</strong>gs.Length 50 millim., width 3'2 ; foot 43 l<strong>on</strong>g, 18 broad.Uab. Queensland, 4 fms.This species appears to be closely related to D. <strong>in</strong>framaculata,Abraham, from Ambo<strong>in</strong>a. It differs <strong>in</strong> colorati<strong>on</strong> somewhat, <strong>the</strong>greater width of <strong>the</strong> foot, which is not " truncate <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t," <strong>the</strong>softer character of <strong>the</strong> mantle, and <strong>the</strong> coarser granulati<strong>on</strong>, of itsdorsal surface.135. Plocamophorus <strong>in</strong>signis. (Plate VI. figs. L, L 1.)Body el<strong>on</strong>gate, end<strong>in</strong>g posteriorly <strong>in</strong> a laterally compressed andobliquely truncate term<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> ;(<strong>in</strong> spirit) of a pale colour, dottedwith black al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> sides close to <strong>the</strong> foot, <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> oblique car<strong>in</strong>atemarg<strong>in</strong> of <strong>the</strong> posterior end, and <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> sides of this caudal extremity,which also exhibits a few small rounded tubercles. Branchialplume a little posterior to <strong>the</strong> middle of <strong>the</strong> back, trilobed, <strong>on</strong>e lobecentral, anterior, <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r two lateral, <strong>on</strong>e <strong>on</strong> each side, bifurcate,all branch<strong>in</strong>g above. Anus stellate, situated between <strong>the</strong> laterallobes. On <strong>the</strong> back, a little beh<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong> branchiae, is situated a s<strong>in</strong>gleblack-spotted el<strong>on</strong>gate papilla <strong>on</strong> each side. Foot el<strong>on</strong>gate, with adouble marg<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t, f<strong>in</strong>ely tuberculated <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> groove between<strong>the</strong> two edges, much attenuat<strong>in</strong>g posteriorly. Head with <strong>the</strong>fr<strong>on</strong>tal marg<strong>in</strong> black- dotted, bear<strong>in</strong>g a fr<strong>in</strong>ge of about eight slenderprol<strong>on</strong>gati<strong>on</strong>s ; beneath this and between it and <strong>the</strong> mouth is a


—92 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.narrow lamella, which <strong>on</strong> each side becomes ra<strong>the</strong>r broader, form<strong>in</strong>ga small lappet of supraoral tentacles. Rhiuophores ra<strong>the</strong>r lateral, farapart, c<strong>on</strong>ical, acute at <strong>the</strong> tips, cariuate <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> outside, c<strong>on</strong>centricallylamcllato-striated. Length 27 millim.Hah. North Australia, Albany Island, 4 fms.13G. Bornella digitata.Adams ^- Reeve, l^oy. Samarang^ ' p. 67, pi. 19. fig. 1; Alder 8r Hancock,Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. v. p. 140, pi. 33. figs. 8, 9 ; Beryh <strong>in</strong>Semper s Eeisen Arch. Philijjpiiien, vol. ii. p. 301, pi. 37. tigs. 14-19,& pi. 38. ligs. 13-22.Ifab. Port Denis<strong>on</strong>, Queensland, 4 fms. {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).I have three specimens before me, which offer certa<strong>in</strong> differences<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> number of lobes <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> branchial papillte and even <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>number of <strong>the</strong> papillte <strong>the</strong>mselves. All <strong>the</strong>se have <strong>the</strong> four anteriorpairs branchiferous, and <strong>in</strong> each case <strong>the</strong> two foremost pairs havetwo branchial tufts at <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>ner base (<strong>in</strong> c<strong>on</strong>tracti<strong>on</strong>), but <strong>the</strong> twoh<strong>in</strong>dmost pairs exhibit c<strong>on</strong>siderable variati<strong>on</strong>. In specimen No. 1both pairs are provided with three tufts, of which <strong>the</strong> central <strong>on</strong>e isvery small. Specimen 2 has three tufts adjo<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g each of <strong>the</strong> thirdpair and two to each of <strong>the</strong> fourth. Example 3 has three tufts at<strong>the</strong> base of <strong>the</strong> left papilla of third pair, and two at <strong>the</strong> base of <strong>the</strong>opposite <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> same pair ; of <strong>the</strong> fourth pair <strong>the</strong> right papillais provided with three plumes or tufts and <strong>the</strong> left with two.The annexed table will best illustrate <strong>the</strong> variati<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> lobati<strong>on</strong>of <strong>the</strong> papilla :First pair. Sec<strong>on</strong>d. Third. Fourth. Fifth. Sixth.No. 1 3 lobes. 2 2 1 1* 1„ 2 3 „ 3 2 2 1 1*,,3 3 „ 2 2 1 1 1*The number of <strong>the</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>tal lobes is also very variable. In specimenNo. 1 <strong>the</strong>re are eighteen <strong>in</strong> both groups, <strong>in</strong> No. 2 twelve <strong>on</strong><strong>the</strong> left and eleven <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> right, and <strong>in</strong> No. 3 <strong>the</strong> left c<strong>on</strong>sists ofsixteen and <strong>the</strong> right group of twelve.C<strong>on</strong>side<strong>in</strong>ng <strong>the</strong>se variati<strong>on</strong>s, it appears to me very probable thatB. arhorescens of Pease is <strong>on</strong>ly a variety of this species. Theorig<strong>in</strong>al account by Pease differs c<strong>on</strong>siderably from that given byBergh. The number of lobes <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> six pairs of papillre accord<strong>in</strong>gto <strong>the</strong>se authors varies, and even <strong>the</strong> number which are gill-bear<strong>in</strong>g.137. Oncidium (Per<strong>on</strong>ia) punctatum?Onchidium punctatum, Quoy i^ Gaimard, Voy. de VAstrolabe, Zoologie,vol. ii. p. 215.Hah. Albany Island and Thursday Island, N. coast of Australia(^Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).* These are not <strong>in</strong> pairs, but c<strong>on</strong>sist of a s<strong>in</strong>gle simple papilla <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> centraldorsal l<strong>in</strong>e.


MOLLUSCA. 93Four specimens from <strong>the</strong> above localities appear to agree fairlywith <strong>the</strong> superficial descripti<strong>on</strong> given by <strong>the</strong> zoologists of <strong>the</strong>' Astrolabe,' whose examples were obta<strong>in</strong>ed at Port Dorey <strong>in</strong> jN^ewGu<strong>in</strong>ea.III.CONCHIFERA.1. Teredo (Xylotrya) antarctica ? (Plate VII, figs. E-E 2.)Hzitt<strong>on</strong>, Cat. Mar<strong>in</strong>e Moll. New Zealand, 1873, p. 59 ; Journ. deC<strong>on</strong>ch. 1878, vol. xxvi. p. 43 ; Man. N. Z. Moll. 1880, p. 133.Hah. Auckland to Duued<strong>in</strong> (Huti<strong>on</strong>) ; Port Denis<strong>on</strong>, Queensland(Co/ipim/er).The specimens from Port Denis<strong>on</strong>, which may bel<strong>on</strong>g to thisspecies, are very like T. norveyicus and T. palmulata externally.Thesculpture is similar, but <strong>the</strong> notch or angle <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> anterior side isnot quite so deep as <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> former. The <strong>in</strong>terior of <strong>the</strong> valves hasnot a dist<strong>in</strong>ct ridge mark<strong>in</strong>g off <strong>the</strong> posterior lobe. The pallets,want<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> specimens before me, are said to be " el<strong>on</strong>gate,slightly curved, penniform."Mya arctica, L<strong>in</strong>n.2. Saxicava arctica.Hah. Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> (^Copp<strong>in</strong>ge)").Four specimens from <strong>the</strong> above locality and o<strong>the</strong>rs <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> BritishMuseum, also from New 8outh Wales, I am unable to separate fromthis nor<strong>the</strong>rn form. Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys and o<strong>the</strong>rs have also failedto distiuguish Australian from Arctic examples.3. Venus lamellaris.Antigoua lamellaris, Schumacher, JEssai, p. 1.5o, pi. 14. fig. 2.Venus lamarckii {Graj/), Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 39 «, b.Venus lamellaris, Pfeijfer <strong>in</strong> lulster^s C<strong>on</strong>.-Cab. p. 142, pi. 8. figs. 10,Var.= Venus nodulosa, Soiccrhy, Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, pi. 153. fig. 16.Hah. Friday Island, Torres Straits.A s<strong>in</strong>gle valve from this locality is ra<strong>the</strong>r l<strong>on</strong>ger than usual,hav<strong>in</strong>g a length of 53 millim. and a height of 38.4. Venus toreuma.G<strong>on</strong>ld, Wilkes's Explor. Exped. p. 419, figs. 537, 637a ; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch.Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 64 a, h.Vemis iukesi, Deshaijes, Cat. Brit. Mus. p. 100; Pfeiffer, C<strong>on</strong>.-Cab.p. 217, pi. 35. figs. 7-9.Venus sculpta, Deshaijes, Reeve, I. c. fig. 5.Hah. Port Molle, Queensland, 14 fms., <strong>on</strong> a rocky bottom {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger); Port Ess<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong> {Jalcci for V. jukesi) \ mudflats at Fac<strong>in</strong>gIsland, Port Curtis (Brit. Mus.); Sooloo Sea {Gould).A specimen from <strong>the</strong> last locality but <strong>on</strong>e is almost globular and


;94 COLLECTIONS FUOJI MKLANESIA.has a remarkably deeply sunken lunule ; it is 34 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g,31 high, and '28 <strong>in</strong> diameter.5. Venus torresiana. (Plate VI. figs. M-M 2.)Shell suhovate, moderately thick, nearly equilateral, c<strong>on</strong>centricallyf<strong>in</strong>ely ridged and radiately sulcated, white, irregularly rayed,streaked, and spotted with lightish brown. Anterior and posteriorends subequal, obtusely rounded, <strong>the</strong> latter ra<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong> narrowerventral marg<strong>in</strong> broadly arcuate. Posterior dorsal slope straightish,ra<strong>the</strong>r more oblique than <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t. Luuule narrowly cordate, generallyof a chocolate-brown colour, partly so or merely whitish.Umb<strong>on</strong>es small, red at <strong>the</strong> tip. C<strong>on</strong>centric ridges somewhat flattened,crowded, and subnodulous anteriorly through be<strong>in</strong>g crossed by<strong>the</strong> radiat<strong>in</strong>g stride, th<strong>in</strong> and lamellar beh<strong>in</strong>d. Striae less dist<strong>in</strong>ct<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> central porti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> valves than at <strong>the</strong> extremities, andf<strong>in</strong>er and closer toge<strong>the</strong>r down <strong>the</strong> posterior side than elsewhere.Interior more or less p<strong>in</strong>kish, f<strong>in</strong>ely crenulated at <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong>.Pallial s<strong>in</strong>us moderate, sharply rounded. Length 16 millim.,height 12^, diameter 8.Hub. West Island, Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel, and Thursday Island,Torres Straits, 4 fms. {Go^yp<strong>in</strong>ger).This species is somewhat like V. (Chi<strong>on</strong>e) mesodesma, Quoy andGaimard, but is dist<strong>in</strong>guished by its greater length and diff'orence ofcolour <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>terior. It is also not so high, <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>centric ribletsare th<strong>in</strong> and lamellar posteriorly ; and <strong>the</strong> presence of radiat<strong>in</strong>gstriae at <strong>on</strong>ce separates it from <strong>the</strong> Xew-Zealand form. There areseveral specimens from <strong>the</strong> above localities, all hav<strong>in</strong>g a rosy tip to<strong>the</strong> beaks, <strong>the</strong> lunules more or less dark-coloured, <strong>the</strong> ridges th<strong>in</strong>posteriorly, and <strong>the</strong> striae <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> same regi<strong>on</strong> f<strong>in</strong>er and more numerousthan elsewhere.6. Venus gladst<strong>on</strong>ensis.Angus, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872, p. 612, pi. 42. fig. 8.Hah. Port Curtis (Anr/as and Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).This species is remarkable for <strong>the</strong> f<strong>in</strong>eness of <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>centriclamellae, which exhibit <strong>the</strong> radiat<strong>in</strong>g slender lirae <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> outer sideas is <strong>the</strong> case with o<strong>the</strong>r species. The crenulati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>nermarg<strong>in</strong> of <strong>the</strong> valves is also excessively f<strong>in</strong>e, and <strong>the</strong> pallial s<strong>in</strong>us isof moderate size and not very aciite.7. Venus subnodulosa.Hanley, Cat. Bivalve Shells, p. 300, pi. 16. fig. 19 ;Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>.fig. 102 ; Deshayes, Cat. C<strong>on</strong>ch. Biv. p. 143, as Chi<strong>on</strong>e.Bah. Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands (Hanlei/) ; Moret<strong>on</strong> Bay {Strange <strong>in</strong> coll.Port Curtis (Cojijy<strong>in</strong>ger).This s])ecics is remarkable for <strong>the</strong> stoutness of <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>centricCum<strong>in</strong>g);ribs, which are rendered more or less subnodosc by f<strong>in</strong>e radiat<strong>in</strong>g


MOLLUSCA. 95sulci cutt<strong>in</strong>g across <strong>the</strong>m. The margiu of <strong>the</strong> valves with<strong>in</strong> is denticulateeverywhere except down <strong>the</strong> posterior dorsal slope, <strong>the</strong>denticles <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> edge of <strong>the</strong> lunulc he<strong>in</strong>g t<strong>in</strong>er and closer toge<strong>the</strong>rthan elsewhere. The pallial hne is posteriorly nearly straight, oreven a little <strong>in</strong>mrved just helbre <strong>the</strong> commencement of <strong>the</strong> s<strong>in</strong>us,which is ra<strong>the</strong>r deep. The <strong>in</strong>terior is generally somewhat rosy,especially towards <strong>the</strong> heaks.8. Cy<strong>the</strong>rea (Caryatis) coxeni. (Plate VII. figs. A-A2.)Shell small, <strong>in</strong>equilateral, subtrig<strong>on</strong>ally oval, white, variegatedwith pale zigzag brown or reddish l<strong>in</strong>es form<strong>in</strong>g an irregular brokenupnetwork. Anterior dorsal marg<strong>in</strong> straightish, much descend<strong>in</strong>g,sharply curv<strong>in</strong>g at <strong>the</strong> end <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> upturned ventral outl<strong>in</strong>e.Posterior slope much loTiger, somewhat arcuate and less oblique than<strong>the</strong> anterior. H<strong>in</strong>der extremity produced, roundly acum<strong>in</strong>ated.Lower marg<strong>in</strong> widely curved, about equally ascend<strong>in</strong>g at both ends.Umb<strong>on</strong>es small, well curved over towards <strong>the</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t. Lunule l<strong>on</strong>gishheart-shaped, a little sunken, slightly elevated al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> middle,and def<strong>in</strong>ed bj- an impressed l<strong>in</strong>e. Area <strong>in</strong>dist<strong>in</strong>ct. Surface of <strong>the</strong>valves f<strong>in</strong>ely sulcate-striated, <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>terven<strong>in</strong>g lir


96 COLLECTIOIfS FROM MELANESIA.10. Dos<strong>in</strong>ia histrio (var. allja).Gmel<strong>in</strong> ; Romer, M<strong>on</strong>oyr. Dosiuia, Novitat. C<strong>on</strong>ch, p. 33, pi. 6.figs. 2 & 3.Artemis variegata {Chenii), Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 33 a-c.Hah. Clairm<strong>on</strong>t Island, N.E. Australia {Cojjpwger).A f<strong>in</strong>e specimen from <strong>the</strong> above locality is entirely white, with<strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> extreme tips of <strong>the</strong> beaks, which are of a palerose t<strong>in</strong>t, a feature apparently comm<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong> most white examples of<strong>the</strong> species. The specimen <strong>in</strong> questi<strong>on</strong> is STg millim. <strong>in</strong> length,<strong>the</strong> same <strong>in</strong> height, and 20 <strong>in</strong> diameter. In this species <strong>the</strong> dorsalarea is very dist<strong>in</strong>ct and smooth <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> left valve, but sculpturedwith <strong>the</strong> term<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong>s of <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>centric lamellae <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> right; On<strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>trary, <strong>the</strong> half of <strong>the</strong> lunule <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> latter valve is generallygreater than <strong>the</strong> rema<strong>in</strong>der of it <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> left.11. Dos<strong>in</strong>ia desliayesii.A. Adams ; Romer, 3I<strong>on</strong>offr. Dos<strong>in</strong>ia, Nooitat, C<strong>on</strong>ch, p. 55.Hah. Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel, Torres Straits, 9 fms. {Copii<strong>in</strong>ger);North Australia (Cum<strong>in</strong>c/).Venus pect<strong>in</strong>ata, L<strong>in</strong>n.12. Circe pect<strong>in</strong>ata.Hah. Thursday Island and West Island, Torres Straits (Copf<strong>in</strong>ger).13. Circe australis.Soioerhy, Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, ii. pi. 137. figs. 10, 17; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>.fig. 19.Hah. Friday Island, Torres Straits, <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> beach (Copij<strong>in</strong>ger) ;N.E. coast of Australia {Brit. Mus.).One specimen from Friday Island is peculiar <strong>on</strong> account of <strong>the</strong>unusual style of its colorati<strong>on</strong>. It is white, with a large orangebrownpatch cover<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> greater part of <strong>the</strong> surface, and exhibits atotal absence of colour with<strong>in</strong>.14. Circe (Lioc<strong>on</strong>cha) castrensis.L<strong>in</strong>n., vide Romer's M<strong>on</strong>ograph, Novitat. C<strong>on</strong>ch, pi. 44.Hah. Port Denis<strong>on</strong>, Queensland, 4 fms.The variety of this well-known species from <strong>the</strong> above locality isvery closely depicted by <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d figure from <strong>the</strong> top <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> leftside of Homer's plate.15. Tapes hiant<strong>in</strong>a.Venus hiant<strong>in</strong>a, Lamarck ; Delessert, Recueil, pi. 10. fig. 8 ; Philippi,Ablild. vol. iii. p. 21, pi. 8. fig. 1.Tapes hiant<strong>in</strong>a, Rcimer, M<strong>on</strong>oc/r. Tapes, Novitat. C<strong>on</strong>ch, p. 99, pi. 34.fig. 1 ; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 28 a, b.Hah. Friday Island, Torres Straits.


MOLLirSCA.y716. Tapes malabarica.Chemnitz; Romer, M<strong>on</strong>og. Tapes, Novitat. C<strong>on</strong>ch, p. 34, pi. 10.figs. 3-3 d.Hah. Port MoUe, 14 fms. {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger); Malabar, Molucca andPhilipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands (Eomer).17. Tapes variegata.Soioerhj ; Romer, I. c. suprh, p. 78, pi. 27. figs. 2-2 e.Hah. Port Curtis, 7 fms. (Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands andJapan {Romer).18. Tapes araneosa.Venus araneosa, Philippi, Ahbild. vol. iii. p. 25, pi. 7. fig. 6.Tapes araneosa, Romeros M<strong>on</strong>oyr., Novitat, C<strong>on</strong>ch, p, 53, pi. 19. fig. 1.Hah. Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, N.W. Australia, 8-12 fms.The locality of this species I believe has not hi<strong>the</strong>rto been recorded.In <strong>the</strong> s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen before me <strong>the</strong> umb<strong>on</strong>cs are all butterm<strong>in</strong>al, so that <strong>the</strong> anterior end is even more perpendicular thanas represented by Dr. Eomer's figures. T. deshayesii is not ujilikethis species as regards its general form ; but <strong>the</strong> anterior end ishardly so short, and <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>centric sculpture decidedly coarser.Venus textrix, Chemnitz.19. Tapes (Textrix) textrix.Hah. Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> (Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).Two young examples of this well-known species are of a buff colour,mottled with bluish white at <strong>the</strong> umb<strong>on</strong>es, and spotted with redbrown<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> dorsal marg<strong>in</strong>s.20. Venerupis crenata.Lamarch; Delessert, Recueil, pi. o. fig. 2; Pfeifer, C<strong>on</strong>.- Cab. pi. 31.figs. 22, 23 Sowerhj, C<strong>on</strong>ch, Ic<strong>on</strong>. ; tig. 3; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch, Ic<strong>on</strong>, fig. 5{as Cypricardia serrata).Hah.Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).21. Trapezium vellicatum, var.Cypricardia vellicata, Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. pi. 2. fig. 7.Hah. Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, 8-12 fms., bottom mud and sand {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger):Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands {Oum<strong>in</strong>g).The A^orth-Australian variety of this species is peculiar <strong>on</strong> accountof <strong>the</strong> absence of <strong>the</strong> coloured rays which dist<strong>in</strong>guish <strong>the</strong> typicalform.


98 COLLECTIONS PKOM MELANDSLA..22. Petricola lapicida.Venus lapicida, Chemnitz, C<strong>on</strong>.-Cab. x. p. 356, figs. 1664-5 ; Soiverhy,C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. (I'etricola) figs. 22, 24 ; Martens <strong>in</strong> V<strong>on</strong> der Deckeri'sHeisen <strong>in</strong> Ost-Afrika, vol. iii. p. 66, pi. 3, figs. 3 a, b.Hah. West Indies {Chemnitz, cVOrhigny, Sfc); North Australia(/. B. Elsey <strong>in</strong> Brit. Mus.) ; West Island, Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel,Torres Straits {Copp<strong>in</strong>gcr) ; Zanzibar {Peters, teste Martens).This and <strong>the</strong> Venus divaricata of Chemnitz I regard as <strong>on</strong>e species,and from his descripti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> former it seems probable that he hadbefore him specimens which to a great extent had lost <strong>the</strong> f<strong>in</strong>e zigzagsculpture menti<strong>on</strong>ed <strong>in</strong> his descripti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> latter. The raisedoblique ridges from <strong>the</strong> umb<strong>on</strong>es down <strong>the</strong> posterior slope havevarious degrees of development <strong>in</strong> different specimens, <strong>in</strong> some exist<strong>in</strong>g<strong>on</strong>ty near <strong>the</strong> posterior marg<strong>in</strong> of <strong>the</strong> valves, whilst <strong>in</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rs <strong>the</strong>yextend <strong>the</strong> whole distance from <strong>the</strong> beaks downwards, and, aga<strong>in</strong>, <strong>in</strong>young shells <strong>the</strong>y may be altoge<strong>the</strong>r want<strong>in</strong>g. These ridges areeasily removed, and seem to be superimposed up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> zigzag sculpturebeneath. After a careful exam<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> of Austrahau specimensand o<strong>the</strong>rs from <strong>the</strong> West Indies, I cannot detect any materialspecific difi"erences.The example figured by Dr. E. v<strong>on</strong> Martens as P. divaricata isunsually peaked at <strong>the</strong> umb<strong>on</strong>es.23. Psammobia modesta.Deshayes, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1854, p. 319 ; Peeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. tig. 3.Hah. Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Moret<strong>on</strong> Bay {DesJiayes).The s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen before me is ra<strong>the</strong>r narrower than thatfigured <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> C<strong>on</strong>chologia 'Ic<strong>on</strong>ica.' is purplish lilac with<strong>in</strong> for <strong>the</strong>most part, yellowish near <strong>the</strong> muscular scars, and exibits <strong>the</strong> j^<strong>in</strong>kishrays <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> ventral marg<strong>in</strong>. The epidermis is brightish yellow.Oblique striae are sometimes present at <strong>the</strong> central porti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong>valves, but are not c<strong>on</strong>spicuous.24. Psammobia gracilenta. (Plate VII. figs. B-B 2.)Shell c<strong>on</strong>centrically striated, transversely el<strong>on</strong>gate, very <strong>in</strong>equilateral,almost twice as l<strong>on</strong>g as high, not very compressed, dirtywhitish with a few diaphanous z<strong>on</strong>es and several light reddishnarrow rays beneath a th<strong>in</strong> pale yellowish-olive epidermis, verynarrowly gap<strong>in</strong>g at both ends. Anterior dorsal marg<strong>in</strong> of <strong>the</strong> valvesabout twice as l<strong>on</strong>g as <strong>the</strong> posterior, subrectil<strong>in</strong>ear, and nearlyparallel with <strong>the</strong> ventral. H<strong>in</strong>der dorsal edge oblique, a littlearcuate. Lower marg<strong>in</strong> straightish, obliquely curv<strong>in</strong>g upward <strong>in</strong>fr<strong>on</strong>t and more sharply turn<strong>in</strong>g at <strong>the</strong> opposite extremity. Interiorbluish white, iridescent, exhibit<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> reddish rays. Beaks small,adjacent, posteriorly <strong>in</strong>cl<strong>in</strong>ed. Ligament short, but prom<strong>in</strong>ent, placed<strong>on</strong> a c<strong>on</strong>spicuous ligamental plate <strong>in</strong> each valve beh<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong> umb<strong>on</strong>es.A sec<strong>on</strong>d m<strong>in</strong>ute ligament exists immediately <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t of <strong>the</strong>m and


MOlLtrSCA. 99is partly enclosed when <strong>the</strong> valves are shut. Card<strong>in</strong>al teeth two <strong>in</strong>each valve, those of <strong>the</strong> right most prom<strong>in</strong>ent. Fr<strong>on</strong>t dorsal marg<strong>in</strong>of right valve narrowly grooved just with<strong>in</strong>, simple <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> left.Corselet l<strong>in</strong>ear. Posterior muscular impressi<strong>on</strong> rotund-pyriform,anterior more el<strong>on</strong>gate. Pallial s<strong>in</strong>us moderate, extend<strong>in</strong>g forwardbey<strong>on</strong>d <strong>the</strong> middle of <strong>the</strong> valve. Length 19| millim., height 10,diam. 5.Hob. Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of "Wales Channel, 9 fms.A very el<strong>on</strong>gate narrow species, recall<strong>in</strong>g to m<strong>in</strong>d certa<strong>in</strong> slenderforms of <strong>the</strong> geniis D<strong>on</strong>ax.25. Tell<strong>in</strong>a semen.Hanley, Thesaurus, vol. i. p. 249, pi. 56. fig. 8 ;(? Sowerby, C<strong>on</strong>ch.Ic<strong>on</strong>. vol. xvii. fig. 232, bad !).Hah. Thursday Island, Torres Straits, <strong>in</strong> 5-7 fms.Am<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> specimens from this locality is <strong>on</strong>e of a purplish-roset<strong>in</strong>t, <strong>the</strong> rest be<strong>in</strong>g white like <strong>the</strong> type. The h<strong>in</strong>ge of this speciesis composed of two card<strong>in</strong>al teeth <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> right valve (<strong>the</strong> posterior<strong>on</strong>e larger and bifid, with <strong>on</strong>e lateral tooth <strong>on</strong> each side aud a gropvebetween it and <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong>), and of a s<strong>in</strong>gle bifid card<strong>in</strong>al <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> leftvalve with a marg<strong>in</strong>al lateral tooth or prom<strong>in</strong>ence <strong>on</strong> each side. Thepallial s<strong>in</strong>us is very large, almost reach<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> anterior scar.The form of this species is very similar to that of T. obtusalis,Deshayes, which is <strong>the</strong> same as T. malaccana, Sowerby (C<strong>on</strong>. Ic<strong>on</strong>,figs. 2Sla and 125). The posterior end, however, is not so obtuseand <strong>the</strong> form is not so like that of a D<strong>on</strong>ax, In T. obtusalis <strong>the</strong>c<strong>on</strong>centric striae are ra<strong>the</strong>r coarser than <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> present species, andbecome very much f<strong>in</strong>er anteriorly, so that <strong>in</strong> that part <strong>the</strong> shell ismore glossy and comparatively smooth, which is not <strong>the</strong> case <strong>in</strong>T. semen. Ano<strong>the</strong>r form, T. semitecta, Sowerby, from New SouthWales, is very closely related to <strong>the</strong> present species, and is ma<strong>in</strong>lydist<strong>in</strong>guished by its ra<strong>the</strong>r more el<strong>on</strong>gate form, and f<strong>in</strong>er aud lesselevated sculpture at <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>der extremity.26. Syndosmya elliptica. (Plate VII. figs. C, C 1.)Tell<strong>in</strong>a elliptica, Soioerhy, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 223 (bad!).Hub. Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> (Angas and Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).The type and a sec<strong>on</strong>d specimen of this sjiecies were presented to<strong>the</strong> British Museum by Mr. Angas <strong>in</strong> 1871. Nei<strong>the</strong>r of <strong>the</strong>se nor athird collected by Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger exhibit <strong>the</strong> s<strong>in</strong>uati<strong>on</strong> at <strong>the</strong> posteriorend of <strong>the</strong> ventral marg<strong>in</strong> depicted <strong>in</strong> Sowerby's figure. Hiswords " c<strong>on</strong>centrically ridged beh<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong> angle " are scarcely applicable,for <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> first place <strong>the</strong>re is <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>the</strong> feeblest <strong>in</strong>dicati<strong>on</strong> of anangle and <strong>the</strong> sculpture beh<strong>in</strong>d it c<strong>on</strong>sists of mere c<strong>on</strong>centric striati<strong>on</strong>.The h<strong>in</strong>ge-characters show this species to bel<strong>on</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> genustSynclosmya, and Tell<strong>in</strong>a simplex of <strong>the</strong> same author (C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>,sp. 240) requires a similar locati<strong>on</strong>. The h<strong>in</strong>ge of <strong>the</strong> present speciesc<strong>on</strong>sists of two card<strong>in</strong>al teeth <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> right valve, <strong>the</strong> posterior largerh2


100 COLLECTIONS FROM MELAjnESIi..and bifid, and two <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> left, of which <strong>the</strong> anterior is <strong>the</strong> larger andbifid. A s<strong>in</strong>gle lateral tooth occurs <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> right valve <strong>on</strong> each sidenot far from <strong>the</strong> card<strong>in</strong>als, with a groove between <strong>the</strong>m and <strong>the</strong>marg<strong>in</strong>. Left valve with a slight tooth-like projecti<strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong><strong>on</strong> each side fitt<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> grooves <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r valve. ThepaUial s<strong>in</strong>us is large and deep. Internal cartilage m<strong>in</strong>ute, narrow,oblique, posterior to <strong>the</strong> card<strong>in</strong>al teeth. External ligament small.The largest specimen measures 13 millim. by 9g. T. alba of Woodis somewhat like this species, but is more acute posteriorly, <strong>the</strong>detail of its dentiti<strong>on</strong> is different, and <strong>the</strong> cartilage larger.27. Mactra eximia.{Deshayes) ;Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 31 (rayed variety).Hah. Port Denis<strong>on</strong>, Queensland ( Coj^pmr/er) ; Port Curtis, Moret<strong>on</strong>Bay {coU. Gam<strong>in</strong>g) ; JN".E. coast of Australia {Brit. Mus.).There are altoge<strong>the</strong>r eight specimens of this species <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Museum,three of <strong>the</strong>m be<strong>in</strong>g ornamented with numerous reddish rays, and<strong>the</strong> rema<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g five uniformly white beneath <strong>the</strong> greyish and yellowishepidermis.28. Mactra producta, var.Spisula producta, Anyas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 900, pi. 44. tig. 7.Hab. Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> (Angas and Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).The three shells dredged by Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger are probably a varietyof this species. They are all small, apparently immature, and difterfrom <strong>the</strong> types presented to <strong>the</strong> Museum by Mr. Angas <strong>in</strong> be<strong>in</strong>gless produced posteriorly. They are proporti<strong>on</strong>ally l<strong>on</strong>ger from <strong>the</strong>umb<strong>on</strong>es to <strong>the</strong> ventral marg<strong>in</strong>, which exhibits a very fa<strong>in</strong>t <strong>in</strong>curvati<strong>on</strong>near <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>der extremity, and <strong>the</strong> posterior dorsal slope is atrifle more arcuate.29. Mactra (Oxyperas) copp<strong>in</strong>geri. (Plate VII. figs. D-D 2.)Shell transversely el<strong>on</strong>gate, triangular, a little <strong>in</strong>equilateral,ra<strong>the</strong>r compressed, th<strong>in</strong>nish, narrowly gap<strong>in</strong>g posteriorly, smoothtowards <strong>the</strong> beaks, c<strong>on</strong>centrically plicately ridged elsewhere, white,covered with a pale yellowish epidermis, spotted somewhat sparselythroughout with brownish dots, and ornamented <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> dorsal areaswith cross l<strong>in</strong>es of a deeper brown, and with a large patch of <strong>the</strong>same colour <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>der slope of each valve. Umb<strong>on</strong>es moderatelyacute, not large, <strong>in</strong>cl<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g towards and situated a trifle <strong>in</strong> advanceof <strong>the</strong> centre. Lunule sunken, not circumscribed by acute edges,extend<strong>in</strong>g more than halfway down <strong>the</strong> anterior slope. Posteriorl<strong>on</strong>ger, smoothish, not mucharea as deep as <strong>the</strong> lunule and a trifleafi^ected by <strong>the</strong> term<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong>s of <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>centric ridges. Two lateralteeth <strong>on</strong> each side <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> right valve, separated by a deep groovequite approximated to <strong>the</strong> card<strong>in</strong>al teeth <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t and <strong>the</strong> cartilagepitbeh<strong>in</strong>d. The latter is large, deep, and located posterior to <strong>the</strong>beak. The card<strong>in</strong>al tooth is small, <strong>in</strong>significant, bounds <strong>the</strong> ligament,and has a cross piece above it immediately beneath <strong>the</strong> apex of <strong>the</strong>


lessMOLLtrSCA. 101umbo. In <strong>the</strong> left valve, <strong>the</strong> s<strong>in</strong>gle lateral tooth <strong>on</strong> each side isel<strong>on</strong>gate, narrow, and erect. Only <strong>on</strong>e card<strong>in</strong>al tooth (unless <strong>the</strong>fr<strong>on</strong>t raised edge of <strong>the</strong> ligamental fossa be c<strong>on</strong>sidered a tooth), whichis el<strong>on</strong>gate, but little raised, situated between <strong>the</strong> pit and edge of<strong>the</strong> lunule. Muscular scars pj'riform, <strong>the</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t <strong>on</strong>e el<strong>on</strong>gate, <strong>the</strong>posterior more rounded. Pallial s<strong>in</strong>us extend<strong>in</strong>g halfway across <strong>the</strong>valves, sharply rounded at <strong>the</strong> end. A sec<strong>on</strong>d s<strong>in</strong>uati<strong>on</strong> with<strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r, and c<strong>on</strong>sequently shorter and less acutely curved, is aremarkable feature <strong>in</strong> both valves of <strong>the</strong> s<strong>in</strong>gle perfect shell beforeme ; <strong>in</strong> a separate valve this is not noticeable, but may have beenobliterated, as <strong>the</strong> specimen is somewhat sea-worn. The <strong>in</strong>ner surfaceof this species is glossy and radiately substriated, <strong>on</strong>e impres«'edray from <strong>the</strong> umb<strong>on</strong>es to <strong>the</strong> end of <strong>the</strong> mantle-s<strong>in</strong>iis be<strong>in</strong>g especiallyc<strong>on</strong>spicuous. Length 36| millim., height 24, diameter 12,Hah. Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 4-6 fms.This very <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g species bears a ra<strong>the</strong>r close relati<strong>on</strong>shipto Mactra trianr/idans of Lamarck ; it is, however, quite dist<strong>in</strong>ct.It is a trifle shorter, .angular, not so str<strong>on</strong>gly c<strong>on</strong>centricallycostato, has an excavated lunule and a simken area not def<strong>in</strong>edby car<strong>in</strong>ate edges, and <strong>the</strong> dorsal marg<strong>in</strong>s not prom<strong>in</strong>ent, form<strong>in</strong>g akeel <strong>on</strong> each side ; <strong>the</strong> umb<strong>on</strong>es as <strong>in</strong> M. trianr/uJaris. M. aspersa,Sowerby, is a more f<strong>in</strong>ely sculptured shell, more rounded posteriorly,with a shallower lunule and a narrower dorsal area. The pallials<strong>in</strong>us <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> present species reaches halfway across <strong>the</strong> valve, whilst<strong>in</strong> M. aspersa it has a fur<strong>the</strong>r extensi<strong>on</strong> and lacks <strong>the</strong> duplex featuredescribed previously,30. Mactr<strong>in</strong>ula angulifera.Mactra angulifera, Deshayes, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1854, p. 70; Reeve,C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 83.Hah. Island of Ticao, Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands {Cum<strong>in</strong>g); Port Curtis( Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).Beh<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>spicuous keel which marks off <strong>the</strong> posterior area,about midway between it and <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong>, <strong>the</strong>re are <strong>on</strong>e or twom<strong>in</strong>or ridges. In <strong>the</strong> Cum<strong>in</strong>gian collecti<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>re is a sec<strong>on</strong>dspecimen, somewhat larger than that figured by Reeve, hav<strong>in</strong>g alength of 32 millim. and a width of 47.31. Cardium reevianum.Dunker, Novitates C<strong>on</strong>ch, p. 2"2, pi. 6. figs. Q, 7, 8.Hah. Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, 8-12 fms., bottom mud and sand (Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ;Port Ess<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong> (Mus. Cum<strong>in</strong>g).Cardium vertehratum, J<strong>on</strong>as (Zeitschr. fiir Malak. 1844, p. 33),from West Australia, is apparently closely related to <strong>the</strong> present species.32, Cardium hystrix.Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 40 a, b ;Romer, C<strong>on</strong>ch.-Cab. p, 112.Hah. Corrigidor, Philipp<strong>in</strong>es {Cum<strong>in</strong>g) ; Fl<strong>in</strong>ders and Clairm<strong>on</strong>tIslands, N,E. Australia {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).


';102COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.33. Cardium, sp. jun.Hob. Port Curtis, Queensland {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).The two young shells from <strong>the</strong> above locality are closely allied toC unicolor, Sowerby.34. Chama divaricata.Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 20.Hah. Torres Straits, 10 fms., sand and shell bottom {Coi^p<strong>in</strong>ger) ;island of Samar, Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands {Cum<strong>in</strong>g).35. Chama pulcliella.Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 10 a, b.Hob. Port MoUe, Queensland, 12 fms. (Oopp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Cape Upstart(Juhes).The posterior brown ray is generally ra<strong>the</strong>r deeply sunken <strong>in</strong> thisspecies.36. Cardium maculosum, var.Wood, General C<strong>on</strong>ch, p. 218, pi. 52. fig. 3 Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 76 ;var., Sorcerhy, C<strong>on</strong>ch. 111. fig. G8.Cardium multistriatum, Sowcrhj, C<strong>on</strong>ch. III. fig. 59.Cardium areuicolum, Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 78,Hah. Port MoUe, Queensland, 14 fms. (Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Ceyl<strong>on</strong>(Holdsworth <strong>in</strong> Brit. Mus.) ; Molucca and Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands{Cum<strong>in</strong>g); ? (TFooc?).A s<strong>in</strong>gle shell from Port Molle, nearly an <strong>in</strong>ch l<strong>on</strong>g, differs fromall specimens of this species which I have exam<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong> hav<strong>in</strong>g fewerribs, separated by broader <strong>in</strong>terven<strong>in</strong>g sulci, especially down <strong>the</strong>anterior side, and <strong>in</strong> be<strong>in</strong>g yellowish with less and paler blotch<strong>in</strong>gwith reddish purple except with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> valves, where, <strong>on</strong> account ofnot be<strong>in</strong>g c<strong>on</strong>cealed by a deposit of callus, it is especially vivid.The number of cost^e <strong>in</strong> this specimen is forty, and <strong>in</strong> typical examples<strong>the</strong>re are usually about ten more. Cardium modestum ofPhilippi is also an allied species, with still fewer and stouter ribs,number<strong>in</strong>g altoge<strong>the</strong>r about thirty-iive or thirty-six. C. imdtistriatumwas orig<strong>in</strong>ally described by Sowerby <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Proc. Zool. Soc.without a locality, and subsequently was stated by him to comefrom St. Elena, West Colombia ; but this, I am <strong>in</strong>cl<strong>in</strong>ed to tli<strong>in</strong>k,requires corroborati<strong>on</strong>.37. Cardium multisp<strong>in</strong>osum.Soiverhy ; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 10; Riimer <strong>in</strong> Kiister's C<strong>on</strong>.-Cab.p. 07, pi. 12. figs. ],2.Hah. Port Molle, Queensland, 14 fms. {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Ch<strong>in</strong>a (/.Reeves <strong>in</strong> Erit. Mus.); Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands {Cum<strong>in</strong>g).The number of ribs <strong>in</strong> this species may vary from thirty-<strong>on</strong>e to


MOLLUSCA. 103thirty-seven, <strong>the</strong> latter number be<strong>in</strong>g atta<strong>in</strong>ed by <strong>the</strong> <strong>on</strong>ly smallspecimen (about a quarter <strong>the</strong> size of <strong>the</strong> adult shell) from PortMoIIo.Cardium unedo, L<strong>in</strong>n.38. Cardium (Hemicardium) unedo.Hah. Port MoUe, Queensland, <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> beach.This species has a wide distributi<strong>on</strong>, hav<strong>in</strong>g been recorded from<strong>the</strong> Mauritius, Ceyl<strong>on</strong>, Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands, Coch<strong>in</strong> Ch<strong>in</strong>a, Cambodja,West Australia, and it has also been met with at <strong>the</strong> Solom<strong>on</strong>, Piji,and o<strong>the</strong>r islands <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>.39. Corbula tunicata.H<strong>in</strong>ds, Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 5.Hnh. Port Molle, 14 fms. ; Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of "Wales Channel, Torres Straits,5-7 fms. ; Arafura Sea, N.W. coast of Australia, 32-3G fms., andPort Darw<strong>in</strong>, 8-12 fms. {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands {Gam<strong>in</strong>g) ;South Africa (H<strong>in</strong>ds) ; Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> (Angus).40. Corbula fortisulcata.Smith, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 819, pi. 50. figs. 23-23 b.Hah. Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, N.W. Australia, 8-12 fms., sand and mudbottom (Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Port Ess<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong> (Juices) ; and Andaman Islands( Wilmer).41. Corbula scaphoides.H<strong>in</strong>ds, Proc. Zool, Soc. 1843, p. 56 ; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 24.Hah. Port Molle, Queensland, 14 fms. (Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Cape York,N. Australia, <strong>in</strong> 5 fms., muddy sand and sea-mud (./. Macgillivray <strong>in</strong>Brit. Mus.) ; S<strong>in</strong>gapore and Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands (H<strong>in</strong>ds).The specimens described by H<strong>in</strong>ds were <strong>on</strong>ly half <strong>the</strong> length of<strong>the</strong> adult shells collected by Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger and Mr. Macgillivray.42. Luc<strong>in</strong>a (Divaricella) ornata.Luc<strong>in</strong>a ornata, Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 48.Luc<strong>in</strong>a (Divaricella) angodifera, Martens, Moll. Mauritius, p. 321.pi. 22. fig. 14.Hah. Friday Island, Torres Straits (Copp<strong>in</strong>ger); Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>(./. B. Jukes <strong>in</strong> Brit. Mus.); coast of Africa (East or West?) (Capt.Owen, B.N., <strong>in</strong> Brit. Mus.) ; Mauritius (Rohillard) ; ? (Reeve).This species should, I th<strong>in</strong>k, be separated from <strong>the</strong> W^est-IndianL. dentata, Wood ( = L. divaricata. Lam. n<strong>on</strong> L<strong>in</strong>n., = Z. senrda,d'Orb.), to which it has been united by Pfeiffer <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> ' C<strong>on</strong>chjdien-Cab<strong>in</strong>ct,' ed. 2, Yeneracea, p. 2G9.The <strong>in</strong>cised l<strong>in</strong>es are deeper, and form a more acute angle at <strong>the</strong>po<strong>in</strong>t of divaricati<strong>on</strong>. The type specimen is somewhat abnormal


104 COLLECTIONS PKOM MELAITESIA.<strong>in</strong> form, <strong>the</strong> more usual outl<strong>in</strong>e be<strong>in</strong>g represented by Reeve's fig.47 h, which he wr<strong>on</strong>gly ascribes to <strong>the</strong> West-Indian species. Thedifference <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> angle of divaricati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> ridges is at <strong>on</strong>ce seenby compar<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> two figures 47a and 47 h.43. Diplod<strong>on</strong>ta subcrassa. (Plate VII. figs. I, II.)Shell roundly subquadrangular, <strong>on</strong>ly moderately <strong>in</strong>flated, thickish,decidedly <strong>in</strong>equilateral, dirty white, not glossy. Anterior sideshorter than <strong>the</strong> posterior, somewhat po<strong>in</strong>ted at <strong>the</strong> extremity ;h<strong>in</strong>der side very broad, squarish, yet rounded. Posterior dorsalmarg<strong>in</strong> straightish, <strong>on</strong>ly a trifle oblique ; anterior a little c<strong>on</strong>cavenear <strong>the</strong> beaks, <strong>the</strong>n feebly curved and suddenly descend<strong>in</strong>g.Ventral outl<strong>in</strong>e arcuate, c<strong>on</strong>siderably upcurv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t. Surfacec<strong>on</strong>centrically f<strong>in</strong>ely striated, somewhat uneven through periodic<strong>in</strong>terrupti<strong>on</strong>s of growth. Umb<strong>on</strong>es small, c<strong>on</strong>tiguous, <strong>in</strong>curved,pellucid, located <strong>in</strong> advance of <strong>the</strong> median l<strong>in</strong>e. H<strong>in</strong>ge-teethra<strong>the</strong>r str<strong>on</strong>g, posterior of <strong>the</strong> right valve and anterior <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>left stout, subequal, bifid, and <strong>the</strong> anterior <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> former is ra<strong>the</strong>rthicker than <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>der <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> latter, which is sublamellar. Muscularscars somewhat small, deepish, subequal. Interior of <strong>the</strong> valvesnot very glossy, roughish.Length 15 millim., height 14, diameter 8|.Hab. West Island, Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel, Torres Straits, 7 fms.This is ra<strong>the</strong>r a solid species and peculiarly acum<strong>in</strong>ated at <strong>the</strong>extremity <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t, with ra<strong>the</strong>r c<strong>on</strong>spicuous l<strong>in</strong>es <strong>in</strong>dicat<strong>in</strong>g periodicgrowth.44. Diplod<strong>on</strong>ta sublateralis. (Plate VII. fig. K.)Shell very <strong>in</strong>equilateral, much broader beh<strong>in</strong>d than <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t,scarcely l<strong>on</strong>ger than high, moderately <strong>in</strong>fiated, white, f<strong>in</strong>ely c<strong>on</strong>centricallysculptured with <strong>the</strong> l<strong>in</strong>es of growth. Posterior dorsalmarg<strong>in</strong> nearly horiz<strong>on</strong>tal, straight at first, <strong>the</strong>n gradually curv<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> broadly arcuate lateral outl<strong>in</strong>e. Fr<strong>on</strong>t dorsal edge somewhatoblique, scarcely recurved near <strong>the</strong> beak, but afterwardsround<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> side marg<strong>in</strong>, which is very mu.ch more suddenlycurvate than at <strong>the</strong> opposite end. Ventral marg<strong>in</strong> more sharplyarched than <strong>the</strong> posterior, but less so than <strong>the</strong> anterior. Umb<strong>on</strong>essmall, acute, <strong>on</strong>ly slightly elevated, situated far <strong>in</strong> advance of <strong>the</strong>centre. H<strong>in</strong>ge-plate narrow <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> right valve, c<strong>on</strong>spicuouslygrooved <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t of <strong>the</strong> two card<strong>in</strong>al teeth ; of <strong>the</strong>se <strong>the</strong> anterior isvery small, lamellar, and falls perpendicularly beneath <strong>the</strong> beak,<strong>the</strong> posterior be<strong>in</strong>g about three times as thick and deeply bisected.The ligamental furrow is narrow and 5| millim. <strong>in</strong> length. Themuscular scars are subequal, <strong>the</strong> posterior a trifle broader. Length19| millim., beight 18|^, diameter 10.Hah. Torres Straits, 7-10 fms.Only a right valve of this species was obta<strong>in</strong>ed by Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger,which, however, is apparently dist<strong>in</strong>ct <strong>in</strong> form, <strong>the</strong> chief dist<strong>in</strong>-


MOLLXTSCA. 105guish<strong>in</strong>g character <strong>in</strong> species of this genus. It recalls to m<strong>in</strong>d D.lateralis, mihi, from <strong>the</strong> island of Rodriguez, although it is sutficientlydist<strong>in</strong>ct <strong>in</strong> form. The anterior side is l<strong>on</strong>ger, <strong>the</strong> beaks less lateral,and <strong>the</strong> height of <strong>the</strong> shell <strong>in</strong> proporti<strong>on</strong> to <strong>the</strong> length is greater.45. Kellia jacks<strong>on</strong>iana. (Plate VII. figs. F, F 1.)Shell obliquely and subquadrately rounded, ra<strong>the</strong>r c<strong>on</strong>vex, palegrey, a little transparent towards <strong>the</strong> umb<strong>on</strong>es, <strong>in</strong>equilateral ; anteriorend, or that toward which <strong>the</strong> beaks <strong>in</strong>cl<strong>in</strong>e, much shorter than<strong>the</strong> posterior. Fr<strong>on</strong>t marg<strong>in</strong> obliquely curved ; base straightish,but little arcuate. H<strong>in</strong>der extremity produced somewhat at <strong>the</strong>lower part. Surface a little glossy, c<strong>on</strong>centrically striated, some of<strong>the</strong> striae towards <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong> more pr<strong>on</strong>ounced than those nearer <strong>the</strong>umb<strong>on</strong>es. The latter a trifle prom<strong>in</strong>ent above <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>ge-l<strong>in</strong>e,approximated, term<strong>in</strong>at<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> an <strong>in</strong>curved vitreous glossy apex.Teeth str<strong>on</strong>g ; <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> right valve <strong>on</strong>e immediately beneath <strong>the</strong> umboand ano<strong>the</strong>r posterior to <strong>the</strong> ligament ; <strong>the</strong> left valve has two beneath<strong>the</strong> umbo and <strong>on</strong>e posterior to <strong>the</strong> ligament. Muscular scarslarge, placed high up, <strong>the</strong> anterior subpyriform, <strong>the</strong> posterior l<strong>on</strong>ger.Pallial impressi<strong>on</strong> jo<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> scars high up <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir outer marg<strong>in</strong>.Length 7 millim., width 8i, diam. of closed valves nearly 5.Hab. Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).K. rotunda, Deshayes, and K. soUda, Angas, are also Port-Jacks<strong>on</strong>species and <strong>the</strong> nearest allies of <strong>the</strong> present <strong>on</strong>e. The former isalmost as l<strong>on</strong>g as broad, nearly equilateral, of a th<strong>in</strong>ner growth,and has slighter teeth ; <strong>the</strong> latter is more solid, more transverse,ra<strong>the</strong>r more equilateral, is opaque white, highly glossy, has <strong>the</strong><strong>in</strong>terior thickened and subpuuctate, and <strong>the</strong> pallial impressi<strong>on</strong>appears to jo<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> lower extremity of <strong>the</strong> muscular scars.46. Sc<strong>in</strong>tilla ciivieri.Deshmjes, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1S55, p. 174 ;Soioerhy, Tlies. C<strong>on</strong>ch, vol. iii.p. 180, pi. 23.5. figs. 59, 60 ; id. C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 15 a, b.? Var. =S. flavida, Deshayes, I. c. p. 175 ; Sowerby, Thes. fig. 64; C<strong>on</strong>ch.Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 24?Hah. Port Molle, Queensland {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Baclay<strong>on</strong>, island ofBohol, Philipp<strong>in</strong>es {Cum<strong>in</strong>g) ; Basay, island of Samar (Cum<strong>in</strong>g, foryar. flavida).The figures of this species <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> ' C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>.' are most <strong>in</strong>accurate,and that <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> ' Thesaurus,' although much better, is notquite correct. The umb<strong>on</strong>es are smaller, more acute, and <strong>in</strong>cl<strong>in</strong>eanteriorly, and <strong>the</strong> colour is not nearly so bright as depicted <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> figure. The representati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> var. flavida, fig, 64, is stillmore unfaithful ; <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>der marg<strong>in</strong> is not obliquely truncate, butcurved. I cannot discover any material dist<strong>in</strong>cti<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong> this variety.It is smaller, which may be a matter of age, and <strong>the</strong> type is slightlynarrower than <strong>the</strong> type of S. eavieri ; but of both forms I have


;106 COLLECTIONS FROM MELAjSHESIA.before me gradati<strong>on</strong>s <strong>in</strong> respect to lengtli and breadth, Botb areslightly narrower <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t than beh<strong>in</strong>d, sculptured with f<strong>in</strong>e c<strong>on</strong>centricstrico and more or less <strong>in</strong>dist<strong>in</strong>ct shallow radiat<strong>in</strong>g mark<strong>in</strong>gs,a feature unnoticed by Deshayes. Although <strong>the</strong> dentiti<strong>on</strong> isdescribed by that author as somewhat different, I am bound to say,after a most careful exam<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong>, that both <strong>the</strong> number and positi<strong>on</strong>of <strong>the</strong> teeth are absolutely similar. In <strong>the</strong> left valve I f<strong>in</strong>d threeteeth, <strong>the</strong> anterior <strong>on</strong>e be<strong>in</strong>g very small at <strong>the</strong> term<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong><strong>in</strong>ner marg<strong>in</strong> of <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>ge-plate, which is grooved <strong>on</strong> both sides of<strong>the</strong> beak. The central tooth is large, prom<strong>in</strong>ent, situated immediatelybeneath <strong>the</strong> po<strong>in</strong>t of <strong>the</strong> umbo, and <strong>the</strong> third is <strong>in</strong>significantand posterior to <strong>the</strong> narrow oblique ligament. The right valve hasa large prom<strong>in</strong>ent tooth a little <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t of <strong>the</strong> apex of <strong>the</strong> umbo,and generally <strong>the</strong> extremity of <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>ner edge of <strong>the</strong> grooved h<strong>in</strong>geplateis raised <strong>in</strong>to a tooth-like prom<strong>in</strong>ence beh<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong> ligament,which extends not <strong>on</strong>ly with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> valves, but also al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>gel<strong>in</strong>ejust above <strong>the</strong> teeth. The s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen from Port MoUe and<strong>on</strong>e <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Cum<strong>in</strong>gian collecti<strong>on</strong> are peculiar <strong>in</strong> hav<strong>in</strong>g two or threeof <strong>the</strong> shallow radiat<strong>in</strong>g impressi<strong>on</strong>s towards <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>der ventral extremitydeeper, thus produc<strong>in</strong>g a wavy marg<strong>in</strong> to <strong>the</strong> valves at thatparticular spot.47, Sc<strong>in</strong>tilla aurantiaca. (Plate VII. figs. H, H 1.)Beslimjes, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1855, p. 179 ;p. 176, pi. 234. fig. 5.Soiuerby, Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, vol. iii.Hah. North Australia, under st<strong>on</strong>es at low water (Jul-es) ; islandof Nairai, Fiji, at low water (Brit. Mas.) ; Port MoUe, Queensland(Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).The specimens from Port Molle agree precisely with <strong>the</strong> types ofS. aurantiaca <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> nati<strong>on</strong>al museum. There are some o<strong>the</strong>r specieswhich I cannot dist<strong>in</strong>guish from it; <strong>the</strong>se are S. faha, Desh., S.Forhesii, Dash., S. pallidula, Desh., S. amhir/iia, Desh., S. borneensis,Desh., and S. adamsi, Desh. The last and S. faha are placed bySowerby <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> group of " species with no hiatus " <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> ventralmarg<strong>in</strong>. This locati<strong>on</strong> is <strong>in</strong>correct, for both gape slightly, and <strong>in</strong>fact Deshayes, <strong>in</strong> his descripti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> latter, says " marg<strong>in</strong>e <strong>in</strong>ferioreangustissme hiante." This open<strong>in</strong>g appears to be subject tovariati<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong> shells which are unquesti<strong>on</strong>ably <strong>the</strong> same specificallyand <strong>the</strong>refore I believe it probable that all <strong>the</strong> above-menti<strong>on</strong>edso-called species will prove to be variati<strong>on</strong>s of Lamarck's Psammohiaaurantia, which, accord<strong>in</strong>g to Sowerby's figure (C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>,fig. 20, S. maiiritiana), has an extremely wide gape beneath. Thelatter species is said to be syn<strong>on</strong>ymous with S. aurantia by Deshayes(Anim. sans Vert. vol. vi. p. 180, GaJeomma aurantia), and v<strong>on</strong>Martens expresses a similar op<strong>in</strong>i<strong>on</strong> (Miibius, ' Meeresfauna Mauritius&c.,' p. 322). Deshayes (P. Z. 8. 1855, p. 167) says that <strong>the</strong> Lamarckianshell is a Galeomma.The animal of Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger's shells agrees with <strong>the</strong> descripti<strong>on</strong>


MOLLUSCA. 107given bjr Quoy and Gaimard of <strong>the</strong>ir Psammohia vitrea and with <strong>the</strong>figure <strong>in</strong> Mobius's work above referred to, pi. xxi, figs. 10 a, h. Thefoot protrudes at <strong>the</strong> narrower end of <strong>the</strong> shell ; it is small whenretracted, of a boot-like form, roundly car<strong>in</strong>ate at <strong>the</strong> base, po<strong>in</strong>tedat <strong>the</strong> tip, and furnished with what is probably a byssiferous processat <strong>the</strong> posterior end (" tal<strong>on</strong>," Q. & G.) ; this is of an opaque whitecolour. The mantle is open <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t and <strong>the</strong> anterior half of <strong>the</strong>ventral marg<strong>in</strong> for <strong>the</strong> passage of <strong>the</strong> foot, and united al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong>rest of <strong>the</strong> basal and h<strong>in</strong>der marg<strong>in</strong>s, where <strong>the</strong>re is a m<strong>in</strong>utesiph<strong>on</strong>al perforati<strong>on</strong>. The surface of <strong>the</strong> mantle beneath is coveredwith papillae, and <strong>the</strong> membranous marg<strong>in</strong>al expansi<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong> life probablycovers nearly <strong>the</strong> entire surface of <strong>the</strong> shell, for even <strong>in</strong> spiritspecimens it still extends halfway up <strong>the</strong> valves. There are twolabial palpi <strong>on</strong> each side. From this descripti<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> close relati<strong>on</strong>shipwith Galeomma is very apparent.The dentiti<strong>on</strong> of this species, accord<strong>in</strong>g to my observati<strong>on</strong>, doesnot agree with <strong>the</strong> descripti<strong>on</strong> given by Deshayes. In <strong>the</strong> rightvalve I f<strong>in</strong>d a prom<strong>in</strong>ent tooth a little <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t of <strong>the</strong> beak, and asec<strong>on</strong>d more remote beh<strong>in</strong>d it ; <strong>the</strong> left valve has two teeth, ofwhich <strong>the</strong> anterior is <strong>the</strong> smaller, just beneath <strong>the</strong> umbo, and athird a little beh<strong>in</strong>d it. The ligament is externally visible, be<strong>in</strong>gattached to <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>ge-l<strong>in</strong>e above <strong>the</strong> teeth, a porti<strong>on</strong> of it be<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>ternal above and between <strong>the</strong> teeth.48. Sc<strong>in</strong>tilla alberti. (Plate VII. figs. G, G 1.)Shell small, pellucid, milky white, c<strong>on</strong>siderably <strong>in</strong>equilateral,transversely obl<strong>on</strong>g, shorter and narrower <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t of <strong>the</strong> iimb<strong>on</strong>esthan beh<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong>m, moderately swollen. Lateral and dorsal marg<strong>in</strong>scurved, ventral ra<strong>the</strong>r rectil<strong>in</strong>ear. Surface glossy, exhibit<strong>in</strong>g(under <strong>the</strong> lens) dist<strong>in</strong>ct c<strong>on</strong>centric l<strong>in</strong>es of growth and also m<strong>in</strong>uteradiat<strong>in</strong>g and somewhat <strong>in</strong>terrupted striaj, visible oulj^ under acompound microscope. Ilmb<strong>on</strong>es small, slightly elevated above <strong>the</strong>h<strong>in</strong>ge-marg<strong>in</strong>, not quite adjacent, <strong>the</strong> valves be<strong>in</strong>g closed. Card<strong>in</strong>alteeth <strong>in</strong>significant, c<strong>on</strong>sist<strong>in</strong>g of a s<strong>in</strong>gle subumboual denticularslight obtuse prom<strong>in</strong>ence, which is more dist<strong>in</strong>ct <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> left than <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> right valve. Ligament small, visible externally, extend<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong>both cides of <strong>the</strong> apices of <strong>the</strong> beaks, but fur<strong>the</strong>r posteriorly than <strong>in</strong>fr<strong>on</strong>t. Height 5^ millim., width -i, length 7f.Hah. West Island, Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel, Torres Straits( Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).S. liydat<strong>in</strong>a, Deshayes, appears to be more closely related to thisspecies than to any o<strong>the</strong>r <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> genus. It is, however, higher, moreequilateral, flatter, with more equal sides and a curved ventralmarg<strong>in</strong>.Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. IG.49. Crassatella pulchra.Hah. Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 3-4 fms. (Oopjnnger) ;Ess<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong> {Capt. WicMiam, li.N., <strong>in</strong> Brit. Mus.).Port


108 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA,This so-called species, also C. d<strong>on</strong>ac<strong>in</strong>a, Lamarck, 0. ciimmgii, A.Adams, 0. castanea, Reeve, C. err<strong>on</strong>es, Reeve, and O. decipiens,Reeve, I believe to be mere variati<strong>on</strong>s of <strong>on</strong>e and <strong>the</strong> same form,namely C. Jcimpcola, Lamarck, The compositi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>ge is <strong>the</strong>same <strong>in</strong> all, and <strong>the</strong> peculiar colour<strong>in</strong>g of <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>terior is similar (videReeve, fig. 16, and Delessert, pi, iv. fig, 1 b). The variati<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong> formis partly due to age ; for <strong>in</strong>stance, a young 0. decipiens has <strong>the</strong> formof d<strong>on</strong>ac<strong>in</strong>a, and it is <strong>on</strong>ly towards maturity that <strong>the</strong> posterior endbecomes markedly produced ; and <strong>the</strong> same observati<strong>on</strong> applies to G.err<strong>on</strong>es. The amount of c<strong>on</strong>centric ribb<strong>in</strong>g is not c<strong>on</strong>stant ; but all<strong>in</strong>termediate forms are met with, from 0. castanea and C. d<strong>on</strong>ac<strong>in</strong>a(type), which have least, to 0. pidchra, which has most, be<strong>in</strong>g costatethroughout, except at <strong>the</strong> posterior extremity. The pallial l<strong>in</strong>e<strong>in</strong> every specimen exam<strong>in</strong>ed does not appear to be parallel with <strong>the</strong>marg<strong>in</strong> of <strong>the</strong> valve, but becomes gradually more remote anteriorly,<strong>the</strong> space between it and <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong> be<strong>in</strong>g radiately shallowlysubsulcate, seen better <strong>in</strong> some lights than o<strong>the</strong>rs. The epidermisscarcely varies at all : <strong>in</strong> some examples it appears to have lost <strong>the</strong>dull bloom which covers o<strong>the</strong>rs ; but this defect is <strong>the</strong> result of fricti<strong>on</strong>,for a dull specimen <strong>in</strong> perfect c<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong> is easily renderedglossy by merely be<strong>in</strong>g rubbed with a wet cloth, <strong>the</strong> bloom disappear<strong>in</strong>gas it does from fruit under similar circumstances. Judg<strong>in</strong>gfrom <strong>the</strong> specimens <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> British Museum with reliable localitiesattached to <strong>the</strong>m, it appears that <strong>the</strong> species ranges from Queensland<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> east side of Australia, al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> north coast to Swan River <strong>on</strong><strong>the</strong> west, I f<strong>in</strong>d a specimen of <strong>the</strong> variety cmn<strong>in</strong>gii from PortCurtis and ano<strong>the</strong>r from Sandy Cape <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> north-east coast ; var.ptdcJira from Port Ess<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong>; vars. decipiens and castanea fromSwan River.50. Modiola, sp.Hah. Port Molle.A s<strong>in</strong>gle distorted specimen <strong>on</strong>ly is before me, remarkably like<strong>the</strong> European M. barbata.51. Modiola glaberrima.Dunher ; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 48.Hcd). Sydney {Dunher) ; Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> (Copp<strong>in</strong>ger and Angus).52. Modiolaria miranda. (Plate VII. fig. N.)Shell transversely el<strong>on</strong>gate, highest at <strong>the</strong> middle, of pale greenisht<strong>in</strong>t, varied with a few <strong>in</strong>dist<strong>in</strong>ct light reddish irregular mark<strong>in</strong>gs,not glossy, ra<strong>the</strong>r str<strong>on</strong>gly radiately ridged at both ends and veryf<strong>in</strong>ely <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> central porti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> valves. Whole surface c<strong>on</strong>centricallystriated, produc<strong>in</strong>g a subgranose appearance up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> costulse; <strong>the</strong> anterior are about ten <strong>in</strong> number, <strong>the</strong> posterior about


MOLLtJSCA. 109twice as many, and produce a denticulate marg<strong>in</strong> to <strong>the</strong> valves.Interior slightly iridescent. Umb<strong>on</strong>es small, glossy, not radiatelysculptured like <strong>the</strong> rest of <strong>the</strong> shell. Length 6 millim., height 3-|,diam. 3.Hah. Dundas Straits.This is a very prettily sculptured species, approach<strong>in</strong>g, as regardsoutl<strong>in</strong>e, M. varicosa. It is, however, quite dist<strong>in</strong>guishable by <strong>the</strong>greater coarseness and subgranular character of <strong>the</strong> radiat<strong>in</strong>g anteriorand posterior ridges.The s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen described above may not be full-grown ; butI c<strong>on</strong>jecture it never atta<strong>in</strong>s a much larger size.53. Modiolaria varicosa. (Plate VII. figs. M, M 1.)Goidd, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 1861, vol. viii. ; Otia C<strong>on</strong>ch, p. 176.Hah. Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> ( Coj929iHfjrer) ; Sydney (&'o?tZ(:^).This pretty little species was figured by Reeve (C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 83)as <strong>the</strong> young of Modiola str'igata, Hanley ; and this must have <strong>in</strong>ducedGould to observe that it '' is marked like " that species, for<strong>in</strong> reality <strong>the</strong>re is very little resemblance <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> pa<strong>in</strong>t<strong>in</strong>g of <strong>the</strong> twoshells. The radiat<strong>in</strong>g sculpture is fa<strong>in</strong>tly <strong>in</strong>dicated <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> abovefigure by means of scratched l<strong>in</strong>es, but <strong>the</strong>se are <strong>on</strong>ly noticeableunder a lens.54. Lithodomus teres.Modiola teres, Philipjn, Abbild. vol. ii. p. 148, pi. 1. fig. 3.Lithodomus teres, Peeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 13.Hab. <strong>Pacific</strong> <strong>Ocean</strong> (Phil.): Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands (Cum<strong>in</strong>g); PortDeuis<strong>on</strong>, Queensland (Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).The anterior perpendicular strise are ra<strong>the</strong>r coarse <strong>in</strong> this species ;<strong>the</strong> raised <strong>in</strong>terstices between <strong>the</strong>m are very c<strong>on</strong>spicuous at <strong>the</strong>marg<strong>in</strong>, and gradually become f<strong>in</strong>er as <strong>the</strong>y ascend <strong>the</strong> valves, sometimesfurcat<strong>in</strong>g at <strong>on</strong>e or more of <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>centric l<strong>in</strong>es of growth.The <strong>in</strong>terior is p<strong>in</strong>kish or bluish, and more or less iridescent.55. Area navicularis.Bruguiere; P/nlijjpi, Abbild. vol. ii. pi. 3. fig. 2; Peeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>.fig. 70 ; Wood, Index Test. pi. 9. fig. 5.Var. =Arca l<strong>in</strong>ter, J<strong>on</strong>as, Philippi, I. c. fig. 1.Var.=Arca subquadrangiila, Dimker, Philippi, I. c. fig. 3.Var. = Area cvmi<strong>in</strong>gii, Dunker (MS. <strong>in</strong> coll. Cum<strong>in</strong>g) ; Adams, GeneraMoll. ii. p. 533.Hah. Port MoUe, Queensland (Copjjzn^er) ; Port Phillip, Ch<strong>in</strong>a,Cape Capricorn, Ambo<strong>in</strong>a (Brit. Miis.).The varieties respectively called A. l<strong>in</strong>ter and A. suhquadrangulaare dist<strong>in</strong>guished <strong>on</strong>ly by very variable characters, such as form and<strong>the</strong> amount of ligament, which <strong>in</strong> this group of Arks are of littlevalue.


110 COLLECTIONS PEOM MELANESIA.56. ? Area imbricata.Bnu/uih'e ; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 73.I fail to discover any good dist<strong>in</strong>cti<strong>on</strong>s between A. cunealis,Hah. Port Molle, Queensland, 12 fms. {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Geel<strong>on</strong>g,Port Philip {Mus. Cum<strong>in</strong>g) ; Port Ess<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong> and N.E. Australia{Brit. Mus.).The specimens from <strong>the</strong> above localities bel<strong>on</strong>g to <strong>on</strong>e species,and so closely resemble, with <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong> of colour, West-Indianexamples of this species, that I hesitate to separate <strong>the</strong>m specifically,Eeeve, A. kraussi, Philippi, and A. imbricata = A. umb<strong>on</strong>ata, Lamarck,except that <strong>the</strong> two former generally, but not always, have morerhomboidal grooves <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> ligament.57. Area (Barbatia) lima.Area lima, Heeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 101.Hob. Port MoUc, 14 fms., and Thursday Island, 2-6 fms. (Copp<strong>in</strong>ger); Burias and Corrigidor, Philipp<strong>in</strong>es ( Cum<strong>in</strong>g)." Light brown, sta<strong>in</strong>ed with brown, spotted with brown, posteriorlycovered with a th<strong>in</strong>, very f<strong>in</strong>e bristly epidermis." Such is<strong>the</strong> err<strong>on</strong>eous descripti<strong>on</strong> given by Eeeve of this sj)ecies. It is, <strong>in</strong>fact, a purely white shell throughout, and all <strong>the</strong> brown sta<strong>in</strong>s andspots are merely <strong>the</strong> rema<strong>in</strong>s of <strong>the</strong> epidermis. The entire surfaceis ornamented with very numerous close-set f<strong>in</strong>e radiat<strong>in</strong>g riblets,which are f<strong>in</strong>ely granular, <strong>the</strong> granules so placed as to form c<strong>on</strong>centricseries. About half a dozen of <strong>the</strong> costfe down <strong>the</strong> posteriorside and a few at <strong>the</strong> anterior end are thicker than <strong>the</strong> rest <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>central porti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> valve, aud c<strong>on</strong>sequently have larger granules,those beh<strong>in</strong>d be<strong>in</strong>g fur<strong>the</strong>r apart also. The few ribs towards <strong>the</strong>middle be<strong>in</strong>g duplicate, as stated by Reeve, is an <strong>in</strong>dividual ra<strong>the</strong>rthan a specific character. The <strong>in</strong>terior is white, and <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong>crenulated, <strong>the</strong> crenulati<strong>on</strong> corresp<strong>on</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> coarseness with <strong>the</strong>radiat<strong>in</strong>g costa3.58, Area (Barbatia) tenebrica.Area teuebrica, Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 105.Hah. Samar, Philipp<strong>in</strong>es (Cum<strong>in</strong>g) ; Port Ess<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong> ( Capt. Wiclc-Jiam <strong>in</strong> Brit. Mus.) ; Port Curtis {Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Bombay {Mus.Cum<strong>in</strong>g).The surface of this species is m<strong>in</strong>utely reticulated with excessivelyf<strong>in</strong>e radiat<strong>in</strong>g and c<strong>on</strong>centric liroe, of which <strong>the</strong> former are<strong>the</strong> coarser, subgranular, and generally alternat<strong>in</strong>g f<strong>in</strong>er aud coarser.The valves exhibit an <strong>in</strong>dicati<strong>on</strong> of a fa<strong>in</strong>t depressi<strong>on</strong> down <strong>the</strong>middle, from <strong>the</strong> umbo to <strong>the</strong> centre of <strong>the</strong> ventral marg<strong>in</strong>, which<strong>in</strong> some specimens is slightly <strong>in</strong>curved or siiuiatcd at that part. Itis also thickened with<strong>in</strong>, smooth, and rounded.The <strong>in</strong>terior is bluish white aud radiately striated, <strong>the</strong> striie be<strong>in</strong>g


MOLLUSCA.Illparticularly c<strong>on</strong>spicuous at <strong>the</strong> pallial l<strong>in</strong>e, where <strong>the</strong>y term<strong>in</strong>ate.The muscular scars are large, well defiued by a l<strong>in</strong>e radiat<strong>in</strong>g from <strong>the</strong>umb<strong>on</strong>es. H<strong>in</strong>ge-teeth ra<strong>the</strong>r numerous, m<strong>in</strong>ute <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> centre,c<strong>on</strong>siderably larger at both ends. In <strong>the</strong> type <strong>the</strong>re are forty, anda specimen about half-grown has thirty-five. The ligament isnarrow, but very coarsely striated transversely. The epidermis isth<strong>in</strong>nish and somewhat fibrous near <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong>s, especially posteriorly.59. Area (Barlbatia) symmetrica.Area symmetrica, Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>, sp, 117, and fig. 120.? Var. = Area zebuensis, Reeve, I. c. fig. 117, sp. 120.Hah. Port Molle, Queensland, 12-20 fms. (Copjp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Bay ofManila {Cum<strong>in</strong>y).In <strong>the</strong> C<strong>on</strong>chologia ' Ic<strong>on</strong>ica ' <strong>the</strong> numbers of <strong>the</strong> figures 120and 117 should be reversed. The specimens of A. symmetricawhich were described by Reeve are of a greenish t<strong>in</strong>t, and not sooblique as' A. zebuensis. The sculpture <strong>in</strong> both c<strong>on</strong>sists of f<strong>in</strong>eradiat<strong>in</strong>g lirse, rendered m<strong>in</strong>utely granular by <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>centric l<strong>in</strong>esof growth. The liras vary but little <strong>in</strong> thickness, with <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong>of a few f<strong>in</strong>er <strong>in</strong>termediate <strong>on</strong>es here and <strong>the</strong>re and those <strong>on</strong><strong>the</strong> posterior extremity, which are a trifle stouter. A. zebuensisdiffers, <strong>in</strong> additi<strong>on</strong> to its extra obliquity before referred to, result<strong>in</strong>gfrom <strong>the</strong> less central positi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> umb<strong>on</strong>es, <strong>in</strong> be<strong>in</strong>g a trifle moref<strong>in</strong>ely lirate. One of <strong>the</strong> specimens from Port Molle is somewhat<strong>in</strong>termediate <strong>in</strong> form, be<strong>in</strong>g more oblique than A. symmetrica andless so than A. zebuensis. The measurements of two specimens will<strong>in</strong>dicate to what extent <strong>the</strong> form and proporti<strong>on</strong>s may vai'y —:No. 1. Height 7^ millim., length 11, diameter 8,No, 2, „ 6i „ „ 11, „ 6|.Area tortuosa, L<strong>in</strong>n.60, Area (Trisis) tortuosa.Hah. S<strong>in</strong>gapore and Malacca {^Cum<strong>in</strong>g'); North-west Australia{Du Boiday) and Ch<strong>in</strong>a {Beeves), <strong>in</strong> Brit, Mus, ; Port Curtis <strong>in</strong>11 fms., sand and shell bottom (Cojjjnnyer).The right valve of this well-known and remarkable shell alwaysappears to reta<strong>in</strong> more of <strong>the</strong> epidermis than <strong>the</strong> left. The foot andmouth of <strong>the</strong> animal, as might be expected, are at <strong>the</strong> narrow endof <strong>the</strong> shell. The foot (<strong>in</strong> spirit) is small, narrow, and groovedbeneath, reta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g a small byssus.61. Leda darw<strong>in</strong>i. (Plate VII. figs. L-L2.)Shell a little <strong>in</strong>equilateral, ra<strong>the</strong>r c<strong>on</strong>vex, transversely irregularlyovate, acum<strong>in</strong>ate posteriorly, th<strong>in</strong>nish, glossy, moderately coarselyc<strong>on</strong>centrically ridged and sulcate throughout, except up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> lunuleand area, <strong>the</strong> ridges be<strong>in</strong>g f<strong>in</strong>er and <strong>the</strong> sulci broader <strong>on</strong> a slightlydepressed porti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> surface down <strong>the</strong> posterior side, which is of


•Hab.;112 COLLECTIOl^S FROM MELANESIA.a transparent white colour, and not pale olive-green like <strong>the</strong> restof <strong>the</strong> surface. At <strong>the</strong> anterior end a few oblique l<strong>in</strong>es, commenc<strong>in</strong>gat <strong>the</strong> ridge which borders <strong>the</strong> luuide, fall across <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>centricsculpture, but are <strong>on</strong>ly noticeable <strong>in</strong> certa<strong>in</strong> lights. The dorsalmarg<strong>in</strong> is very fa<strong>in</strong>tly arcuate <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t and scarcely descend<strong>in</strong>g, atrifle more oblique beh<strong>in</strong>d, and rectil<strong>in</strong>ear except near <strong>the</strong> extremity,where <strong>the</strong>re is a very feeble s<strong>in</strong>uati<strong>on</strong>. The lower outl<strong>in</strong>e is broadlyarcuate, c<strong>on</strong>siderably upcurv<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t, and at its juncti<strong>on</strong> with <strong>the</strong>- dorsal edge forms an obtuse or rounded angle ; at <strong>the</strong> posteriorend it ascends more gently (<strong>the</strong> curve be<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>dist<strong>in</strong>ctly <strong>in</strong>terruptedby a very fa<strong>in</strong>t prom<strong>in</strong>ence which def<strong>in</strong>es <strong>the</strong> porti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> surfaceup<strong>on</strong> which <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>centric ridges are f<strong>in</strong>er than elsewhere), produc<strong>in</strong>gwith <strong>the</strong> dorsal slope a sharpish rostrate end. The umb<strong>on</strong>esare ra<strong>the</strong>r large and prom<strong>in</strong>ent, coarsely c<strong>on</strong>centrically sculptured,situated a little posterior to <strong>the</strong> centre, and <strong>in</strong>cl<strong>in</strong>e somewhattowards <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>der side. The dorsal areas are dist<strong>in</strong>ctly def<strong>in</strong>ed byelevated marg<strong>in</strong>s, and <strong>the</strong> posterior is broader than <strong>the</strong> anterior orlunule. Teeth about 43 <strong>in</strong> number, whereof about 16 are <strong>on</strong><strong>the</strong> posterior side, and <strong>the</strong> vest <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t. The <strong>in</strong>terior of <strong>the</strong> valvesis transparent milky white, and <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong> is acute and smooth.The pallial s<strong>in</strong>us is deep, narrow, and rounded at <strong>the</strong> end. Length17g millim., height Og, diameter 7.Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, 8-12 fms., mud and sand bottom.This species is very closely related to L. c<strong>on</strong>fusa, Hanley. It is,however, th<strong>in</strong>ner, not so equilateral, more coarsely sculptured, hasmore prom<strong>in</strong>ent umb<strong>on</strong>es, and <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong> of <strong>the</strong> valves is notm<strong>in</strong>utely crenulated with<strong>in</strong>.62. Malleus legti<strong>in</strong>en.Beeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 2.Rah. Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands (Cum<strong>in</strong>g); Port Curtis {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).The <strong>in</strong>terior of this species is waxy white, except <strong>the</strong> upper partof <strong>the</strong> nacreous porti<strong>on</strong> beneath <strong>the</strong> ligament, where <strong>the</strong>re is a largedark purplish spot. The n<strong>on</strong>-nacreous porti<strong>on</strong> exhibits a raised subcentralridge extend<strong>in</strong>g from <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong> of <strong>the</strong> pearly l<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g nearlyto <strong>the</strong> lower extremity.63. Avicula lata.Gray, 1845, Ap^wndix to Eyre's Central Australia, p. 435, pi. 6. fig. 1lieeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 5.Avicula serrulata, Dunker, Zeitschr. f.Malak. 1848, p. 178 ; C<strong>on</strong>ch.-Cah. ed. 2, p. 18, pi. 5. figs. 1, 2.Hah. West Island, Torres Straits, <strong>in</strong> 7 fms., sand {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger);Port Ess<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong> (/. B. Jiikes <strong>in</strong> Brit. Mus.) ; Ra<strong>in</strong>o's Island, TorresStraits (Lieut. Ince, B.N., <strong>in</strong> Mus. Cum<strong>in</strong>g) ; Moluccas (DunJctr).Eeeve and Dunker appear to have been unaware that this specieswas both figured and described by Gray. Apparently, as a rule, itis l<strong>on</strong>ger than ci<strong>the</strong>r of <strong>the</strong> specimens figured <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> C<strong>on</strong>ch. 'Ic<strong>on</strong>.' or


MOLLUSCA. 113'C<strong>on</strong>ch.-Cab.' That collected by Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger has <strong>the</strong> auricle preciselylike that of Bunker's specimen, this form of it be<strong>in</strong>g, judg<strong>in</strong>gfrom <strong>the</strong> series before me, more usual than that figured by Reeve.64. Avicula rufa.Dihnkcr, C<strong>on</strong>ch.-Cab. p. 58, pi. 19. figs. 7, 8.Hah. Java {Danker); West Island, Priuce of Wales Channel,Torres Straits, 7 fms., sandy bottom {Copp<strong>in</strong>jer).All three specimens from <strong>the</strong> latter locality exhibit several whiteradiat<strong>in</strong>g l<strong>in</strong>es <strong>on</strong> both valves, as <strong>in</strong>dicated <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> figure 8 referredto. The presence of <strong>the</strong>se rays appears to have been ra<strong>the</strong>r exc(^pti<strong>on</strong>aliu <strong>the</strong> Javan specimens exam<strong>in</strong>ed by Dunker.Reeve, Coiicli. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 45.05. Avicula smaragd<strong>in</strong>a.Hah. Moluccas? {Reeve) ; N.E. Queensland {Oopp<strong>in</strong>ger).The young stage of this species has not <strong>the</strong> very prol<strong>on</strong>ged obliqueform of <strong>the</strong> adult. The figure <strong>in</strong> Reeve's wox'k is much too vividlycoloured, nor does it <strong>in</strong>dicate any rays of spots of a darker t<strong>in</strong>twhich generally adorn both valves. The ear of <strong>the</strong> left valve iscoarsely c<strong>on</strong>centrically wr<strong>in</strong>kled and extends a little with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>valve. This species may be <strong>the</strong> Mytllus meleagridis of Chemnitz(C<strong>on</strong>ch.-Cab. viii. p. 143, fig. 726).QQ.Avicula zebra.Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 36; Dunker, C<strong>on</strong>ch.-Cah. p. 60, pi. 21. fig. 3.Hah. Moret<strong>on</strong> Bay {Reeve) ; Port Denis<strong>on</strong>, Queensland, 3-4 fms.(Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).The two specimens obta<strong>in</strong>ed at <strong>the</strong> latter locality were attachedto a species of Polyzoa, and <strong>in</strong> a similar positi<strong>on</strong> to <strong>the</strong> types asfigured <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> ' C<strong>on</strong>chologia Ic<strong>on</strong>ica,' namely with <strong>the</strong> umb<strong>on</strong>esdirected downwards.67. Mel<strong>in</strong>a cum<strong>in</strong>gii.Perna cum<strong>in</strong>gii, Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. xi. fig. 3.Hah. Australia {Reeve) ; Port Curtis (Coj^p<strong>in</strong>ger).The specimen figured by Reeve is higher than l<strong>on</strong>g, but ano<strong>the</strong>r<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Cum<strong>in</strong>gian collecti<strong>on</strong> has <strong>the</strong>se proporti<strong>on</strong>s reversed.68. Crenatula nigr<strong>in</strong>a.Lamarck ; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 1 a.Hah. Red Sea {Reeve) ; Albany Island, west coast of Australia{Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).This species, also C. hicosfalis and C. mytiloides, as determ<strong>in</strong>edby Reeve, are probably slight variati<strong>on</strong>s of <strong>on</strong>e and <strong>the</strong> same form.I


114 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.GO.Sp<strong>on</strong>dylus multisetosus.Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>, fig. 11.Hah.Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands {Cum<strong>in</strong>g); AVarrior lleef, Torres Straits(^Coppiwjer).The pr<strong>in</strong>cipal ridges which support <strong>the</strong> largest sp<strong>in</strong>es are abouttwelve <strong>in</strong> number <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> upper valve, pale or yellowish between <strong>the</strong>sp<strong>in</strong>es, at <strong>the</strong> base of which <strong>the</strong>y are sta<strong>in</strong>ed with a dark sangu<strong>in</strong>eouscolour. The <strong>in</strong>terior of <strong>the</strong> valves is marg<strong>in</strong>ed with purplishbrown, and <strong>the</strong> straight h<strong>in</strong>ge-l<strong>in</strong>e is fiuely striated with<strong>in</strong>transversely ; <strong>the</strong> flat h<strong>in</strong>ge-area of <strong>the</strong> lower valve is also fiuelystriated across.70. Sp<strong>on</strong>dylus victoriae.Sowerbif, Proc. Zool Soc. 1859, p. 428, pi. 49. fig. 8.Var. = Sp<strong>on</strong>dylus wrightianus, Crosse, Journ. de C<strong>on</strong>ck.1872, vol.xx.p. 360, vol. xxi. p. 253, pi. 9. figs. 1, la.Mab. New Caled<strong>on</strong>ia {Mas. Cum<strong>in</strong>g) ; Fl<strong>in</strong>ders and Clairm<strong>on</strong>t,Islands N.E. Australia, 11 fms., sand and mud bottom, and PortMoUe, 10 fms. {Copphiger); Nichol Eay, Australia {Crosse fideWright).The descripti<strong>on</strong> of this species given by Sowerby is very <strong>in</strong>sufficient,and his locality, " Gulf of California," <strong>in</strong>correct. He describes<strong>the</strong> number of largecostfe as four ; but as a rule <strong>the</strong>re are five, whicheven appear <strong>in</strong> his own figure.In <strong>the</strong> lower or attached valve <strong>the</strong> number of large sp<strong>in</strong>e-bear<strong>in</strong>gridges <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> three specimens before me is seven ; <strong>the</strong>se sp<strong>in</strong>es aregenerally straighter than those <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> upper valve, and channelled<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> uppersidc. Sowcrby's figure exaggerates <strong>the</strong> wavy characterand breadth of <strong>the</strong> upper sp<strong>in</strong>es.The surface of <strong>the</strong> valves and <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>ge-area agree with Crosse'sdescripti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> variety ivrightlanas, which has <strong>the</strong> sp<strong>in</strong>es <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>upper valve straighter, and less spread<strong>in</strong>g at <strong>the</strong> extremities. Thes<strong>in</strong>gle specimen dredged by Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger has <strong>the</strong> sp<strong>in</strong>es of a p<strong>in</strong>kishbuffcolour, whilst those <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> type are pure white.71. Pecten leopardus.Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 145.Var. = Pecten kuhnholtzi, Bcrnardi, Journ. de C<strong>on</strong>ch. 1863, vol. viii.p. 378, pi. 13. fig. 1.Var. = Pecten Solaris, Soicerhy {n<strong>on</strong> Born), Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, pi. 12. fig. 22 ;Dunker<strong>in</strong> Philippi''s Abbild. vol. i. pL 2. fig. 2; Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>.fig. 92.llab. Moret<strong>on</strong> Bay, Queensland {Reeve) ; Arafura Sea, DundasStrait {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; New Caled<strong>on</strong>ia {Bernardi) ; Amho<strong>in</strong>a. {Danker,for var. Solaris).It is not surpris<strong>in</strong>g that M. Bcrnardi did not recognize his shell<strong>in</strong> F. leopardas, c<strong>on</strong>sider<strong>in</strong>g how <strong>in</strong>adequate a descripti<strong>on</strong> is givenby Ileeve. I have carefully compared red-rayed specimens from


MOLLTJSCA. 115New Caled<strong>on</strong>ia with, <strong>the</strong> type from Moret<strong>on</strong> Bay, and am c<strong>on</strong>v<strong>in</strong>cedthat <strong>the</strong>y c<strong>on</strong>stitute but a s<strong>in</strong>gle species. The sculpture is <strong>the</strong> same<strong>in</strong> both, and <strong>the</strong> blood-red sta<strong>in</strong> with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> valves of a crescent form,leav<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> centre and marg<strong>in</strong> white, is present <strong>in</strong> adult specimensof each, bub not always <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> young. The <strong>on</strong>ly dist<strong>in</strong>cti<strong>on</strong> appearsto be a little variati<strong>on</strong> of colour<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> upper valve, which <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>typical form is white, with <strong>the</strong> ridges sta<strong>in</strong>ed and blotched with" fulvous rust," whilst <strong>the</strong> variety has <strong>the</strong> costa3 more uniformlyt<strong>in</strong>ted with. " red " or p<strong>in</strong>kish brown, some of <strong>the</strong>m be<strong>in</strong>g much palerthan o<strong>the</strong>rs ; but I do not ever f<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong>m alternately white and red.The darker <strong>on</strong>es are usually <strong>in</strong> pairs, but just <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> right of <strong>the</strong>centre three dark rays come toge<strong>the</strong>r. In o<strong>the</strong>r words, <strong>the</strong> shellmay be described as hav<strong>in</strong>g four rays, three of <strong>the</strong>m t<strong>in</strong>t<strong>in</strong>g two adjacentcostae each, <strong>the</strong> fourth cover<strong>in</strong>g three. This same distributi<strong>on</strong>of pale and darker rays holds good <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> typical form and is fa<strong>in</strong>tly<strong>in</strong>dicated <strong>in</strong> Reeve's figure ; and <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> handsomer variety, P. solans,<strong>the</strong> same peculiarity is met with and is well portrayed <strong>in</strong> Philippi'swork. This charm<strong>in</strong>g form has <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>terior similarly sta<strong>in</strong>ed withblood-red as <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> two o<strong>the</strong>r varieties. This cannot, I c<strong>on</strong>sider, be<strong>the</strong> species described by Born as Ostrea solans, which differs greatly<strong>in</strong> form, especially with regard to <strong>the</strong> auricles. The <strong>on</strong>ly shellhav<strong>in</strong>g similar small <strong>on</strong>es, as far as I can discover, is P. superlms,Sowerby ; this is not, however, " orange "-coloured, has unequaldorsal slopes, narrower costa?, and deeper grooves, Bern's figure,however, is unreliable, for it represents a shell 40 millim. <strong>in</strong> lengthfrom <strong>the</strong> h<strong>in</strong>ge-l<strong>in</strong>e to <strong>the</strong> opposite marg<strong>in</strong>, and nearly 42 miUim.across, whilst his measurements, given <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> text, are—length39 millim., width 30| millim.72. Pecten s<strong>in</strong>gaporiims.Soiverhy, Thcs. C<strong>on</strong>ch, vol. i. p. 74, pi. 13. fig. 55, pi. 14. fig. 71 ;Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 74.Pecten pica, Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 115 a, h.Pecten cum<strong>in</strong>gii, Reeve, I. c. figs. 140 a, b.Hah. S<strong>in</strong>gapore (Soivh.) ; New Zealand {Reeve, for pica) ; PortCurtis {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; Moret<strong>on</strong> Bay {Reeve, for cum<strong>in</strong>gii).I cannot discover any dist<strong>in</strong>cti<strong>on</strong> between P. pica and this species.The anterior auricle of <strong>the</strong> right valve is destitute of colour, and <strong>the</strong>serrated marg<strong>in</strong> beneath it is also white. P. cum<strong>in</strong>gii is a f<strong>in</strong>egrowth of <strong>the</strong> same, hav<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> peculiarities above menti<strong>on</strong>ed, butwith <strong>the</strong> costoe slightly stouter.73. Pecten dr<strong>in</strong>gi.Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 152 a, b.Hah. Port Molle, Queensland, 14 fms. {Copp<strong>in</strong>ger) ; BathursfcIsland, N.W. Australia {Reeve) ; Cape Capricorn, E. Australia{Brit. AIus.).Purplish and brownish-purple forms of this species appear toI 2


116 COLLECTIONS FEOM MELANESIA.be more comm<strong>on</strong> than <strong>the</strong> variety figured by Reeve (fig, 152a), whichdoes not represent <strong>the</strong> full dimensi<strong>on</strong>s of <strong>the</strong> species. The largestspecimen <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Museum is 45 millim. high and 40 millim. <strong>in</strong> width.74. Pecten funebris.Reeve, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. fig. 85.Hah. Bathurst, Australia {Reeve) ; Swan River and Port Ess<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong>(Brit. Mas.) ; Port Curtis, Queensland (Gopp<strong>in</strong>r/er).The sculpture of this species resembles that of <strong>the</strong> young of P.asperrimus, c<strong>on</strong>sist<strong>in</strong>g of numerous f<strong>in</strong>e costas bordered <strong>on</strong> eachside by a much f<strong>in</strong>er and less elevated <strong>on</strong>e, and all bear<strong>in</strong>g pricklyscales. The <strong>in</strong>terior is pale olive, with paler radiat<strong>in</strong>g grooves anda purplish border all round.75. Amussium pleur<strong>on</strong>ectes.Ilab. EHnders and Clairm<strong>on</strong>t Islands, N.E. Australia (Copplnr/er) ;Ch<strong>in</strong>a.76. Lima (Mantellum) fragilis.Chemnitz ; Sowerby, Thes. C<strong>on</strong>ch, vol. i. p. 80, pi. 22. figs. 34-36 ;id.C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. figs. 18 a, b.Hah. Port Molle, Queensland (Coz-y^mr/e/ ); Mauritius (Martens) ;Torres Straits (Jul-es) ; Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands (Camiwj) ; Port Ess<strong>in</strong>gtoD,Oomaga Reef, Fiji Islands (Brit. Mus.).77. Placuna lobata, var.Soioerby, C<strong>on</strong>ch. Ic<strong>on</strong>. pi. iv. fig. 4«, pi. v. fig. 4 J, var.Placenta planicostata, Dunker, Journ. de C<strong>on</strong>ch. 1879, vol. xxvii.p. 214, pi. 9. tig. 2.Hah. Port Ess<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong> (Brit. Mus.) ; Torres Straits (Copp<strong>in</strong>ger).The colour<strong>in</strong>g of Sowerby's figure is ridiculous, <strong>the</strong> yellow groundcolourbe<strong>in</strong>g purely imag<strong>in</strong>ary. The type is whitish towards <strong>the</strong>umb<strong>on</strong>es, but light purplish red elsewhere, rayed with a muchdarker t<strong>in</strong>t, <strong>the</strong> rays be<strong>in</strong>g narrower than as depicted <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>figure.The s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen from Torres Straits has <strong>the</strong> ground-colourlight purplish red like <strong>the</strong> type, but <strong>the</strong> slightly elevated rays arewhite <strong>in</strong>stead of be<strong>in</strong>g darker.


—117ECHINODERMATA.F. JEFFllEY BELL.The chief po<strong>in</strong>ts of <strong>in</strong>terest attached to <strong>the</strong> ' Alert ' collecti<strong>on</strong> ofEch<strong>in</strong>oderms may be <strong>in</strong>dicated as follows :Though <strong>the</strong>re are no new Ech<strong>in</strong>oidea, <strong>the</strong>re are some very preciousseries of some species, Maretia platwlata be<strong>in</strong>g notably wellrepresented. Similarly <strong>the</strong> series of some of <strong>the</strong> Asterids has givenus evidence of a variability that would be almost <strong>in</strong>credible but for<strong>the</strong> careful registrati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> localities of <strong>the</strong> species. Eare andnew forms of Ophiurids and Asterids will, <strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong>specti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> succeed<strong>in</strong>gsystematic list, be found to be well represented : OpMotlirixhas a large number of forms, <strong>the</strong> exact delimitati<strong>on</strong> and def<strong>in</strong>iti<strong>on</strong> ofwhich has been to me a matter of just as much anxiety and doubtas it has been to my predecessors ; but a study of <strong>the</strong> collecti<strong>on</strong> hasled me to a somewhat important c<strong>on</strong>clusi<strong>on</strong>, <strong>in</strong> that I have beencompelled by <strong>the</strong> evidence to attach much less weight than somehave d<strong>on</strong>e to <strong>the</strong> characters of <strong>the</strong> colorati<strong>on</strong> *.The questi<strong>on</strong> of colorati<strong>on</strong> of forms has taken <strong>on</strong> almost a newaspect s<strong>in</strong>ce <strong>the</strong> publicati<strong>on</strong> by Mr. Seebohm of his views as to <strong>the</strong>value of <strong>the</strong> pattern of colour <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Turd<strong>in</strong>se (Cat. Birds B.M. v.p. viii) ; while, <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r hand, <strong>the</strong> recent statements of such experiencedentomologists as Butler, who th<strong>in</strong>ks that <strong>in</strong> time it willbe impossible to decide, without rear<strong>in</strong>g from <strong>the</strong> egg, whe<strong>the</strong>r anyform is a species, a hybrid, or a variety (Trans. Ent. Soc. 1880,p. 200), and Elwes, <strong>in</strong> whose op<strong>in</strong>i<strong>on</strong> {I. c. p. 134) climate, food, andc<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong>s of life will more than account for <strong>the</strong> change <strong>in</strong> t<strong>in</strong>t ofcerta<strong>in</strong> representative species, seem to <strong>in</strong>dicate that <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> group of<strong>the</strong> Lepidoptera, where colorati<strong>on</strong> has been so much attended to,those who are am<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> most experienced are learn<strong>in</strong>g to doubt itsvalue, and to recognize, as <strong>the</strong> professed students of ichthyology(see Gi<strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong>r's Study of 'Fishes,' pp. 176-182) would seem to haved<strong>on</strong>e, that <strong>in</strong> colorati<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>re is great variati<strong>on</strong>. It would be amatter for regret if, when <strong>the</strong> views of o<strong>the</strong>rs are advanc<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>the</strong>describer and systematist of Ech<strong>in</strong>oderms should make a backward* Liitken, "Le systeme general de colorati<strong>on</strong> c<strong>on</strong>stitue un caractere importantqu'il ne faut pas negliger dans la dist<strong>in</strong>cti<strong>on</strong> des Ophiothrix" (Vid. SelsfcSkr. (5) Bd. 8, ii. p. 104) ; and compare <strong>the</strong> descripti<strong>on</strong>s of all writers <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>genus.


;118 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.step. Colorati<strong>on</strong> can <strong>on</strong>ly be safelj' used when tho hypo<strong>the</strong>sis that<strong>the</strong> genus or group is of so late an orig<strong>in</strong> as not to have yet developeddef<strong>in</strong>ite structural characters by which its species may bediscrim<strong>in</strong>ated is not c<strong>on</strong>troverted by any <strong>on</strong>e species ; where it is,<strong>the</strong> character must be less freely used, probably to disappear moreand more, not so much with <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>creased evoluti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> genus aswith our <strong>in</strong>creased knowledge of it.The succeed<strong>in</strong>g pages c<strong>on</strong>ta<strong>in</strong> an account of, or <strong>the</strong> names of,124 species, very fairlj' divided am<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> 5 orders. Of <strong>the</strong>se <strong>the</strong>reare 30 new species, 15 of which liel<strong>on</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> Cr<strong>in</strong>oids and <strong>the</strong>o<strong>the</strong>r 15 to <strong>the</strong> rema<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g orders. There is no new Ech<strong>in</strong>id ; butI have had to suggest a new name for <strong>the</strong> form which by some hasbeen regarded as Salmacis globator.A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 387 *.ECHINOIDEA.1. Phyllacantlius annulifera.A most valuable and important series for exhibit<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> variati<strong>on</strong>of this species.Thursday Island ; Port Molle (14 fms.) ; Port Curtis ; Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of"Wales Channel ; Albany Island ; Port Darw<strong>in</strong>.A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 274.2. Diadema setosum.Port Molle ;coral-reef.A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 471.3. Salmacis bicolor.A good series, with sp<strong>in</strong>es well preserved <strong>on</strong> most from PortMoHe.A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 476.4. Salmacis sulcata.Port Denis<strong>on</strong> (4 fms.) ;Port MoUe (14 fms.).5, Salmacis alexandri,Salmacis globator, Alex. Agassiz {not L. Agassiz), Rev. Ech. p. 473'•ChaUenqer' <str<strong>on</strong>g>Report</str<strong>on</strong>g>s, iii. p. 113.Salmacis globator, form a, Bell, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 433, pi. xli. fig. 1.In <strong>the</strong> third part of my " Observati<strong>on</strong>s <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> Characters of <strong>the</strong>* As a rule, I shall give <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>on</strong>e bibliographical reference, and that to <strong>the</strong>'Bevisi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> Ech<strong>in</strong>i ' of Prof. Alex. Agassiz.


ECHINODERMATA. 119Ech<strong>in</strong>oidea," I directed attenti<strong>on</strong> to <strong>the</strong> marked discrepancies whichobta<strong>in</strong>ed between <strong>the</strong> descripti<strong>on</strong>s given by Louis and AlexanderAgassiz respectively of <strong>the</strong> species known as JS. globator. I <strong>the</strong>nfigured and gave careful descripti<strong>on</strong>s of <strong>the</strong> tests of two formswhich I dist<strong>in</strong>guished as form a and form /3. I adopted that course<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> hope that Prof. Alexander Agassiz would expla<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> reas<strong>on</strong>swhich had led him to omit any notice of <strong>the</strong> species referred to byhis fa<strong>the</strong>r. In <strong>the</strong> 'Challenger' lieport <strong>the</strong> species is merelyrecorded, and reference <strong>made</strong> to <strong>the</strong> ' Catal. Eais<strong>on</strong>ne' of Agassiz andDesor ; fortunately <strong>the</strong> specimens are uow <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> liritish Museumcollecti<strong>on</strong>, and an <strong>in</strong>specti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong>m is,<strong>the</strong> characters of <strong>the</strong> form which Mr. Alex. Agassiz looks up<strong>on</strong> asbe<strong>in</strong>g S. globator. I l<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong>m to be examples of what I haveof course, siifficient to showcalled form a, or, <strong>in</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r words, <strong>the</strong>y are not representatives ofL. Agassiz's species gJohator.As <strong>the</strong> species reappears <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> ' Alert ' collecti<strong>on</strong>, it has beennecessary to direct attenti<strong>on</strong> to <strong>the</strong> various po<strong>in</strong>ts and to proposea name for <strong>the</strong> species. No appellati<strong>on</strong> will, I th<strong>in</strong>k, be more suitablethan that of alexandri ; and, at <strong>the</strong> time of giv<strong>in</strong>g a def<strong>in</strong>itename, <strong>on</strong>e is also able to have <strong>the</strong> pleasure of add<strong>in</strong>g a def<strong>in</strong>itelocality.West Island, Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel.(j.Temnopleurus toreumaticus.A. Agassiz, Eev. Ech. p. 463.One of <strong>the</strong> specimens (diameter 18"5 millim.) has all <strong>the</strong> sp<strong>in</strong>eswhich are preserved <strong>on</strong> it perfectl}' white, without any bands whatever.Smaller specimens <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> British Museum collecti<strong>on</strong> have anumber of, but not <strong>on</strong>e has all, its sp<strong>in</strong>es thus totally white.Port Denis<strong>on</strong> (4 fms.) ; Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel.7. Temnopleurus granulosus.Toreumatica granulosa, Gray, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 39.Temnopleurus granulosus, Bell, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 425.A good series, with <strong>the</strong> general colour of <strong>the</strong> sp<strong>in</strong>es dark, andnot light, r<strong>in</strong>ged with red as <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> specimens from <strong>the</strong> Japaneseseas.Port Denis<strong>on</strong>.8. Temnopleurus bothryoides.Pleureeh<strong>in</strong>us bothryoides, A. Ac/assiz, ' Challenger ' Pep. iii. p. 108.This is <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> most important of Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger's f<strong>in</strong>ds, forwith <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong> of a s<strong>in</strong>gle, though perfect, test <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> collecti<strong>on</strong>of <strong>the</strong> British Museum, which was obta<strong>in</strong>ed by 8ir E. Belcher offBorneo, and presented by <strong>the</strong> Admiralty <strong>in</strong> 1844, no completeexample had ever been exam<strong>in</strong>ed till <strong>the</strong> return of <strong>the</strong> Challenger.''The largest specimen taken by Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger is a little larger than


120 COLLECTIONS FEOM MELANESIA.any <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> three collected by <strong>the</strong> officials of that great circumnavigat<strong>in</strong>gexpediti<strong>on</strong>.Though <strong>the</strong> term Plturechh<strong>in</strong>s is due to L. Agassiz, and <strong>the</strong> specificname hothryoides to his <strong>in</strong>complete comprehensi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> Cidarishotl<strong>in</strong>joides of Kle<strong>in</strong> and Leske, I have c<strong>on</strong>f<strong>in</strong>ed my " syn<strong>on</strong>ymy "to Alexander Agassiz's <str<strong>on</strong>g>Report</str<strong>on</strong>g> <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> ' Challenger ' specimens, asit is <strong>the</strong>re <strong>on</strong>ly that any such def<strong>in</strong>ite <strong>in</strong>formati<strong>on</strong> is given as wouldenable a zoologist to recognize examples of <strong>the</strong> species. The resultto which my own study of <strong>the</strong> specimens and of <strong>the</strong> def<strong>in</strong>iti<strong>on</strong>s hasled me has, I th<strong>in</strong>k, been essentially c<strong>on</strong>firmed by <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>vestigati<strong>on</strong><strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> structure of <strong>the</strong> test which, at my suggesti<strong>on</strong>, Prof. Mart<strong>in</strong>Duncan was allowed to make *.Look<strong>in</strong>g, first of all, at <strong>the</strong> general form of <strong>the</strong> test, <strong>the</strong> observeris struck by its greater proporti<strong>on</strong>al height ; thus we f<strong>in</strong>d specimenswith an absolute diam(!ter of 20, 18, or 17 millim. respectivelyhav<strong>in</strong>g a proporti<strong>on</strong>al height of 58-5, 66-6, and 60. Inno known examples of any o<strong>the</strong>r species of Temnopleurus is <strong>the</strong>proporti<strong>on</strong>al height more than 03-63 millim. f, and this is a rarecase, which obta<strong>in</strong>s with a specimen <strong>on</strong>ly 11 millim. wide. Theexam<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> dental apparatus did not shov/ any real po<strong>in</strong>t ofdifference between this species and T. hardwicl-ii. As <strong>in</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rspecies of this genus, <strong>the</strong> abact<strong>in</strong>al area is much more prom<strong>in</strong>ent<strong>in</strong> younger than <strong>in</strong> older specimens, while <strong>the</strong> characters of <strong>the</strong>furrows between <strong>the</strong> plates is <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>in</strong>termediate between <strong>the</strong> extremec<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong> presented by T. toreumaticus and that which isBeen <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> species just menti<strong>on</strong>ed.As to <strong>the</strong> m<strong>in</strong>ute c<strong>on</strong>structi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> test. Dr. Duncan f<strong>in</strong>ds that" <strong>the</strong>re is a generic relati<strong>on</strong> between Temnopleurus and Pleurechmns,and <strong>the</strong> <strong>on</strong>ly important dist<strong>in</strong>cti<strong>on</strong> is <strong>the</strong> absence of crenulati<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> last-named type." To this crenulati<strong>on</strong> or its absence Dr. Duncanattaches more importance than do many naturalists who have devoted<strong>the</strong>mselves to this group, and he f<strong>in</strong>ds <strong>in</strong> c<strong>on</strong>sequence that " <strong>the</strong>classificatory positi<strong>on</strong> assigned by A. Agassiz to Plmrech<strong>in</strong>us <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>' Eevisi<strong>on</strong> ' must be c<strong>on</strong>ceded, and it is a subgenus or secti<strong>on</strong> ofTemnopleurusr Notwithstand<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> weight of <strong>the</strong> authority ofAgassiz and Dimcan, I am bound to say that I feel still <strong>the</strong> importanceof <strong>the</strong> objecti<strong>on</strong>s l<strong>on</strong>g ago urged by D'Archiac and HaimeJ," Quant aux crenelures des tubcrcules, <strong>on</strong> sait que cette particulariten'a cgalement qu'une valeur tres-sec<strong>on</strong>daire, puisqu'<strong>on</strong> la voit dejadisparaitre dans une certa<strong>in</strong>e porti<strong>on</strong> du genre Cidaris, sans qu'<strong>on</strong>puisse decouvrir chez les especes a tubercules lisses aucune autredifference c<strong>on</strong>comitante; " and that be<strong>in</strong>g so, I can f<strong>in</strong>d no reas<strong>on</strong>which will justify <strong>the</strong> retenti<strong>on</strong> of a genus never very accuratelydef<strong>in</strong>ed.The largest specimen <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Alert ' ' collecti<strong>on</strong> has a diameter* Journ. L<strong>in</strong>n. Soc. (Zool.) xvi. p. 447.t P. Z. S. 1880, p. 424.X Anim. fo^s. de I'lnde, p. 202 (ISr^S). The student should be rem<strong>in</strong>dedthat Prof. Mart<strong>in</strong> (Notes Leyd. Mus. ii. p. 75) accepts <strong>the</strong> genus Plcurcch<strong>in</strong>us.


ECHINODEEMATA. 121of 20*5 millim. and is 12 millim. high ; <strong>the</strong> abact<strong>in</strong>al area is 4-5 and<strong>the</strong> anal area is 2 millim. <strong>in</strong> diameter. The short primary sp<strong>in</strong>es,which, as <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r specimens, have two or three short bands ofbright red <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir white surface, have <strong>the</strong> neighbour<strong>in</strong>g suckers ofa purplish-slate colour, and <strong>the</strong>se give a deeper and richer appearancethan ord<strong>in</strong>ary to <strong>the</strong> test. The abact<strong>in</strong>al area is not so c<strong>on</strong>spicuousas <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> smaller specimens, and <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> genitalplates has more than three tubercles.Thursday Island ; Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel.A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 489.9. Ech<strong>in</strong>us angulosus.With a little hesitati<strong>on</strong> I refer to this species three specimens fromThursday Island, and <strong>on</strong>e from Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel. Thespecies is a wide-rang<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong>e, and apparently presents a good dealof variati<strong>on</strong>.10. Ech<strong>in</strong>us darnleyensis.J. E. Tenis<strong>on</strong>-WvodsjProc. L<strong>in</strong>n. Soc. N'. S. W. ii. p. 165.In accept<strong>in</strong>g this species, I should like to do so <strong>on</strong>ly provisi<strong>on</strong>ally,as a systematic revisi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> exceed<strong>in</strong>gly troublesome genus towhich it bel<strong>on</strong>gs may show it to be <strong>on</strong>ly part of <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> veryvariable species which are associated under <strong>the</strong> emended genusEch<strong>in</strong>us.Thursday Island (4 fms.) and Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel.11. Tripneustes angulosus.Hippouoe variegata, A. Ayassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 501.Tripneustes angulosus, BeU, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 657.The colorati<strong>on</strong> of this specimen is more marked than any I haveyet had <strong>the</strong> opportunity of exam<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g ; <strong>the</strong> short white sjj<strong>in</strong>es arefound ei<strong>the</strong>r <strong>on</strong> white areas, <strong>the</strong> middle of which is occupied by ablack patch, or <strong>on</strong> broad black bands, ra<strong>the</strong>r more than half as wideas <strong>the</strong> white areas at <strong>the</strong> ambitus.The s<strong>in</strong>gle small specimen collected was found at Levuka, Fiji.12. Str<strong>on</strong>gylccentrotus erythrogrammus, Vol.Str<strong>on</strong>gylocentrotus eui-ythrogrammus, A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 441.It may perhaps be po<strong>in</strong>ted out that <strong>the</strong> spell<strong>in</strong>g of <strong>the</strong> specificname as here adopted is not <strong>on</strong>ly that which is etymologicallycorrect, but is <strong>the</strong> very same as that which was proposed by Valenciennes(' Voy. Venus,' Zoophyt. pi. vii. fig, 1), and adopted byLiitken and Verrill : it is true that <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> ' Catal. Eais<strong>on</strong>ne ' of L.Agassiz and Desor (1846) we f<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong> spell<strong>in</strong>g euryihroyrammus.


122 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.and that <strong>the</strong> last-named naturalists were followed by Dujard<strong>in</strong> andHupe. I am led to make <strong>the</strong>se remarks from <strong>the</strong> fact that throughout<strong>the</strong> ' Eevisi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> Ech<strong>in</strong>i ' <strong>the</strong> mode of spell<strong>in</strong>g which is bo<strong>the</strong>tymologically and historically <strong>in</strong>correct is not <strong>on</strong>ly adopted, but isascribed to Valenciennes, to Liitken, and to Verrill, and is, curiouslyenough, carried <strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> lately published Keport <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> Ech<strong>in</strong>oideacollected by <strong>the</strong> ' Challenger ' Expediti<strong>on</strong>.Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>.A. Agassiz, Rev. JEch. p. 431,13. Ech<strong>in</strong>ometra lucunter.Port MoUe (beach) ;Lcvuka, Fiji,14. Fibularia volva.A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 509.Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel.15. Cljrpeaster humiUs.A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 510.Port MoUe (4 fms.).16. Laganum depressum.A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 518.Torres Straits ; Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel.The British Museum c<strong>on</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>s specimens collected by H.M.S.' Challenger ' <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Arafura Sea.17. Laganum decag<strong>on</strong>ale.Per<strong>on</strong>ella decag<strong>on</strong>alis, A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 520.Laganum decag<strong>on</strong>ale, Bell, Ann. 8^- Mag. N. II. (5) xi. p. 130.The <strong>in</strong>vestigati<strong>on</strong>s which I have been able to make <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> valueof <strong>the</strong> generic and specific characters of <strong>the</strong> Laganidae (Ann. & Mag.Nat. Hist. (5) xi. p. 130) have led me to <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>clusi<strong>on</strong> that novalid grounds exist for <strong>the</strong> generic or subgeneric separati<strong>on</strong> of" Per<strong>on</strong>ella " from Lar/anum.Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel ; Thursday Island.This appears to be <strong>on</strong>e of those species around which misapprehensi<strong>on</strong>shave collected ; <strong>the</strong> earlier and not ungraceful method ofregistrati<strong>on</strong> which <strong>in</strong>duced De Bla<strong>in</strong>ville* to associate with thisspecies <strong>the</strong> name of <strong>the</strong> naturalist to whom he owed his specimenhas, no doubt <strong>in</strong> haste, been regarded by Professor AlexanderAgassiz t as <strong>in</strong>dicat<strong>in</strong>g Less<strong>on</strong> to be <strong>the</strong> author of <strong>the</strong> species.* Diet. Sci. Nat. vol. xlviii. p. 229; Man. d'Act. p. 215.t Rev. Ech. p. 47, and much less accurately <strong>on</strong> p. 148.


ECniNODERMATA. 123Strangely enough, De Bla<strong>in</strong>ville himself is not free from error <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> matter, for after Less<strong>on</strong>'s name he places <strong>the</strong> words " Voyagede rUranie," a voyage with which Less<strong>on</strong> had not <strong>the</strong> close relati<strong>on</strong>that he had with that of <strong>the</strong> ' Coquille,' and <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> account of whichno Ech<strong>in</strong>oderms are described or figured.A. Agassiz, Eev. Ech. p. 550.18. Ech<strong>in</strong><strong>on</strong>eus cyclostomus.A very small specimen from Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of \Yales Channel.A, Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 570.19. Maretia planulata.A very f<strong>in</strong>e series <strong>in</strong> spirit from Fl<strong>in</strong>ders, Clairm<strong>on</strong>t, and driedspecimens from Clairm<strong>on</strong>t Island.Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 575.20, Lovenia el<strong>on</strong>gata.Thursday Island ;Torres Straits.A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 578.^1. Breynia australasise.An excellent series from Port Denis<strong>on</strong>, Thursday Island, andPr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel.A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 580.22. Ech<strong>in</strong>ocardium australe.Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> ; Fl<strong>in</strong>ders, Clairm<strong>on</strong>t; Port Darw<strong>in</strong> (12 fms., mudand sand).Perrier, p. 43*.ASTEROIDEA.1. Asterias calamaria.Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>. The two specimens are very different <strong>in</strong> appearance: <strong>on</strong>e has eleven arms, of Avhich n<strong>on</strong>e are remarkably smallerthan <strong>the</strong> rest ; <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r, which has five arms left, and appears tohave had six, has <strong>on</strong>e arm much l<strong>on</strong>ger than <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rs, and hasthree small subequal arms.* For <strong>the</strong> majority of <strong>the</strong> Asteroiclea I shall give <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>on</strong>e reference, andthat to Perrier's ' Revisi<strong>on</strong> des Stellerides ' (Paris, 1875), follow<strong>in</strong>g its pag<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong>as a sej)arate work.


124 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.Perrier, p, 63.2. Asterias polyplax.A small specimen with two l<strong>on</strong>g, two short and stout, and fourshorter and more delicate arms.Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>, March 1881.3. Ech<strong>in</strong>aster purpureus.Othilia purpurea, Gray, Ann. 8f Mag. N. H. (1) vi. p. 282.Ech<strong>in</strong>aster fallax, Mull. Sf Trosch. Syst. Asterid. p. 23 ; Perrier, p. 106.While some have six and ano<strong>the</strong>r five arms, not markedly differ<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong> length, ano<strong>the</strong>r has <strong>on</strong>e very l<strong>on</strong>g arm, with a madreporite <strong>on</strong>ei<strong>the</strong>r side of its base, and four shorter arms, of which <strong>on</strong>e is verymuch shorter than <strong>the</strong> rest ; it bears, however, <strong>in</strong>dicati<strong>on</strong>s of <strong>in</strong>juryand subsequent repair.Port MoUe ; Port Denis<strong>on</strong> ; Thursday Island, 4-6 fms.4. Metrodira suhulata.Gray, Ann. Sf Mag. N. II. (1) vi. p. 282.Pl<strong>in</strong>ders, Clairm<strong>on</strong>t ;Alert Island, 7 fms.Pei-rier, p. 137.5. L<strong>in</strong>ckia Isevigata.A dried specimen still reta<strong>in</strong>s very well its blue colorati<strong>on</strong>.Clairm<strong>on</strong>t Island.153.6. L<strong>in</strong>ckia nodosa.There is not, I th<strong>in</strong>k, any doubt that <strong>the</strong> four specimens from <strong>the</strong>Arafura Sea (32-36 fms.) and Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of "Wales Channel (7 fms.)are representatives of this species, of which Prof. Perrier has givenan admirable descripti<strong>on</strong> ; <strong>the</strong> specimens, however, <strong>on</strong> which thatdescripti<strong>on</strong> is based bore no <strong>in</strong>dicati<strong>on</strong> of any locality.The specimens are very much f<strong>in</strong>er than those measured byM, Perrier, R be<strong>in</strong>g equal to 213, 118, and 104 millim., with r 23,18, and 13. The disk with 18 millim. radius has apparentlyreceived some <strong>in</strong>jury ; but it may be that, <strong>in</strong> this species, <strong>the</strong>reis a difference <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> sexes, and that <strong>the</strong> specimen <strong>in</strong> questi<strong>on</strong> is<strong>in</strong> a different c<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong> of generative maturity to <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rs ; it isimpossible, however, to settle <strong>the</strong> questi<strong>on</strong>, as <strong>the</strong> example has beendried.


ECHINODERMATA, 1257. L<strong>in</strong>cMa marmorata.Ophidiaster marmoratus, Michel<strong>in</strong>,Mag. Zuol. 1845, Zooph. p. 21, pi. 10.Liuckia marmorata, Perrier, p. 13o.If I am correct <strong>in</strong> referr<strong>in</strong>g to this species a series of specimensfrom Port Molle and Fitzroy Island, it will be easy to understandhow it is that M. Michel<strong>in</strong>'s species was never aga<strong>in</strong> recognized till<strong>the</strong> Paris Museum came <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> possessi<strong>on</strong> of his type ; that wouldappear to be <strong>the</strong> <strong>on</strong>ly example that <strong>the</strong>y possess, and, as M. Perrierpo<strong>in</strong>ts out, <strong>the</strong> " typo " is obviously young. The specimens beforeme are clearly enough all representatives of <strong>the</strong> same species ; butwere any <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong>m described it is quite possible that from <strong>the</strong>descripti<strong>on</strong> al<strong>on</strong>e of that s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen it would be easy to regardsome o<strong>the</strong>rs of <strong>the</strong> series as bel<strong>on</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g to ano<strong>the</strong>r form.In <strong>the</strong> first place, though all <strong>the</strong> specimens are provided with <strong>the</strong><strong>in</strong>termediate plate that c<strong>on</strong>nects <strong>in</strong>to a pentag<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> term<strong>in</strong>al <strong>on</strong>e of<strong>the</strong> " ranges de plaques qui occupe la ligne mediane dorsale dechaque bras," <strong>the</strong> extent to which this is evident varies a good deal,and <strong>on</strong>e would hardly th<strong>in</strong>k it worthy of especial note <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> largestexample were not attenti<strong>on</strong> directed to it by <strong>the</strong> better-markedcharacters of some of <strong>the</strong> smaller. Sec<strong>on</strong>dly, <strong>the</strong> smallest specimenhas <strong>the</strong> dorsal plates covered with coarse granulati<strong>on</strong>s ; of some of<strong>the</strong>se, at any rate, it would be appropriate to say (aga<strong>in</strong> quot<strong>in</strong>gPerrier) " les granules vois<strong>in</strong>s de leur centre sent un peu plus grosque les autres;" <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r hand, <strong>on</strong>e, two, or more granulesnear <strong>the</strong> centre acquire, <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> larger specimens, a much greaterpredom<strong>in</strong>ance, and give a somewhat different appearance to <strong>the</strong>creature ;<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> largest specimen <strong>the</strong>se aga<strong>in</strong> have disappeared, and<strong>the</strong> whole surface of <strong>the</strong> plates is more uniformly granular. Thirdly,<strong>the</strong> dorsal plates may lose <strong>the</strong> regularity of outl<strong>in</strong>e which is so wellmarked (if not exaggerated ?) <strong>in</strong> Michel<strong>in</strong>'s figure, and which isexpressed by M. Perrier <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> words " sensiblement carree," andbecome narrower at <strong>the</strong> angles at which <strong>the</strong> pores are placed ; thisis perhaps due to <strong>the</strong> greater development <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> number of pores,of which as many as seven may <strong>in</strong> some cases be found with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>limits of <strong>on</strong>e area. Lastly, it is <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> smallest specimens thatwe f<strong>in</strong>d a double row of tubercles fr<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> adambulacral sp<strong>in</strong>es ;<strong>in</strong> aU <strong>the</strong> larger specimens <strong>the</strong> row is s<strong>in</strong>gle, or, <strong>in</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r words, <strong>on</strong>erow of tubercles ceases to grow proporti<strong>on</strong>ately, and becomes obscured<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> general granulati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> act<strong>in</strong>al surface.The <strong>on</strong>ly c<strong>on</strong>siderable po<strong>in</strong>t of difference between <strong>the</strong>se specimensand that figured by Michel<strong>in</strong> lies <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> remarkable colorati<strong>on</strong> ofhis specimen ; if, however, M. Desjard<strong>in</strong>'s example from <strong>the</strong> islandof Mauritius was immediately dried, it might have reta<strong>in</strong>ed its colour :while Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger's specimens, which were placed <strong>in</strong> spirit, mightvery possibly have had part of <strong>the</strong>ir colour<strong>in</strong>g-matter dissolved out.The largest example has E equal to 50 miUim.Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel, 7 fms.


;126 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.8. L<strong>in</strong>ckia pauciforis.Martens, Arch.f. Nat. xxxii. (1866), p. 69.In <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>on</strong>e example is <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> arms o<strong>the</strong>rwise than perfectbut this does not seem to have been budded out <strong>in</strong> place of <strong>on</strong>e castoff, but to have been bitten or broken off not far from its tip.Three dry specimens from Bird Island, N.E. Australia; coralreef.9. L<strong>in</strong>ckia megaloplax.Arms five. R=67, r=9, or Il=7'5 r about. Adambulacralsp<strong>in</strong>es flattened, <strong>on</strong>e for each plate, with blunted end ; externallyto and alternat<strong>in</strong>g with <strong>the</strong>se are somewhat shorter papilliformsp<strong>in</strong>es ; <strong>the</strong> general granulati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> act<strong>in</strong>al surface of <strong>the</strong> diskextends between <strong>the</strong>se latter; externally to <strong>the</strong>m <strong>the</strong>re is a row oflarger sp<strong>in</strong>es, <strong>the</strong> distributi<strong>on</strong> of which is extremely irregular, forwhile at some po<strong>in</strong>ts <strong>the</strong>y are almost as closely packed as those of<strong>the</strong> more <strong>in</strong>ternal row, <strong>the</strong>y are at o<strong>the</strong>rs separated from <strong>on</strong>eano<strong>the</strong>r by <strong>the</strong> distance of three or four of <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>ner sp<strong>in</strong>es. Therest of <strong>the</strong> abact<strong>in</strong>al siirface is closely covered with subequal granulesof some size. The abact<strong>in</strong>al surface is traversed very regularlyby six rows of poriferous spaces, which are comparativelylarge and markedly rectangular ; <strong>the</strong> smallest spaces are found <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> lowest row <strong>on</strong> ei<strong>the</strong>r side ; a short distance from <strong>the</strong> tip of eacharm <strong>the</strong> spaces completely disappear, and <strong>the</strong> granulati<strong>on</strong> becomesa little more prom<strong>in</strong>ent, and <strong>the</strong>re is here, as <strong>in</strong> some allied species,a large specially modified plate with <strong>on</strong>e or more large tuberclesup<strong>on</strong> it. The disk itself is covered with large pore-areas, and <strong>the</strong><strong>on</strong>ly noticeable character is <strong>the</strong> large and dist<strong>in</strong>ct, though not project<strong>in</strong>g,madrcporic plate. The pore-areas are about 2 milhm. wide,and <strong>the</strong> length of <strong>the</strong> madreporic plate, around which <strong>the</strong> granulesare very dist<strong>in</strong>ct, may be -1 millim. The colour of <strong>the</strong> abact<strong>in</strong>al surfaceis deep brown or black, whilst that of <strong>the</strong> act<strong>in</strong>al surface islighter.In a specimen smaller than that which has formed <strong>the</strong> chief basisof this descripti<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> two surfaces arc, towards <strong>the</strong> free end of <strong>the</strong>arm, dist<strong>in</strong>guished from <strong>on</strong>e ano<strong>the</strong>r by <strong>the</strong> development of someshort marg<strong>in</strong>al sp<strong>in</strong>es. In ano<strong>the</strong>r, dried, specimen, <strong>in</strong>termediate<strong>in</strong> size between <strong>the</strong>se two, <strong>the</strong> sp<strong>in</strong>es at <strong>the</strong> upper and lower marg<strong>in</strong>sof <strong>the</strong> sides of <strong>the</strong> arm, though <strong>in</strong>significant, are both largerand more numerous.The idea that <strong>the</strong> younger forms would have a larger supply ofsp<strong>in</strong>es is opposed by <strong>the</strong> fact that <strong>in</strong> a still smaller specimen <strong>the</strong>sesp<strong>in</strong>es are altoge<strong>the</strong>r absent *, while <strong>the</strong> skeletal plates are stouterthan <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> specimens which bear <strong>the</strong> sp<strong>in</strong>es. The questi<strong>on</strong> nowarises as to whe<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong>re are three stages— («) <strong>on</strong>e <strong>in</strong> which <strong>the</strong>ossicles are so stout that no defensive sp<strong>in</strong>es are needed <strong>in</strong> additi<strong>on</strong>(h) <strong>on</strong>e <strong>in</strong> which growth has proceeded so rapidly that <strong>the</strong> bars of* Cf. Ann. & Mag. N. H. (5) viii. p. 441.


F.CHINODEKMATA. 127<strong>the</strong> ossicles have dim<strong>in</strong>ished <strong>in</strong> proporti<strong>on</strong>al thickness while <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong> length, and so hav<strong>in</strong>g lost <strong>the</strong>ir earlier stoutness, nowrequire external aid; and (c) a f<strong>in</strong>al c<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong>, <strong>in</strong> which equilibriumis aga<strong>in</strong> established, <strong>the</strong> ossicles <strong>the</strong>mselves be<strong>in</strong>g aga<strong>in</strong> stouter,—orwhe<strong>the</strong>r we have to do with two sets of variati<strong>on</strong>s from a comm<strong>on</strong>stock, due to some slight differences <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> envir<strong>on</strong>ment. But thisis a complex and difficult questi<strong>on</strong>, which can <strong>on</strong>ly be satisfactorilyanswered by <strong>on</strong>e who has at hand <strong>the</strong> liv<strong>in</strong>g wealth of <strong>the</strong> Australianseas.Port Curtis ; Fitzroy Island ; Albany Island ; Port Denis<strong>on</strong>,8-12 fms.10. L<strong>in</strong>ckia, sp.A very small specimen, from West Island, Torres Strait, presentsthat <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g peculiarity of three smaller and three larger arms,h<strong>in</strong>t<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>reby at a divisi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> disk <strong>in</strong>stead of gemmati<strong>on</strong> froma s<strong>in</strong>gle arm; it is <strong>the</strong> smallest heteract<strong>in</strong>ic Lmclcla I have seen, <strong>the</strong>l<strong>on</strong>gest arm measur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong>ly G millim.Perrier, p. 276.11. An<strong>the</strong>nea flavescens.Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>, 0-5 fms.The Museum collecti<strong>on</strong> c<strong>on</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>s also specimens of this speciesfrom Fremantle, W. Australia.12. Oreaster gracilis.Pentaceros gracilis, Perrier, p. 246.Oreaster gracilis, Liitken, Vid. Med. 1871, pp. 260, 261.A selected series of five specimens, all from Port Denis<strong>on</strong> (4 fms.),exhibit remarkably well <strong>the</strong> great change which occurs <strong>in</strong> thisspecies, even after a c<strong>on</strong>siderable size has been atta<strong>in</strong>ed. Thesmallest, which has E, equal to 93-5 millim., has five tubercles,about 10 millim. high, <strong>on</strong>e at <strong>the</strong> central end of each median rowof tubercles : <strong>in</strong> ano<strong>the</strong>r, with R equal to 108 millim., <strong>the</strong>tubercles, though a little str<strong>on</strong>ger, are no higher and are here <strong>on</strong>lyto be found <strong>on</strong> three of <strong>the</strong> angles of <strong>the</strong> disk ; this specimen, likeano<strong>the</strong>r which is a little larger, has <strong>the</strong> lateral and marg<strong>in</strong>al sp<strong>in</strong>esvery well developed: two specimens, with P equal to 118 and140 millim, respectively, have <strong>the</strong>se sp<strong>in</strong>es less well developed, and<strong>the</strong> dim<strong>in</strong>uti<strong>on</strong> is <strong>the</strong> more marked <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> larger specimen ; <strong>the</strong>smaller has <strong>on</strong>e large central tubercle, and <strong>the</strong> larger has each of<strong>the</strong> whole set of five reduced to growths which are hardly largerthan <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r sp<strong>in</strong>es <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> disk.A specimen with six arms, <strong>on</strong>e of which has been <strong>in</strong>jured andhas commenced to grow aga<strong>in</strong>, was collected at Port Molle.


;128 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.13. Oreaster nodosus.Asterias nodosa, Li7mceus, Si/st. Nat. ed. xii. p. 1100,Pentaceros turritus, Perrier, p. 240.P<strong>in</strong>e specimens from 4 fms., Port Denis<strong>on</strong>.14. Oreaster, sp.A s<strong>in</strong>gle dried specimen of a very <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g and, apparentl}%new form was also collected at Port Denis<strong>on</strong>. Unfortunately, <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> process of dry<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> disk has so fallen <strong>in</strong> as to completely alterwhat must have been a very different height <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> liv<strong>in</strong>g specimen,and, as may be supposed, <strong>the</strong> lophial l<strong>in</strong>e has also suffered.15. Stellaster belcheri.Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 76.Port Curtis.16. Stellaster <strong>in</strong>cei.Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 76.A f<strong>in</strong>e series of dried specimens was collected, and HjS <strong>the</strong>re aresome <strong>in</strong> which E was no more than 30 millim., while <strong>in</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rs itwas equal to 95 millim., we are able to see <strong>the</strong> great variability <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> number and presence of <strong>the</strong> sp<strong>in</strong>ous tubercles, which may bevery feebly or exceed<strong>in</strong>gly well developed.This is not <strong>on</strong>e of those species <strong>in</strong> which we f<strong>in</strong>d that <strong>the</strong> smalleror younger specimens are <strong>the</strong> more richly provided with tubercles ;but with this we have to correlate (1) <strong>the</strong> solidity of <strong>the</strong> skelet<strong>on</strong>,and (2) <strong>the</strong> small size and c<strong>on</strong>sequent slight defensive power of<strong>the</strong>se tubercles, even when <strong>the</strong>y are well developed.One specimen, which, unfortunately, is very much <strong>in</strong>jured, has a" greater radius " of as much as 120 miUim.Port Molle ; Port Curtis (5-11 fms.) ; Port Denis<strong>on</strong> (6 fms.)Albany Island (6 fms.) ; Thursday Island ; and Arafura Sea.17. Pentag<strong>on</strong>aster copp<strong>in</strong>geri.This species bel<strong>on</strong>gs to <strong>the</strong> Astrocj<strong>on</strong>ium secti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> genus asarranged by Prof. Perrier, for <strong>the</strong> two rows of marg<strong>in</strong>al plates arerichly provided with granules, and with <strong>on</strong>e or two larger granuleswhich can hardly be called sp<strong>in</strong>es.Arms five. 11= 91, r = 46. Arms 24 millim. wide at base, narrow<strong>in</strong>gra<strong>the</strong>r rapidly ; marg<strong>in</strong>al plates exceed<strong>in</strong>gly well developed ;pedicellariaj reduced.The central regi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> disk is a little elevated, <strong>the</strong> thickness<strong>the</strong>re be<strong>in</strong>g about double that of <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong> of <strong>the</strong> disk ; <strong>the</strong> wholeabact<strong>in</strong>al surface c<strong>on</strong>sists of a close arrangement of ossicles, <strong>the</strong>surfaces of which are coarsely granulated ; <strong>the</strong> granules are a little


ECHIJSrODERMATA, 129l<strong>on</strong>ger <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> median l<strong>in</strong>e of each ray, where <strong>the</strong>y form a remarkablyregular series, c<strong>on</strong>t<strong>in</strong>ued <strong>on</strong> to <strong>the</strong> disk, but <strong>the</strong>y become more orless ill-del<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> raised porti<strong>on</strong> ; <strong>the</strong> granules <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> rest of<strong>the</strong> plates present no peculiarities, sav<strong>in</strong>g that <strong>the</strong>y are a littlel<strong>on</strong>ger <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> sides of <strong>the</strong> raised porti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> disk. The respiratorypores <strong>on</strong> this surface are ra<strong>the</strong>r large, scattered, and simple.The supero-marg<strong>in</strong>al plates are as much as 7 millim. high <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>widely open angle of <strong>the</strong> arms ; <strong>the</strong>y are narrow, wider above thanbelow ; as <strong>the</strong>se plates pass outwards <strong>the</strong>y decrease <strong>in</strong> length and<strong>in</strong>crease <strong>in</strong> breadth ; <strong>the</strong>y next decrease <strong>in</strong> size generally, andf<strong>in</strong>ally <strong>the</strong>y are aga<strong>in</strong>, though much smaller, of <strong>the</strong> same generalform as those of <strong>the</strong> angles of <strong>the</strong> arm ; <strong>the</strong> term<strong>in</strong>al three or fourtouch <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> middle l<strong>in</strong>e : of <strong>the</strong>se plates <strong>the</strong>re are about 23 <strong>on</strong>.<strong>the</strong> side of each ray ; <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong>ir armature is, perhaps,best described by say<strong>in</strong>g that some of <strong>the</strong> granules el<strong>on</strong>gate to formsmall sp<strong>in</strong>ous tubercles. The madreporic plate is situated about<strong>on</strong>e third of <strong>the</strong> radius from <strong>the</strong> centre of <strong>the</strong> disk ; it is prom<strong>in</strong>ent,5'5 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g, and has <strong>the</strong> form of an irregular el<strong>on</strong>gated oval.The <strong>in</strong>fero-marg<strong>in</strong>al plates are likewise about 23 <strong>in</strong> number, and<strong>the</strong>ir form <strong>in</strong> different regi<strong>on</strong>s presents very much <strong>the</strong> same variati<strong>on</strong>sas those of <strong>the</strong> supero-marg<strong>in</strong>al series ; <strong>the</strong> granules, however,do not present <strong>the</strong> same tendency to become sp<strong>in</strong>ous, though <strong>the</strong>yare all ra<strong>the</strong>r l<strong>on</strong>ger and not quite so closely packed. The adambulacralsp<strong>in</strong>es form a fr<strong>in</strong>ge of four flattened subequal sp<strong>in</strong>es, <strong>in</strong>additi<strong>on</strong> to which two smaller outer <strong>on</strong>es may be attached to <strong>the</strong>same ossicle ; bey<strong>on</strong>d <strong>the</strong>se <strong>the</strong>re are two or three much stoutersp<strong>in</strong>es, and bey<strong>on</strong>d <strong>the</strong>se aga<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>re may be two or three sp<strong>in</strong>es,<strong>the</strong> tips of which may be po<strong>in</strong>ted. The granulati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>termediateplates presents very much <strong>the</strong> same characters as that of<strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>fero-marg<strong>in</strong>al plates.This species may be dist<strong>in</strong>guished from P. s<strong>in</strong>gularis or P. mUiarisby <strong>the</strong> length of its arms, and <strong>the</strong> shape and closer pack<strong>in</strong>g of <strong>the</strong>plates of <strong>the</strong> abact<strong>in</strong>al surface ; from <strong>the</strong> former it is also dist<strong>in</strong>guishedby hav<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> adambulacral sp<strong>in</strong>es shorter and blunter, though <strong>the</strong>yare by no means as blunt as <strong>in</strong> P. miUaris, where <strong>the</strong> adambulacralgroove is so wide.Colour : <strong>the</strong> specimen whose admeasurements have been given <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> above descripti<strong>on</strong> is dark slate; ano<strong>the</strong>r, <strong>in</strong> which 11 = 82 andr = 26, is light st<strong>on</strong>e- coloured ; <strong>in</strong> it <strong>the</strong> disk is not elevated.Port Curtis, 5-11 fms. ; Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel, 3-5 fms.18. Pentag<strong>on</strong>aster validus.This is a sec<strong>on</strong>d new species which bel<strong>on</strong>gs to <strong>the</strong> Astrorj<strong>on</strong>iumdivisi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> genus. The arms are dist<strong>in</strong>ct, rounded, and stout,<strong>the</strong> anus central and sometimes very dist<strong>in</strong>ct ; <strong>the</strong> granulati<strong>on</strong> of<strong>the</strong> ossicles is ra<strong>the</strong>r coarse, and <strong>on</strong>ly a few larger granules arefound scattered over <strong>the</strong> abact<strong>in</strong>al surface ; <strong>the</strong>re are three rows ofadambulacral sp<strong>in</strong>es.As five specimens of this form were collected we are able toK


130 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.determ<strong>in</strong>e to some extent its range of variati<strong>on</strong> : this, as we mighthave expected, is most markedly presented by <strong>the</strong> characters of <strong>the</strong>sp<strong>in</strong>ous protuberances formed by <strong>the</strong> hypertrophy of some of <strong>the</strong>granules <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> abact<strong>in</strong>al surface ; <strong>the</strong> smallest specimen is withoutany special sp<strong>in</strong>es. Of three larger and subequal specimens, thatwhich is a little <strong>the</strong> smallest has a more prom<strong>in</strong>ent granule developedhere and <strong>the</strong>re al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> middle l<strong>in</strong>es of <strong>the</strong> rays, and somesix, still more prom<strong>in</strong>ent, at <strong>the</strong> centre of <strong>the</strong> dislv ; <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r twohave much more prom<strong>in</strong>ent sp<strong>in</strong>ous granules at what may be called<strong>the</strong> base of <strong>the</strong> rays, and some smaller protuberances around <strong>the</strong>centre of <strong>the</strong> disk ; <strong>the</strong>se latter are, <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> largest specimen of all,quite <strong>in</strong>c<strong>on</strong>spicuous. E. is about equal to 2 r; R=72, 58 ; r—34, 27.Arms 29 or 26 millim. wide at <strong>the</strong> base, narrow<strong>in</strong>g hardly at alltill quite near <strong>the</strong>ir end ;marg<strong>in</strong>al plates very well developed, equal<strong>in</strong> ei<strong>the</strong>r series, and 13 or 14 <strong>in</strong> number ;pedicellarise scarce.The central regi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> disk is not dist<strong>in</strong>ctly elevated ; with<strong>in</strong>crease <strong>in</strong> size <strong>the</strong> ossicles of <strong>the</strong> abact<strong>in</strong>al surface become lessclosely packed than <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> smaller forms ; and three rows of ossiclescan be quite dist<strong>in</strong>ctly <strong>made</strong> out ; <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>vest<strong>in</strong>g granulati<strong>on</strong> is notespecially coarse ; <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>terven<strong>in</strong>g pores may be set s<strong>in</strong>gly or disposed<strong>in</strong> groups of three or four. With <strong>in</strong>crease <strong>in</strong> size, likewise,<strong>the</strong> boundary l<strong>in</strong>e between <strong>the</strong> two sets of marg<strong>in</strong>al plates becomesmore dist<strong>in</strong>ct ; from <strong>the</strong> angle of <strong>the</strong> arm outwards <strong>the</strong> superomarg<strong>in</strong>als<strong>in</strong>crease <strong>in</strong> breadth till <strong>the</strong> last two or three, but <strong>the</strong>y arealways at least twice as l<strong>on</strong>g as <strong>the</strong>y are broad ; <strong>the</strong> term<strong>in</strong>al twoor three touch <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> middle l<strong>in</strong>e. The <strong>in</strong>fero-marg<strong>in</strong>als are a littlestouter, but have o<strong>the</strong>rwise much <strong>the</strong> same proj)orti<strong>on</strong>s as <strong>the</strong> upperseries.The <strong>in</strong>termediate plates are dist<strong>in</strong>ct from <strong>on</strong>e ano<strong>the</strong>r and arecovered by large dist<strong>in</strong>ct granules. The <strong>in</strong>nermost row of adambulacralsp<strong>in</strong>es are 6 or 7 <strong>in</strong> number, and are more delicate than <strong>the</strong> twostouter <strong>on</strong>es which are placed outside <strong>the</strong>m ; those of <strong>the</strong> outermostrow are smaller and more irregular, and are not easily dist<strong>in</strong>guishedfrom <strong>the</strong> granules of <strong>the</strong> ventral plates.Madreporic plate ra<strong>the</strong>r large, dist<strong>in</strong>ct, g to ^ r distant from <strong>the</strong>centre ;<strong>the</strong> anus often dist<strong>in</strong>guished by its periphery of eight orten small plates.The dried specimens are yellowish or light slate-coloured ; but<strong>the</strong>re is no <strong>in</strong>formati<strong>on</strong> as to what is <strong>the</strong>ir colour when alive orfresh.The species is verj-^ dist<strong>in</strong>ct from P. dilafatiis of Perrier, whichspecies has perhaps been founded <strong>on</strong> forms which were <strong>on</strong>ly varietiesof <strong>the</strong> Astrof/<strong>on</strong>ium miliare of Gray.Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 3-5 fms. ; sand.19. Dorig<strong>on</strong>a l<strong>on</strong>gimana.Pentag<strong>on</strong>aster l<strong>on</strong>gimanus, Perrier, p. 228.Percy Island, Queensland ; Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel, Aug. 1881,7 fms.


—ECHINODERMATA. 131Ferrier, p. 320.20. Aster<strong>in</strong>a belcheri.With four madrcporites.Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>, 0-4: fms.This is <strong>the</strong> first locality that has been given for this species.Ferrier, p. 296.21. Aster<strong>in</strong>a calcar.Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>."I^.Aster<strong>in</strong>a cepheus.Asperiscus cepheus, M. S^- Tr. Syst. Ast. p. 41.Aster<strong>in</strong>a cepkea, Ferrier, p. 315.I follow Prof. Perrier <strong>in</strong> us<strong>in</strong>g Miiller and Troschel's specific name,<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> ground that, though Graj^'s name hurt<strong>on</strong>i has <strong>the</strong> precedenceby two years, <strong>the</strong> " type " is not to be found, and <strong>the</strong> descripti<strong>on</strong> isuseless for any purposes of identificati<strong>on</strong>. As cepheus is obviously aproper name, I prefer to use it without mak<strong>in</strong>g any alterati<strong>on</strong>s <strong>in</strong>its term<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong>.Thursday Island.23. Aster<strong>in</strong>a gunniLFerrier, p. 298.A small specimen from Port Molle.24. Aster<strong>in</strong>a regularis.Verrill, Trans. C<strong>on</strong>necticut Acad. i. p. 250.A small specimen : Port Molle.A good series <strong>in</strong> spirit : Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>.What seems to be a young specimen of this species was also takenat Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>.25. Aster<strong>in</strong>a (Nepanthia) brevis. (Plate VIII. figs. A, A'.)Ferrier, p. 321.As Prof. Perrier's descripti<strong>on</strong> would appear to be based <strong>on</strong> a s<strong>in</strong>glesmall dried specimen <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> British Museum, I give <strong>the</strong> measurementsof two specimens preserved <strong>in</strong> spirit :R=32, 44; r=9, 12; or E=2-7 or 2-8 r,and a figure of <strong>the</strong> largest specimen.Albany Island (8 fms., sand and mud) ;coral).Thursday Island (4 fms.,Ferrier, p. 326.26. Pattria crassa, Gray.Port Curtis.il2


132 C0LLECTI0X8 FROM MELANESIA,27. Luidia, sp.A s<strong>in</strong>gle dried specimen of a species of this genus was taken atPort Dar\v<strong>in</strong>. Though it is not <strong>in</strong> a c<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong> to be described, it isright to direct attenti<strong>on</strong> to it, as no species of Luidia is menti<strong>on</strong>edei<strong>the</strong>r by Prof. Perrier or by Mr. Tenis<strong>on</strong>-Woods <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir lists ofStarfishes of <strong>the</strong> Australian seas. The example <strong>in</strong> questi<strong>on</strong> wasgreatly <strong>in</strong>jured dur<strong>in</strong>g life, and <strong>the</strong> arms, of which <strong>the</strong>re are <strong>on</strong>lyfive, differ c<strong>on</strong>siderably <strong>in</strong> form and length. It cannot be regardedas bel<strong>on</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g to Gray's species L. hardwiclcii <strong>on</strong> account of <strong>the</strong>greater stoutness of <strong>the</strong> ventral plates and of <strong>the</strong> sp<strong>in</strong>es found <strong>on</strong><strong>the</strong>m ; <strong>the</strong> tufts <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> paxillee are likewise <strong>made</strong> up of stoutersp<strong>in</strong>ules, and <strong>the</strong> characters of <strong>the</strong> adambulacral sp<strong>in</strong>es will, it isalmost certa<strong>in</strong>, be found to be very different when a more satisfactoryspecimen is obta<strong>in</strong>ed.28. Astropecten copp<strong>in</strong>geri.Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger has forwarded examples of a species already represented<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Museum, but of which I have never been able to f<strong>in</strong>d adescripti<strong>on</strong>. The species, however, is not, I should imag<strong>in</strong>e, a rare<strong>on</strong>e, and it is certa<strong>in</strong>ly <strong>on</strong>e that has not yet be-en recorded as from<strong>the</strong> Australian seas.It is dist<strong>in</strong>guished by <strong>the</strong> fact that it has <strong>on</strong>ly four sp<strong>in</strong>es <strong>on</strong> eachseries of supero-marg<strong>in</strong>al plates, and <strong>the</strong>se are c<strong>on</strong>f<strong>in</strong>ed to <strong>the</strong> twoplates <strong>on</strong> ei<strong>the</strong>r side of <strong>the</strong> apex of <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>terradial angle.Iiz=30"5, r=8. Breadth of arm at base 7*5 millim. Armstaper gradually and regularly ; about twenty-five supero-marg<strong>in</strong>alplates, which are higher than broad and very high <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> angle of<strong>the</strong> arm, where <strong>the</strong>y are narrower at <strong>the</strong>ir ventral ends ; <strong>the</strong> platesthat do not bear sp<strong>in</strong>es are regularly covered with a somewhatcoarse granulati<strong>on</strong>, which may almost become sp<strong>in</strong>ous ; <strong>the</strong> twoterm<strong>in</strong>al plates are large, prom<strong>in</strong>ent, and smooth ; <strong>the</strong> space between<strong>the</strong> arras and <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> disk is regularly filled with not largepaxilla3, provided generally with a central tubercle and a circlet offrom eight to ten tubercles around <strong>the</strong>ir head. The sp<strong>in</strong>es of <strong>the</strong><strong>in</strong>fero-marg<strong>in</strong>al plates are prom<strong>in</strong>ent and lie <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> sides of <strong>the</strong>arms, so that <strong>the</strong>y are visible from <strong>the</strong> abact<strong>in</strong>al surface. Internallyto <strong>the</strong>se l<strong>on</strong>g stoutish sp<strong>in</strong>es, three smaller <strong>on</strong>es are to be found<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> act<strong>in</strong>al surface <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> same transverse l<strong>in</strong>e ; <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>termediatespace is filled up by a coarse granulati<strong>on</strong> or by sp<strong>in</strong>ous processes.The sp<strong>in</strong>es border<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> ambulacral groove are closely packed ; <strong>the</strong>reare three or, more rarely, two <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> side of each plate ; <strong>the</strong>se areel<strong>on</strong>gated and ra<strong>the</strong>r delicate ; bey<strong>on</strong>d this <strong>in</strong>ternal row <strong>the</strong>re is arow of stouter shorter sp<strong>in</strong>es, and bey<strong>on</strong>d <strong>the</strong>se are o<strong>the</strong>rs whichbecome more or less c<strong>on</strong>founded with <strong>the</strong> cover<strong>in</strong>g of <strong>the</strong> ventralplates.Madreporic plate not detected. The characters of <strong>the</strong> paxillsealready described do not hold for <strong>the</strong> regi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> disk, where


ECHINODERMATA, 133<strong>the</strong>re is a closer and more regular granulati<strong>on</strong>. The colorati<strong>on</strong>,which becomes blotched <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> dried specimens, is found <strong>in</strong> an examplesent by Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger to c<strong>on</strong>sist of an irregular darkish patchat each angle of <strong>the</strong> disk, and an irregular patch, extend<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong> to <strong>the</strong>marg<strong>in</strong>al plates, occurs twice <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> length of each arm.In a much smaller specimen (<strong>in</strong> which R = 9} <strong>the</strong> sp<strong>in</strong>es are <strong>on</strong>lydeveloped <strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong>e plate <strong>on</strong> ei<strong>the</strong>r side of <strong>the</strong> apex of <strong>the</strong> angle of<strong>the</strong> arm, and <strong>on</strong>ly two dist<strong>in</strong>ct sp<strong>in</strong>es are to be seen <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> ventralplates. In a specimen <strong>in</strong> which E.= 16 <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d sp<strong>in</strong>e is fairlydeveloped <strong>on</strong> some, small <strong>on</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rr., and absent from <strong>the</strong> rest of <strong>the</strong>plates nearest but <strong>on</strong>e to <strong>the</strong> apex ; <strong>on</strong> all of <strong>the</strong> ventral plates athird, and <strong>on</strong> some <strong>the</strong> fourth, sp<strong>in</strong>e is now to be <strong>made</strong> out.Of several specimens collected at Alert Island <strong>on</strong>e has at some ofits angles three sp<strong>in</strong>e-bear<strong>in</strong>g plates.In additi<strong>on</strong> to <strong>the</strong> specimens from Thursday Island, Alert Island,and Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel (7 fms.), <strong>the</strong> British Museum c<strong>on</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>sthree specimens which were collected <strong>in</strong> " Australia " byMacgillivray <strong>in</strong> 1S62.29. Astropecten polyacanthus.M.


134 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA,<strong>in</strong>g notes will add a little to our knowledge of this form. Not <strong>on</strong>eof <strong>the</strong> three specimens collected by Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger (<strong>the</strong>re were two<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> 'Challenger' collecti<strong>on</strong>) dist<strong>in</strong>ctly presents that cruciformarrangement of fibres <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> dorsal areae which was so strik<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>specimens seen by Mr. 81aden ; <strong>in</strong> some of <strong>the</strong> areae it is <strong>in</strong>dist<strong>in</strong>ctlymarked, and <strong>in</strong> not rare cases <strong>the</strong> arose are divided <strong>in</strong>to two ; <strong>the</strong>number of pores hardly exceeds fifty ; <strong>the</strong> arose may be square aswell as rhomboidal, or may be triangular or have <strong>the</strong> angles rounded.There is not that diflcrence <strong>in</strong> hue between <strong>the</strong> tissue cover<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>areoe and that cover<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> sp<strong>in</strong>clets which Mr. Sladen observed ;but <strong>the</strong>re may be great differences <strong>in</strong> colour, specimens be<strong>in</strong>g ashygrey or deep brown. The m<strong>in</strong>or radial axis is respectively 60,48-U, and 44-7 millim.Port MoUe, and Thursday Island (4 fms., coral).OPHIUROIDEA.Lyman, Prel. List, p. S*.This is <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong>1. Pect<strong>in</strong>ura gorg<strong>on</strong>ia.species that extends as far west as Mauritius,<strong>in</strong> a dried specimen from which island all <strong>the</strong> transverse bands <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>arms have disappeared, and <strong>the</strong> number of arm-sp<strong>in</strong>es is as many astwelve.Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>, 0-5 fms.2. Pect<strong>in</strong>ura <strong>in</strong>fernalis. (Plate Till. fig. B.)Ophiaracl<strong>in</strong>a <strong>in</strong>fernalis, J/. Tr. p. 105.Pect<strong>in</strong>ura <strong>in</strong>fernalis, Lyman, Lull. 31. C. Z. iii. p. 222 ; and Prel.List, p. 3.The three naked plates between <strong>the</strong> radial shields, which are somarkedly referred to <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> orig<strong>in</strong>al descripti<strong>on</strong>, and are so wellseen <strong>in</strong> Mr. Lyman's figure, are not always so dist<strong>in</strong>ctly developed,as may be seen by <strong>the</strong> figure which is now given.Port Molle ; Thursday Island ; Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel ; a youngspecimen fi'om Port Darw<strong>in</strong>.3. Pect<strong>in</strong>ura megaloplax.Very large naked radial shields ; disk elsewhere covered with acoarse granulati<strong>on</strong>, beneath which are largish j:)lates, somewhatpuffed ; <strong>the</strong> arras wide at <strong>the</strong>ir <strong>in</strong>serti<strong>on</strong>, slightly car<strong>in</strong>ated. Largeaccessory mouth-shields present <strong>in</strong> all <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>terradii ;pores betweenfirst and sec<strong>on</strong>d ventral arm-plates <strong>on</strong>ly ; about seven ra<strong>the</strong>r delicatelateral arm-sp<strong>in</strong>es ; upper arm-plates not broken.* The bibliographical referenops are here chiefly c<strong>on</strong>f<strong>in</strong>ed to Mr. Lyman'sPrelim<strong>in</strong>ary List ' (Cambridge, U. S. A., 1880).


ECHTNODERMATA. 135Diameter of disk 19 millim., length of arm about 83 millim. from<strong>the</strong> edge of <strong>the</strong> disk, width of arm at disk 6 millim., height of same5 millim. Fourteen mouth-papillse of fair size, <strong>the</strong> outermost <strong>the</strong>largest ; four stout teeth ; mouth-plates with six sides, <strong>the</strong> ahoral<strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>gest and <strong>the</strong> adoral <strong>the</strong> shortest, l<strong>on</strong>gest hardly l<strong>on</strong>ger thanbroadest axis ; accessory mouth-plates large, l<strong>on</strong>ger than broad,straight with<strong>in</strong>, c<strong>on</strong>vex without; side mouth-shields dist<strong>in</strong>ct, <strong>in</strong>cl<strong>in</strong>edto be triangular, broader with<strong>in</strong> than without ;granulatedspace between mouth-papillaj and mouth-shield very small.Lower arm-plates at first wider than l<strong>on</strong>g, but vary<strong>in</strong>g a gooddeal <strong>in</strong> shape ;proceed<strong>in</strong>g outwards <strong>the</strong> adoral edge becomes shorterand shorter as <strong>the</strong> side arm-plates encroach more and more up<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>ventral middle l<strong>in</strong>e. The upper arm-plates at <strong>the</strong> base of <strong>the</strong> armsare very wide, about foui* times as wide as <strong>the</strong>y are l<strong>on</strong>g, fur<strong>the</strong>rout <strong>the</strong>y become narrower, and towards <strong>the</strong> tip of <strong>the</strong> arm are verymuch encroached up<strong>on</strong> by <strong>the</strong> side plates ; as a rule <strong>the</strong>re are sevensp<strong>in</strong>es ou <strong>the</strong> plates. Tentacle-scales two.This f<strong>in</strong>e form stands nearest to P. marmorata, from which itmay be dist<strong>in</strong>guished by (i.) <strong>the</strong> much larger radial shields, (ii.) <strong>the</strong>wider arm-bases, (iii.) smaller number of arm-sp<strong>in</strong>es, (iv.) largeraccessory mouth-shield, and (v.) proporti<strong>on</strong>ately shorter arms.Port Molle (14 fms.).OPHIOPINAX, g. n.It appears to be necessary to establish a new genus for <strong>the</strong> recepti<strong>on</strong>of <strong>the</strong> form hi<strong>the</strong>rto known as Pect<strong>in</strong>ura steUata, ow<strong>in</strong>g to<strong>the</strong> remarkable and regular arrangement of <strong>the</strong>large plates <strong>on</strong> itsdisk ; this, which is <strong>on</strong>ly obscurely seen <strong>in</strong> smaller specimens, becomesvery prom<strong>in</strong>ent <strong>in</strong> such larger examples as were obta<strong>in</strong>eddur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> voyage of <strong>the</strong> ' Alert.'The genus may be def<strong>in</strong>ed as follows:—Two el<strong>on</strong>gated genital clefts;mouth-papillse, teeth. Accessory oral shields ; arm-sij<strong>in</strong>es delicate,attached to <strong>the</strong> outer edge of <strong>the</strong> side arm-plates. Eadial shieldslarge, separated by several radial or <strong>in</strong>terradial plates from <strong>on</strong>eano<strong>the</strong>r. All <strong>the</strong> disk, except <strong>the</strong> radial shields, is covered bygranules, but <strong>the</strong>re are no sp<strong>in</strong>es or sp<strong>in</strong>ous processes. Teeth (<strong>in</strong>four rows) stout, blunt. Side arm-plates extend <strong>on</strong> to both act<strong>in</strong>aland abact<strong>in</strong>al surfaces ; side mouth-shields naked.The extraord<strong>in</strong>ary development of <strong>the</strong> plates between <strong>the</strong> radialshields, both of <strong>the</strong> same and of <strong>the</strong> neighbour<strong>in</strong>g sets, appears tohave escaped <strong>the</strong> notice of Ljungman and Grube ; nor can it, Iimag<strong>in</strong>e, have been noticed by Mr, Lyman, as he reta<strong>in</strong>s 0. stellataof Ljungman <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> emended genus Pect<strong>in</strong>ura.At this time it ajjpcars c<strong>on</strong>venient to redescribe and figure <strong>the</strong>species.


;136 COLLECTIONS FBOM MELANESIA.4. OpMop<strong>in</strong>ax stellatus. (Plate VIII. fig. C.)Pect<strong>in</strong>ura stellata, Lyman, Trd. List, p. 3.Disk somewhat pentag<strong>on</strong>al, not pnfFed, with a central rosette ofplates vary<strong>in</strong>g a good deal <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> extent to which it is well def<strong>in</strong>ed,and occupy<strong>in</strong>g about half <strong>the</strong> upper surface ; <strong>in</strong> some cases a centralplate and two not very regular circlets of variously sized plates ofirregular form can be <strong>made</strong> out. The <strong>in</strong>terradial series of plates,which extend from <strong>the</strong> rosette to <strong>the</strong> edge of <strong>the</strong> disk, are stouterand more prom<strong>in</strong>ent than <strong>the</strong> radial series ; <strong>the</strong>y are composed ofthree or four plates vary<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> size and form, and sometimes pairedat <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong> of <strong>the</strong> disk ; <strong>the</strong> larger median have smaller plates <strong>on</strong>ei<strong>the</strong>r side. The radial series may, for its undivided porti<strong>on</strong>, beformed by a s<strong>in</strong>gle plate, but, as a more general rule, <strong>the</strong>re arethree ; <strong>the</strong>re are no smaller marg<strong>in</strong>al plates. The bifurcated bandwhich embraces <strong>the</strong> base of <strong>the</strong> arm has usually three pieces <strong>on</strong>ei<strong>the</strong>r half. Just below <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong> of <strong>the</strong> disk <strong>the</strong>re is a prom<strong>in</strong>entplate, which is placed <strong>in</strong>terradially ; <strong>in</strong> shape this is irregularlycordiform ; above, <strong>on</strong> ei<strong>the</strong>r side, it is bounded by a compressed ordiam<strong>on</strong>d-shaped plate ; between it and <strong>the</strong> mouth-plate <strong>the</strong>re is apair of smaller plates and several still smaller plates <strong>in</strong>terven<strong>in</strong>g ;<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> side <strong>the</strong>re is an el<strong>on</strong>gated plate, with two smaller <strong>on</strong>es, ly<strong>in</strong>gal<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> edge of <strong>the</strong> genital slit. The radial shields are large andtriangular, and fill up all <strong>the</strong> space <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> disk between <strong>the</strong> radialand <strong>in</strong>terradial plates which is not occupied by <strong>the</strong> rosette.The <strong>in</strong>ner mouth-shields have a straight outer edge, <strong>the</strong> sides areat first straight, and <strong>the</strong>n bend<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>wards meet <strong>on</strong>e ano<strong>the</strong>r at amore or less acute angle ; <strong>the</strong>y are l<strong>on</strong>ger than broad ; <strong>the</strong> spacebetween <strong>the</strong>m and <strong>the</strong> edges of <strong>the</strong> mouth is ra<strong>the</strong>r loosely granular<strong>the</strong> outer mouth-shields are about as broad as l<strong>on</strong>g, and have aslightly c<strong>on</strong>vex outer edge ; <strong>the</strong> umbo is well marked, and thatshield is not divided ; <strong>the</strong> side mouth-shields are well developed,and are separated from <strong>the</strong> genital slits by a small granulated patch.Seven mouth-papillte, <strong>the</strong> three <strong>in</strong>nermost small, <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>nermostsmallest ; <strong>the</strong> next three large, <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> size from with<strong>in</strong> outwards; <strong>the</strong> outermost aga<strong>in</strong> small.The arms beg<strong>in</strong> to narrow immediately after leav<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> disk,and become very delicate at <strong>the</strong>ir free ends ; <strong>in</strong> a well-developedspecimen, <strong>in</strong> which <strong>the</strong> disk measures 17 millim. <strong>in</strong> diameter, <strong>the</strong>yare 70 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g, 5 millim. wide, and 4-5 millim. high at <strong>the</strong>ir<strong>in</strong>serti<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> disk. Upper surface car<strong>in</strong>ated ;upper arm-platesabout three times as wide as <strong>the</strong>y are l<strong>on</strong>g, but, ow<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>vasi<strong>on</strong>of <strong>the</strong> side arm-plates, <strong>the</strong> aboral is l<strong>on</strong>ger than <strong>the</strong> adoral edgeboth <strong>the</strong>se edges are straight.There is a pair of pores between <strong>the</strong> first and sec<strong>on</strong>d lower armplates; <strong>the</strong> lower, like <strong>the</strong> upper, arm-plates have <strong>the</strong>ir aboral l<strong>on</strong>gerthan <strong>the</strong>ir adoral edges, and this, as <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> upper surface, is due to<strong>the</strong> encroachments of <strong>the</strong> side arm-plates, and is more str<strong>on</strong>glymarked near to, than far from, <strong>the</strong> disk. N<strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> edges of <strong>the</strong>se


ECHIJfODEEMATA. 137plates are curved ; <strong>the</strong> plates <strong>the</strong>mselves are at first broader thanl<strong>on</strong>g, but dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>ir gradual dim<strong>in</strong>uti<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong> size <strong>the</strong>y have at <strong>on</strong>etime <strong>the</strong>ir aboral edge equal to <strong>the</strong>ir l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>al axis ; still fur<strong>the</strong>rout <strong>the</strong>y are l<strong>on</strong>ger than broad. About six, short, poorly developedsp<strong>in</strong>es are found <strong>on</strong> each of <strong>the</strong> side arm-plates near <strong>the</strong> disk, ofwhich <strong>the</strong> largest are median <strong>in</strong> positi<strong>on</strong> ; <strong>the</strong>y dim<strong>in</strong>ish <strong>in</strong> numberand size as <strong>the</strong>y approach <strong>the</strong> free end of <strong>the</strong> arm. Two small tentacle-scales.Upper surface (<strong>in</strong> alcohol) dark yellow, with spots or patches ofbrown ; <strong>the</strong> whole of <strong>the</strong> act<strong>in</strong>al surface pale flesh-colour. Although,as a rule, three c<strong>on</strong>secutive segments are coloured by a darker transversepatch, <strong>the</strong>re may be <strong>on</strong>ly two, or <strong>the</strong>re may be four so ornamented,and, as irregularities, <strong>on</strong>e or more than four ; but <strong>the</strong> colorati<strong>on</strong>always extends <strong>on</strong> to <strong>the</strong> sides of <strong>the</strong> arm, though it neverpasses <strong>on</strong> to <strong>the</strong> lower surface. Or <strong>the</strong> whole may be very manyshades darker, and <strong>the</strong>n <strong>the</strong> darkest parts are not especially remarkable; this last mode of colorati<strong>on</strong> appears to be by far <strong>the</strong> mostcomni<strong>on</strong>.Port Molle, Queensland, 14 fms., rock ; and Port Denis<strong>on</strong>,3-4 fms.In some examples, which are very much smaller, from Torres Straits<strong>the</strong> radial shields are oviform, <strong>the</strong> upper arm-plates are not nearlyso wide nor so dist<strong>in</strong>ctly car<strong>in</strong>ated ; <strong>the</strong> central rosette may be <strong>on</strong>lybarely <strong>in</strong>dicated, though <strong>the</strong> central plate is very dist<strong>in</strong>ct ; <strong>the</strong> platesof <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>terradial series have no small marg<strong>in</strong>al sec<strong>on</strong>dary plates.The side arm-plates at <strong>the</strong> base of <strong>the</strong> arm are proporti<strong>on</strong>ately muchlarger, and <strong>in</strong> c<strong>on</strong>sequence dim<strong>in</strong>ish <strong>the</strong> breadth of <strong>the</strong> lower as wellas of <strong>the</strong> upper arm-plates. Strik<strong>in</strong>g as is <strong>the</strong> difference <strong>in</strong> effectproduced by <strong>the</strong>se dift'erences <strong>in</strong> character, <strong>the</strong>y are, I th<strong>in</strong>k, <strong>on</strong>lyto be ascribed to age.5. OpMopeza c<strong>on</strong>jimgens.This species seems to streng<strong>the</strong>n <strong>the</strong> op<strong>in</strong>i<strong>on</strong>, more than <strong>on</strong>ce expressedby Mr. Lyman, that <strong>the</strong> genera O/ihiojJeza and Pect<strong>in</strong>ura arebarely to be dist<strong>in</strong>guished. AVithout a divided mouth-shield, it has<strong>the</strong> arms not rounded, as <strong>in</strong> 0. fallcuv, but keeled above, as is so often<strong>the</strong> case <strong>in</strong> Pect<strong>in</strong>ura.Most closely allied to 0. fallax, it may be dist<strong>in</strong>guished by <strong>the</strong>somewhat coarser granulati<strong>on</strong> of its disk, <strong>the</strong> smaller number ofmouth-papillse, and <strong>the</strong> broadened upper arm-plates.Disk pentag<strong>on</strong>al, flattened, 17'5 millim. diam. <strong>in</strong> <strong>on</strong>e example,completely covered by a delicate and regular granulati<strong>on</strong> (of abouttwenty granules to 1 millim.), <strong>the</strong> underly<strong>in</strong>g scales not large ; <strong>the</strong>radial shields, <strong>in</strong> perfect specimens, <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>in</strong>dicated by depressi<strong>on</strong>s.Mouth-shields not divided, wider than l<strong>on</strong>g, with a wide c<strong>on</strong>vexadoral edge, straighter sides, and a barely c<strong>on</strong>vex aboral marg<strong>in</strong>.Side mouth-shields small ; <strong>the</strong> space between <strong>the</strong> mouth-shield and<strong>the</strong> edge of <strong>the</strong> jaws is marked by a granulati<strong>on</strong>, much coarser thanthat which obta<strong>in</strong>s elsewhere <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> disk. Mouth-papillae seven.


138 COLLECTIONS PEOM MELANESIA.stout, tlie penultimate <strong>on</strong>e about twice as wide as those <strong>on</strong> ei<strong>the</strong>rside of it.The arms, which are not more than four times <strong>the</strong> diameter of<strong>the</strong> disk, are very delicate at <strong>the</strong>ir tip, str<strong>on</strong>gly car<strong>in</strong>ated superiorly<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> proximal porti<strong>on</strong> ; <strong>the</strong> upper arm-plates have pretty straightoral and aboral edges, about twice and a half as wide as <strong>the</strong>yare l<strong>on</strong>g ; <strong>the</strong> lower arm-plates are encroached up<strong>on</strong> by <strong>the</strong> sideplates, which extend far towards <strong>the</strong> middle l<strong>in</strong>e ; near <strong>the</strong> disk<strong>the</strong>y are wider than l<strong>on</strong>g and hexag<strong>on</strong>al <strong>in</strong> form ; fur<strong>the</strong>r out <strong>the</strong>two lateral angles widen out, <strong>the</strong> sides gradually become straighter,and a quadrangular replaces <strong>the</strong> hexag<strong>on</strong>al form ; towards <strong>the</strong> distalend of <strong>the</strong> arm <strong>the</strong> ventral plates are l<strong>on</strong>ger than broad. Arrasp<strong>in</strong>es,near <strong>the</strong> disk, eight, <strong>the</strong> median l<strong>on</strong>ger than those above orbelow <strong>the</strong>m ;quite close to <strong>the</strong> disk <strong>the</strong>y may be l<strong>on</strong>g enough toextend to <strong>the</strong> edge of <strong>the</strong> next plate ;rajjidly, however, <strong>the</strong>y becomeshorter, though <strong>the</strong>y do not dim<strong>in</strong>ish ei<strong>the</strong>r rapidly or notably <strong>in</strong>number. Tentacle-scales two <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> most proximal jo<strong>in</strong>ts, <strong>on</strong>ebey<strong>on</strong>d. A pore between <strong>the</strong> first and sec<strong>on</strong>d arm-plates.Colour, <strong>in</strong> alcohol, brownish, with some blackish spots <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>disk ; <strong>the</strong>se are also found <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> arms ; three or f<strong>on</strong>r successiveplates often much darker than those <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t of or beh<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong>m.Port Molle (1-1: fms., rock) ; Port Curtis ; Port Denis<strong>on</strong> ; ThursdayIsland.Specimens of this species, bear<strong>in</strong>g as locality " Indian <strong>Ocean</strong>,"have l<strong>on</strong>g been <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Museum.Specimens of what may be <strong>the</strong> young of this species were taken<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of AYales Channel.Lyman, p. 4.6. Ophiolepis annulosa.Clairm<strong>on</strong>t Island ;Port Darw<strong>in</strong>.7. OpMoplocus imbricatus.Lyman, p. 4.Port Darw<strong>in</strong>.8. Ophiactis savignii.Lyman, p. 14.Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>, 0-5 fms.9. Ophi<strong>on</strong>ereis dubia.Lyman, p. 26.Thursday Island; Albany Island; Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel:Torres Straits.


;ECHINODEKMATA. 13910. OpMocoma brevipes.Peters, Archivfilr Natur. 1852, p. 85 ;see Lyman, p. 27.Mr. Lj'man (Prel. List, p. 27) gives as syn<strong>on</strong>yms of this, his own0. <strong>in</strong>sv.laria (about which <strong>the</strong>re will, I suppose, be no dispute), <strong>the</strong>0. ternisjnna of Martens, an unnamed specimen of which, from<strong>the</strong> island of Mauritius, has been for many years <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> collecti<strong>on</strong> of<strong>the</strong> British Museum and has for a l<strong>on</strong>g time been a source of muchdisquiet to myself (I am now persuaded that this is a specimen towhich Dr. v<strong>on</strong> Martens would have given <strong>the</strong> name ternisjj'ma),Ophiocoma varieguta and 0. brevisjnnosa of E. A. Smith, from <strong>the</strong>island of Rodriguez. I do not know that a more western localitythan <strong>the</strong> island just named has ever been recorded l)y a zoologistat any rate, Dr. Haacke did not detect <strong>the</strong> species am<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> Ophiuridscollected by Prof. Mtibius <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> island of Mauritius *, unlesshe has been, as is possible, misled by <strong>the</strong> def<strong>in</strong>iti<strong>on</strong> of 0. squamatagiven by M tiller and Troschel ; <strong>the</strong> three or four lateral sp<strong>in</strong>es, <strong>the</strong>two teutacle-scales, and <strong>the</strong> square mark<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> upper armplatesmight deceive a hasty nomcuclator, but <strong>the</strong>y could not, Ith<strong>in</strong>k, mislead any <strong>on</strong>e who refers to <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d editi<strong>on</strong> of Lamarck(vol. iii. ly40), p. 225, where he will f<strong>in</strong>d references to <strong>the</strong> platesof L<strong>in</strong>k and 0. F. Miiller. Although <strong>the</strong> species <strong>the</strong>re figured isregarded by <strong>the</strong> editors as dist<strong>in</strong>ct from 0. squamata, <strong>the</strong> resemblancebetween such an Oi^hiurid as this Ophiocoma and <strong>the</strong> OphiothrixpentapliyUum figured by <strong>the</strong> two just-menti<strong>on</strong>ed naturalists, is sovery slight that we are forbidden from suppos<strong>in</strong>g that <strong>the</strong> Ophiurasquamata, Lamk. {Opiiiocoma squamata, M. & Tr.), is a near ally ofan Ophiothrix or Ophiothrix-lWa form.The variati<strong>on</strong>s exhibited by this very widely distributed speciesare <strong>in</strong>deed remarkable. It seemed for a time that <strong>the</strong> larger numberand smaller size of <strong>the</strong> mouth-papilla) at <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>ner angles of 0. variegataand of 0. hrtvisp<strong>in</strong>osa would <strong>in</strong>dicate a certa<strong>in</strong> difference ; buta difference of quite equal extent can be detected <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> mouthorgansof a s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen. The hollow square mark<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>upper arm-plates, which, when well developed, seems to give such acharacteristic appearance to <strong>the</strong> arms of this species, may be replacedby a black patch, or <strong>the</strong>re may be a transverse bar, or <strong>the</strong>re may be<strong>on</strong>ly <strong>the</strong> two l<strong>in</strong>es left which run parallel to <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>g axis of <strong>the</strong>arm ; aga<strong>in</strong>, <strong>the</strong>re may be spots, or <strong>the</strong> colorati<strong>on</strong> may be fairlyuniform. The colour of <strong>the</strong> disk may be pale, spotted, or reticulated;<strong>the</strong> mouth- shields spotted or uniform <strong>in</strong> colour.Levuka, Fiji.* MiJbius,'Beitrage zur Meeresfauna der Insel Mauritius ' &c. (Berl<strong>in</strong>, 1880).Iq what follows I may seem to speak somewhat harshly of Dr. Haacke's services ;but I am bound to po<strong>in</strong>t out that <strong>the</strong> list of Ophiurids given <strong>on</strong> p. 50 of thiswork has no scientific value whatever. 0. dentata has been for many yearsregarded, first by Lyman (18()5) and s<strong>in</strong>ce by o<strong>the</strong>rs, as " <strong>on</strong>ly a middl<strong>in</strong>g-sized0. ech<strong>in</strong>ata;" <strong>the</strong> type of 0. aquamata has been lo.st, " and nobody can tellwhat it was, though it might have been 0. brevipes." Dr. Haacke makes noreference to ei<strong>the</strong>r of <strong>the</strong>se judgments.


—140 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.Lyman, p. 26.Port MoUe.11. Ophiocoma scolopendr<strong>in</strong>a.12. Ophiartlirum elegans.Peters, Wiegmanri's Arch. 1852, p. 82.Though <strong>the</strong> British Museum possesses several specimens of thisspecies, <strong>the</strong> present is especially useful, as it is <strong>the</strong> first which hascome to hand <strong>in</strong> which even <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> " sehr zerbreehlich " armshas been preserved entire. As <strong>the</strong> disk measures 18 millim., andthis complete arm ra<strong>the</strong>r more than 120 millim., we f<strong>in</strong>d that <strong>the</strong>object now <strong>in</strong> hand presents very much <strong>the</strong> same proporti<strong>on</strong>s as <strong>the</strong>specimen described by Dr. Peters. In an example from TorresStraits, which has been some years <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> possessi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> Trustees,<strong>the</strong>re is an arm which is <strong>in</strong> a sense complete, but it was obviouslybroken dur<strong>in</strong>g life ; and though <strong>the</strong> disk is of very much <strong>the</strong> same diameteras that just added to <strong>the</strong> collecti<strong>on</strong>, this arm <strong>on</strong>ly measures60 millim.Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger's specimen was collected at Levuka, Fiji.OPHIOTHRIX.In additi<strong>on</strong> to <strong>the</strong> series hereafter menti<strong>on</strong>ed and described,-<strong>the</strong>rewere <strong>in</strong>dicati<strong>on</strong>s cf o<strong>the</strong>r species, not sufficiently good to justify descripti<strong>on</strong>,but quite well enough marked to po<strong>in</strong>t to <strong>the</strong> great wealthof Ojjhiothrvv-iorms <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> seas where <strong>the</strong>se dredg<strong>in</strong>gs were <strong>made</strong>.Lyman, p. 34.13. OpMothrix fumaria.As this is a very rare species, <strong>the</strong> follow<strong>in</strong>g notes may be of<strong>in</strong>terest :Eadial shields naked, large, with a curve al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong>ir basal edge,each separated from its fellow by a low ridge <strong>on</strong> which granules aregenerally developed. Each pair of radial shields is separated by someseven rows of prom<strong>in</strong>ent granules : <strong>the</strong>se granules occupy all but <strong>the</strong>very central porti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> disk, and form a sp<strong>in</strong>ous patch <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>lower surface. Mouth-shields irregularly oval, pretty sharply angulatedproximally and very narrow dis tally, so that <strong>the</strong> bridge between<strong>the</strong> genital slits is very narrow. Only <strong>the</strong> median porti<strong>on</strong> of<strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>terbrachial space is sp<strong>in</strong>ous.Upper arm-plates a good deal encroached up<strong>on</strong> by <strong>the</strong> side armplates,so that, for <strong>the</strong> greater part of <strong>the</strong> arm, <strong>the</strong>y are wider al<strong>on</strong>g<strong>the</strong>ir distal than <strong>the</strong>ir proximal edge ;sp<strong>in</strong>e-ridge of side arm-platesnot specially well developed ; lower arm-plates rectangular, a little


KCHlNODERMATAj 141broader than l<strong>on</strong>g. Six arm-sp<strong>in</strong>es, <strong>the</strong> uppermost <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>gest, asl<strong>on</strong>g as two or three arm-plates, swollen at <strong>the</strong>ir tip, <strong>on</strong>ly fa<strong>in</strong>tlythorny. One tentacle-scale.Disk with a large number of blue patches and dots ; arm-platesabove fa<strong>in</strong>t reddish p<strong>in</strong>k, with dots of blue at <strong>the</strong> sides, and broadtransverse bands of blue at regular <strong>in</strong>tervals. Colour-markihgsbelow less pr<strong>on</strong>ounced.Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>, 0-5 fms.Lyman^ Chall, Rep. p. 218.14. OpMothrix caBspitosa.Though <strong>the</strong> Challenger ' ' found but few representatives of thisspecies, it is apparently <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> most comm<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> neighbourhoodof Sydney.Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>, March 1881.Lyman, p. 36.15. OpMothrix martensi.If I am right <strong>in</strong> ascrib<strong>in</strong>g to this species examples from ThursdayIsland and Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, it is <strong>on</strong>e which must be regarded as exhi-*bit<strong>in</strong>g very remarkable variati<strong>on</strong>s <strong>in</strong> colorati<strong>on</strong>. The orig<strong>in</strong>al specimens,collected by Prof. Semper <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Philipp<strong>in</strong>es, were describedby Mr. Lyman as be<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> colour, " above, bright <strong>in</strong>digo, with adarker l<strong>in</strong>e al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> arm, bounded by a lighter <strong>on</strong>e <strong>on</strong> ei<strong>the</strong>r side ;below, paler <strong>in</strong>digo, with a white l<strong>in</strong>e al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> arm." In a smallerspecimen, " <strong>the</strong> blue l<strong>in</strong>es al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> arms were c<strong>on</strong>t<strong>in</strong>ued to <strong>the</strong>centre of <strong>the</strong> disk, but were not marg<strong>in</strong>ed by lighter liucs." In <strong>the</strong>two specimens collected <strong>on</strong> "Aug. 7, 1874" (<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> neighbourhoodof <strong>the</strong> Fiji Islands), by <strong>the</strong> ' Challenger,' and determ<strong>in</strong>ed by Mr.Lyman, I observe that <strong>the</strong>re is a fa<strong>in</strong>t <strong>in</strong>dicati<strong>on</strong> of a white l<strong>in</strong>e <strong>on</strong>ei<strong>the</strong>r side of <strong>the</strong> blue l<strong>in</strong>es <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> disk, and that <strong>the</strong> white l<strong>in</strong>e<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> ventral surface is, at places, broken across by a patch of<strong>in</strong>digo.On ei<strong>the</strong>r side of <strong>the</strong>se " typical specimens " <strong>the</strong>re would appearto be a light and a dark variety. In <strong>the</strong> latter <strong>the</strong> whole creaturemay be deep purple, <strong>the</strong> two white l<strong>in</strong>es <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> arms be<strong>in</strong>g at regulardistances <strong>in</strong>vaded by purple patches of such a size as to leave <strong>on</strong>lyspaces of white equal to <strong>the</strong>mselves ; and as <strong>the</strong>se patches are symmetrical<strong>on</strong> ei<strong>the</strong>r side of <strong>the</strong> middle l<strong>in</strong>e, <strong>the</strong> orig<strong>in</strong>al white l<strong>in</strong>escome to be represented by noth<strong>in</strong>g more than paired patches of white ;similarly <strong>the</strong> white l<strong>in</strong>e below disappears, or ra<strong>the</strong>r is forced out to<strong>the</strong> sides, and appears <strong>on</strong>ly as a th<strong>in</strong> marg<strong>in</strong>al l<strong>in</strong>e. The lightvariety is no less <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g ; with <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> radiat<strong>in</strong>gl<strong>in</strong>es, <strong>the</strong> disk above is altoge<strong>the</strong>r white, and even <strong>the</strong>se l<strong>in</strong>es may


142 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.become less c<strong>on</strong>spicuous and much reduced ; <strong>the</strong> white l<strong>in</strong>es al<strong>on</strong>g<strong>the</strong> arm are broken <strong>in</strong>to by blue patches, much less extensively developedthan <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> dark form ; <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> lower surface of <strong>the</strong> arm<strong>the</strong> blue l<strong>in</strong>es may be present as c<strong>on</strong>t<strong>in</strong>uous" tracts, or <strong>the</strong>y may hereand <strong>the</strong>re be <strong>in</strong>terrupted by white.Port Curtis ; Thursday Island ; Port Darw<strong>in</strong>.16. Ophiothrix striolata.Lyman, p. 36.Thursday Island.17. Ophiothrix galatesB.Lyman, p. 36.Port Darw<strong>in</strong>.18. Ophiothrix ciliaris.Lyman, p. 85.Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>, 0-5 fms. ;Port MoUe.„ 19. Ophiothrix rotata.Martens, Arch.f. Nat. 1870, p. 258.A s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen, without doubt referred to this species, differs<strong>in</strong> <strong>on</strong>e or two po<strong>in</strong>ts from tbat described by Dr. v<strong>on</strong> Martens. In<strong>the</strong> Berl<strong>in</strong>-Museum specimen <strong>the</strong> diameter of <strong>the</strong> disk is 7 millim.,and <strong>the</strong> length of <strong>the</strong> arras 35 millim. In our specimen <strong>the</strong> armsmust have been nearly 150 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g, while <strong>the</strong> diameter of <strong>the</strong>disk is 12 millim. The upper sp<strong>in</strong>es are not more than twice <strong>the</strong>width of <strong>the</strong> arm, <strong>in</strong>stead of four times. The orig<strong>in</strong>al describermakes two statements with regard to <strong>the</strong> colour of <strong>the</strong> oral shields :— " Unterseite der Bcheibe mit den Muudschildern und die Armstachelnblass " ; and " Das der Madreporenplatte zi;gehorige Mundschildist merklich grosser, an den Heiten nicht e<strong>in</strong>gebuchtet undweiss, nicht wie die andern violett." In <strong>the</strong> specimen now underexam<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>re is some violet mark<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong> each <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> mouthshields.Thursday Island, 3-4 fms.So far as <strong>the</strong> present collecti<strong>on</strong> allows me to form any ideas withregard to <strong>the</strong> range of variati<strong>on</strong> with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> limits of a " species," and<strong>the</strong> value of <strong>the</strong> colour-mark<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>on</strong> which previous <strong>in</strong>vestigators havevery much greater than waslaid, and, as it seemed, justifiably, very c<strong>on</strong>siderable stress, I am <strong>in</strong>cl<strong>in</strong>edto <strong>the</strong> view that <strong>the</strong> variati<strong>on</strong> issupposed, and that, after all, colour-mark<strong>in</strong>g, though an importantaid <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> discrim<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> species, can hardly be said to have<strong>the</strong> value which has been attached to it. The doubts first raisedby a study of 0. martensi (vide supra) are not a little streng<strong>the</strong>nedby <strong>the</strong> three specimens now ly<strong>in</strong>g before me, which, I have little


ECHINODKRMATA. 143doubt, will be seen, when a large series is to hand, to be noth<strong>in</strong>gmore than varieties of 0. rotata. As n<strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> arms are complete,<strong>the</strong> measurements I could give might <strong>on</strong>ly be deceptive ; <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>m <strong>the</strong>upper arm-sp<strong>in</strong>es are proporti<strong>on</strong>ately lai'ger than <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> specimenalready spoken of; <strong>the</strong> bands separat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> plates, <strong>the</strong> character ofwhich has given rise to <strong>the</strong> specific name, may vary -<strong>in</strong> breadth <strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong>eand <strong>the</strong> same disk; and <strong>the</strong> granules may be <strong>in</strong> narrow or broad bands,and may be so greatly el<strong>on</strong>gated that <strong>the</strong>y may more correctly bespoken of as sp<strong>in</strong>es ; <strong>the</strong> mark<strong>in</strong>g would by some be spoken of asexceed<strong>in</strong>gly characteristic, for <strong>the</strong>re extend from <strong>the</strong> disk <strong>on</strong> to <strong>the</strong>arms two l<strong>in</strong>es of dots of blue ; at every fourth plate, when regular,<strong>the</strong> two dots of ei<strong>the</strong>r side fuse, and <strong>the</strong> spot enlarges <strong>in</strong>to a bluepatch ; an exactly similar mark<strong>in</strong>g is to be seen <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> lower surface.In <strong>the</strong> specimen unhesitat<strong>in</strong>gly placed with 0. rotata <strong>the</strong>re isnot this def<strong>in</strong>ite arrangement of <strong>the</strong> dots.I have thought it right to direct attenti<strong>on</strong> to <strong>the</strong>se peculiarities,but a full and satisfactory discussi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> subject must be based<strong>on</strong> a much larger series of specimens.These examples were also from Thursday Island.20. Ophiothrix punctolimbata.Martens, Arch.f. Nat. 1870, p. 257.Port Curtis ; Port Molle ; Thursday Island, 3-4 fms. ; Pr<strong>in</strong>ce ofWales Channel ; Warrior E-eef.The specimen from Port Curtis, which is smaller than <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rs,has <strong>the</strong> lateral sp<strong>in</strong>es proporti<strong>on</strong>ately l<strong>on</strong>ger, more ech<strong>in</strong>ulated, andmuch more glossy.Lyman, p. 35.21. Ophiothrix l<strong>on</strong>gipeda.Port Curtis ;Port Molle.22. Ophiothrix microplax.Disk large, covered with short sp<strong>in</strong>es, less thick <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> radialshields ; ends of <strong>the</strong> not-thorny arm-sp<strong>in</strong>es fa<strong>in</strong>tly clavate. Proporti<strong>on</strong>of arms to disk about 6 to 1.The disk is ra<strong>the</strong>r large (20 millim. <strong>in</strong> diameter) and is coveredwith very short sp<strong>in</strong>es, which may almost be described as sp<strong>in</strong>ousgranules ; <strong>the</strong>se are not so closely packed <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> radial shields or <strong>on</strong><strong>the</strong> act<strong>in</strong>al surface as <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> rest of <strong>the</strong> disk. The radial shieldsare small, el<strong>on</strong>gated, triangular, <strong>the</strong> straight base of <strong>the</strong> <strong>on</strong>e facesthat of <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r ; <strong>the</strong> plates of each pair are separated by severalel<strong>on</strong>gated scales, which carry a few l<strong>on</strong>ger sp<strong>in</strong>es. There is someimbricati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> scales <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> act<strong>in</strong>al surface of <strong>the</strong> disk.


144 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.Arms at least six times <strong>the</strong> diameter of <strong>the</strong> disk, not dim<strong>in</strong>ished<strong>in</strong> width for some distance out. Just bey<strong>on</strong>d <strong>the</strong> disk <strong>the</strong>re are threelarge upper and four much shorter sj^<strong>in</strong>es : <strong>the</strong> lowest, which is <strong>the</strong>smallest, is very small ;gradually this disappears, and <strong>the</strong>n <strong>the</strong>follow<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong>e gets smaller and smaller till it disappears. The uppersp<strong>in</strong>es are fa<strong>in</strong>tly ech<strong>in</strong>ulated near <strong>the</strong>ir tip ; <strong>the</strong> uppermost but<strong>on</strong>e is generally ra<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>gest, but is never more than equal toabout <strong>the</strong> length of two of <strong>the</strong> upper arm-plates.The edge of <strong>the</strong> genital slit is fr<strong>in</strong>ged by some el<strong>on</strong>gated plates;<strong>the</strong> bridge is pretty wide ; <strong>the</strong> mouth-shields are largo and stout,ra<strong>the</strong>r l<strong>on</strong>ger than broad, and have a notch <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> middle of <strong>the</strong>ir<strong>in</strong>ner edge.The lower arm-plates have pretty even sides and are of about <strong>the</strong>same length as breadth ; <strong>the</strong> tentacle-scale is <strong>on</strong>ly dist<strong>in</strong>ct at <strong>the</strong>proximal end of <strong>the</strong> arm. The upper arm-plates are twice as broadas l<strong>on</strong>g, broader al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong>ir distal than <strong>the</strong>ir proximal edge.General colour of disk yellowish grey, <strong>the</strong> radial shields violet, <strong>the</strong>upper arm-plates washed with slate-grey and hav<strong>in</strong>g a fa<strong>in</strong>t whitel<strong>in</strong>e al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong>ir middle ; <strong>the</strong> sp<strong>in</strong>es light-coloured, but darkertowards <strong>the</strong>ir tip ; <strong>the</strong> actiual surface lighter ; <strong>the</strong> mouth-shieldsprom<strong>in</strong>ent by <strong>the</strong>ir whiteness.Port Darw<strong>in</strong>.23, OpMothrix darw<strong>in</strong>i.Disk somewhat pentag<strong>on</strong>al, with delicate sp<strong>in</strong>es <strong>on</strong> its upper surface,but <strong>the</strong> radial shields naked. Colour light jnuk, green, orlem<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong> places, with a few dark spots.Length of arms perhaps not more than six or seven times <strong>the</strong>diameter of <strong>the</strong> disk.The large radial shields form right-angled triangles, <strong>the</strong> perpendicularside be<strong>in</strong>g separated from that of its fellow by a very narrowl<strong>in</strong>e and by <strong>on</strong>ly a s<strong>in</strong>gle row of rare sp<strong>in</strong>es ; a slight notch separates<strong>the</strong> plates at <strong>the</strong> peripheiy of <strong>the</strong> disk. The <strong>in</strong>terradial spacesare about as broad as <strong>the</strong> base of <strong>the</strong> radial shields, and are richlycovered with delicate sp<strong>in</strong>ules, <strong>the</strong>se extend <strong>on</strong> to <strong>the</strong> act<strong>in</strong>al surface,but leave a, bare band border<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> genital slits ; <strong>the</strong> bridge between<strong>the</strong> slits is narrow ; mouth-shields broader than l<strong>on</strong>g, somewhat irregularlylozenge-shaped <strong>in</strong> form. The lower arm-plates are very regularlyarranged, and are <strong>on</strong>ly slightly obl<strong>on</strong>g, many be<strong>in</strong>g almostcompletely square. The upper arm-plates are broader than l<strong>on</strong>g, <strong>the</strong>aboral edge three-sided, <strong>the</strong> adoral sides l<strong>on</strong>g, and <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>sequentform that of a not very regular hexag<strong>on</strong>. Four or five arm-sp<strong>in</strong>es,<strong>the</strong> lowest not peculiarly short, and <strong>the</strong> uppermost equal to fiveupper arm-x)lates <strong>in</strong> length, ech<strong>in</strong>ulated at <strong>the</strong>ir free end. Thereappear to be two very small tentacle-scales.The larger of <strong>the</strong> two specimens presents <strong>the</strong> follow<strong>in</strong>g mark<strong>in</strong>gs :—There are three black dots <strong>on</strong> each of <strong>the</strong> mouth-shields ; some of<strong>the</strong> lower arm-plates are light green, <strong>the</strong> adoral edges of o<strong>the</strong>rs aremarked by a black spot, and this is rendered <strong>the</strong> more c<strong>on</strong>spicuous


ECHINODEBMATA. 145by <strong>the</strong> fact that two successive plates are so marked, and that <strong>the</strong>n<strong>the</strong>re is an <strong>in</strong>terval of two or more not so dist<strong>in</strong>guished. Three orfour blackish dots are to be found <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> radial shields, al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong>l<strong>in</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> vertical side ; by pairs or threes <strong>the</strong> upper arm-plates arefa<strong>in</strong>t p<strong>in</strong>k or light green, and <strong>the</strong> p<strong>in</strong>k <strong>on</strong>es are dist<strong>in</strong>guished byeach hav<strong>in</strong>g a black dot.I have taken advantage of <strong>the</strong> locplity of this Avell-marked andreally beautiful species to associate with it a name h<strong>on</strong>oured byus all.Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, 7-12 fms., mud and sand.24. Ophiothrix melanogramma.Disk pentag<strong>on</strong>al <strong>in</strong> appearance, completely covered with f<strong>in</strong>esp<strong>in</strong>ules, which are a good deal l<strong>on</strong>ger and rarer <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> act<strong>in</strong>al surface.Arms 4-5 times <strong>the</strong> diameter of <strong>the</strong> disk, taper<strong>in</strong>g very delicately; <strong>the</strong> upper surface marked by a black l<strong>in</strong>e, which extends agood way <strong>on</strong> to, but does not reach, <strong>the</strong> centre of <strong>the</strong> disk.The radial shields are almost completely obscured by <strong>the</strong> sp<strong>in</strong>ulati<strong>on</strong>,which is very delicate ; mouth-shields broader than l<strong>on</strong>g, <strong>the</strong><strong>in</strong>ner sides meet<strong>in</strong>g at an acute angle, <strong>the</strong> outer edge ra<strong>the</strong>r evenlyrounded, <strong>the</strong> l^ridge between <strong>the</strong> genital slits very narrow ; seven oreight arm-sp<strong>in</strong>es, <strong>the</strong> two lowest very small, <strong>the</strong> upper <strong>on</strong>e as l<strong>on</strong>gas five or six upper arm-plates, but <strong>the</strong> uppermost of all is not <strong>the</strong>l<strong>on</strong>gest ; <strong>the</strong> upper sp<strong>in</strong>es are richly and delicately ech<strong>in</strong>ulated, and,ow<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> great encroachment of <strong>the</strong> side arm-plates <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> uppersurface of <strong>the</strong> arm, <strong>the</strong> sp<strong>in</strong>es of ei<strong>the</strong>r side come to lie very close to<strong>on</strong>e ano<strong>the</strong>r, and so<strong>on</strong> obscure <strong>the</strong> arm itself. One small tentaclescale.The lower arm-plates have a c<strong>on</strong>cave notch <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir adoraledge, have a short side pass<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> short lateral edge, and arethree-sided <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir aboral face, so that <strong>the</strong>y form an irregularhexag<strong>on</strong> which is broader than l<strong>on</strong>g. Ow<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> size of <strong>the</strong> sidearm-plates, <strong>the</strong> upper arm-plates are lozenge-shaped.This species has a most elegant appearance, <strong>the</strong> black band alreadyspoken of reliev<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> whiteness of all <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r parts, while a k<strong>in</strong>dof fea<strong>the</strong>ry appearance is given to <strong>the</strong> arms by <strong>the</strong> delicate platesand l<strong>on</strong>g glassy sp<strong>in</strong>es.Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of AVales Channel.Li/man, p. 37.25. Ophiomaza cacaotica.The colorati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong>se specimens is very far from <strong>the</strong> chocolateof Mr. Lyman's type ; but three specimens collected <strong>in</strong> <strong>on</strong>e locality(Gulf of Suez) are—<strong>on</strong>e chocolate-coloured, <strong>on</strong>e quite light, and <strong>on</strong>e<strong>in</strong>termediate. A discussi<strong>on</strong>, however, of <strong>the</strong> characters of <strong>the</strong>variati<strong>on</strong>s of this species will be more profitable when our series islarger.Port Mollc ;Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel.I.


:146 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.26. Euryale aspera, Laml:Lyvian, p. 43.(a) One specimen, Port MoUe, 12 fms. ; bottom, rock and sandof a dark black colour.(6) Several specimens. Port Curtis : all lighter <strong>in</strong> colour.HOLOTHUEOIDEA.A c<strong>on</strong>siderable number of specimens bel<strong>on</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g to less than twentyspecies were collected, Colocliirus tuberculosus be<strong>in</strong>g extremely wellrepresented ; <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> case of rarer or less well-known species, unfortunately,a s<strong>in</strong>gle representative was often all that was obta<strong>in</strong>ed,so that <strong>in</strong> some cases c<strong>on</strong>clusi<strong>on</strong>s have been arrived at which cannotbe regarded as any th<strong>in</strong>g more than provisi<strong>on</strong>al. Where a numberof specimens were collected, or where <strong>the</strong> species was already represented<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> British Museum, evidence was frequently obta<strong>in</strong>ed asto <strong>the</strong> wide extent of variati<strong>on</strong> with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> limits of ap])arent species; and this has especially <strong>made</strong> <strong>the</strong> work of discrim<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> ananxious and difficult <strong>on</strong>e. O<strong>the</strong>r difficulties were presented by <strong>the</strong>extreme density of <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>tegument of some of <strong>the</strong> species and ourslight knowledge of tlie characters of <strong>the</strong> group. On <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rhand, <strong>the</strong> work of bibliographical research has been but slight, <strong>the</strong>three more important workers at <strong>the</strong> group (Professors Semper,Selenka, and Ludwig*), hav<strong>in</strong>g published works of remarkable exactnessand care.The arrangement followed is that of Prof. Semper.Semper, Hoi. p. 11.1. Synapta grisea.The c<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen did not admit of an anatomical<strong>in</strong>vestigati<strong>on</strong>, so that <strong>the</strong> characters of <strong>the</strong> calcareous r<strong>in</strong>gwere not discovered; <strong>the</strong> form of <strong>the</strong> anchor<strong>in</strong>g-plates is, however,exactly that of <strong>the</strong> species described by Semper under this name.That <strong>the</strong> species has a wide distributi<strong>on</strong> would seem to be shownby its presence <strong>in</strong> this collecti<strong>on</strong>, and by its be<strong>in</strong>g represented by aspecimen from <strong>the</strong> Indian <strong>Ocean</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Loyden Museum f.Fitzroy Island, Queensland.Semper, Hoi. p. 47.2. Cucumaria maculata.From <strong>the</strong> external characters of <strong>the</strong> s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen <strong>on</strong>e wouldhardly be led to associate it with this species ; but <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> case of* Dr. Tbeel's work does not seem to touch <strong>the</strong> present coUoctiou.t See Ludwig, Notes Leyd. Mus. iv. p. 128.


ECHINODEEMATA. 147Hololhurians it is especially necessary to remember <strong>the</strong> words ofFabricius, " Tn spiritii viiii mire dcformatiir, ita ut n<strong>on</strong> pro eademhabeatur '**. The remarkable spicules arc, however, an exact copyof those figured by Semper ; and <strong>the</strong>re seems to be no good reas<strong>on</strong> forerect<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong> it a new species.Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>, 0-5 fms.3. Cucumaria semperi. (Plate IX. fig. A.)Body el<strong>on</strong>gated, 5-sided ; suckers regularly arranged <strong>in</strong> two rows,except at <strong>the</strong> two ends of <strong>the</strong> body ; <strong>the</strong> suckers darker than <strong>the</strong>o<strong>the</strong>r parts, be<strong>in</strong>g almost black ; <strong>the</strong> rest of <strong>the</strong> body of a mulattot<strong>in</strong>t (<strong>in</strong> spirit), or slate-grey, or whitish. Body widest <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> middle.Length 36, 25 millim. ;greatest breadth 10, 8"5 millim.Ketractors <strong>in</strong>serted at a little more than <strong>on</strong>e third of <strong>the</strong> wholelength from <strong>the</strong> anterior end ; Polian vesicle large ; calcareous r<strong>in</strong>gl<strong>on</strong>g,and composed of a number of pieces, as <strong>in</strong> G. c<strong>on</strong>jimgens orC. citrea. Genital tubes delicate, about 6 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g, attached to<strong>the</strong> mesentery at about <strong>the</strong> middle of <strong>the</strong> body.The support<strong>in</strong>g-rods <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> suckers are not unlike fold<strong>in</strong>g eyeglasses<strong>in</strong> form, and are somewhat similar to those of Ocniis pygmcvus ;<strong>the</strong> plates <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>tegument are spherical, <strong>the</strong> framework very delicateand c<strong>on</strong>sist<strong>in</strong>g, as seen <strong>in</strong> a surface view, of a central bar c<strong>on</strong>nectedat ci<strong>the</strong>r end with <strong>the</strong> peripheral encircl<strong>in</strong>g piece by twobars mak<strong>in</strong>g an acute angle with <strong>on</strong>e ano<strong>the</strong>r. They are present<strong>in</strong> great numbers.Port Denis<strong>on</strong> ; Torres Straits.4. Ocnus, sp.A s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen of what is apparently an undescribed specieais <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> collecti<strong>on</strong> ; but its form is so characteristic that I have notthought it right to <strong>in</strong>jure it <strong>in</strong> any way. It is dist<strong>in</strong>guished externallyby <strong>the</strong> soft <strong>in</strong>terspaces <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>tegument, <strong>the</strong> greyish-whitecolour, and <strong>the</strong> el<strong>on</strong>gated narrow form of <strong>the</strong> body.Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, 12 fms.5. ColocMrus tuberculosus. (Plate IX. fig. B.)Colochirus anceps, Semper, Hoi. pp. 57, 239, iblqiie citata.There is a very large series of this species, and <strong>the</strong> specimensdiffer very c<strong>on</strong>siderably am<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong>mselves, not <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>in</strong> appearancebut <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> extent to which <strong>the</strong> colour<strong>in</strong>g-matter has been dissolvedout ; <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>on</strong>e reta<strong>in</strong>s any <strong>in</strong>dicati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> red pigment. Thevariati<strong>on</strong>s exhibited by <strong>the</strong> specimens as <strong>the</strong>y have come to <strong>the</strong>Museum (some be<strong>in</strong>g quite white, o<strong>the</strong>rs slate- grey, and o<strong>the</strong>rs* Fauna Groenl, p. 354.i2


;148 COLLECTIONS FEOM MELANESIA.almost black), <strong>the</strong> differences <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> extent to which <strong>the</strong> papillae aredeveloped, and <strong>the</strong> comparatively much greater firmness of <strong>the</strong><strong>in</strong>tegument of <strong>the</strong> younger specimens help us to understand how itis that several different names have been given to this widely distributedspecies. On <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r hand, it is well to still bear <strong>in</strong> m<strong>in</strong>dthat our knowledge of Holothurian organizati<strong>on</strong> is not yet so completeas to justify us <strong>in</strong> def<strong>in</strong>itely assert<strong>in</strong>g that fresh differentialmarks do not yet rema<strong>in</strong> to be discovered ; if <strong>the</strong>re are such, <strong>the</strong>series now regarded as s<strong>in</strong>gle may be shown to c<strong>on</strong>ta<strong>in</strong> representativesof more than <strong>on</strong>e form.As <strong>the</strong> <strong>on</strong>ly illustrati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> spicules appears to be that whichhas been given by Prof. Semper, I have had views <strong>made</strong> of <strong>the</strong>mfrom <strong>the</strong> side to show <strong>the</strong> characters of <strong>the</strong> free project<strong>in</strong>g processes,and from below show<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>side of <strong>the</strong> hemisphere.Port Molle; Port Denis<strong>on</strong> ; Torres Straits; Alert Island (TorresStraits), 17 fms., sand.6. ColocMrus australis.Ludwig, Semper''s Arheiten, ii. p. SS,This species, which is represented by <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>on</strong>e specimen from PortMolle (14 fms.), was more richly so <strong>in</strong> a collecti<strong>on</strong> forwarded somethree years ago from Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> by Mr. J. Erazier. I do not,however, f<strong>in</strong>d that <strong>the</strong> suckers are <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>m brown <strong>in</strong> colour, while<strong>the</strong> tentacles are ra<strong>the</strong>r black and white than brown and yellow.Nei<strong>the</strong>r of <strong>the</strong>se are, however, po<strong>in</strong>ts of any real importance. If<strong>in</strong>d, from Mr. Eamsay's collecti<strong>on</strong>s, that this species is very abundant<strong>in</strong> Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>.7. Act<strong>in</strong>ocucumis difficilis. (Plate IX. fig. C.)I have had <strong>the</strong> greatest difficulty <strong>in</strong> assur<strong>in</strong>g myself of <strong>the</strong> specificdist<strong>in</strong>ctness of this form from <strong>the</strong> A. typiea of Ludwig, <strong>the</strong> variati<strong>on</strong>sexhibited <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> present collecti<strong>on</strong> impress<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong>e with <strong>the</strong>necessity of <strong>the</strong> greatest care <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> delimitati<strong>on</strong> of species.The species may perhaps be most c<strong>on</strong>veniently described bypo<strong>in</strong>t<strong>in</strong>g out <strong>the</strong> several characters by which it is to be dist<strong>in</strong>guishedfrom A. tyjnca. The ambulacral papilhe <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> dorsal surface arerare, and <strong>the</strong> suckers are not <strong>in</strong> more than four rows for each ray<strong>the</strong> difterences <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> form of <strong>the</strong> spicules will be best seen by compar<strong>in</strong>g<strong>the</strong> figures now given with those drawn by Professor Ludwig.The retractors are <strong>in</strong>serted ra<strong>the</strong>r fur<strong>the</strong>r back, be<strong>in</strong>g found at 24miUim. from <strong>the</strong> anterior end <strong>in</strong> a specimen 65 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g, andat 22 millim. <strong>in</strong> <strong>on</strong>e 70 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g ; <strong>the</strong> genital tubes are shorterthan <strong>in</strong> A. ti/pica, be<strong>in</strong>g not more than 15 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g <strong>in</strong> any specimenexam<strong>in</strong>ed. The Polian vesicle would also appear to be shorter,be<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong>ly 7"0 miUim. l<strong>on</strong>g <strong>in</strong> a specimen of 65 millim. length. Itmay be added that <strong>the</strong> loop of <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>test<strong>in</strong>e is exceed<strong>in</strong>gly shortthat <strong>the</strong> tentacles, which are not always 20, sometimes seem to


ECniNODEEMATA. 149bel<strong>on</strong>g to an outer, and at o<strong>the</strong>rs to an <strong>in</strong>ner circle <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> disk ; andthat <strong>the</strong> colour which <strong>in</strong> some cases is light brown, <strong>in</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rs ispurplish grey.Albanj' Island; Torres Straits.Quite recently an example of this species has been receiv^ed fromKurrachee.8. Thy<strong>on</strong>e mirabilis (?).Thy<strong>on</strong>e mirabilis, Ludwig, Semper s Arbeiten, ii. p. 93.The form of <strong>the</strong> spicules would perhaps allow us to place <strong>the</strong>s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen hero with doubt referred to this species ei<strong>the</strong>r withit or with llolotliuria dletricliii of Ludwig, <strong>the</strong> support<strong>in</strong>g-rods <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> suckers of <strong>the</strong> latter not be<strong>in</strong>g figured. Though our specimenhas much more <strong>the</strong> form and colour, so far as <strong>on</strong>e may judge from<strong>the</strong> descripti<strong>on</strong>, of <strong>the</strong> Holothurian, <strong>the</strong> eight large arborescent andtwo small tentacles, <strong>the</strong> scattered sucker-feet, and <strong>the</strong> unarmedanal orific exactly determ<strong>in</strong>e its generic aff<strong>in</strong>ities.Port Denis<strong>on</strong>.9. Thy<strong>on</strong>e sacellus *.Stolus sacellus, Selenka, Zeit. f.iviss. Zool. xvii. p. 355.Thy<strong>on</strong>e rigida, Semper, Holothuvien, p. 66.Thy<strong>on</strong>e sacella, v<strong>on</strong> Marenzeller, Verh, z.-bot. Ges. Wien, 1881, p. 131.Torres Straits.10. Thy<strong>on</strong>e okeni. (Plate IX. fig. D.)The two specimens of this species are <strong>in</strong> remarkably good c<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong>for exam<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong>, as <strong>on</strong>e died with its tentacles fully expandedand <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r was laid open by <strong>the</strong> collector.With <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> term<strong>in</strong>al plate <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> suckers I havenot been able to detect any calcareous bodies ei<strong>the</strong>r <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> suckersor <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>tegument ; and if any such are present <strong>the</strong>y must be exceed<strong>in</strong>glysmall and very rare. This characteristic br<strong>in</strong>gs thisspecies <strong>in</strong>to proximity to <strong>the</strong> T. villosa of Semper, where, as <strong>in</strong> this,<strong>the</strong> suckers are very closely packed.El<strong>on</strong>gated <strong>in</strong> form, very dark brown <strong>in</strong> colour (<strong>in</strong> spirit), tentaclesof about <strong>the</strong> same shade ; suckers closely packed and distributed over<strong>the</strong> whole body, <strong>the</strong>ir radial arrangement <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> regi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> anusvery obscurely <strong>in</strong>dicated. Anus without teeth. Retractors <strong>in</strong>sertedvery nearly as far back as <strong>the</strong> middle of <strong>the</strong> body. Calcareous r<strong>in</strong>gof ten pieces, <strong>the</strong> radial similar to <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>terradial, el<strong>on</strong>gated, andwider below than above (fig. I)). Calcareous plat<strong>in</strong>g extends someway al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> enteric tract (fig. D). Genital tubes numerous, veryslender and l<strong>on</strong>g, <strong>in</strong>serted beh<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong> middle po<strong>in</strong>t of tlie length of* Prof. Selenka has been k<strong>in</strong>d enough to <strong>in</strong>form me that sacellus, as usedby him, is a dim<strong>in</strong>utive form of saccus, not of sacer.


150 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.<strong>the</strong> body. Polian vesicle ? Length 85, 62 millim. ;greatest breadthIT'S, 17'5 millim.Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>.Save <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> complete absence of spicules this species would notappear to have any resemblance to <strong>the</strong> T. <strong>in</strong>ermls of Heller, <strong>the</strong>shorter body of which, attenuated at both ends, is said to have avery th<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>tegument and to be of a yellowish-grey colour.11. Thy<strong>on</strong>idium schmeltzii.Ludtvig, Semper^s Arbeiten, ii. p. 94.As <strong>the</strong>re is <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>on</strong>e specimen of this species, I have been obligedto c<strong>on</strong>tent myself with an exam<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>teguments, where<strong>the</strong> " morgensternahnliche Gebilde " were found iu abundance <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> outer layer.Warrior Reef, Torres Straits.Semper, Hoi. p. 244.Port MoUe.12. Orcula cucumiformis.13. Phyllophorus proteus. (Plate IX. figs. F, F'.)Body vary<strong>in</strong>g greatly <strong>in</strong> form, be<strong>in</strong>g saccular, swollen, or el<strong>on</strong>gated; <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> last case it is narrower beh<strong>in</strong>d than <strong>in</strong> fr<strong>on</strong>t, andpretty regularly c<strong>on</strong>vex above. The <strong>in</strong>tegument, which is ra<strong>the</strong>rthick, may be black, and <strong>the</strong> colour rendered more marked b)^ <strong>the</strong>lightness of <strong>the</strong> suckers, as <strong>the</strong>re may be merel}' dark l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>albands, or <strong>the</strong> whole body may be greyish, and <strong>the</strong> <strong>on</strong>ly black spots<strong>the</strong> tips of <strong>the</strong> suckers. The suckers <strong>the</strong>mselves always have awr<strong>in</strong>kled appearance, but no def<strong>in</strong>ite statement can be <strong>made</strong> as to<strong>the</strong>ir arrangement <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> body.The retractors are triangular <strong>in</strong> form and c<strong>on</strong>siderablj^ enlargedat <strong>the</strong>ir orig<strong>in</strong> ; <strong>the</strong> buccal r<strong>in</strong>g is well developed, <strong>the</strong> radial piecesbe<strong>in</strong>g very large, and <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>terradial dagger-shaped ; both are ra<strong>the</strong>rdeeply excavated above (fig. F'). The spicules <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> suckers presentan appearance not unlike that seen <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> zooglcea-stage of Bacteriumtermo ; <strong>the</strong> spicules of <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>tegument are more or less foursided,four-chambered bodies, <strong>made</strong> up of somewhat delicate bars,form<strong>in</strong>g a trellis-work.Port MoUe ; Clairm<strong>on</strong>t and Thursday Islands ; Alert Island (7 fms.,sand).14. Stereoderma validum. (Plate IX. figs. E, a-f.)Body el<strong>on</strong>gated, taper<strong>in</strong>g more at its posterior than at its anteriorend ; <strong>the</strong> ventral surface a little c<strong>on</strong>vex, <strong>the</strong> dorsal c<strong>on</strong>cave. A


ECHINO DERM ATA. 151specimen measur<strong>in</strong>2: 46 millira. <strong>in</strong> length has a greatest width of2i) and a greatest depth of 15 millim. The dorsal surface slopesgraduallj- to <strong>the</strong> two sides, which are marked off from <strong>the</strong> ventralsurface by <strong>the</strong> development al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> lateral l<strong>in</strong>e of from three to sixshort, c<strong>on</strong>ical, sharp denticle-like processes. From <strong>the</strong> median dorsall<strong>in</strong>e to this l<strong>in</strong>e <strong>the</strong> scattered suckers <strong>in</strong>crease <strong>in</strong> number ; <strong>the</strong>y are,however, much more numerous <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> ventral surface, and more regularityof distributi<strong>on</strong> is to be observed al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> ventral median l<strong>in</strong>ethan <strong>in</strong> any o<strong>the</strong>r part. The suckers are provided with stout plates,but no special term<strong>in</strong>al plate was detected. The calcareous plates <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> sk<strong>in</strong> are <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> general plan of those <strong>in</strong> S. unisemita ; but <strong>the</strong> barsdo not appear to be so stout, and <strong>the</strong>re may be at least seven pores.The ten pieces of <strong>the</strong> calcareous r<strong>in</strong>g are all equal, and <strong>the</strong> retractormuscles are not especially str<strong>on</strong>gly developed. As <strong>in</strong> ^S^. unisemita<strong>the</strong>re is, comparatively, a feeble development of <strong>the</strong> digestive andrespiratory organs ; but <strong>the</strong>se characters, as well as <strong>the</strong> stiffness of<strong>the</strong> tentacles, are ra<strong>the</strong>r po<strong>in</strong>ts of generic importance.A more complete generic diagnosis will be <strong>made</strong> when <strong>the</strong> twospecies have been carefully compared.Two young specimens have <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>tegument much th<strong>in</strong>ner.Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>, 0-5 fms., where it is, as otlior collecti<strong>on</strong>s show,exceed<strong>in</strong>gly comm<strong>on</strong>. Also fi-om North Dunbar Island, Ch<strong>in</strong>a seas,and from between Ball's Head and Goat Island (coll. Brazier) ; andtwo dried specimens, purchased <strong>in</strong> 1848 of Mr, Cum<strong>in</strong>g, from BrisbaneWater, N. S. W.In <strong>the</strong> def<strong>in</strong>iti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> genus given by Prof. Selenka <strong>the</strong>re occur<strong>the</strong> words " Korper mit e<strong>in</strong>fachen Fiisschen bedeckt, die <strong>in</strong> derrechten (oder l<strong>in</strong>ken) Flanke <strong>in</strong> e<strong>in</strong>er Doppelreihe stehen " and;<strong>the</strong> presence of this more dist<strong>in</strong>ct set of suckers is implied <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>specific term of <strong>the</strong> American species, unisemita. In <strong>the</strong> presentspecies, of which <strong>the</strong>re is a good supply of specimens, I observe that<strong>the</strong> double row occupies <strong>the</strong> middle of <strong>the</strong> trivium, but that itvaries c<strong>on</strong>siderably <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> extent to which it isSome modificati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> generic diagnosis must <strong>the</strong>refore lie <strong>made</strong>,and <strong>the</strong> suckers be spoken of as scattered over <strong>the</strong> body, but hav<strong>in</strong>ga tendency to form a regular double row <strong>in</strong> some part of <strong>the</strong>trivium *.dist<strong>in</strong>ctlj^ developed.Seirvper, Hoi. p. 73.15. Stichopus variegatus.A s<strong>in</strong>gle, ra<strong>the</strong>r small specimen from Port Molle.* S<strong>in</strong>ce work<strong>in</strong>g out this species I have had <strong>the</strong> opportunity of exam<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>gano<strong>the</strong>r member of <strong>the</strong> genus from Kurrachee ;for 8. murrayi see Proc. Zool.See. 1883, p. 61.Mr. Ramsay tells me that <strong>the</strong> naturalists of Sydney have been <strong>in</strong> tlio habit ofregard<strong>in</strong>g ^S. validum as <strong>the</strong> Holothuria sp<strong>in</strong>osa of Quoy and Gaimard : thisdeterm<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> cannot, I th<strong>in</strong>k, be accepted.


'152 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.16. Holothuria l<strong>in</strong>eata.Ludwif/, Semper^s Arbetten, ii. p. 103.One specimen from Thursday Island ;sk<strong>in</strong> very thick.17. Holothuria peregr<strong>in</strong>a.Ludwig, Semper s Arbeifen, ii. p. 105."With c<strong>on</strong>siderable doubt I refer to this species a s<strong>in</strong>gle specimenfrom Thursday Island.18. Holothuria modesta(?),Holothuria modesta, Se77iper's Arbeiten, ii. p. 106.Professor Ludwig described his species from a s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen,and, curiously enough, <strong>the</strong>re is <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>on</strong>e specimen <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> ' Alertcollecti<strong>on</strong>. The characters of <strong>the</strong> support<strong>in</strong>g rods <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> suckersleads me to believe that <strong>the</strong> two are forms of <strong>the</strong> same species ; buta full exam<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> is not possible with a s<strong>in</strong>gle representative.Torres Straits.19. Holothuria macleari. (Plate IX. fig. G.)As will be seen by <strong>the</strong> figures, <strong>the</strong> spicules of this species presenta c<strong>on</strong>siderable resemblance to those of H. tigris, with which, as itwould seem, it must be closely allied.As <strong>the</strong>re is but a s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen, present<strong>in</strong>g well-marked externalcharacters, I th<strong>in</strong>k it right to limit myself to an account of <strong>the</strong>se.Body el<strong>on</strong>gated, trivium flat, bivium c<strong>on</strong>vex, anus round, unarmed,without (perhaps hav<strong>in</strong>g lost) any dist<strong>in</strong>ct <strong>in</strong>dicati<strong>on</strong>s of pentamerousmark<strong>in</strong>g ; ambulacral papillae <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>vex back, three rowsof not very regularly arranged suckers <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> trivium. An appearanceof r<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g both above and below is produced by <strong>the</strong> whitecolours and transverse sett<strong>in</strong>g of <strong>the</strong> papillae and suckers respectively; as <strong>the</strong> former are less numerous than <strong>the</strong> latter, <strong>the</strong>re are<strong>on</strong>ly about thirty bivial r<strong>in</strong>gs, while <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> trivium two or threer<strong>in</strong>gs are here and <strong>the</strong>re c<strong>on</strong>fluent and present a k<strong>in</strong>d of l<strong>on</strong>gitud<strong>in</strong>almark<strong>in</strong>g.The s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen is 49 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g and 10 millim. wide." Clairm<strong>on</strong>t and Bird Islands," N.E. Australia.A specimen from <strong>the</strong> island of Rodriguez, <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> possessi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong>British Museum, apparently bel<strong>on</strong>gs to this species.


ECHTNODERMATA. 1 53CRINOIDEA.In <strong>the</strong> preparati<strong>on</strong> of this porti<strong>on</strong> of my <str<strong>on</strong>g>Report</str<strong>on</strong>g> I have had <strong>the</strong>very c<strong>on</strong>siderable advantage of <strong>the</strong> k<strong>in</strong>dness of Mr. P. Herbert Carpenter,whose work <strong>on</strong> this group is so well known to, and so highlyappreciated by, his fellow-workers. Mr. Carpenter has not <strong>on</strong>lybeen good enough to favour me with his op<strong>in</strong>i<strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong> many of <strong>the</strong>species and specimens <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> preseut collecti<strong>on</strong>, but, at what musthave been c<strong>on</strong>siderable trouble to himself, he copied out for me<strong>the</strong> notes that he had been able to make at various times andplaces <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> " type specimens " of <strong>the</strong> species named by <strong>the</strong> illustriousfounder of <strong>the</strong> system of this group ; thanks to this act ofk<strong>in</strong>dness, I have probably escaped from some of <strong>the</strong> numerous pitfallswhich, with <strong>the</strong> advance of our knowledge, now surround <strong>the</strong> studentwho applies himself to Johannes Miiller's descripti<strong>on</strong>s of <strong>the</strong> differentspecies. As Mr. Carpenter will, <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> progress of time, publishhis studies <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>se Miillerian types, I have thought it proper <strong>on</strong>this occasi<strong>on</strong> to do little more than merely note <strong>the</strong> presence of suchforms <strong>in</strong> this collecti<strong>on</strong>.The proporti<strong>on</strong> of undescribed to described species is no doubtappall<strong>in</strong>g ; but <strong>on</strong> mak<strong>in</strong>g a careful estimate I do not f<strong>in</strong>d it to bepractically greater than <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> case of my predecessors. In a Notewhich I communicated to <strong>the</strong> Zoological Society <strong>in</strong> May 1882 I gavea list of all <strong>the</strong> described species, which was very nearly complete :<strong>the</strong>re<strong>in</strong> were enumerated 37 Anted<strong>on</strong>s and 21 Actmometne. Of<strong>the</strong>se, 7 Anted<strong>on</strong>s and 4 Act<strong>in</strong>ometrce were first described <strong>in</strong> 1881,from <strong>the</strong> collecti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> Leyden Museum, by Mr. Carpenter. Inthat paper <strong>the</strong> percentages of new to all <strong>the</strong> known species wererespectively 23 and 23 ; <strong>the</strong> percentages to new species <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> collecti<strong>on</strong>respectively 70 and 40.As <strong>the</strong>re are here described 12 new species of Anted<strong>on</strong>^ my percentageto <strong>the</strong> 37 described forms is 32-5, to all <strong>the</strong> species menti<strong>on</strong>ed<strong>in</strong> this Eeport it is 75 ; <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r hand, <strong>the</strong>re are some 5new species of Act<strong>in</strong>ometra, giv<strong>in</strong>g a percentage of 23*5 to all <strong>the</strong>described forms, and of 38 to those enumerated <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> accompany<strong>in</strong>gUst.Aga<strong>in</strong>st this higher proporti<strong>on</strong> we must, however, set off <strong>the</strong> factthat five of <strong>the</strong> earlier species had been described by Miiller from<strong>the</strong> specimens <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Leyden Museum.But <strong>the</strong> whole story has not yet been told : withovit, of course,want<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> any way to tie Mr. Carpenter down to details, I may addthat his exam<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> 'Alert' collecti<strong>on</strong> was <strong>made</strong> after he hadexam<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>the</strong> collecti<strong>on</strong> of Cr<strong>in</strong>oids brought toge<strong>the</strong>r by <strong>the</strong> officersof H.M.S. ' Challenger,' and entrusted to him for descripti<strong>on</strong>. Onlya s<strong>in</strong>gle form am<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> "new species" <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> present collecti<strong>on</strong>has been detected by Mr. Carpenter to be <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> treasures whichhe has described, but whose descripti<strong>on</strong> he has not yet published ;


154 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.<strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g A. julrsi, of which Mr. Carpenter has already <strong>in</strong>dicated<strong>the</strong> more essential characters, is <strong>in</strong>deed represented <strong>in</strong> thiscollecti<strong>on</strong>, as it is probably <strong>in</strong> any fair collecti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> mar<strong>in</strong>e faunaof <strong>the</strong> Australian coast.Yet, aga<strong>in</strong>, <strong>in</strong> a paper which will be shortly published <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>'Journal of <strong>the</strong> L<strong>in</strong>nean Society ' *, Mr. Carpenter describes eightout of <strong>the</strong> n<strong>in</strong>e specimens of Anted<strong>on</strong> from <strong>the</strong> Hamburg Museumas new, and he speaks <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>troducti<strong>on</strong> as estimat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> speciesof Comatulids at someth<strong>in</strong>g like 400.Fur<strong>the</strong>r, it is of great significance to observe that many of <strong>the</strong>species here enumerated or described were collected at <strong>on</strong>e stati<strong>on</strong><strong>on</strong>ly.Lastly, we note that <strong>the</strong> number of Aiited<strong>on</strong>sis larger than mighthave been expected ; for <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Moluccas "Anted<strong>on</strong> seems to be comparativelyrare "t, while of <strong>the</strong> 29 species here enumerated, 16 bel<strong>on</strong>gto that genus. From such material as has passed through myhands, I am <strong>in</strong>cl<strong>in</strong>ed to th<strong>in</strong>k that <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>rn and easterncoasts of Australia we shall f<strong>in</strong>d Anted<strong>on</strong> to be ra<strong>the</strong>r more abundantlyrepresented <strong>in</strong> species than Act<strong>in</strong>ometra ; <strong>the</strong> time, however,for any generalizati<strong>on</strong> is still far off.In enter<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> detailed enumerati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> proporti<strong>on</strong> of newto old species, I had not <strong>in</strong> view <strong>the</strong> purpose of apologiz<strong>in</strong>g for <strong>the</strong>presence of so many new forms <strong>in</strong> this collecti<strong>on</strong>, but ra<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong>desire of direct<strong>in</strong>g attenti<strong>on</strong> to facts which can <strong>on</strong>ly be with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>knowledge of a limited number of special students ; those whoknow how few species of Comatida' have been described, and howrich <strong>in</strong> novelties not <strong>on</strong>ly new collecti<strong>on</strong>s but old museums are, willnot th<strong>in</strong>k that <strong>the</strong>re is any suspicious wealth of new species <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>very valuable and important collecti<strong>on</strong> by which Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger hasmore than doubled <strong>the</strong> number of specimens and species <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>possessi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> British Museum j.So large a number of new species should be presented <strong>in</strong> somek<strong>in</strong>d of arrangement, ei<strong>the</strong>r <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> form of a phylogenetic table orof a "key." The former be<strong>in</strong>g an impossibility at present, <strong>on</strong>account of our unsatisfactory knowledge of <strong>the</strong> ancestry of <strong>the</strong>Comatulidae, and keys be<strong>in</strong>g, of all th<strong>in</strong>gs, <strong>the</strong> most tmscientific,I propose to give formulae for all <strong>the</strong> species of Comatulids heredescribed, bas<strong>in</strong>g those formulae <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> method I proposed to <strong>the</strong> ZoologicalSociety§, as improved by <strong>the</strong> suggesti<strong>on</strong>s of Mr. Carpenter ||.* Jouni. L<strong>in</strong>n. Soe. xvi. p, 487.t Notes Leyd. Mus. iii. p. 191.[The above is allowed to stand, though wi'itten some eighteen m<strong>on</strong>ths\ago, as it puts more forcibly than a briefer and colder statement could, <strong>the</strong>present tenuity of our knowledge of Ci-<strong>in</strong>oid species and <strong>the</strong> wide area that isopenmg up to us.—Dee. 4, 1883.]§ P. Z. S. 1882, p, .530.IIP. Z. S. 1882, p. 731. I reta<strong>in</strong> A' as <strong>the</strong> sign for Act<strong>in</strong>ometra, as a is used<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> formula? of <strong>the</strong> cirri ; and I propose to \ise br for <strong>the</strong> brachials, as h islikewise used <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> formulre of <strong>the</strong> cirri. S<strong>in</strong>iilarlj' I omit <strong>the</strong> 10, as A 10followed by A 3 (<strong>in</strong> such a list as <strong>the</strong> follow<strong>in</strong>g) is very apt to mislead.


———ECHINODEKMATA. 155Anted<strong>on</strong>.reg<strong>in</strong>ae A. 2.(2)rA. (3)^ade<strong>on</strong>JB A. r- bdecipiensmilberti A. r*bp<strong>in</strong>uiformis -^^ r'irregularisA. 3.(2)r(2)b_carpenteri A. -olegans A. 3.(i) cpuraila A.gygesA. 2.2.j^.bidensA. -•briareus*A. 3.2.(2)^.aloveniA. — microdiscus A. 3.3.(3)-.XACXINOMETKA.solaria A'E—2— alternansa<strong>in</strong>termediaA'R- •-•2 aA'3.2.3.2.• •paucicirra /-nfl.br aA K—^ —robusta A'R— . r-u bmultifidaA'3.2.2.-- acum<strong>in</strong>giA -•rA'3.2.--copp<strong>in</strong>geriA'—variabilisa< A'3.3.—,-pd.brukesiA'R 2(ab)parvicirra A'3.3. —U'3.(2).(2)^.From <strong>the</strong> table of Anted<strong>on</strong> formuloe some facts become at <strong>on</strong>ceapparent :(a) There are six examples am<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> more than ten-rayed forms<strong>in</strong> which <strong>the</strong> arms are not a regular multiple of ten—that is, not 20,40, or 80 ; this is clear from <strong>the</strong> sign for <strong>the</strong> palmar or post-palmarbe<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>se cases placed with<strong>in</strong> brackets.(/3) In aU cases cirri are developed, and <strong>the</strong>se are rarely verynumerous or very l<strong>on</strong>g.(y) In no case is <strong>the</strong> radial axillary a syzygy.A moment's <strong>in</strong>specti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> table of formulae for <strong>the</strong> Aci<strong>in</strong>ometrcewill reveal to <strong>the</strong> student a number of <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g facts :(a) Three species have <strong>the</strong> same structural characters, and <strong>on</strong>ly* A study of this species is sufficient to bIiow tlio advantage of Mr. Carpenter'sproposal to register <strong>the</strong> number of jo<strong>in</strong>ts <strong>in</strong> each divisi<strong>on</strong> over my proposal toregister ra<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong> syzygies first of" all, as A. briareus has no syzygies <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>palmars or succeed<strong>in</strong>g jo<strong>in</strong>ts where <strong>the</strong> arms divide aga<strong>in</strong>.


156 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.differ <strong>in</strong> comparatively unimportant details, of a k<strong>in</strong>d which areprobably adaptive.(jS) There is a marked tendency to <strong>the</strong> development of a smallnumber of short cirri *.(y) And ten species have lost <strong>the</strong> cirri altoge<strong>the</strong>r.(?) Of <strong>the</strong> eleven species <strong>the</strong> formula of no two is exactly <strong>the</strong>same.1. Anted<strong>on</strong> ade<strong>on</strong>ae.Comatula ade<strong>on</strong>se, /. Milller, Gattung Comatula, p. 15 1.A white l<strong>in</strong>e, which extends al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> middle of <strong>the</strong> radials, <strong>the</strong>rest of which is of a reddish purple, is c<strong>on</strong>t<strong>in</strong>ued for a short thoughvary<strong>in</strong>g distance al<strong>on</strong>g each of <strong>the</strong> arms.There is a curious error <strong>in</strong> c<strong>on</strong>nexi<strong>on</strong> with this species whichdoes not seem to have been noticed. Lamarck described it as" C. radilS p<strong>in</strong>natis denis &c. ;" de Bla<strong>in</strong>ville, while quot<strong>in</strong>g Lamarck,refers also to his own figures <strong>in</strong> his ' Atlas ' (pi. xxvi.) ; <strong>in</strong> thisreference he is followed by J. Miiller and by <strong>the</strong> editors of <strong>the</strong>sec<strong>on</strong>d editi<strong>on</strong> of Lamarck. The figures, however, when referred toare seen to be those of a species with twenty arms and with cirr<strong>in</strong>earer thirty than twenty. It is not perhaps necessary at thisdistance of time to waste time <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>quir<strong>in</strong>g what species it is thatde Bla<strong>in</strong>ville has <strong>the</strong>re figured.Port Curtis and Port Denis<strong>on</strong>.2. Anted<strong>on</strong> milberti.Comatula (Alecto) milberti, J. Miiller, p. 19.The rich supply of this species <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> present collecti<strong>on</strong> % amplyjustifies <strong>the</strong> doubts which Mr. Carpenter has expressed to me as to<strong>the</strong> exactness of <strong>the</strong> locality (North America) ascribed by Miiller tothis species.Port MoUe ; Port Denis<strong>on</strong> ; Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel ; TorresStraits.3. Anted<strong>on</strong> p<strong>in</strong>niformis.P. H. Carpenter, Notes Lexjd. Mus. iii. p. 180.Dundas Strait, N.W. Australia.* So far as we know at present, c rarely appears i i <strong>the</strong> formula of an AcHnometra;<strong>in</strong> words, <strong>the</strong> cirri are rarely very numerous (more than 30) or very l<strong>on</strong>g(with more than 40 jo<strong>in</strong>ts).t The essay <strong>on</strong> Comatula, <strong>the</strong> pag<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> of which is here quoted from itsseparate copy, was published <strong>in</strong> 1849 <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Abhandl.' of <strong>the</strong> Academy of'Berl<strong>in</strong> for 1847, where it occupies pp. 237-265.\ It is also well represented <strong>in</strong> a collecti<strong>on</strong> of Mr. E. P. Eamsay's, of <strong>the</strong>Australian Museum, Sydney.


;ECHINODEKMATA. 1574. Anted<strong>on</strong> carpenter!. (Plate X. figs. A, a-c.)Centrodorsal a flattened disk ; about 12 marg<strong>in</strong>al cirri, of almost20 short jo<strong>in</strong>ts, of which tlie lowest are almost twice as broad as<strong>the</strong>y are l<strong>on</strong>g ; it is not till we reach <strong>the</strong> penultimate <strong>on</strong>e that wesee a dist<strong>in</strong>ct sp<strong>in</strong>e, though <strong>the</strong> dorsal surface of most of <strong>the</strong>m isproduced <strong>in</strong>to a m<strong>in</strong>ute protuberance.First radials not visible ; <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d do not or do <strong>on</strong>ly slightlytouch, united to <strong>the</strong> third by ligament. Ten arms. First brachialstouch, <strong>the</strong>y are nearly obl<strong>on</strong>g and more than twice as wide as l<strong>on</strong>g ;<strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d are a little wider <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir outer than <strong>the</strong>ir <strong>in</strong>ner side<strong>the</strong> third with a syzygy ; fourth to sixth obl<strong>on</strong>g, seventh wider <strong>on</strong><strong>in</strong>ner than outer side, eighth wider <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir outer than <strong>in</strong>ner, andso <strong>on</strong> alternately ; twelfth and thirteenth serrated at <strong>the</strong>ir distaledge ; <strong>the</strong> fourteenth syzygial. Thence from four to seven jo<strong>in</strong>tsbetween each syzygy. 130-180 jo<strong>in</strong>ts <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> arm.The sec<strong>on</strong>d p<strong>in</strong>nules <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> fourth brachial are very stout, wi<strong>the</strong>xtraord<strong>in</strong>arily wide jo<strong>in</strong>ts, which are armed <strong>on</strong> ei<strong>the</strong>r side bysp<strong>in</strong>ous projecti<strong>on</strong>s ; <strong>the</strong> first p<strong>in</strong>nule is a little l<strong>on</strong>ger than <strong>the</strong>third.Colour white, with purple bands or patches, not always developedat <strong>the</strong> syzygies. The middle l<strong>in</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> arm often white.Arm about 40 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g, disk 6 millim. <strong>in</strong> diameter, cirri lessthan 9 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g.This species has some c<strong>on</strong>siderable resemblances to A. serripimia,from which, however, <strong>the</strong> p<strong>in</strong>nules al<strong>on</strong>e would, as Mr. Carpenterassures me, be sufiicient to dist<strong>in</strong>guish it.Port Curtis.5. Anted<strong>on</strong> pumila. (Plate X. figs. B, a-h.)Centrodorsal ra<strong>the</strong>r wide, rounded ; with about 25 cirri, <strong>in</strong> threerows, very delicate, of about 12 jo<strong>in</strong>ts, which, from <strong>the</strong> fourth <strong>on</strong>ward,are a good deal l<strong>on</strong>ger than broad, hourglass-shaped, but a little widerat <strong>the</strong>ir distal than at <strong>the</strong>ir proximal ends ; some are also produced<strong>in</strong>to a small sp<strong>in</strong>ous ventral process ; no dorsal sp<strong>in</strong>e developed till<strong>the</strong> penultimate, and that is small.First radials just visible, sec<strong>on</strong>d not <strong>in</strong> c<strong>on</strong>tact ; axillaries triangular<strong>in</strong> shape, slop<strong>in</strong>g backwards <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> middle l<strong>in</strong>e. Ten arms.First brachial l<strong>on</strong>ger without than with<strong>in</strong>, <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d with<strong>in</strong> thanwithout and project<strong>in</strong>g backwards <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> middle l<strong>in</strong>e ; <strong>the</strong> thirda syzygy wider with<strong>in</strong> than without. The succeed<strong>in</strong>g jo<strong>in</strong>tsmay be <strong>in</strong>cised, so as to leave a lozenge-shaped space betweenevery two ; when this disappears, <strong>the</strong> jo<strong>in</strong>ts which have projectedstr<strong>on</strong>gly forwards <strong>on</strong> ei<strong>the</strong>r side alternately become more evenlyobl<strong>on</strong>g.Syzygies 3,


;158 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.Arm about 30 millim. loug, cirri 7 millim., diameter of disk3'5 millim.Colour creamy white, <strong>in</strong> spirit.Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>, 0-5 fms.The above descripti<strong>on</strong> was orig<strong>in</strong>ally drawn up from <strong>the</strong> s<strong>in</strong>glespecimen received from <strong>the</strong> ' Alert,' which <strong>in</strong> spirit had a creamywhitecolour and appeared to be hardly mature. S<strong>in</strong>ce its arrival<strong>the</strong> Museum has acquired specimens from Nels<strong>on</strong>'s J3ay, which areno larger and are a little darker or grey <strong>in</strong> colour; <strong>the</strong>se specimens,of which I have been able to exam<strong>in</strong>e a number, bear witness to <strong>the</strong>irmaturity by <strong>the</strong> presence of a large number of ova attached to <strong>the</strong>p<strong>in</strong>nules.6. Anted<strong>on</strong> bidens. (Plate XI, figs. A, a-c.)Centrodorsal prom<strong>in</strong>ent ; about 20 cirri, with about 20 jo<strong>in</strong>ts, anumber of which have two m<strong>in</strong>ute processes <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir dorsal side<strong>the</strong> penultimate sp<strong>in</strong>e is small ; n<strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> jo<strong>in</strong>ts are dist<strong>in</strong>ctlyl<strong>on</strong>ger than broad, but a number of <strong>the</strong>m have a shallow lateral excavati<strong>on</strong>al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong>ir distal edge.First radials jnst visible; sec<strong>on</strong>d very wide, <strong>in</strong> c<strong>on</strong>tact; third almosttriangular, not quite twice as l<strong>on</strong>g as <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d, and form<strong>in</strong>g ac<strong>on</strong>vex protuberance with it. Ten arms. First brachials <strong>in</strong> c<strong>on</strong>tact,a little wider <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir outer than <strong>the</strong>ir <strong>in</strong>ner side, as are also <strong>the</strong>sec<strong>on</strong>d brachials, which form with <strong>the</strong> first a c<strong>on</strong>vex protuberance ;<strong>the</strong> third brachials, which are syzygies, have a sharp distal edge, ashave <strong>the</strong> succeed<strong>in</strong>g jo<strong>in</strong>ts ; <strong>the</strong>se so<strong>on</strong> become wedge-shaped, andform a str<strong>on</strong>g overlap <strong>on</strong> ei<strong>the</strong>r side alternately ;after some timethis dim<strong>in</strong>ishes, and <strong>the</strong> more term<strong>in</strong>al jo<strong>in</strong>ts of <strong>the</strong> arm form ra<strong>the</strong>rbead-like swell<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>on</strong> ei<strong>the</strong>r side.Syzygies 3, 9, 14 ;4-6 jo<strong>in</strong>ts between <strong>the</strong> succeed<strong>in</strong>g syzygies.The' first p<strong>in</strong>nule is very stiff and l<strong>on</strong>g, with <strong>the</strong> most proximaljo<strong>in</strong>t <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>gest ; it is placed <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d brachial, has some 12jo<strong>in</strong>ts, of which <strong>the</strong> more basal are much l<strong>on</strong>ger than broad, andwhich are also stouter than those <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> sixth brachial, which,aga<strong>in</strong>, are a little stouter than those <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> fourth. The p<strong>in</strong>nules<strong>the</strong>n gradually dim<strong>in</strong>ish <strong>in</strong> size, and <strong>the</strong>n aga<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>crease fur<strong>the</strong>rout.The arms are stiff, and somewhat compressed from side to side :<strong>the</strong>y are about 45 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g ;diameter of disk 5 millim., of centrodorsal3-3 ; length of cirri about 8 millim.The orig<strong>in</strong>al colour was probably purple.Torres Straits.7. Anted<strong>on</strong> loveni. (Plate X. figs. ^, a-e.)Centrodorsal large, as large as <strong>the</strong> disk, excavated <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> centre,with about 20 cirrus-sockets (cirri lost).First radials just visible, sec<strong>on</strong>d obl<strong>on</strong>g with a c<strong>on</strong>vex medianprotuberance al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong>ir distal edge ; axillary pentag<strong>on</strong>al, not a


ECHINODERMATA. 159syzj-gy. Ten arms. First brachials wider without than willi<strong>in</strong>, <strong>in</strong>c<strong>on</strong>tact, with a c<strong>on</strong>vex median protuberance al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong>ir distal edge ;<strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d with sides a little more regular ; <strong>the</strong> third almost square,a syzygy. The fourth to seventh jo<strong>in</strong>ts a little wider than l<strong>on</strong>g;eighth or n<strong>in</strong>th a syzygy. The succeed<strong>in</strong>g jo<strong>in</strong>ts wedge-shaped,with <strong>the</strong>ir free marg<strong>in</strong>s a little overlapp<strong>in</strong>g and slightly too<strong>the</strong>d.About 5-8 jo<strong>in</strong>ts between <strong>the</strong> succeed<strong>in</strong>g syzygies.The earlier p<strong>in</strong>nules are extraord<strong>in</strong>arily stiff; <strong>the</strong> first, which is<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d brachial, is much shorter than <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d or third,which are of about <strong>the</strong> same length and <strong>made</strong> up of ra<strong>the</strong>r less than20 jo<strong>in</strong>ts, most of which are l<strong>on</strong>ger than wide, and have <strong>the</strong>ir distaledge enlarged and slightly denticulated. There are 10 or }2 stiffp<strong>in</strong>nules ; <strong>the</strong> succeed<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong>es are shorter, and <strong>the</strong>n aga<strong>in</strong> l<strong>on</strong>ger.Arras more than 120 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g ; disk not more than 7 millim.<strong>in</strong> diameter. The radials and <strong>the</strong> earlier brachials have <strong>the</strong>ir<strong>in</strong>fero-lateral edge produced <strong>in</strong>to a k<strong>in</strong>d of ledge. The moreproximal jo<strong>in</strong>ts have <strong>the</strong> appearance of be<strong>in</strong>g tuberculated, and<strong>the</strong>re is a ta<strong>in</strong>t median dorsal ridge ; at <strong>the</strong> sides <strong>the</strong>y are compressed.Colour dark slate.The stiff p<strong>in</strong>nules, <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>g arms, and <strong>the</strong> small disk are verystrik<strong>in</strong>g characters <strong>in</strong> this species.Port Denis<strong>on</strong>.The large Myzostomum found <strong>on</strong> it has been named M. coriaceumby Dr. Graff.8. Anted<strong>on</strong> decipiens. (Plate XI. figs. B, a.)Centrodorsal small ; drri <strong>on</strong> three levels, about 20 <strong>in</strong> number,with 25 jo<strong>in</strong>ts, of which <strong>the</strong> fourth to tenth are l<strong>on</strong>ger than wide ;<strong>the</strong> rest, which gradually become shorter, are provided with a wellmarkedsp<strong>in</strong>e ; <strong>the</strong>se decrease towards <strong>the</strong> end, but <strong>the</strong> penultimate<strong>on</strong>e is larger aga<strong>in</strong>.First radials quite dist<strong>in</strong>ct ; <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d obl<strong>on</strong>g, three times asl<strong>on</strong>g as wide, partly <strong>in</strong> c<strong>on</strong>tact ; <strong>the</strong> third almost triangular. Thearms may or may not divide, so that <strong>the</strong>re are from about 14 to 18.The first brachials or first distichals are always wide, and touch ;where <strong>the</strong> arms divide <strong>the</strong>re are three distichals, and <strong>the</strong> axillarymay be a syzygy. The first brachials, which have sharp overlapp<strong>in</strong>gdistal edges, are pretty regularly obl<strong>on</strong>g ; at about <strong>the</strong> seventh <strong>the</strong>ybecome alternately wider <strong>on</strong> ei<strong>the</strong>r side, to aga<strong>in</strong> become moreregular later <strong>on</strong>.Syzygies 3, 12-15, 22-25; <strong>the</strong>n from ] 0-12 jo<strong>in</strong>ts between eachsyzygy.First p<strong>in</strong>nule <strong>on</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d distichal (when present), that and <strong>the</strong><strong>on</strong>e <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> third brachial short ; those <strong>on</strong> fifth to n<strong>in</strong>th much l<strong>on</strong>"-er<strong>the</strong> basal jo<strong>in</strong>ts very stout, <strong>the</strong> free ends very delicate, and <strong>the</strong>irouter side produced <strong>in</strong>to a well-marked c<strong>on</strong>icfti process. The succeed<strong>in</strong>gp<strong>in</strong>nules are shorter, and <strong>the</strong>se aga<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>crease <strong>in</strong> length •<strong>the</strong>y are not composed of a large number of joiuts.


;160 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA,Disk small. Arms about 70 millim, l<strong>on</strong>g, cirri about 16 millim.Colour white ;p<strong>in</strong>nules sometimes banded with darker.This species presents some resemblances to A. p<strong>in</strong>niformis ofCarpenter.Arafura Sea (32-36 fms.) ; Dundas Strait ; Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of WalesChannel.I provisi<strong>on</strong>ally associate with this, as a variety, two specimensfrom St. 144, <strong>in</strong> which <strong>the</strong> cirri are ra<strong>the</strong>r more numerous and morejo<strong>in</strong>ted, <strong>in</strong> which <strong>the</strong> whole animal appears to be more slender anddelicate, and <strong>the</strong> colour ashy grey.9. Anted<strong>on</strong> reg<strong>in</strong>as. (Plate XII. fig. A, a.)Centrodorsal hidden by <strong>the</strong> cirri ; cirri about 30, with 30 stoutand laterally compressed jo<strong>in</strong>ts, about 20 of which are provided witha well-marked sp<strong>in</strong>e.First radials not visible, sec<strong>on</strong>d broader than l<strong>on</strong>g, <strong>in</strong> c<strong>on</strong>tactthird short, with a very slight backward projecti<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> middlel<strong>in</strong>e. Two broad distichals. Thirt}--five arms ; if <strong>the</strong> arms dividea sec<strong>on</strong>d time <strong>the</strong>re are two palmars, and <strong>the</strong> third brachial is asyzygy ; if <strong>the</strong> arm does not divide a sec<strong>on</strong>d time, <strong>the</strong> fifth brachialis a syzygy. At first <strong>the</strong> jo<strong>in</strong>ts are fairly regular, though muchshorter than wide ; later <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>y become more or less, though neververy strik<strong>in</strong>gly, wedge-shaped.Syzygies <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> n<strong>in</strong>th jo<strong>in</strong>t ; <strong>the</strong>n from 9-14 between each.The first p<strong>in</strong>nule is shorter than <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d, which is of somelength, and <strong>the</strong> third than <strong>the</strong> fourth ; most of <strong>the</strong> p<strong>in</strong>nules arevery short.Length of arms about 70 millim., cirri about 24 millim. Diskdeeply <strong>in</strong>cised, 10 millim. <strong>in</strong> diameter.Colour, flesh-coloured.Port Molle.10. Anted<strong>on</strong> articulata.C<strong>on</strong>iatula (Alecto) articulata, Mull. Gat. Camnt. p, 27.Port Molle.11. Anted<strong>on</strong> gyges. (Plate XII. figs. B, a, h.)Centrodorsal flattened, rounded, with cirri <strong>in</strong> three rows, ra<strong>the</strong>rmore than 40, with ra<strong>the</strong>r more than 30 jo<strong>in</strong>ts, <strong>the</strong> fifth to <strong>the</strong> tenthl<strong>on</strong>ger than broad, <strong>the</strong> sixcceed<strong>in</strong>g jo<strong>in</strong>ts shorter, and provided, firstof all, with a c<strong>on</strong>vex dorsal edge ;this narrows <strong>in</strong>to a wide sp<strong>in</strong>ousprotuberance, which becomes more and more sp<strong>in</strong>y till <strong>the</strong> fairlywell-marked penultimate si)<strong>in</strong>e is reached.The s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen has 41 arms.First radials completely, sec<strong>on</strong>d largely obscured ;' <strong>the</strong> third triangular,not a syzygy ; a slight median c<strong>on</strong>ical protuberance <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>


ECHINODERMATA. 161l<strong>in</strong>e of juncti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d and third. Distichals 2 ;palmars 2 :<strong>in</strong> nei<strong>the</strong>r case is <strong>the</strong> axillary a syzygy, and <strong>in</strong> both cases <strong>the</strong>re is aslight c<strong>on</strong>ical protuberance where <strong>the</strong> two jo<strong>in</strong>ts meet, and <strong>in</strong> bothcases also <strong>the</strong> more proximal of <strong>the</strong> two jo<strong>in</strong>ts is <strong>in</strong> close lateralc<strong>on</strong>tact with its fellow. First brachials a little wider al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong>irouter than <strong>the</strong>ir <strong>in</strong>ner side ; al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> latter <strong>the</strong>y are aga<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong> closec<strong>on</strong>tact with <strong>the</strong>ir fellow ; as <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d brachial is also widerwithout than with<strong>in</strong>, <strong>the</strong>re is a feebly-marked diam<strong>on</strong>d-space<strong>in</strong>terval. The third brachial is nearly obl<strong>on</strong>g, and, be<strong>in</strong>g syzygial,has somewhat <strong>the</strong> appearance of a dice-box. For <strong>the</strong> next threeor four jo<strong>in</strong>ts <strong>the</strong>re is no wedge-shaped arrangement ; at firstfeebly <strong>in</strong>dicated, it rapidly becomes more marked ; fur<strong>the</strong>r out itdim<strong>in</strong>ishes, and <strong>the</strong> term<strong>in</strong>al jo<strong>in</strong>ts are nearly obl<strong>on</strong>g. As <strong>in</strong>A. jlageUata (see Carpenter, Notes Leyd. Mus. iii. p. 183), <strong>the</strong>earlier brachials are flattened <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir outer side.The first syzygy is <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> third brachial, <strong>the</strong> next about <strong>the</strong>fifteenth, and <strong>the</strong>re are <strong>the</strong>n <strong>in</strong>tervals of 9-10 jo<strong>in</strong>ts between <strong>the</strong>syzygies.The species is at <strong>on</strong>ce to be dist<strong>in</strong>guished from A. Jlagellata by<strong>the</strong> fact that <strong>the</strong> third is shorter than <strong>the</strong> first p<strong>in</strong>nule ; of <strong>the</strong> firstthree <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d is <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>gest. The first is <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d brachial,and is but little shorter than <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d ; <strong>the</strong> first three p<strong>in</strong>nulesall have broad basal and el<strong>on</strong>gated distal jo<strong>in</strong>ts, but though l<strong>on</strong>gerthan <strong>the</strong> next succeed<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>y are by no means remarkable <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>irlength.Colour : brownish flesh-coloured arms ; <strong>the</strong> peristome very muchdarker ; <strong>the</strong> cirri much darker <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir ventral than <strong>the</strong>ir dorsalaspect.Disk <strong>in</strong>cised, with a diameter of 7*5 millim. ; arms about80 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g ; cirri 21 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g.Thursday Island.12. Anted<strong>on</strong> irregularis. (Plate XIII. figs. A, a-c.)Centrodorsal fiattened, small ; cirri marg<strong>in</strong>al, <strong>in</strong> two rows, about25 <strong>in</strong> number (but <strong>the</strong>re may be not more than 15), with 30-35jo<strong>in</strong>ts, <strong>the</strong> lowermost short, fourth to n<strong>in</strong>th l<strong>on</strong>ger than wide, <strong>the</strong>naga<strong>in</strong> shorten<strong>in</strong>g ; no sp<strong>in</strong>e, except <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> penultimate jo<strong>in</strong>t, andthat exceed<strong>in</strong>gly small.First radials not (or barely) visible ;sec<strong>on</strong>d wide, <strong>in</strong> c<strong>on</strong>tact,with a median c<strong>on</strong>vex protuberance ; <strong>the</strong> third almost perfectly triangular.Arms 11-22. Three jo<strong>in</strong>ts <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> first divisi<strong>on</strong>, <strong>the</strong> axillariessyzygies ;when <strong>the</strong>re is a sec<strong>on</strong>d divisi<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>re are two jo<strong>in</strong>ts, <strong>the</strong>axillaries not syzygies. The earlier jo<strong>in</strong>ts of <strong>the</strong> arm have a wellroundedc<strong>on</strong>vex dorsal surface and are broader than l<strong>on</strong>g ; so<strong>on</strong>,however, <strong>the</strong>y become very markedly wedge-shaped and form aprom<strong>in</strong>ent projecti<strong>on</strong> alternately <strong>on</strong> ei<strong>the</strong>r side. Towards <strong>the</strong> endof <strong>the</strong> arms <strong>the</strong>se disappear.


;162 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.Syzygies 3 : 10 : 19, or 3 : 11 : 21, or 3 : 13 : 21, or 3 : 14 : 21, or3 : 15 : 22 ; <strong>the</strong>n from. 6-10 jo<strong>in</strong>ts between each.First p<strong>in</strong>nules very short ; tliird and fourth <strong>the</strong> stoutest andl<strong>on</strong>gest, quite stiff, with well-developed broad lower jo<strong>in</strong>ts, each ofwhich has a marked protuberance <strong>on</strong> ei<strong>the</strong>r side ; <strong>the</strong> succeed<strong>in</strong>g<strong>on</strong>es shorter, and <strong>the</strong>n aga<strong>in</strong> l<strong>on</strong>ger.Arms about 85 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g, <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>gest cirri 24 millim. ; diameterof disk 6 millim.Colour : pale flesh, occasi<strong>on</strong>ally with a dark band here and <strong>the</strong>re,especially at <strong>the</strong> syzygies ; sometimes <strong>the</strong>re is a good deal of brown.The cirri are typically banded purple and white.Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel ; Torres Straits.This species has some resemblance to A. decipiens ; but it may bedist<strong>in</strong>guished from it by (a) <strong>the</strong> absence of sp<strong>in</strong>es from <strong>the</strong> jo<strong>in</strong>ts of<strong>the</strong> cirri, (/3) <strong>the</strong> broader lower p<strong>in</strong>nules, and (y) <strong>the</strong> greater lengthof <strong>the</strong> more distal p<strong>in</strong>nules.13. Anted<strong>on</strong> elegans. (Plate XIII. fig. B, a.)Centrodorsal small and flattened ; cirri marg<strong>in</strong>al, <strong>in</strong> two rows,25-30, with 40 jo<strong>in</strong>ts, <strong>the</strong> fifth to tenth ra<strong>the</strong>r l<strong>on</strong>ger than broad<strong>the</strong> succeed<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong>es with a short c<strong>on</strong>ical sp<strong>in</strong>e, which dim<strong>in</strong>ishes <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> more distal <strong>on</strong>es, but enlarges aga<strong>in</strong> somewhat as a penultimatesp<strong>in</strong>e.First radials just visible ; sec<strong>on</strong>d wide, barely <strong>in</strong> c<strong>on</strong>tact ; <strong>the</strong>third comparatively short. Thirty arms. The three distichalspretty l<strong>on</strong>g ; <strong>the</strong> axillary a syzygy. If <strong>the</strong> arms divide aga<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>reare generally two jo<strong>in</strong>ts, when <strong>the</strong> axillary is not a syzygy ; but<strong>the</strong>re may be three jo<strong>in</strong>ts, and <strong>the</strong>n <strong>the</strong> axillary is a syzyg)'.The earlier brachials have even sides ; <strong>the</strong>y <strong>the</strong>n become wedgeshaped,but do not overlap. StiU. fur<strong>the</strong>r out, <strong>the</strong>y become shorterand project a little at <strong>the</strong> sides ; towards <strong>the</strong> free end of <strong>the</strong> arm<strong>the</strong> upper face of each jo<strong>in</strong>t is sharply c<strong>on</strong>vex.Syzygies 3 : 11 : 22 ; <strong>the</strong>n 9-13 jo<strong>in</strong>ts between each.The first two p<strong>in</strong>nules are stift' and l<strong>on</strong>g, l<strong>on</strong>ger and stouter than<strong>the</strong> third and fourth ; n<strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> follow<strong>in</strong>g are l<strong>on</strong>g, but <strong>the</strong> ra<strong>the</strong>rmore distal are <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>ger.The disk is deeply <strong>in</strong>cised, and <strong>the</strong> marg<strong>in</strong>s of <strong>the</strong> rays providedwith a well-developed and characteristic calcareous plat<strong>in</strong>g.Arms delicate, 95 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g, cirri 30 millim. ; disk (ow<strong>in</strong>g to<strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>cisi<strong>on</strong>s) <strong>on</strong>ly 8 millim. <strong>in</strong> diameter.Arms p<strong>in</strong>kish flesh-colour above, much darker below ; <strong>the</strong> cirrir<strong>in</strong>ged purplish and white. In a younger specimen <strong>the</strong>re arepurplish spots <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> arms* above.Port MoUe.A disk from Thursday Island probably bel<strong>on</strong>gs to this species.


;ECHINODEKMATA. 16314. Anted<strong>on</strong> briareus. (Plate XIV,)Centrodorsal flattened ;15-20 marg<strong>in</strong>al delicate cirri, formed ofa few short jo<strong>in</strong>ts.Arms more than 70.First radials obscured ; sec<strong>on</strong>d <strong>in</strong> c<strong>on</strong>tact, at least three times asl<strong>on</strong>g as <strong>the</strong>y are broad ; third widely triangular. Three distichals,<strong>the</strong> axillary a syzygy ; two palmars. If <strong>the</strong>re is ano<strong>the</strong>r divisi<strong>on</strong><strong>the</strong>re are aga<strong>in</strong> two jo<strong>in</strong>ts ; no syzygy. The first five or six brachialshave nearly even edges ; <strong>the</strong> succeed<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong>es are markedly wedgeshaped.A syzygy <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> third brachial ; succeed<strong>in</strong>g syzygies rare.Sec<strong>on</strong>d p<strong>in</strong>nules l<strong>on</strong>ger than first, very delicate, <strong>made</strong> up of anumber of small jo<strong>in</strong>ts ; <strong>the</strong> succeed<strong>in</strong>g p<strong>in</strong>nules stouter and morefleshy.This is <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> species <strong>in</strong> which <strong>the</strong>re is a very c<strong>on</strong>siderabledifference <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> length of <strong>the</strong> arms ;here some of <strong>the</strong> arms may beas much as 110 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g, while o<strong>the</strong>rs are <strong>on</strong>ly 75 millim.There is an <strong>in</strong>terradial plat<strong>in</strong>g, extend<strong>in</strong>g as far as <strong>the</strong> distichalaxillary.The colour (<strong>in</strong> spirit) is dark brown.Port Denis<strong>on</strong>.15. Anted<strong>on</strong> microdiscus. (Plate XV.)Centrodorsal ra<strong>the</strong>r large a»d prom<strong>in</strong>ent ; <strong>the</strong> cirri marg<strong>in</strong>al, <strong>in</strong>two or three rows, from 30-50 <strong>in</strong> number, with from 50-70 jo<strong>in</strong>ts,n<strong>on</strong>e of which are markedly l<strong>on</strong>ger than broad ; as a rule, <strong>the</strong> distaltwo thirds have an <strong>in</strong>c<strong>on</strong>spicuous dorsal sp<strong>in</strong>e, and <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> largerspecimen <strong>the</strong> penultimate sp<strong>in</strong>e is hardly more c<strong>on</strong>spicuous.The first radials visible ; all very short and wide, <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d not<strong>in</strong> c<strong>on</strong>tact. Three distichals, <strong>the</strong> axillary a syzygy. Three palmars,<strong>the</strong> axillary normally a syzj-gy. The arms may divide aga<strong>in</strong>, and of<strong>the</strong> three jo<strong>in</strong>ts <strong>the</strong> axillary may or may not be a syzygy. Probablyas many as 90 arms <strong>in</strong> an adult. The earlier brachials have fairlyeven edges, are well rounded above and fiattened at <strong>the</strong>ir sides ; <strong>the</strong>next succeed<strong>in</strong>g are fa<strong>in</strong>tly wedge-shaped, <strong>the</strong> distal edge of eachproject<strong>in</strong>g alternately <strong>on</strong> ei<strong>the</strong>r side <strong>in</strong>to a slight protuberancefur<strong>the</strong>r out, <strong>the</strong> wedge-form disappears. The arms generally, thoughslender, are very firm and stiff and are set verj' close to <strong>on</strong>e ano<strong>the</strong>r.Syzygies 3, 22-25, 40-41; <strong>the</strong>n from 10-12 jo<strong>in</strong>ts betweeneach.The earlier p<strong>in</strong>nules exceed<strong>in</strong>gly l<strong>on</strong>g <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> adult, with verystout slightly keeled basal jo<strong>in</strong>ts ; <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d, which is a good deall<strong>on</strong>ger than <strong>the</strong> first, has as many as 50 jo<strong>in</strong>ts and is qiiite f<strong>in</strong>e atits free end ;<strong>the</strong> more distal jo<strong>in</strong>ts are provided with a sp<strong>in</strong>e or tuftof sp<strong>in</strong>es.The stiff straight arms are about 150 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g; <strong>the</strong> cirrimeasure nearly 50 millim. ; <strong>the</strong> disk, with rounded <strong>in</strong>cisi<strong>on</strong>s, has adiameter of about 12 millim.The disk and <strong>the</strong> arms, as far as <strong>the</strong>ir last divisi<strong>on</strong>, are largelym2


—164 COLLECTIONS FEOM MELANESIA.washed with purple ; <strong>the</strong> middle l<strong>in</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> arms is lighter, butpatches or spots of purple are to be found at <strong>the</strong> sides ; <strong>the</strong> lowersurface is a little lighter <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> disk than <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> arms, where it isalmost black.Port Mollo, 12 fms.Three smaller specimens alreadj^ <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> collecti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> BritishMuseum, from ]Sicol Bay, N.W. Australia, must, I th<strong>in</strong>k, bereferred to this species. The smallest of <strong>the</strong>se has not more than30 cirri, nor have <strong>the</strong>y more than 40 jo<strong>in</strong>ts ; <strong>the</strong>ir sp<strong>in</strong>es, and especially<strong>the</strong> penultimate <strong>on</strong>e, are better developed. There are <strong>on</strong>lyabout 50 arms, and <strong>in</strong> some cases <strong>the</strong>re are <strong>on</strong>ly two palmars (when<strong>the</strong> axillary is not a syzygy). The ground-colour is purplish, markedwith yellow bands.16. Act<strong>in</strong>ometra Solaris.P. H. Carpenter, Notes Leyd. Mtts. iii. p. 192 ; Journ. L<strong>in</strong>n. Soc, Zool.xvi. p. 514.Two specimens of different sizes do, I th<strong>in</strong>k, undoubtedly bel<strong>on</strong>g tothis species, to which specimens have not unfrequently been assignedthat are to be dist<strong>in</strong>guished by what are apparently good specificcharacters.Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel.The greatest difficulties attend <strong>the</strong> exact delimitati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> specificcharacters of this species ; and <strong>the</strong> questi<strong>on</strong> whe<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong>y vary with<strong>in</strong>wide limits or are, ra<strong>the</strong>r, sharply def<strong>in</strong>ed cannot yet be answered.For <strong>the</strong> purposes of exact knowledge it seems to be at present <strong>the</strong>better course to try and recognize po<strong>in</strong>ts of difference betweenallied forms ; we must by experiment and experience discover whichof <strong>the</strong> characters of a Comatulid afford trustworthy criteria <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>discrim<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> of species ; so few forms have, as yet, been described,and so little criticism has been brought to bear <strong>on</strong> what work hasbeen d<strong>on</strong>e, that our knowledge of how species are to be def<strong>in</strong>ed anddelimited is as yet <strong>in</strong> a very elementary c<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong>.The <strong>on</strong>ly c<strong>on</strong>solati<strong>on</strong> is to be found <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> reflecti<strong>on</strong> that whatmay seem, with wider knowledge, to be a " bad species " is justifiablyregarded now as a " good <strong>on</strong>e," and that wary specific discrim<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong>is often a c<strong>on</strong>siderable aid to <strong>the</strong> exact and accurate knowledgeof <strong>the</strong> characters of complex and elaborate forms.The two specimens here ascribed to A. Solaris present <strong>the</strong> follow<strong>in</strong>gcharacters :There are 12 cirri, and <strong>the</strong>re may be <strong>on</strong>ly 18 jo<strong>in</strong>ts <strong>in</strong> acirrus ; <strong>the</strong> more proximal jo<strong>in</strong>ts of <strong>the</strong> arms of <strong>the</strong> smaller specimenare more " knobby " than <strong>the</strong> corresp<strong>on</strong>d<strong>in</strong>gly placed jo<strong>in</strong>ts<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> larger. In both cases <strong>the</strong> arms are at <strong>the</strong>ir widest a Littledistance from <strong>the</strong> disk ; <strong>the</strong> keels <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> basal jo<strong>in</strong>ts of <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>dp<strong>in</strong>nule are well marked <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> smaller specimen ; but <strong>in</strong> nei<strong>the</strong>rcase are <strong>the</strong>re any very prom<strong>in</strong>ent keels <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> basal jo<strong>in</strong>ts of <strong>the</strong>third p<strong>in</strong>nules.


ECniNODERMATA. 165Arm of <strong>the</strong> larger specimen about 120, of <strong>the</strong> smaller about85 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g ; <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> former <strong>the</strong> first p<strong>in</strong>nule is about 20 and <strong>the</strong>cirri 10 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g.Both of <strong>the</strong> specimens are white and without any dorsal medianl<strong>in</strong>e ; dark spots or marks prom<strong>in</strong>ently developed <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> p<strong>in</strong>nules.For <strong>the</strong> present, at least, I associate with A. solans a specimenfrom Warrior Reef, <strong>in</strong> which <strong>the</strong> characteristic keel to <strong>the</strong> p<strong>in</strong>nuleis developed and iu which <strong>the</strong> cirri do not seem to have been morothan twelve <strong>in</strong> number, but <strong>in</strong> which <strong>the</strong> number of cirrus-jo<strong>in</strong>tswould appear to be less than fifteen.There are also specimens from Port Curtis and Torres Straitswhich, though still small, hardly promise to ever have <strong>the</strong> stout armswhich are so characteristic of <strong>the</strong> adult ; fur<strong>the</strong>r experience will,I th<strong>in</strong>k, show <strong>the</strong>m to be " dwarfs."Prom <strong>the</strong> Arafura Sea we have received a comparatively smallspecimen, which is chiefly remarkable for <strong>the</strong> smaller number of itscirrus-jo<strong>in</strong>ts.In Dundas Strait <strong>the</strong>re were dredged some small specimens whichapproach iu character A. pect<strong>in</strong>ata and A. purpurea, but give us,with our present scanty <strong>in</strong>formati<strong>on</strong>, but little aid <strong>in</strong> determ<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g<strong>the</strong> character or limits of <strong>the</strong>se species.From Thursday Island we obta<strong>in</strong>ed a somewhat <strong>in</strong>jured and largespecimen bel<strong>on</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> " type " of A. Solaris, but which completelyeludes my attempts to understand it.Under <strong>the</strong> name of A. alh<strong>on</strong>btuta I was <strong>in</strong>cl<strong>in</strong>ed to separate a specimenfrom Albany Island, which is to be dist<strong>in</strong>guished from <strong>the</strong> formto which <strong>the</strong> name A. Solaris is ord<strong>in</strong>arily restricted by <strong>the</strong> largernumber (20-25) of cirri, and <strong>the</strong> less prom<strong>in</strong>ent keels <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> basaljo<strong>in</strong>ts of <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d p<strong>in</strong>nules. The general facies, however, of <strong>the</strong>specimen is dist<strong>in</strong>ctly that of A. Solaris, with <strong>the</strong> excepti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong>ra<strong>the</strong>r remarkable colorati<strong>on</strong>, which has led to <strong>the</strong> proposal of adist<strong>in</strong>ctive name. When, however, we make a careful comparis<strong>on</strong>between <strong>the</strong> pattern of this colorati<strong>on</strong> and that of <strong>the</strong> two specimensfirst described and unhesitat<strong>in</strong>gly referred to A. Solaris, wesee that <strong>the</strong>re is really a strik<strong>in</strong>g resemblance between <strong>the</strong> two, andwe are aga<strong>in</strong> led to <strong>the</strong> reflecti<strong>on</strong> that great circumspecti<strong>on</strong> is to beexercised whensoever we are tempted to make use of difference <strong>in</strong>colour as a dist<strong>in</strong>guish<strong>in</strong>g mark. I have already stated that <strong>the</strong>reare black patches or spots <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> p<strong>in</strong>nules of <strong>the</strong> first-described pair ofspecitueus ; what we f<strong>in</strong>d <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>on</strong>e now under c<strong>on</strong>siderati<strong>on</strong> is that<strong>the</strong>se spots hav<strong>in</strong>g greatly <strong>in</strong>creased <strong>in</strong> number, and become more extensivethan <strong>the</strong> white, have caused <strong>the</strong> white ground to assume <strong>the</strong>appearance of spots <strong>on</strong> a dark ground. The extreme limit of <strong>the</strong>species seems, however, to be reached by this form ; and as <strong>the</strong> cirriare more numerous than usual, and <strong>the</strong> basal jo<strong>in</strong>ts of <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>dp<strong>in</strong>nule less str<strong>on</strong>gly keeled, I propose to speak of it as A. Solaris^var. alh<strong>on</strong>otata.We must not be tempted by <strong>the</strong> diflSculties of specific discrim<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong>to make use of mere colorati<strong>on</strong> : <strong>the</strong>re are <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> collecti<strong>on</strong> twospecimens of A. Solaris from Thursday Island, <strong>on</strong>e of which is uni-


166 COLLECTIONS PKOM MELANESIA,foruily purple, while <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r has <strong>the</strong> purple relieved by a whitemedian dorsal l<strong>in</strong>e and by some white p<strong>in</strong>nules.I trust that with an <strong>in</strong>crease <strong>in</strong> our knowledge and with a largerseries of specimens <strong>the</strong> preced<strong>in</strong>g discussi<strong>on</strong> will be found, l<strong>on</strong>g as itmust have seemed, to be of some aid <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> determ<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong>characters and limits of <strong>the</strong> species ; with such scanty <strong>in</strong>formati<strong>on</strong>as we possess at present it would be to <strong>the</strong> last degree rash toventure <strong>on</strong> any k<strong>in</strong>d of prophesj-. Were I to make <strong>on</strong>e, however,I should say that many of <strong>the</strong> variati<strong>on</strong>s, which at present <strong>the</strong>re isa tendency to regard as of specific importance, will be found topresent less c<strong>on</strong>stancy of arrangement when large series are broughttoge<strong>the</strong>r for exam<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong>. In <strong>the</strong> work of enlarg<strong>in</strong>g our knowledgeof <strong>the</strong> species of Cr<strong>in</strong>oids <strong>the</strong> British Museum may well look tothose English col<strong>on</strong>ists who live <strong>on</strong> such sea-boards as that of <strong>the</strong>Australian coasts, and who have opportunity to do some dredg<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir waters.The student will believe that it was not without much study thatI <strong>in</strong>stituted <strong>the</strong> species now succeed<strong>in</strong>g ; s<strong>in</strong>ce I did so I have had<strong>the</strong> opportunity, thanks to <strong>the</strong> k<strong>in</strong>dness of Mr. E. P. Eamsay, ofexam<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g a collecti<strong>on</strong> of Australian Ech<strong>in</strong>odcrms ; and it was ^^'itha certa<strong>in</strong> amount of satisfacti<strong>on</strong> that I obta<strong>in</strong>ed from it specimenswhich exhibited a close resemblance to A. <strong>in</strong>termedia, and led meto th<strong>in</strong>k that I was justified <strong>in</strong> -regard<strong>in</strong>g its differential charactersas c<strong>on</strong>stant and def<strong>in</strong>ite.Stand<strong>in</strong>g midway between A. soJeiris and A. rohusta it may bedist<strong>in</strong>guished as17. Act<strong>in</strong>ometra <strong>in</strong>termedia.As Mr. Carpenter has po<strong>in</strong>ted out, it appears to be possible, <strong>in</strong>part at any rate, to dist<strong>in</strong>guish A. Solaris from A. rohusta by <strong>the</strong>character of <strong>the</strong> keels, which, <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> former, are so strik<strong>in</strong>gly developed<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> basal jo<strong>in</strong>ts of <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d p<strong>in</strong>nule. Bas<strong>in</strong>g myself <strong>on</strong><strong>the</strong> <strong>the</strong>ory that <strong>the</strong> keel is c<strong>on</strong>stantly present <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> basal jo<strong>in</strong>ts of<strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d p<strong>in</strong>nule of A. Solaris (Plate XVI. fig. A, a), and that it isnever found <strong>on</strong> those of A. rohusta (fig. A, h), I venture to th<strong>in</strong>k that,<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> case of A. <strong>in</strong>termedia, we have to do with a form <strong>in</strong> whichc<strong>on</strong>stantly <strong>the</strong> keels are never as well developed as <strong>in</strong> A. Solaris,and never so slightly as <strong>in</strong> A. rohusta, while at <strong>the</strong> same time <strong>the</strong>reare c<strong>on</strong>siderable differences <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> extent of <strong>the</strong> development of <strong>the</strong>keel, not <strong>on</strong>ly with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> limits of <strong>the</strong> species but even of <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>dividual(cf. figs. A, c, d).The follow<strong>in</strong>g appear to be <strong>the</strong> more characteristic marks of <strong>the</strong>species :—A general resemblance to A. Solaris ; but <strong>the</strong>re are about18 cirri, with from 18-20 jo<strong>in</strong>ts ; first p<strong>in</strong>nules not specially l<strong>on</strong>g,of ra<strong>the</strong>r more than 40 jo<strong>in</strong>ts ; basal jo<strong>in</strong>ts of sec<strong>on</strong>d p<strong>in</strong>nuleswith a not c<strong>on</strong>spicuous keel, and with <strong>on</strong>e which varies <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>extent to which it is developed. Arms widest a slight distancefrom <strong>the</strong> disk.


ECHINODEKMATA. 167A specimen "with an arm 120 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g has <strong>the</strong> cirri 15-5millim. l<strong>on</strong>e:, <strong>the</strong> first p<strong>in</strong>nule 20 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g, and <strong>the</strong> arms 3 millim.at <strong>the</strong>ir widest ; <strong>in</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r words, <strong>the</strong>se measurements are very much<strong>the</strong> same as those of <strong>the</strong> specimens of A. Solaris lately referred to.The fa<strong>in</strong>t white l<strong>in</strong>e which is so often seen al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> middle of <strong>the</strong>dorsal surface of <strong>the</strong> arms is to he seen <strong>in</strong> some specimens ; and <strong>in</strong>some cases we may observe <strong>the</strong> black spots <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> p<strong>in</strong>nules, towhich attenti<strong>on</strong> has already been directed.It will be clear enough to <strong>the</strong> student that <strong>the</strong> specimens now underdiscussi<strong>on</strong> present several po<strong>in</strong>ts of c<strong>on</strong>siderable difficulty ; but, thoi;gh<strong>the</strong>y have <strong>the</strong> general facies of ^. Solaris and <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r hand alarger number of cirri and a feebler keel, <strong>the</strong>reby approach<strong>in</strong>gA. robusta, <strong>the</strong>j% at <strong>the</strong> same time, present sufficient c<strong>on</strong>stancy <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> retenti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong>ir differential characters to prevent our believ<strong>in</strong>gthat <strong>the</strong> differences that we observe have not passed Avith<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>fluenceof <strong>the</strong> laws of heredity.Albany Island.18. Act<strong>in</strong>ometra robusta.Act<strong>in</strong>ometra robusta (Zilfken, MSS.), P. H. Carpente?-, Journ. L<strong>in</strong>n.Soc, Zool. xvi. p. 517.In specimens of this comparatively well-marked form from " St.144," * which were somewhat smaller than those described byMr. Carpenter, I noted that <strong>the</strong> basal jo<strong>in</strong>ts of <strong>the</strong> arm were not sodist<strong>in</strong>ctly knobbed, and that <strong>the</strong>re was a fa<strong>in</strong>t car<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> to <strong>the</strong> basaljo<strong>in</strong>ts of <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d p<strong>in</strong>nule. On <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r hand, <strong>in</strong> a larger specimenfrom Port Curtis, which appeared to be particularly well developed,<strong>the</strong> knobs were very prom<strong>in</strong>ent."With regard to <strong>the</strong> specimens from St. 144, Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger notesthat <strong>the</strong>y were " orig<strong>in</strong>ally of a purple colour."19. Act<strong>in</strong>ometra strota.Am<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> present collecti<strong>on</strong> of Cr<strong>in</strong>oids Mr. Carpenter recognizeda s<strong>in</strong>gle specimen of a species which he has dist<strong>in</strong>guished asA. stroia, n. sp., and of which he will give a full account <strong>in</strong> hisforthcom<strong>in</strong>g <str<strong>on</strong>g>Report</str<strong>on</strong>g> <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> Comatulce of <strong>the</strong> 'Challenger' Expediti<strong>on</strong>.Port MoUe.20. Act<strong>in</strong>ometra cum<strong>in</strong>gii.Comatula cum<strong>in</strong>gii, /. Miiller, p. 19.A delicate specimen with 10 cirri, <strong>the</strong> cirri hav<strong>in</strong>g about 12jo<strong>in</strong>ts and no penultimate sp<strong>in</strong>e, and most of <strong>the</strong> jo<strong>in</strong>ts be<strong>in</strong>g a* Probably Thursday Jsland.


168 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.little l<strong>on</strong>ger than broad, is referred to this species. Two of <strong>the</strong>arms which have underg<strong>on</strong>e <strong>in</strong>jury are now giv<strong>in</strong>g rise to four andthree arms respectively.Port Molle.21. Act<strong>in</strong>ometra copp<strong>in</strong>geri. (Plate XVI. fig. B.)Centrodorsal small ; 17-20 cirri <strong>in</strong> two rows, with from 17-20jo<strong>in</strong>ts, <strong>the</strong> fourth to sixth l<strong>on</strong>ger than broad, <strong>the</strong> rest shorter ; <strong>the</strong>sp<strong>in</strong>es, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> penultimate <strong>on</strong>e, obscure.First radials hardly visible, <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d three times as wide asl<strong>on</strong>g, partly <strong>in</strong> c<strong>on</strong>tact ; <strong>the</strong> axillary almost triangular, not a syzygy.The specimen under exam<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> has 12 arms, but <strong>the</strong> normalnumber is probably 10. First and sec<strong>on</strong>d brachials wider <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>irouter than <strong>the</strong>ir <strong>in</strong>ner side, <strong>the</strong> fii'st <strong>in</strong> c<strong>on</strong>tact, <strong>the</strong> third a syzj'-gy ;it and <strong>the</strong> next two obl<strong>on</strong>g ; <strong>the</strong> succeed<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong>es wedge-shaped and<strong>the</strong> distal edges slightly dentated; fur<strong>the</strong>r out <strong>the</strong> jo<strong>in</strong>ts moreregularly obl<strong>on</strong>g.Syzygies <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> third and tenth, and <strong>the</strong>n at about every fifthjo<strong>in</strong>t.First p<strong>in</strong>nules <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> third brachials l<strong>on</strong>ger than <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d, and<strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d a httle l<strong>on</strong>ger than <strong>the</strong> third ; <strong>the</strong> fourth aga<strong>in</strong> ra<strong>the</strong>rl<strong>on</strong>ger. The succeed<strong>in</strong>g <strong>on</strong>es of a fair length.Length of arms about 70 millim., of cirri 7'5 millim. ; diameter ofdisk 4*5 millim.Colour creamy white.Fl<strong>in</strong>ders, Clairm<strong>on</strong>t.22. Act<strong>in</strong>ometra jukesi.P. H. Carpenter, P. H. S. 1879, p. 390.A technical descripti<strong>on</strong> of this species will be given by Mr. P.Herbert Carpenter <strong>in</strong> his Eeport <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> Comatulidae of <strong>the</strong> ' Challenger'Collecti<strong>on</strong>. It is evidently a comm<strong>on</strong> form.Albany Island ; Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel.23. Act<strong>in</strong>ometra parvicirra.Act<strong>in</strong>ometra parvicirra {Midler), P. II. Carpenter, Notes Leyd. Mus.iii. p. 204, ibique citata.A small specimen, from Warrior Reef, was determ<strong>in</strong>ed for me byMr. Carpenter ; ano<strong>the</strong>r from Port Molle has less than 20 arms, as<strong>in</strong> some of <strong>the</strong> specimens <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Paris Museum.It is of <strong>in</strong>terest t<strong>on</strong>ote that this appears to be, like A. car<strong>in</strong>ata, a species of exceed<strong>in</strong>glywide range, for Mr. Carpenter found two specimens of it from Peru<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> collecti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> Hamburg Museum.


ECHINODERMATA, 16924. Act<strong>in</strong>ometra alternans.P. H. Carpenter, Notes Leyd. Mus. iii. p. 208.An example of this <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g species was determ<strong>in</strong>ed for me byMr. P. H. Carpenter ; <strong>the</strong> stumps of two cirri are still present.Port Molle.25. Act<strong>in</strong>ometra paucicirra. (Plate XYII. fig. A, a.)Centrodorsal small, low, rounded, with 5 or 6 marg<strong>in</strong>al cirri of15-18 jo<strong>in</strong>ts, a number of which are l<strong>on</strong>ger than broad ; <strong>the</strong> penultimatesp<strong>in</strong>e exceed<strong>in</strong>gly small.First radials visible, sec<strong>on</strong>d radials very wide, not <strong>in</strong> c<strong>on</strong>tact,united with <strong>the</strong> third by a syzygy. Twenty arms ; two jo<strong>in</strong>ts <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>distichals united by a syzygy, <strong>the</strong> more prom<strong>in</strong>ent jo<strong>in</strong>ts <strong>in</strong> c<strong>on</strong>tact.First and sec<strong>on</strong>d brachials united by a syzygy ; third and fourthpretty regularly obloHg ; <strong>the</strong> fifth fa<strong>in</strong>tly wedge-shaped ; after this<strong>the</strong> wedge-shaped form becomes more marked, but <strong>the</strong> edges do notoverlap.Syzygies <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> eighth and twelfth, <strong>the</strong>n from 3-5 jo<strong>in</strong>ts betweeneach. First p<strong>in</strong>nules l<strong>on</strong>ger than <strong>the</strong> sec<strong>on</strong>d, and <strong>the</strong> tliird than <strong>the</strong>fourth; <strong>the</strong> first al<strong>on</strong>e of any c<strong>on</strong>siderable size : its jo<strong>in</strong>ts ])roduccd<strong>in</strong>to very prom<strong>in</strong>ent edges. The succeed<strong>in</strong>g p<strong>in</strong>nules small; laterout <strong>the</strong>y enlarge somewhat, but are never at all l<strong>on</strong>g.Arms about 70 millim. l<strong>on</strong>g, cirri 8 millim., disk 7 millim. <strong>in</strong>diameter. A slight development of calcareous deposit between <strong>the</strong>bases of <strong>the</strong> arms.Colour creamy white above, ra<strong>the</strong>r darker below.Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel ; Thursday Island.26. Act<strong>in</strong>ometra multifida.Comatula multifida, /. Miill. p. 26.Percy Island, Queensland; Albany Island; Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of WalesChannel.27. Act<strong>in</strong>ometra variabilis. (Plate XVII. fig. B, a.)Centrodorsal of moderate size, c<strong>on</strong>cave <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> middle, with 10marg<strong>in</strong>al cirri, of about 15 jo<strong>in</strong>ts ; very fa<strong>in</strong>t <strong>in</strong>dicati<strong>on</strong>s of sp<strong>in</strong>es<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> most distal <strong>on</strong>ly.First radials visible, sec<strong>on</strong>d exceed<strong>in</strong>gly wide <strong>in</strong> proporti<strong>on</strong> to<strong>the</strong>ir length, <strong>in</strong> c<strong>on</strong>tact ; <strong>the</strong> third almost perfectly triangular, nota syzygy ; <strong>the</strong>re are normally three distichals, and <strong>the</strong> axillary is asyzygy ;<strong>the</strong>re are two palniars and no syzygy, or three palmars anda syzygy. If <strong>the</strong>re is ano<strong>the</strong>r divisi<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>re are two jo<strong>in</strong>ts, and <strong>the</strong>axillary is not a syzygy. Arms from 00-90.


170 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.The first four or five bracliials have <strong>the</strong> sides pretty even, <strong>the</strong>succeed<strong>in</strong>g are very dist<strong>in</strong>ctly wedge-shaped, and <strong>the</strong>. distal edgebecomes fa<strong>in</strong>tly denticulated. Fur<strong>the</strong>r out <strong>the</strong> wedge becomes wider,and <strong>the</strong> denticulati<strong>on</strong> disappears.Syzygies 3, 10, 14 ; <strong>the</strong>n about three jo<strong>in</strong>ts between each. Thep<strong>in</strong>nules generally are delicate and short, <strong>the</strong> first ra<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong>l<strong>on</strong>gest.Arms not very l<strong>on</strong>g, th<strong>in</strong> ; cirri about 10 mm. l<strong>on</strong>g; disk as muchas 30 mm. <strong>in</strong> diameter, Ovv<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> extensive development of <strong>the</strong><strong>in</strong>terradial plat<strong>in</strong>g which extends to <strong>the</strong> distichal axillaries.Colour yellowish green with darker spots, patches, or l<strong>in</strong>es ; <strong>the</strong>ends of <strong>the</strong> arms and <strong>the</strong> lower surface darker, or <strong>the</strong> upper surfacemay be of a pale flesh-colour.Thursday Island.28. Act<strong>in</strong>ometra, sp. juv.It is very possible that a young specimen from Dundas Strait bel<strong>on</strong>gsto a species, A. piirjmrea, of which a s<strong>in</strong>gle example is al<strong>on</strong>eknown ; and that, as llr. Carpenter <strong>in</strong>forms me, is <strong>in</strong> ra<strong>the</strong>r badc<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong>. It is to be hoped that fur<strong>the</strong>r explorati<strong>on</strong> will result<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> discovery of more representatives of this <strong>in</strong>completely knownform.General Remarks <strong>on</strong> Distribttti<strong>on</strong>.After c<strong>on</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> survey of <strong>the</strong> Ech<strong>in</strong>oderms collected <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>Australian seas by Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger, I arrived at certa<strong>in</strong> results, whichit is unnecessary now to state ; for mj views have s<strong>in</strong>ce been profoundlymodified by what I have s<strong>in</strong>ce learnt from a closer study of<strong>the</strong> mar<strong>in</strong>e fauna of Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> than was possible with <strong>the</strong> comparativelyscanty material that was <strong>in</strong> mjr hands two years ago, when<strong>the</strong> body of this <str<strong>on</strong>g>Report</str<strong>on</strong>g> was be<strong>in</strong>g framed.I have learnt s<strong>in</strong>ce, thanks to <strong>the</strong> opportunities afforded me byarrangements <strong>made</strong> with Mr. E. P. Eamsay, <strong>the</strong> Curator of <strong>the</strong>Australian Museum, Sydney, what are <strong>the</strong> characters of <strong>the</strong> Port-Jacks<strong>on</strong> fauna, and what is <strong>the</strong> extent of its resemblance to thatof Port Molle and Torres Straits.I have, <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> first place, learnt that no view can be more err<strong>on</strong>eousthan <strong>on</strong>e which speaks of an Australian (mar<strong>in</strong>e) fauna withoutsome sort of qualificati<strong>on</strong> ; Cape York and Port MoDe are as muchpart of Australia as Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>, but between <strong>the</strong> two faunae <strong>the</strong>resemblance is as slight as is <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> nature of th<strong>in</strong>gs possible.This statement is abundantly proved by <strong>the</strong> first two tables ofdistributi<strong>on</strong> which I now give, and which are based <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> 27 Ech<strong>in</strong>idsand 16 Ophiurids from <strong>the</strong> collecti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> Sydney Museum.


,ECHIIfODERMATA. 171Table I.—Ech<strong>in</strong>oidea of Australian Museum, Sydney.South of<strong>the</strong>tropics.Intertropicalspecies.1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10.11.12.13.14.15.16.17.18.19.20.21.22.23.24.2.5.20.Phyllacanthus parvisp<strong>in</strong>usG<strong>on</strong>iocidai-is tubariageranoidesDiadema -setosu<strong>in</strong>Centrostepbanus rodgersiEcliiuotbrix calamariaSal<strong>in</strong>aeis alexandribicolorsulcatadussumieriAmblypneustes ovumspStr<strong>on</strong>gvlocentrotus erythrogramniiistuberculatusSpbserechimis australijeEcb<strong>in</strong>ostrepbuB molareEcb<strong>in</strong>ometra lucunterHeterocentrotus ma<strong>in</strong>millatiisEcb<strong>in</strong>anthus testud<strong>in</strong>ariusLaganum decag<strong>on</strong>aleper<strong>on</strong>iiAracbiioides placentaMaretia planulataLovenia el<strong>on</strong>gataBreynia australasiajEch<strong>in</strong>oeardiu<strong>in</strong> australeHeniiaster apicatusqo ooTable II.— Ophiuroidea of Australian Museum, Sydney.Pect<strong>in</strong>ura stellatagorg<strong>on</strong>iaOphioploeus imbi'icatus ..Ophioglypha multisp<strong>in</strong>a ..Opbiactis resiliensAmpljiura c<strong>on</strong>strictaOpbi<strong>on</strong>ereis schayeriOijbiocoma scolopeiidr<strong>in</strong>aer<strong>in</strong>aceusOphiartbrum elegansOpbiotbrix l<strong>on</strong>gipedaccespitosafumariaspSPEuryale asperameans that <strong>the</strong> species is, <strong>in</strong> this collecti<strong>on</strong>, known <strong>on</strong>ly from Lord Howe'sIsland ;A, that <strong>the</strong> Alert ' ' found <strong>the</strong> species with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> tropics.1 Eeported by Agassiz from New Caled<strong>on</strong>ia ;2 from <strong>the</strong> Mauritius • ^ from'<strong>the</strong> Philipp<strong>in</strong>es.


172 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.It will be seen, <strong>the</strong>n, that of <strong>the</strong> Ech<strong>in</strong>ids 19 were found south of<strong>the</strong> tropical l<strong>in</strong>e, and 11, or 57"5 per cent., were not found ei<strong>the</strong>rby <strong>the</strong> 'Alert' or 'Australian Museum' collectors with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> tropics.Of <strong>the</strong> Opliiurids 9 were found south of <strong>the</strong> l<strong>in</strong>e, and <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>on</strong>e alsowith<strong>in</strong> it, so that of this class 88'8 per cent, were found <strong>on</strong>ly to <strong>the</strong>south of <strong>the</strong> tropics.When we turn to <strong>the</strong> lists of <strong>the</strong> Alert ' ' collecti<strong>on</strong>s <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> ' Australian' seas and <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> western part of <strong>the</strong> Indian <strong>Ocean</strong>, we f<strong>in</strong>d avery different story.Ech'mids.—Of <strong>the</strong> 28 species collected with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> tropical seas ofAustralia, four <strong>on</strong>ly, or 14-2 per cent., were found also at PortJacks<strong>on</strong>, while no less than 23, or 72 per cent., were found also <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> tropical parts of <strong>the</strong> western Indian <strong>Ocean</strong>.Table III.—List of Ech<strong>in</strong>oidea collected by <strong>the</strong> ' Alert ' (to whichis added a statement of such as are found also north of <strong>the</strong>equator, but with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> tropics).^ (u .-< =^ § S O o ^1-3Cidaris metulariaPhyllacauthus annulifera ..baculosaDiadema setosumAstropyga radiataSalmacis alexandribicolorsulcataTemnopleurus toreumaticusgranulosusbotliryoidesEch<strong>in</strong>us angulosusdarnleyensisToxopncustes pileolusTripneustes angulosusStroiigylocentrotus erythrogrammusEch<strong>in</strong>ometra lucunterFibularia volvaOlypeaster humilisscutil'ormisLaganum depressumdecag<strong>on</strong>aleEchiu<strong>on</strong>euB cyclostomusMaretia planulataLovenia el<strong>on</strong>gataBreynia aust ralasiceEch<strong>in</strong>ocardium australeBrissus uuicolorMetalia sternalis


ECHINODERMATA. 173The Asterids tell a not dissimilar story : of <strong>the</strong> 26 species found<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>tertropical Australian seas, 3 <strong>on</strong>l^^, or 11-5 per cent., worefound also at Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>, while 8, or 30 per cent., were found also<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> western seas.Opliiuroidea.—Twenty-n<strong>in</strong>e species were found <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>tertropicalAustralian seas ; and of those 3, or 10 per cent., were found also atPort Jacks<strong>on</strong>, while 16, or more than 50 per cent., were found <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> western parts of <strong>the</strong> Indian <strong>Ocean</strong>.It is useless, <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> present c<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong> of our knowledge, to appealto <strong>the</strong> Holothuroidea or <strong>the</strong> Cr<strong>in</strong>oidea.Table IV.—List of Asteroidea collected by <strong>the</strong> ' Alert.'^ 03Asterias calamaria25ol3plaxEch<strong>in</strong>aster purpureus ....Metrodira subulataL<strong>in</strong>ckia laevigatanodosaluannoratamultiforispaiiciforisdiplaxmegal oplaxScytaster variolatusAnt lienea flavescensOreaster gracilisnodosusl<strong>in</strong>ekiStellaster belcheri<strong>in</strong>ceiPentag<strong>on</strong>aster copp<strong>in</strong>gerivalidusDorig<strong>on</strong>a l<strong>on</strong>gimanaCulcita schmidelianaGymnasterias car<strong>in</strong>ifera .Aster<strong>in</strong>a belchericalcarcepheusgunniiregularisbrevisPatiria crassaAstropecten copp<strong>in</strong>geri .polyacanthusArchaster typicusRetaster <strong>in</strong>signis


.174 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.Table V.—List of Ophiuroidea collected by <strong>the</strong> ' Alert.'o B ° Ph'^i^O1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10.11.12.13.14.15.IG,17.18.19.20.21.22.23.24.25.26.27.28.29.30.31.Pect<strong>in</strong>ura gorg<strong>on</strong>ia<strong>in</strong>fernalisniegaloplaxstellataOpliiopeza c<strong>on</strong>juugens,...Opliiolepis aunulosa . .Ophioplocus imbricatusOphiactis saviguiiOphi<strong>on</strong>ereis dubiaOphiocoma brevipes ...scolopendr<strong>in</strong>aer<strong>in</strong>aceuBpicaOphiarthrum elegans ...Ophiarachna <strong>in</strong>crassataOphiothrix tril<strong>in</strong>eata ...propiuqual<strong>on</strong>gipedacffispitosa— martensistriolatagalateajciliarisrotatafumariapunctolirabatamicroplaxdarwiuimelanogramraa ..Ophiomaza cacaotica ..Eurj-ale aspera(var.)The collecti<strong>on</strong>s of <strong>the</strong> 'Alert' afford us, <strong>the</strong>n, ano<strong>the</strong>r justificati<strong>on</strong> for<strong>the</strong> view of <strong>the</strong> existence <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Indo</strong>-<strong>Pacific</strong> of a widely distributedcomm<strong>on</strong> fauna.It must, however, be carefully borne <strong>in</strong> m<strong>in</strong>d that <strong>the</strong> greater partof this comm<strong>on</strong> fauna is restricted to <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>ter-tropical z<strong>on</strong>e ; whatlittle we know of <strong>the</strong> fauna of <strong>the</strong> Sou<strong>the</strong>rn Japanese seas leads usto th<strong>in</strong>k that <strong>the</strong> comm<strong>on</strong> forms are to be found <strong>the</strong>re also.The majority of extra-Australian naturalists have as yet failed alittle <strong>in</strong> recogniz<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> less<strong>on</strong> which <strong>the</strong>se collecti<strong>on</strong>s br<strong>in</strong>g soprom<strong>in</strong>ently forward—a less<strong>on</strong> already be<strong>in</strong>g learnt by those whohave <strong>the</strong> best opportunities of exam<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> characters of <strong>the</strong>Australian fauna ; <strong>the</strong> term Australian, without def<strong>in</strong>iti<strong>on</strong> orlimitati<strong>on</strong>, affords no exact <strong>in</strong>forraati<strong>on</strong>t. It is greatly to beregretted that <strong>in</strong> his tables of <strong>the</strong> distributi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> species collectedt As is well known, Dr. Gi<strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong>r has l<strong>on</strong>g s<strong>in</strong>ce recognized this as regardsFishes, and has <strong>in</strong>stituted a South-Australian District (Introd. Study ofFishes, p. 283).


ECniNODERMATA. 175by <strong>the</strong> ' Challenger,' Mr. Alexander Agassiz should have devoted <strong>on</strong>eto <strong>the</strong> species of " West, South, and North-East Australia—NewZealand "; nor can we w<strong>on</strong>der when we f<strong>in</strong>d <strong>on</strong>e Avho, ten yearsago (Rev. Ech. p. 230), spoke of <strong>the</strong> Australian as <strong>the</strong> " mosttypical of all <strong>the</strong> districts," say<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> 1881 that <strong>the</strong> " whole of <strong>the</strong>Australian field seems to be cut out of <strong>the</strong> ludo-<strong>Pacific</strong> realm." Itis clear that <strong>the</strong>se statements oppose each o<strong>the</strong>r, and that a moreaccurate representati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> facts would be <strong>made</strong> <strong>in</strong> terms like<strong>the</strong> follow<strong>in</strong>g :—The species found <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>rn and nor<strong>the</strong>asternshores of Australia have a wide range eastward and westward,but gradually disappear as we pass southwards.Ill f<strong>in</strong>e, an Australian Ech<strong>in</strong>oderm-fauna, as c<strong>on</strong>term<strong>in</strong>ous with<strong>the</strong> Australian shores, does not exist.It may be c<strong>on</strong>venient for <strong>the</strong> student if I sum up <strong>the</strong> po<strong>in</strong>ts <strong>in</strong>which Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger's collecti<strong>on</strong>s have most advanced our knowledo-e.Asteroidea.—Two faunal lists of <strong>the</strong> Australian Asteroidea havebeen published dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> last few years; <strong>on</strong>e by our great authority<strong>on</strong> this subject, Professor Perrier*, of <strong>the</strong> Jardiu des Plantes, <strong>the</strong>o<strong>the</strong>r, which, as I imag<strong>in</strong>e, was partly based <strong>on</strong> it, by <strong>the</strong> Rev.J. E, Tenis<strong>on</strong>-Woods f. It has been difficult so to marshal <strong>the</strong>facts c<strong>on</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>se essays as to be able to render easily<strong>in</strong>telligible <strong>the</strong> advances now <strong>made</strong> <strong>in</strong> our knowledge ; this ischiefly due to <strong>the</strong> fact that while M. Perrier (justified, no doubt, by<strong>the</strong> evidence <strong>in</strong> his hands) dist<strong>in</strong>guished between <strong>the</strong> fauna of <strong>the</strong>nor<strong>the</strong>rn and of <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r coasts of Australia, Mr. Woods was prepar<strong>in</strong>ga list which should be of use to <strong>the</strong> Australian studentgenerally. Fur<strong>the</strong>r than this, <strong>the</strong> present collecti<strong>on</strong> is from <strong>the</strong>nor<strong>the</strong>rn and <strong>the</strong> eastern coasts of Australia.It is not necessary to give all <strong>the</strong> steps by which I have workedout <strong>the</strong> questi<strong>on</strong> of how far our knowledge of <strong>the</strong> distributi<strong>on</strong> of<strong>the</strong> Asteroidea is <strong>in</strong>creased by <strong>the</strong> present collecti<strong>on</strong>. Put shortly,we f<strong>in</strong>d that while Mr. Woods's compilati<strong>on</strong> was of value as giv<strong>in</strong>"-us certa<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>formati<strong>on</strong> as to <strong>the</strong> localities of Tosia ornata, which wasdescribed by Miiller and Troschel from an unknown habitat, and of<strong>the</strong> Patiria ocelli/era of Gray, <strong>the</strong> locality of which could <strong>on</strong>lv beguessed at from <strong>the</strong> fact of its hav<strong>in</strong>g been described <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Appendixto <strong>the</strong> Voyage of <strong>the</strong> Ely,' Mr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger's ' collecti<strong>on</strong> enables usto fix <strong>on</strong>e locality at least for An<strong>the</strong>nea Jiavescens and Nepanthiabelcheri, extends <strong>the</strong> range of L<strong>in</strong>ckia marmorata from Mauritius toAustralia, gives more sou<strong>the</strong>rn stati<strong>on</strong>s for Archaster typicus andSttUaster belcheri, extends St. <strong>in</strong>cei westward from Cape York to <strong>the</strong>Arafura Sea, and puts <strong>in</strong> Port Denis<strong>on</strong> as <strong>in</strong>termediate betweenCape York and South Australia.It may be, perhaps, useful if I po<strong>in</strong>t out that def<strong>in</strong>ite <strong>in</strong>formati<strong>on</strong>is still want<strong>in</strong>g as to <strong>the</strong> exact habitats of Asterias fungifa-a,An<strong>the</strong>nea acuta, Ncctria ocellifera, Oreaster aiisfralis, 0. franjdlni0. nodalomisX, Tosia astrologorum, and T. aurata. It is hardly* Nouv. Arch, du Miis. (2) i.t Philos. Soc. Adelaide, 1878-9, p. 89.\ S<strong>in</strong>ce this was written <strong>the</strong> Trustees have purcliased two epecim<strong>on</strong>s of 0.nodulosus from N.W. Australia,


:176 COLLECTIONS FKOM MELANESIA.sufficient to say " Mers australes," New Holland, or Australia <strong>in</strong>deal<strong>in</strong>a; with a c<strong>on</strong>t<strong>in</strong>ent which extends over 30 degrees of latitudeand 40 of l<strong>on</strong>gitude, howsoever wide <strong>the</strong> distributi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> dwellersnor could it be permitted by <strong>on</strong>e who would<strong>on</strong> its shores may be ;study a collecti<strong>on</strong> of Port-Jacks<strong>on</strong> specimens, and <strong>the</strong>n take up <strong>the</strong>corresp<strong>on</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g forms from Port MoUe or Torres Straits (cf. TablesI.-V. of Distributi<strong>on</strong>).Ophiuroidea.— Opldophiax stellatus, described from S<strong>in</strong>gapore, andfound by <strong>the</strong> ' Challenger ' at lat. 11° 37' N., l<strong>on</strong>g. 123° 32' E., hasnow been found at Port Molle, Port Denis<strong>on</strong>, and Torres Straits. IfOpMotlirlx fumaria has been correctly identified, this is apparently<strong>the</strong> first time that a def<strong>in</strong>ite locality has been ascribed to it ; 0.martensi has been shown to be very comm<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Australianseas ; 0. galatece (from <strong>the</strong> Nicobars) and 0. punctolimhata (Java)have <strong>the</strong>ir distributi<strong>on</strong> extended eastwards ; 0. rotata has been extendedfrom M<strong>in</strong>danao to Thursday Island ; and 0. ciliaris, knownfrom <strong>the</strong> "Indian <strong>Ocean</strong>," has been seen to appear at Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>.If we might with justice attempt any generalizati<strong>on</strong> from suchfacts as <strong>the</strong>se, we should be led to a belief <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> significance of <strong>the</strong>free-swimm<strong>in</strong>g larva as affect<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> extent of <strong>the</strong> distributi<strong>on</strong> ofnot-stalked Ech<strong>in</strong>oderms.With regard generally to <strong>the</strong> Ech<strong>in</strong>oidea, it may be said that <strong>in</strong>seven cases we have <strong>the</strong> area of distributi<strong>on</strong> <strong>in</strong>creased : Diademasetosum, Salmacis bicolor, Temnopleurus tore<strong>in</strong>naticus*, T. granulosushave never yet been found <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> eastern coast of Australia ;Cliip>easter limnilis and Maretia planidata have been reported fromNew Caled<strong>on</strong>ia, but not from such a locality as Port ]\Iolle or Clairmoutf.Temnopleurus bothryoides, found by <strong>the</strong> Challenger ' ' <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>Arafura Sea and Kobi, Japan, is now known from an <strong>in</strong>termediatelocality. The members of this class bear ample witness to <strong>the</strong>now well-known fact that Indian-<strong>Ocean</strong> and <strong>Pacific</strong> specimens <strong>in</strong>vadelargely <strong>the</strong> Australian seas.A questi<strong>on</strong> which presented itself to me, but <strong>on</strong> which I can throwbut little light by way of answer, might perhaps be formulated thusWhat differences are <strong>the</strong>re between <strong>the</strong> forms of <strong>the</strong> eastern andnor<strong>the</strong>rn and <strong>the</strong> western coasts of xVustralia ? tTo <strong>the</strong> south of <strong>the</strong> East-Indian islands <strong>the</strong>re lies an area of deepsea almost free from islands, and hav<strong>in</strong>g sweep<strong>in</strong>g across it, <strong>in</strong> obedienceto <strong>the</strong> laws of moti<strong>on</strong>, a current with a south-westerly directi<strong>on</strong>from <strong>the</strong> equator ; this current sweeps, as we know, round <strong>the</strong> Capeof Good Hope, and <strong>the</strong>re comes <strong>in</strong>to c<strong>on</strong>tact with <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>rn cou-* Mr. Tenis<strong>on</strong>-Woods reports it from " all <strong>the</strong> coasts of Australia, but rareoutside <strong>the</strong> tropics."t But M. planulaia was taken at Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> by <strong>the</strong> Challenger ' ; ' <strong>the</strong>presence of this species <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Australian seas is additi<strong>on</strong>ally <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g from<strong>the</strong> fad that a form allied <strong>the</strong>reto, M. anomcda, has been described by Prof.Mart<strong>in</strong> Duncan (Q. J. Geol. Soc. xxxiii. p. 52).I For Ech<strong>in</strong>oderms, as for Fishes (see Gi<strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong>r, ' Introd. Study of Fishes,'p. 284), <strong>the</strong> western half of <strong>the</strong> south coast of Australia is still almost a terra<strong>in</strong>cognita. It is earnestly to be hoped that <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>vestigati<strong>on</strong> of this area maybe so<strong>on</strong> undertaken.


;:ECHIN0DEE3IATA. 177nect<strong>in</strong>g or sou<strong>the</strong>rn Australian currents, which form probably <strong>the</strong>nor<strong>the</strong>rn boundary of <strong>the</strong> Antarctic circle, and al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> l<strong>in</strong>es ofwhich some species are now satisfactorily known to be extensivelydistributed*. This south-westerly current leaves <strong>on</strong> its east <strong>the</strong>western shores of Australia, and it seemed to be <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g to makea def<strong>in</strong>ite exam<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong> of this questi<strong>on</strong> : Have <strong>the</strong> species <strong>in</strong> extend<strong>in</strong>gwestward al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>rn shores of Australia, and <strong>the</strong>ncesouthward, become specially modified <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir journey ?Interest<strong>in</strong>g as such a discovery would have been, it must be saidthat <strong>the</strong> view that <strong>the</strong>re might be a fauna special and peculiar to <strong>the</strong>western coast of Australia cannot be <strong>in</strong> any way susta<strong>in</strong>ed ei<strong>the</strong>r by ac<strong>on</strong>siderati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> Ech<strong>in</strong>oidea of <strong>the</strong> present collecti<strong>on</strong> or by ageneral review of <strong>the</strong> distributi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> Order.The voj'age of <strong>the</strong> 'Gazelle' resulted <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> discovery at NaturalistChannel, or Mermaid Straits, of four of <strong>the</strong> species noted <strong>in</strong> our list— Sahnacis sulcata, Ech<strong>in</strong>ometra lucunter, Lovenia el<strong>on</strong>qata, andBreynia australasice ; Sahnacis alexanclri (r/lobator) is known from<strong>the</strong> west coast ; and all <strong>the</strong> follow<strong>in</strong>g species would appear to befound <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> westerly as well as <strong>the</strong> easterly coasts of <strong>the</strong> c<strong>on</strong>t<strong>in</strong>ent— Q<strong>on</strong>iocidaris geranoides, O. tubaria, Centrostephanus rodgcrsi,Amhlyp7ieustes griseus, A. jxillidus, Microcyphus zigzag, Splicerech<strong>in</strong>usaustralasice, and Ech<strong>in</strong>ocardium austrrde ; or about 25 percent, of <strong>the</strong> Ech<strong>in</strong>oidea found <strong>on</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r parts of <strong>the</strong> Australian coasthave already been found <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> western shores, and no species areknown to be peculiar to <strong>the</strong>m.It is, no doubt, reas<strong>on</strong>able to suppose that <strong>the</strong> species which arewidely distributed <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Indo</strong>-<strong>Pacific</strong> will be found <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> westerncoast of Australia, and that <strong>the</strong> more sou<strong>the</strong>rly forms will be representedby <strong>the</strong> species oi'Amhlypneustes, Microcyphus, or Holopneustes,which we are <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> habit of regard<strong>in</strong>g as truly " Australian."A somewhat similar story is told by <strong>the</strong> Ophiuroids.Till lately fourteen species of Asteroids were known <strong>on</strong>ly fromWestern or South-western Australia ; but Mr. Woods reports Culcitapentaiigidaris from N.E. Australia, Pentagoyiaster dubeni from S.Australia, and Tosia austraUs from S. Australia and Tasmaniawhile <strong>the</strong> present collecti<strong>on</strong> enlarges <strong>the</strong> range of Patiria crassa.Although <strong>the</strong>re appeared at <strong>on</strong>e time to be good reas<strong>on</strong> for disagree<strong>in</strong>gwith Mart<strong>in</strong>t, <strong>the</strong> present amount and weight of evidence<strong>in</strong> our hands goes to po<strong>in</strong>t to <strong>the</strong> existence of a tropical oceanicfauna ; to-day, as <strong>in</strong> those Tei'tiary times when a wider sea separated<strong>the</strong> Australian from <strong>the</strong> Asiatic c<strong>on</strong>t<strong>in</strong>ent, <strong>the</strong>re are forms whosebreadth of range is co<strong>in</strong>cident ra<strong>the</strong>r with iso<strong>the</strong>rmal l<strong>in</strong>es thantopographical boundaries.For <strong>the</strong> elucidati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> details of this tropical fauna, we maylook with almost more than c<strong>on</strong>fidence to <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>formati<strong>on</strong> affordedby <strong>the</strong> species of Cr<strong>in</strong>oids : here, however, <strong>the</strong> cab<strong>in</strong>et naturalist canas yet <strong>on</strong>ly appeal to <strong>the</strong> collector.* Evidence as to this was given by <strong>the</strong> earlier collecti<strong>on</strong>s of <strong>the</strong> 'Alert' <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> Straits of Magellan (see P. Z. S. 1881, pp. 1-141).t Notes Leyd. Miis. ii. p. 73 et seq.N


;178CRUSTACEA.E. J. MIERS.The Crustacea collected by Dr. R. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> north-western,nor<strong>the</strong>rn, and north-eastern coasts of Australia are very numerousand are <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g not <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>on</strong> account of <strong>the</strong> large number of newor rare species obta<strong>in</strong>ed, but also <strong>on</strong> account of <strong>the</strong> careful manner<strong>in</strong> which <strong>in</strong> nearly every <strong>in</strong>stance <strong>the</strong> nature of <strong>the</strong> sea-bottom anddepth of water &c. was recorded.Until <strong>the</strong> publicati<strong>on</strong> of Mr. W. A. Haswell's comprehensive work<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> Podophthalmious and Edriophthalmious Crustacea of Australia*, but few systematists had dealt specially with this departmentof <strong>the</strong> fauna of this district.To <strong>the</strong> Australian species enumerated by Milne-Edwards <strong>in</strong> hisgreat workf, numerous additi<strong>on</strong>s were, however, <strong>made</strong> by Prof. J.D. Dana <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Eeport <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> Crustacea collected by <strong>the</strong> UnitedStates Explor<strong>in</strong>g Expediti<strong>on</strong> under Commodore Wilkes J, <strong>the</strong>sebe<strong>in</strong>g, with few excepti<strong>on</strong>s, from <strong>the</strong> coast of New South Wales.In 1856 Dr. J. R. K<strong>in</strong>ahan § published an account of a smallcollecti<strong>on</strong> of mar<strong>in</strong>e Decapoda collected by himself at Port Phillip,Victoria ; and <strong>in</strong> 1865 Dr. Hess||gave a systematic account of <strong>the</strong><strong>the</strong>n known species of Decapoda of Eastern Australia, based up<strong>on</strong><strong>the</strong> work of previous authors and a collecti<strong>on</strong> from Sydney <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>Museum of Gott<strong>in</strong>gen.In <strong>the</strong> same year appeared <strong>the</strong> <str<strong>on</strong>g>Report</str<strong>on</strong>g> by Prof. Camil Heller <strong>on</strong><strong>the</strong> Crustacea collected by <strong>the</strong> Austrian frigate Novara'^f, where<strong>in</strong>'twenty-four species are enumerated, also from Sydney. Referencemay also here be <strong>made</strong> to an account of <strong>the</strong> Astacidce of Australia(" Ueberblick der neuhollandischen Elusskrebse ") by Dr. v<strong>on</strong>Martens **.Mr. Haswell's recently published and very useful Catalogue,which was not received until this <str<strong>on</strong>g>Report</str<strong>on</strong>g> was c<strong>on</strong>siderably advanced,* ' Catalogue of <strong>the</strong> Australian Stalk- and Sessile-eyed Crustacea.' Sydney,1882.t 'Histoire Naturelle dcs Crustac^s' (1834-40).I United States Explor<strong>in</strong>g Expediti<strong>on</strong>, vols. xiii. &xiv., Crustacea (1852-53).§ Journal of <strong>the</strong> Royal Dubl<strong>in</strong> Society, vol. i. pt. 3, p. Ill (1856).Archiv f. Naturgeschichte, xxxi. p. 127 (1865).II^ ' Reise der osterreichischeu Fregatte Novai-a,' Crustaceen (1865).** M<strong>on</strong>atsbericht der Akad. Wissensch. Berl<strong>in</strong>, p. 615 (1868).


CRUSTACEA. 179c<strong>on</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>s not <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>the</strong> results of his own previous researches <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong>Australian Stalk- and Sessile-eyed Crustacea (which are to be found<strong>in</strong> a series of papers communicated to <strong>the</strong> L<strong>in</strong>nean Society of XewSouth Wales *, where<strong>in</strong> a very c<strong>on</strong>siderable number of species newto science are described and illustrated), but also ga<strong>the</strong>rs <strong>in</strong>to a formc<strong>on</strong>venient for reference nearly all <strong>the</strong> work of earlier authors—notmerely what is c<strong>on</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> special memoirs referred to above,but also <strong>the</strong> numerous Australian species described and <strong>in</strong>cidentallynoticed <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> publicati<strong>on</strong>s of A. Whice, Spence Bate, A, Milne-Edwards, and o<strong>the</strong>rs, or <strong>in</strong> my own papers.In this Catalogue no fewer than 54U species of Podophthalmiousand Edriophthalmious Crustacea are described ; but, large as thisnumber may appear, it is necessarily very far from be<strong>in</strong>g a completeenumerati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> Stalk- and Sessile-eyed Crustacea of this greatc<strong>on</strong>t<strong>in</strong>ent, which presents <strong>in</strong> its different regi<strong>on</strong>s such diverse c<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong>sof temperature and climate. This will appear from <strong>the</strong>large number of species described <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> follow<strong>in</strong>g pages, which areei<strong>the</strong>r new to science or not <strong>in</strong>cluded <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> ' Catalogue ' ; and Imay add that, had time and opportunity allowed, it would havebeen possible to largely add to <strong>the</strong>, list of unrecorded Australianspecies from <strong>the</strong> rich material accumulated <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Nati<strong>on</strong>al Collecti<strong>on</strong>al<strong>on</strong>e.In <strong>the</strong> present memoir 203 species and well-marked varieties o-fCrustacea and Pycnog<strong>on</strong>ida are enumerated from <strong>the</strong> Australianseas, besides several which are described or <strong>in</strong>cidentally referred to,but which do not bel<strong>on</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> Australian fauna. Forty-five newor undescribed species and ten varieties are described for <strong>the</strong> firsttime ; while of <strong>the</strong> total number (193 <strong>in</strong> all) of species and varietiesof Australian Podophthalmia and Edriophtbalmia noticed <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>follow<strong>in</strong>g pages, n<strong>in</strong>ety-six arc not <strong>in</strong>cluded <strong>in</strong> Mr. Haswell's catalogue.Am<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> species described as new are several to whichWhite applied specific names but never characterized ; <strong>the</strong>se nameshave been, of course, adopted. Besides <strong>the</strong> new species, severalhi<strong>the</strong>rto very imperfectly known from <strong>the</strong> exist<strong>in</strong>g descripti<strong>on</strong>s (and<strong>the</strong>refore <strong>on</strong>ly to be identified with some uncerta<strong>in</strong>ty) have beenredescribed and illustrated.Geof/rcqjhical Distributi<strong>on</strong>.—As regards <strong>the</strong> geographical range of<strong>the</strong> species, I have not thought it necessary (nor, <strong>in</strong>deed, would itbe possible with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> limits of this lleport) to give all <strong>the</strong> hi<strong>the</strong>rtorecorded localities, many of <strong>the</strong>m be<strong>in</strong>g comm<strong>on</strong> and widely-rang<strong>in</strong>gOriental forms which occur (or may occur) <strong>on</strong> every coast-l<strong>in</strong>©with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> wide <strong>Indo</strong>-<strong>Pacific</strong> or Oriental regi<strong>on</strong>. Full particulars^however, are given of <strong>the</strong> Australian localities, and many are nowfor <strong>the</strong> first time recorded <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> authority of specimens <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>British-Museum collecti<strong>on</strong> obta<strong>in</strong>ed by <strong>the</strong> naturalists of H.M.SS.'Rattlesnake' and 'Herald,' and by <strong>the</strong> late Messrs. Dr<strong>in</strong>g, J. B.Jukes, and o<strong>the</strong>r gentlemen, by whose zeal and discrim<strong>in</strong>ati<strong>on</strong>our Nati<strong>on</strong>al Collecti<strong>on</strong> has so greatly benefited. In <strong>the</strong> case* Journal of <strong>the</strong> L<strong>in</strong>nean Society of N. S. Wales, iii.-vi. (1879-82).n2


:180 COLLECTIONS FBOM MELANESIA.of <strong>the</strong> more widely rang<strong>in</strong>g species, I have given (where I have notpreviously d<strong>on</strong>e so) <strong>the</strong> localities whence <strong>the</strong> British Museum possessspecimens, which will serve to <strong>in</strong>dicate generally with sufficientaccuracy <strong>the</strong> distributi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> species, or, <strong>in</strong> some cases, <strong>the</strong>lacuna' which yet rema<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> series preserved <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Nati<strong>on</strong>alCollecti<strong>on</strong>.With few excepti<strong>on</strong>s, <strong>the</strong> species were dredged <strong>in</strong> comparativelyshallow water, <strong>on</strong> which account it is <strong>the</strong> more remarkable that somany novelties were obta<strong>in</strong>ed. Of <strong>the</strong> species already described, alargo proporti<strong>on</strong> (more than <strong>on</strong>e third) are widely distributedthroughout <strong>the</strong> Oriental or <strong>Indo</strong>-<strong>Pacific</strong> regi<strong>on</strong>s, from <strong>the</strong> MascareneIslands (or African coast) <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> east, to <strong>the</strong> Fiji, Samoa, or Sandwichislands <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> west, while many o<strong>the</strong>rs are at present known <strong>on</strong>lyfrom <strong>the</strong> <strong>Indo</strong>-Malayan secti<strong>on</strong> of this area, rang<strong>in</strong>g pi-obably from<strong>the</strong> Sea of Ecngal to <strong>the</strong> coasts of Ch<strong>in</strong>a and Japan.While <strong>the</strong> littoral and shallow-water Crustacea which are distributedthroughout <strong>the</strong> great <strong>Indo</strong>-Pacifi.c regi<strong>on</strong> are not, as ageneral ride, found bey<strong>on</strong>d <strong>the</strong> limits of tliis vast area of distributi<strong>on</strong>,yet <strong>the</strong>re are a certa<strong>in</strong> number which have a far wider rangethus, <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> present memoir, Alpheus edwardsii, AJpheus m<strong>in</strong>us,Pena'iis velut<strong>in</strong>us, G<strong>on</strong>odacti/lits chiragra, and Gaprella a'quiUhraare <strong>in</strong>stances of species which are more or less widely distributedthroughout <strong>the</strong> Atlantic regi<strong>on</strong>, and it is probable that futureresearch will largely add to <strong>the</strong> number of such forms. In regardto <strong>the</strong> Amphipoda <strong>the</strong> aff<strong>in</strong>ity of <strong>the</strong> Australian with <strong>the</strong> Europeanfauna is very remarkable ; and am<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> few species <strong>in</strong>cluded <strong>in</strong><strong>the</strong> presentJieport <strong>in</strong>stances (Lf?micarp(7, 6V(2:>!'e?7rt a'(2'('?7?7;}-a)occur where I have identified Australian examples with well-knownEuropean tj'pes, while <strong>in</strong> several o<strong>the</strong>r <strong>in</strong>stances <strong>the</strong> dist<strong>in</strong>cti<strong>on</strong>s areso slight as to be scarcely of specific importance : hence I mustqualify <strong>the</strong> op<strong>in</strong>i<strong>on</strong> I formerly expressed as to <strong>the</strong> improbability of<strong>the</strong> species of such widely distant regi<strong>on</strong>s ever be<strong>in</strong>g actuallyidentical *.Appended is a list of <strong>the</strong> pr<strong>in</strong>cipal localities where <strong>the</strong> specimenswere dredged, with Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger's notes <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> depth of wateraudi nature of <strong>the</strong> sea-bottom ; <strong>the</strong> numbers are those attached to<strong>the</strong> several bottles c<strong>on</strong>ta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g tlie dredg<strong>in</strong>gs, and are referred tottiroughout <strong>the</strong> Ileport.List of <strong>the</strong> Localities.Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>. 0-5 fms., February and March 1881 (No. 90) ;5-7 fms.,rock and mud, April 1881 (No. 104).Port Curtis. 7-11 fms., sand and shells, April 1881 (Nos. 85, 87, 88,92) ; beach, April 1881 (No. 96).Percy Island. 0-5 fms., sand and coral (No. 91).Port'Molle. Beach, sand (No. 95); beach and coral-reef (No. 98);beach between tide-marks (No. 103) ; 5-12 fms., coral (No. 118) ;14 fms., rock (No. 93): all <strong>in</strong> May 1881.* Aim. & Mag. Nat. Uist. ser. 5, v. p. 125 (1880), and P. Z. S. p. 62 (1881).


CRTJSTACEA. 181Port Denis<strong>on</strong>. 4 fnis., rock and sand, May 1881 (Nos. Ill, 122).Fitzroy Island. 10 fms., mud and shells, 2Gtb May, 1881 (No. 113).Fl<strong>in</strong>ders, Clairm<strong>on</strong>t. 11 fms., sand and mud, May 1881 (No. 108),Ofl' Clairmnnt. Coral-reef (No. 151).T<strong>on</strong>-es Straits. 10 fms., sand (No. 158).Thursday Island, Torres Straits. Mang^i-ove-swamps, June 1881 (No.124) ; land-crabs from holes <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> hills, July 1881 (No. 125)beach, June 1881 (No. 167) ; 3-4 fnia.,;sand, August 1881 (Nos.145, 175, 177) ; 4-5 fms., sand, July 1881 (No. I65) ; 4-6 fms.,rock and sand, June 1881 (No. 130).Friday Island, Torres Straits. Beach, September 1881 (No. 154) ; 10fms., sand, October 1881 (No. 153).Warrior Reef, Torres Straits. Crabs from <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>terior of pearl-shells,August 1881 (No. 137).Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel. 7 fms., sand, September 1881 (Nos. 142,169) ;9 fms., sand, September 1881 (No. 157).West Island, Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel. Beach, coral, September 1881(No. 149).Arafura Sea, N.W. Australia. 32-36 fms., mud, sand, and shells,October 1881 (No. 160).Dundas Straits, N. Australia. 17 fms., mud, October 1881 (No. 161).Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, N. Australia. Beach, mud and sand, October 1881 (No.176) ; 7-12 f<strong>in</strong>s., saud and mud, October 1881 (No. 173).As will be seen from <strong>the</strong> forego<strong>in</strong>g list, <strong>the</strong> localities where <strong>the</strong>most abundant opportunities offered for collect<strong>in</strong>g, and where, c<strong>on</strong>sequently,<strong>the</strong> largest number of species were obta<strong>in</strong>ed, are ThursdayIsland <strong>in</strong> Torres Straits and Ports Curtis and Molle <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> Queenslandcoast ; but <strong>the</strong> dredg<strong>in</strong>gs of most scientific <strong>in</strong>terest areunquesti<strong>on</strong>ably those <strong>made</strong> off <strong>the</strong> north coast <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Arafura Sea,and at Port Darw<strong>in</strong> and <strong>in</strong> Dundas Straits, not <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>on</strong> accountof <strong>the</strong> new and rare species <strong>the</strong>re<strong>in</strong> obta<strong>in</strong>ed, but also because <strong>the</strong>selocalities had not previously been explored for Crustacea, Thedredg<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Arafura Sea was also <strong>the</strong> <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>on</strong>e <strong>made</strong> <strong>in</strong> anyc<strong>on</strong>siderable depth of water (32-36 fms.), <strong>the</strong> next <strong>in</strong> po<strong>in</strong>t of depthbe<strong>in</strong>g that at Dundas Straits, 17 fms. (No. 161). The collecti<strong>on</strong>was received <strong>in</strong> two dist<strong>in</strong>ct c<strong>on</strong>signments, which are referred to as<strong>the</strong> " first" and "sec<strong>on</strong>d" collecti<strong>on</strong>.List of <strong>the</strong> Species^ shoiv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>ir Geographical Range.[N.B. The species and varieties of Podoplithalmia and Edriophthalmia whichare dist<strong>in</strong>guished by an asterisk are those nfit <strong>in</strong>cluded <strong>in</strong> Mr. Haswell's Catalogue.The species placed with<strong>in</strong> brackets are those which do not fcrm part of<strong>the</strong> collecti<strong>on</strong> <strong>made</strong> by Dr. Copp<strong>in</strong>ger.]Achceus lacertosus, Stimps<strong>on</strong>.PODOPHTHALMIA.D E C A P D A.BEACnVTJRA.E. and N. Australia (Dundas Sraits).*aff<strong>in</strong>is, sp. n. N., N.E., E., and W. Australia.Camposcia retusa, Latreille. N., N.E., and W. AustraUa; OrientalRegi<strong>on</strong>.


.4;;182 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.Onc<strong>in</strong>opus aranea, De Haan. N. and N.E. Australia ; Japan ; M<strong>in</strong>doroSea ; New Hebrides.Mencp.thius m<strong>on</strong>oceros (Latreille). N., N.E., and W. Australia ; OrientalRegi<strong>on</strong>.Htienia protetis, De Haan. N. and N.E. Australia ;Japan ; Ch<strong>in</strong>aPhilipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands.Egeria arachnoiclcs (Rumph.). N. and N.E. Australia ; Indian, Malayan,and Ch<strong>in</strong>ese seas.Chorilih<strong>in</strong>ia gracilipes, Miers. N. and N.E. Austraha ;Papua.Faramifhrax {Chlor<strong>in</strong>oides) copp<strong>in</strong>fferi, Haswell. N. and E. Australia ;Japan.* ( ) aculeottis, M.-Edw., var. armatus, n. N. and N.E. Australia(Thursday Island to Port Curtis).H}jaste7<strong>in</strong>s diacanthiis (De Haan). N., N.E., E., and W. AustraliaPhilipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands, Ch<strong>in</strong>ese and Japanese Seas.{Chorilia) oryx, A. M.-Edwards. N., N.E., and W. Australia ;Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong>.* () planasius (Ad. & White). N.E, Australia; Ch<strong>in</strong>eseseas.* ( ) c<strong>on</strong>vcxus, sp. n. N.E. Australia (Port Molle).Naxia serpulifera, M.-Edwards. N. and W. Australia.Schizophrys aspera, M.-Edw. N. Australia ;Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong>.[* (lama (Herbst). W. Australia.]*rseiKlomicippa ? varia^is, Miers. N., N.E., and W. Australia.Micippa thalia (Herbst). N., N.E., and W. Australia; OrientalRegi<strong>on</strong>.* pMlyra (Herbst). N., N.E., and W. Australia ; Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong>.curtisp<strong>in</strong>a, HasweU. N. and N.E. Australia.Paramicippa sp<strong>in</strong>osa (Stimps<strong>on</strong>). E. Australia.Lamhnis l<strong>on</strong>gispimis, Miers. N. and N.E. Australia ; Shanghai.* Icevicarpvs, Miers. N.W. Australia (Arafura Sea).— — l<strong>on</strong>yimaiius (L<strong>in</strong>n.). N. and N.E. Australia; Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong>?(Mauritius, Javau Sea, &c.).1 1 C'/cMIaL \ noclosus, Jacq. & Lucas. N., N.E., and W. Australia ; New, • ' -,r"^ '' Zealand.turriyer, 'White. N. and N.W. Australia; Borneo and Philipp<strong>in</strong>eIslands.hopJ<strong>on</strong>otus (var. yranidosus, Miers). N. and N.E. Australia;Ceyl<strong>on</strong> ; Philipp<strong>in</strong>es ;New Caled<strong>on</strong>ia.(Par<strong>the</strong>uopokles) harpax, Ad. & White. N. and N.E. AustraliaCh<strong>in</strong>a ;Borneo.Crypiopodia fornicata (Fabr.). N., N.E., and E. Australia; Indianand Malaysian seas ; Japan, Ch<strong>in</strong>a.spafidifr<strong>on</strong>s, Miers. N., E., and W. Australia.G<strong>on</strong>at<strong>on</strong>otiis penfay<strong>on</strong>us, Ad. & White. N. and N.E. AustraliaJayan sea ; Borneo.Euxantlms hn<strong>on</strong>ii (Lucas). N. and N.E. Australia.[* sctdpfilis, Dana,. N.E.Australia; Philipp<strong>in</strong>es; Fiji Islands.]* hibercidosus, sp. n. N. Australia (Thursday Island and WarriorReef).*IIypoccelHS pitnctatus, sp. n. N. Australia (Thursday Island).Ateryatis Jloridtis, L<strong>in</strong>n. N., N.E., and W. Australia ; Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong>.Lophozozymus epheliticus, L<strong>in</strong>n. N.W., N.E., and E. Australia ; Java;Philipp<strong>in</strong>es.*Galene yramdcda, sp. n. N. Australia (Port Darw<strong>in</strong>).*Halimede? copp<strong>in</strong>yeri, sp. n. N.W. Australia (Arafura Sea).


CRUSTACEA. 183*Actcea ruppeUii (Krauss). N. and N.E. Australia; Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong>(from Natal to Red Sea and eastward to Norfolk Island ?).* areolata, Dana. N.E. Australia ; Sooloo Sea or Balabac Straits.*Ban(treia iric<strong>on</strong>spicua, sp. n. N. Australia (Port Darw<strong>in</strong>).*Xantho maci/illv7'ayi, sp. n. N.E. Australia (Port Molle, Port Curtis).*Cyeloxanthi(s l<strong>in</strong>eatns, A. M.-Edwards. N.W. and N. Australia; NewCaled<strong>on</strong>ia and Lifu.*Carjnlodes vemmis, M.-Edwards. N.E. Australia ;Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong>.Le2)todiiis exaratus (M.-Edwards). N.E. and W. Australia; OrientalRegi<strong>on</strong>.* lividus (De Haan). N.E. Australia ; Japan.CMorodhts nujer (Forskal). N., N.E., and E. Australia; Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong>.*Chlorodopsis gi'anulatus (Stimps<strong>on</strong>). N. and N.E. Australia (PortDarw<strong>in</strong>, Port Denis<strong>on</strong>, and Port Molle) ; H<strong>on</strong>g K<strong>on</strong>g ; Philipp<strong>in</strong>es;S<strong>in</strong>gapore.JEf.isus Icevimamis, Randall. N.E. and E. Australia ; Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong>.Etisodes electra, Ilerbst. N.E. Austi'alia ; Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong>.anagli/ptus, M.-Edw. N.E. Australia ;Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands.Menippe. ( Mi/ometn'ppe) Icf/uilloui, A. M.-Edw. N.E. and W. Australia(Port Curtis and Swan River) ; Indian and <strong>Indo</strong>-Malayanseas.Pihim7ius r-espertilio, Fabr. N.W., N., and N.E. to E. Australia; OrientalRegi<strong>on</strong>.* pnlcher, sp. n, N. Australia (Islands of Torres Straits).riifopKnctatus, Stimps<strong>on</strong>. E. and S. Australia.lanatus^ Ij&tv. N.E. and E.' Australia ; Tasmania? East Indies(Latr.).* semilanatuft, sp. n. N. and E. Australia (Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel,Cape Capricorn, Moret<strong>on</strong> Bay).* sem<strong>in</strong>udus, sp. n. N. and N.E. Austraha (Thursday Island, PortDenis<strong>on</strong>).cursor, A. M.-Edwards ? N.E. Australia : New Caled<strong>on</strong>ia andSamoa Islands,* lahjr<strong>in</strong>thicus, sp. n. N. and N.E. Anstralia (Thursday Island,Port Molle).? pu(/dator, A. M.-Edwards ? N .E. and E. Australia ; LoyaltyIslands ;Lifu.Adummis setifer (De Haan). N., N.E.. and W. (?) Australia ; OrientalRegi<strong>on</strong>.C7'i/ptocceloma Jimbriatiwi (M.-Edwards?). N. and N.E.Australia;Java.Pihimnopeus serratifr<strong>on</strong>s, K<strong>in</strong>ahan. E. and S. Australia; New Zealand.Ozius fftittatus (var. spcciosus, Hilgendorf). N.E. Australia; OrientalRegi<strong>on</strong>.Nephimis pelafficus (L<strong>in</strong>n.). N., N.E., E., and W. Australia ; NewZealand ; Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong>.[* armatus, A. M.-Edwards. W. Australia, Shark Bay.]* (Amphitrite) hastatoides (Fabricius). N. and N.W. Australia(Friday Island, Arafura Sea) ; Indian <strong>Ocean</strong>, H<strong>on</strong>g K<strong>on</strong>g, &c.Achelous f/ramdatus (M.-Edwards). N. and N.E. Australia; OrientalRegi<strong>on</strong>.*, var. tmisp<strong>in</strong>osus, n. N. Australia (Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of WalesChannel).*ThaIamita admete (Herbst). N.W., N.E,, and E. Australia; OrientalRegi<strong>on</strong>,


•lamhrif<strong>on</strong>nis,;184- COLLECTIONS FKOM MELANESIA.Thaiamita sima, M.-Edwards. N., N.E., ar.d W. Australia; New Zealand;Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong>.[* chaptali, Audouiu. Red Sea ;Ceyl<strong>on</strong>.]stimps<strong>on</strong>ii, A. M. -Edwards. N. and N.E. Australia ; MalaysianIslands; Sunday Island ; New Caled<strong>on</strong>ia.* crenata, Riippell. N. and N.E. Australia (Torres Straits, PortMolle, Percy Island) ;Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong>.*G<strong>on</strong>iosoma varihjatum (Fabricius). N.Australia (Port Darwiu) ; S.and E. Asian seas ;India to Japan.* sp<strong>in</strong>ifermn, sp. n. N.E. Australia (Port Molle).Nectocarc'<strong>in</strong>us <strong>in</strong>tegrifr<strong>on</strong>s (L?ii\\). N.E., E., and S.Australia; Tasmania;Red Sea ? ; <strong>Ocean</strong>ia.* Lupocyclus rotundatus, Ad. & White. N. and N.E. Australia ; N.Borneo.*Kraussia nitida, Stimps<strong>on</strong>. N. Australia (Thursday Island) ; Philipp<strong>in</strong>es;Japanese and Ch<strong>in</strong>ese seas.*Telphusa [Geotelphusa) artssa?, M. -Edwards. N. Australia (ThursdayIsland, Cape York) ; Philipp<strong>in</strong>es ?[* leichardtii, sp. n. ? E. Australia.]Gelaswuis sipiafus, Hess. N.E., E., and W. Australia.Oci/jmda ceratojMhalma (Pallas). N, to E. Australia ; Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong>;St. Christophers (??).kuhlii, De Haan. N. and VV. Australia; Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong>.*Macrophthahnus punctukdus, sp. n. E. Australia (Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>).^Euplax ( Chcpnostoma) hoscii (Audou<strong>in</strong>). N.E. Australia (Port Molle) ;Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong>.*Camptoplax coppijigeri, gen. et sp. n. N. Austraha (Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of WalesChannel).Pseudorhomhilu vestita (De Haan), var. seo'dejitata (Haswell) ? N.W,Australia (Arafura Sea).* sulcatifr<strong>on</strong>s (Stimps<strong>on</strong>), var. australiensis, n. N.E. Australia(Port Molle).*Ceraioplax armata, sp. n. N. Australia (Port Darw<strong>in</strong>).* ? l(gvis, sp. n. N.W. Australia (Arafura Sea).Metopograpstis tnessor (Forskal). N. to E., N.W., and W. Australia;Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong>.Chasmagnathus {Paragrapsus) Icevis, Dana. N.E. to S.E. Australia;New Zealand.*Sesarma bidens, De Haan ? N.E. Australia ; Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong> ?*, sp. N.E. and E. Austraha.* P<strong>in</strong>no<strong>the</strong>res villosulus, Guer<strong>in</strong>-Meneville. N. Australia (Warrior Reef,Torres Straits) ;Timor.Mycteris l<strong>on</strong>gicarpus, Latreille. N.W., N. to E., and W. AustraliaTasmania ;<strong>Indo</strong>-Malaysian and Ch<strong>in</strong>a seas ; New Caled<strong>on</strong>ia.Halicai'c<strong>in</strong>us ovafus, Stimps<strong>on</strong>. N.E., E., and S.W. (?) Australia.Leucosia oceUata, Bell. N.E. and N.W. Australia.wliitei, Bell. N., N.E., and W. Australia* craniolaris, L. (var. Icevimana, n.). N. Australia; Indian, <strong>Indo</strong>-Malaysian, and Ch<strong>in</strong>ese seas.Myra caHiiata, Bell, N.E. Australia ; Celebes ; Philipp<strong>in</strong>es ; H<strong>on</strong>gK<strong>on</strong>g.aff<strong>in</strong>is, Bell. N. and N.E. Australia ;Philipp<strong>in</strong>es.mammillaris, Bell. N.E. and S, Australia (Port Denis<strong>on</strong>, Adelaide).australis, Haswell? N., N.E., and W. Australia.Phlyxia crassipes, Bell. N., N.E., and S. Australia.Bell. N., N.E., and S. Australia (Port Darw<strong>in</strong> toBass Straits).


CRUSTACEA. 185Nios<strong>in</strong> s<strong>in</strong>uafa, Miers. N.E. and E. Australia.[* abhreviata, Bell. E. Australia; Moret<strong>on</strong> Bay.]Nursilia deniata, Bell. N.W, aud N.E. Australia; Oriental Eegi<strong>on</strong>(Fiji Islands, Seychelles).*Iphiculus sp<strong>on</strong>(/iosus,\\.d. & White. N.W. Australia (Arafura Sea);Philipp<strong>in</strong>e Islands.Arcania pulcherrima, Ilaswell. N.W. to N.E. Australia ;Borneo.Lithadia sculpta, Haswell. N.W. and N.E. Australia.*Oreoph<strong>on</strong>is reticuJatus, Ad. & White. N. Australia (Thursday andFriday Islands) ;Straits of Suuda ;Philipp<strong>in</strong>es.* fr<strong>on</strong>talis, sp. u. N.E. Australia (Port Molle).Matida victrix (Fabricius). N. to E. and W. Australia ; OrientalRegi<strong>on</strong>.* <strong>in</strong>ennis, sp. n. N. Australia (Islands of Torres Straits).Calappa hepatica (L<strong>in</strong>n.). N.E. to E. Australia (Clairmout Island,Tr<strong>in</strong>ity Bay, West Hill, Sydney) Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong>.Dorippe dorsipes, L.;N., N.E.j N.W., and W. (?) Australia; OrientalRegi<strong>on</strong> (Zanzibar and Ibo to Japan).* australiensis, sp. n. N.E. and E. Australia (Port Denis<strong>on</strong> andMoret<strong>on</strong> Bay).Anomtjra.Cryptodromia lateralis, Gray. N.E. to S. and W. to N.W. Australia ;Tasmania; New Zealand ;Philipp<strong>in</strong>es and Japan.*Pefal


;186 COLLECTIONS FEOM MELANESIA.Galafhea clega7is, White. N. and N.E. Australia ;Borneo; Philipp<strong>in</strong>es.^Munida spimdife^-a, sp. n. N.W. Australia (Arafura Sea).*Masfu/och<strong>in</strong>ts quadrilohahis, Miers. N. Australia (Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of WalesChannel) ;Philipp<strong>in</strong>es.Macruka.*Gebia car<strong>in</strong>icmala, Stimps<strong>on</strong>. N.Australia (Thursday Island, &c.)jH<strong>on</strong>g- K<strong>on</strong>g.*Gebiops{s danv<strong>in</strong>ii, sp. n. N. and S.W. Australia (Port Darw<strong>in</strong>);S<strong>in</strong>gapore.*Axms plectorhynchus, Strahl. N.E. Australia (Port Molle) ;Luz<strong>on</strong>.*Thalass<strong>in</strong>a anomala (Herbst). N.W. Australia (Nieol Bay) ;N. Australia(Thursday Island) ;Philipp<strong>in</strong>es, Borueo, &c. ;Penang ; FijiIslands.Alphem edivardsii, Audou<strong>in</strong>. N. to E. Australia (Ports Darw<strong>in</strong> andEss<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong> to Sydney) ;Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong> ; Atlantic Regi<strong>on</strong> (Cape"Verds?, W.-American coast from N. Carol<strong>in</strong>a to <strong>the</strong> Abrolhos,Brazil) ;coast of California.[* (/raciUdacti/lns, sp. n. Fiji and Sandwich Islands.]* obesomanus, Dana. N.E. Australia (Port Molle) ;Fiji Islands ;INIauritius.* fffocilipes, Stimps<strong>on</strong>. N.E. and S. Australia (Port MoUe, Fl<strong>in</strong>dersIsland) ;Coreau Channel ; Ceyl<strong>on</strong> ;Tahiti.* m<strong>in</strong>us, var. neptunus, Dana. N. and S.E. Australia (ThursdayIsland, Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>) ;Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong> (to Panama).coviattdanmi, Haswell. N. Australia (Albany Island, ThursdayIsland, &c.) ;Ceyl<strong>on</strong> ; S<strong>in</strong>gapore.vUlosus, Milne-Edwards. N. Australia (Warrior Reef, ThursdayIsland).*P<strong>on</strong>t<strong>on</strong>ia [C<strong>on</strong>chodytes) tridacnee, Peters. N. and N.E. Australia(Warrior Reef, Keppell Islands); Fiji and Samoa Islands;Djeddah Ibo.;*Harpiliiis <strong>in</strong>pnnis, sp. n. N.E. Australia (Port Molle) ; W. Australia(Shark Bay).[* sp<strong>in</strong>uliferus, sp. n. Hub. ?]*Ancliistia petitth<strong>on</strong>arsi, Audou<strong>in</strong> ? N.E. Australia (Port Molle) ; OrientalRegi<strong>on</strong> (Red Sea to Ousima, Japan).*CoraUiocarit< tridentata, sp. n. N. Australia (Thursday Island).Palcem<strong>on</strong> {Leander) <strong>in</strong>tcrmedius, Stimps<strong>on</strong>. E. Australia (Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>,Sydney?); Tasmania; S.W. Australia (K<strong>in</strong>g George's Sound) ;Fiji Islands.Sicy<strong>on</strong>ia ocellata, Stimps<strong>on</strong>. N. to E. Australia (Thursday Island,Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> ?); H<strong>on</strong>g K<strong>on</strong>g ;Ceyl<strong>on</strong>.Penceus yramdosys, Haswell. N. and N.E. Australia (Port Darw<strong>in</strong>,Thursday Island, Darnley Island, Cape Grenville).velutmus, Dana. N. Australia (Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, Thursday Island,Albany Island) ; W. Australia (Shark Bay) ;Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong>Senegambia (Goree Island) ;West Indies ? (St. Thomas ?).* batei, sp. n. N. Australia (Albany Island).Stomatopoda.Squilla nepa, Latr. N. to S.E. Australia (Port Darw<strong>in</strong> to Sydney) ;Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong>.G<strong>on</strong>odadyhis chirayra (Fabr.). N. and N.E. Australia (Port Ess<strong>in</strong>gt<strong>on</strong>to Port Molle) ;S.W. Australia (Swan River) ;Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong>Mediterranean ; W. Indies ; Brazil ; W. coast of N. America ?


CRrSTACEA. 187G<strong>on</strong>odactyhis graphurus, White (<strong>in</strong>ed.), Miers. N.W. to N.E. Australia(Nicol Bay to Port Curtis) ; Oriental Kegi<strong>on</strong>.EDRIOrHTHALMIA.IsoroDA.Ligia gamlichaudii, var. austraJiensis, Dana. N.E. to E. Australia(Port jNIoUe to New South Wales) ;Siugapore ? Ceyl<strong>on</strong> ?Ceratothoa imhricata, Fabr. N.E., S., and W. Australia (Port E?s<strong>in</strong>gtun,Sydney, Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>, Murray Eiver, Shark Bay); Ch<strong>in</strong>a;Madras ;Calcutta ; Java ; New Zealand.^Cirolana multidigitata (Dana). N. Australia (Albany Island) ;W. Australia(Swan River) Philipp<strong>in</strong>es ;Borneo.* schiodtei, sp. n.;N.W. Australia (Arafura Sea) ;Torres Straits.* tennistglis, sp. n. N. Australia (Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel).* lata, Ilaswell, var. mtegra. N. to S.E. Australia (Albany Islandto Port Stephens).*Ruc<strong>in</strong>eIa orientaUs, Schiodte & Me<strong>in</strong>ert. N. to E. Australia (Pr<strong>in</strong>ceof Wales Channel to Moret<strong>on</strong> Bay) ;Oriental Regi<strong>on</strong> (Gulf ofSuez to Philipp<strong>in</strong>es).[_*jEga me<strong>in</strong>erti, sp. n. S. Australia, K<strong>in</strong>g George's Sound.]*Cymodocea l<strong>on</strong>gistylis, sp. n. N. Australia (Thursday Island) ;S<strong>in</strong>gapore.*Cerceis bidentata, M.-Edw. (var. aspermmdafa, n.). N. Australia(Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel).Cilicaa JidreiUei, Leach. N. to S:E. Australia (Thursday Island toPort Stephens) ; S. Australia (K<strong>in</strong>g George's Sound).latreillei (var. crassicatidata, Haswell). N.W. to N.E. Austraha(xVi-afura Sea to Ilolborn Island).[* (var. l<strong>on</strong>gisp<strong>in</strong>a, n.). Bass's Straits.][* antennalis (White, <strong>in</strong>ed.). AV. Australia, Swan River.]Hasicellia carnea (IlasweU). E. and S.E. Australia (Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>,Port Stephens).Paranthura ausfralis, Ilaswell.Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>).Anisopoda,N. and E. Australia (Dundas Straits,Amphipoda.Ephippiphora kroyeri, White. N. to N.E. Australia (Dundas Straitsto Port Denis<strong>on</strong>) ; Tasmania ; New Zealand ?Leucotho'e sp<strong>in</strong>icarpa, Abildgaard (var. c<strong>on</strong>nneiisalis, Ilaswell). N. to S.Australia, al<strong>on</strong>g E. coast (Thursday Island to Western Port) ;Great Brita<strong>in</strong>, Scand<strong>in</strong>avia, &c. ; Red Sea ?* hrevidacfyla, sp. n. N. Australia (Thursday Island).Melita australis, Haswell. N.E. to S. Australia (Port Denis<strong>on</strong> toW^estern Port).Moera ramsayi, Ilaswell. N. and E. Australia (Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of WalesChannel, Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>).rnhromaculata (Stm.). N. Australia (Dundas Straits) ;N.E. toS.E. Australia (Port Denis<strong>on</strong> to Port Stephens).* ? crassimana, sp. n. E. Australia (Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>).Megamcora st<strong>in</strong>isis, Haswell. N. and N.E. Austi'alia (Sue Islands,Albany Island, Port Denis<strong>on</strong>).* thoms<strong>on</strong>i, sp. n. N. Australia (Albany Island, Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of WalesChannel, Thursday Island).Podocerus australis, Ilaswell. E. Australia (Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>).


.;188 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.Caprella (sqm'h'bra (Say). E. Australia (Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>) ; New Zealand;H<strong>on</strong>g K<strong>on</strong>g- ; Mediterranean ; Norway ; Brita<strong>in</strong> ; E. coast ofUnited States ; Brazil.* attennata, Dana? E. Australia (Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>); Eio de Janeiro,OsTEACODA.Cyprid<strong>in</strong>a alho-macnlata, Baird. N. Australia (Port Darw<strong>in</strong>, DundasStraits) ; W. Australia (Swan Eiver).CIEEIPEDIA.Balanus trig<strong>on</strong>us, Darw<strong>in</strong>. E. Australia (Port Jacks<strong>on</strong> and Sydney) ;New Zealand ; Malaysian seas ; W. coast of America ; PeruColumbia ; California.amaryllis, Darw<strong>in</strong>. N. to E. Australia (Port Darw<strong>in</strong> to Moret<strong>on</strong>Bay) ;Philipp<strong>in</strong>es ; Malaysian archipelago ; mouth of <strong>the</strong> Indus.Acasta sulcata, Lam. (var. ?). N. to E. Australia (Albany Island toMoret<strong>on</strong> Bay) ; S. Australia ; W. Australia {Lajnarck).PYCNOGONIDA.Achelia Icevis, Hodge, var. australiensis, n. E. Australia (Port Jacks<strong>on</strong>).PhoxicJdlidium hoekii, sp. n. N. Australia (Dundas Straits, ThursdayIsland, Pr<strong>in</strong>ce of Wales Channel)DECAPODA.BEACHYUEA.1. Achseus lacertosus, Stimps<strong>on</strong>.Here is somewhat doubtfully referred a small male specimen fromPort Jacks<strong>on</strong> (0-5 fms.), which difi'ers from Stimps<strong>on</strong>'s diagnosis<strong>on</strong>ly <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> somewhat slenderer merus-jo<strong>in</strong>t of <strong>the</strong> chelipedes, whichresembles that of A. hreviceps, Haswell (a species which Mr. Haswell<strong>in</strong> his latest work regards as syn<strong>on</strong>ymous with A. lacertosas), <strong>in</strong> be<strong>in</strong>gof a somewhat trig<strong>on</strong>ous form ; <strong>the</strong> palm or penultimate jo<strong>in</strong>t isth<strong>in</strong>-edged al<strong>on</strong>g its upper marg<strong>in</strong>, but scarcely car<strong>in</strong>atcd.The specimen I refer to A. lacertosus also bears some resemblanceto <strong>the</strong> European A. cranchii <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> absence of a neck-like c<strong>on&l