Biannual Report on the Asset and Education Field

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Biannual Report on the Asset and Education Field

Chapter 4 - Brief size—has important implications for the likelihood of graduating, 13 and there are significant inequalitiesin institutional selection, by student socioeconomic status. Two-year colleges have lower retention ratesthan four-year schools, even after accounting for differences in the types of students. 14 Because those whoattend two-year schools tend to come from families with fewer advantages, these retention differencesexacerbate inequality.• Beyond institution type, student pathways through college represent another way in which inequalitiesinteract with the education system to transmit advantage. Disadvantaged students are more likely: 1) totransfer from a four- to two-year school; 15 and 2) to transfer between postsecondary institutions with timegaps between leaving one school and entering another. 16 These differences have implications for thelikelihood of degree completion and returns. 17 Socioeconomic status may even affect student courseselection within institutions, in patterns that can close off career options and affect students’ academicexperience. 18• Importantly, assets make a difference for college completion, too, indicating that having school savingsmay help students to navigate the college environment more successfully than their relative disadvantagewould otherwise predict. Low-income students with school savings of $500 or more were five times aslikely to graduate from college as low-income students without a savings account and nearly three timesas likely as those with only basic savings, not designated for education. 19 Among children who expected tograduate from college while in high school, a low- or moderate-income child who has school savings of$1 to $499 prior to reaching college age is about four times more likely to graduate from college than achild with no savings account. 20 Black children who expected to graduate from college are four timesmore likely to do so if they have school savings of $1 to $499, compared to black children with nosavings account.How assets reduce wilt: CSAs align normative and role expectations• The institutional facilitation framework emphasizes three normative expectations—shared ideals abouthow institutions respond to individuals: (1) the American dream, (2) individualism, and (3) education as a13 Carnevale, A. P., and Strohl, J. (2010). How increasing college access is increasing inequality, and what to do about it. InR. Kahlenberg (Ed.), Rewarding strivers: Helping low-income students succeed in college (pp. 1-231). New York: NY:Century Foundation Books.14 Tinto, V. (1987). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures for student attrition. Chicago: University of ChicagoPress.15 Goldrick-Rab, S. and, Fabian T. P. (2009). Beyond access: Explaining socioeconomic differences in college transfer.Sociology of Education, 82, 2, 101-125.16 Goldrick-Rab, S. (2006). Following their every move: An investigation of social-class differences in college pathways.Sociology of Education, 79, 1, 61-79.17 Cabrera, A. F., Burkum, K. R., & La Nasa, S. M. (2005). Pathways to a four-year degree: Determinants of transfer anddegree completion. In Seidman, A. (Ed.) College Student Retention: Formula for Student Success. Westport, CT: PraegerPublishers. Cabrera, A. F., and La Nasa, S. M. (2000). Understanding the college-choice process. New Directions forInstitutional Research, 107, 5-22.18 Ibid.19 Freidline, T., Elliott, W., and Nam, I. (2013). Small-dollar children’s savings accounts and children's college outcomes byrace. Children and Youth Services Review, 35 (3), p. 548-559; Elliott, W., Song, H-a, and Nam, I. (2013a). Small-dollarchildren’s saving accounts and children's college outcomes by income level. Children and Youth Services Review, 35 (3),p. 560-571.20 Elliott, W., Song, H-a, and Nam, I. (2013). Small-dollar accounts, children's college outcomes and wilt. Children andYouth Services Review, 35 (3), p. 535-547.3

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