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Papers in Land Management: No.7Reconstructing Skopje after the 1963 earthquake:The Master Plan forty years onPapers in Land Management seriesLand management covers a wide range of academic and professional areasrelating to land - law and public administration, land use planning,environmental protection, valuation and real estate, and history. This seriesaims to make available papers which may not suit more conventionalacademic publication. They may be work in progress, teaching material,reports of consultancy work, or conference papers. Some papers are of specificgeographical interest (eg Anglia Ruskin’s region, and the Balkans where theLaw School has collaborated), or in particular thematic areas (egenvironmental law, legal and planning history, and comparative land law).The series also aims to support the work of UN Habitat’s Global Land ToolsNetwork, to which the first two papers are relevant; they also set somecommon themes for the series.The series editor is Robert Home, Professor of Land Management at theAnglia Law School, Anglia Ruskin University, Bishop Hall Lane, ChelmsfordCM1 1SQ, United Kingdom. For further details contact him at:r.home@anglia.ac.ukCurrent papers1. ‘This land belongs to you and me’: The global challenge of landmanagement, by Robert Home (2007)2. Squatters or Settlers: Rethinking Ownership, Occupation and Use inLand Law, by Robert Home and Hilary Lim (2007)3. The Law of Settlements and Removals viewed as a model of propertyrights for the poor, by Lorie Charlesworth (2007)4. A Short Guide to European Environmental Law, by Robert Home(2007)5. Municipal administrative reform and land development issues in theformer Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, by Edward Frank, CorradoMinervini and Danica Pavlovska (2007)6. Cambridge sub-region Traveller Needs Assessment, by Anglia RuskinUniversity and Buckinghamshire Chiltern University College (2006)7. Reconstructing Skopje, Macedonia, after the 1963 earthquake: TheMaster Plan forty years on, by Robert Home (2007)8. From colonial housing to planning for disasters: The career of DavidOakley (1927-2003), by Robert Home (2007)9. On the planning history of Chelmsford, by Ana Fuller and RobertHome (2007)2


Papers in Land Management: No.7Reconstructing Skopje after the 1963 earthquake:The Master Plan forty years onPaper No. 7: AbstractThis paper reviews traces the history of the replanning of Skopje after thedisastrous earthquake of 1963, placing it in its wider historical context and theModern Movement in architecture, planning and master planning. The SkopjeMaster Plan concepts , implementation and legacy are assessed.Keywords Planning history; Skopje earthquake; planning for naturaldisasters; master planningThe authorRob Home is a chartered town planner, Professor of Land Management atAnglia Ruskin University, and a long-standing member of the InternationalPlanning History Society. His book, Of Planting and Planning: The making ofBritish colonial cities, was published in 1997, the same year as his study of theBecontree Estate, and he has published articles on planning history in thejournals Planning Perspectives, Third World Planning Review, TownPlanning Review and Planning History. ,He is on the editorial board ofPlanning Perspectives.Acknowledgements The author wishes to thank the following: StrashkoKocev (Aerodrom Municipality), Panche Kovacev (Petrovec Municipality),Svetlana Marinovic (Butel Municipality), and Jordanka Noshpal.IllustrationsPage Title5 1. 1962 floods in Skopje6 2. Earthquake damage central Skopje 19637 3. Remains of old Skopje railway station7 4. Surviving housing from pre-earthquake period8 5. Emergency wooden prefabricated housing from the immediate postearthquakeperiod, Taftalidze district,9 6. Master plan birds-eye view of proposed railway station10 7. Summary of Master Plan proposed strategic framework12. 8. Detail of Skopje Master Plan proposals12 9. Concrete pillars under Skopje central railway station13 10. Railway and road bridge to left, high-rise housing to rear, takenfrom left bank of Vardar River14 11. Park along old railway line (Southern Boulevard) with Karposhousing and bus park in background16 12. Skopje centre looking south-west17 13. View across Vardar River to Skopje town centre3


Papers in Land Management: No.7Reconstructing Skopje after the 1963 earthquake:The Master Plan forty years on2: Earthquake damage central Skopje 1963. Source: P. Kovacevoccupation. Worst affected were the older mud brick and mixed constructionbuildings, whose foundations had been weakened by a river flood the previousyear.The Yugoslav government responded quickly and effectively to the immediateemergency, the army moving in with field hospitals and tents. The peasantsfrom the countryside delivered their fruit and vegetables as usual the next day,leaving them on the ground without looking for payment. The focus thenshifted to the response of the international community.Yugoslavia was a non-aligned country, well-regarded by the internationalcommunity in the Cold War period. The UN General Assembly immediatelystimulated a massive response, both to the immediate needs and for longertermreconstruction. Rescue squads of miners came from Croatia, and the USgovernment sent a 120-bed field hospital from Berlin within a day of thequake. Foreign assistance was eventually given by 77 countries and was6


Papers in Land Management: No.7Reconstructing Skopje after the 1963 earthquake:The Master Plan forty years on3 Remains of old Skopje railway station (clock fixed at time ofearthquake) Source: The author4: Surviving housing from pre-earthquake period (new apartmentbuilding in background). Source: The author7


Papers in Land Management: No.7Reconstructing Skopje after the 1963 earthquake:The Master Plan forty years on5: Emergency wooden prefabricated housing from the immediat epost-earthquake period, Taftalidze district. Source: The authorestimated to have contributed as much as the Yugoslav government itself.British involvement included a visit by the UN adviser Kenneth Watts in late1963 7 , professional advice from a specialist in repairing blitzed buildings 8 ,and expertise in prefabricated housing. A nine-ton block of Skopje marble wasshipped from Liverpool to become the altar-stone for the new Roman Catholiccathedral.In the early months there was debate about future options - whether the riskof another earthquake justified abandoning Skopje altogether - but thecapital investment in the city infrastructure was considered too great to writeoff. Also the city was seen as ‘a symbol of the brotherhood and unity of theequal and free peoples of Yugoslavia’, and soon also a symbol of internationalfellowship:‘Skopje’s symbolic significance, for Macedonia, for Yugoslavia and for atroubled world, had become so great that the basic decision to rebuild itas a model of all that city planning could be was a foregoneconclusion.’ 9Among the monuments proposed was one to ‘Liberty and InternationalFellowship’. Determined to promote the appliance of science to earthquakes,Skopje became home to a new International Institute of Seismic Engineering,supported by the United Nations. Within a year this was soon offering a twoyearpostgraduate course in earthquake engineering, and producing modelstandards for earthquake-resistant building. 108


Papers in Land Management: No.7Reconstructing Skopje after the 1963 earthquake:The Master Plan forty years onmaster planners’ work was presented at ‘the most comprehensive townplanning exhibition ever staged in Yugoslavia’ 12 , visited by 10,000 people aweek. Formal adoption of the Master Plan followed a month later, on 16November 1965. The UN Special Fund also supported six related projects:three surveys (social, buildings condition, and regional), and special studieson housing, transport and infrastructure.MASTER PLAN OF THE CITY OF SKOPJE 2001 – 2020SYNTHESIS PLAN7: Summary of Master Plan proposed strategic framework.Source: S. Marinovic10


Papers in Land Management: No.7Reconstructing Skopje after the 1963 earthquake:The Master Plan forty years on8: Detail of Skopje Master Plan proposals. Source: S MarinovicThe Master Plan was considered at the time innovative in its fast-trackapproach.‘Never before had a town-planning exercise of such magnitude andcomplexity been conducted under the pressure of such desperatelyurgent social needs’. 13The usual master plan process (survey-analysis-plan) was telescoped in time,requiring constant decision-making. The key management tool was a‘Professional Working Committee’ which met weekly as a high-level group tosort out problems and maintain a common appreciation of the collective task.It often was involved in conflicting professional opinions and cultural valuesamong the international experts. There were problems of accommodating theprocess within hierarchical government structures, and a ‘rigidly legalisticinterpretation of what were meant to be general guidelines.’ 14 Ultimately,however, the system worked, and the plan was largely achieved on the ground.11


Papers in Land Management: No.7Reconstructing Skopje after the 1963 earthquake:The Master Plan forty years onThe Master Plan: contentThe master planners’ work was guided by the recommendations of theinternational jury, which included the following principles: a dispersedpattern of development, the river Vardar to be a unifying element, the settingof Kale Hill (the highest natural feature) not to be diminished by high-risebuildings, the Carsija district to be integrated with the centre and not allowedto become a ‘tourist museum piece’, and only low-rise housing to be allowedon the left bank.9: Concrete pillars under Skopje central railway station,strengthened for seismic protection. Source: The authorThe planners, enthusiasts for surveys and statistics, established that Skopjebefore the earthquake had some 36,000 housing units, accommodating nearly200,000 people in nearly 50,000 households, at an average of 1.3 families perdwelling and 5.5 people per household. Average dwelling size was 44 sq.m. or8 sq.m. per person. The earthquake had made 80,000 homeless, with afurther 70,000 living in heavily damaged buildings. Such was the pressure onhousing stock that as late as 1981 160,000 people were still living in ‘retainedhousing’ (ie pre-earthquake) rather than new homes.The Master Plan envisaged several time-frames: short-term (a populationtarget of 270,000 by 1971), medium-term (350,000 population by 1981) andlong-term (4 million population ‘after 2000’), although in reality Skopje’spopulation is now only half a million. The plan’s ambitious aim was to12


Papers in Land Management: No.7Reconstructing Skopje after the 1963 earthquake:The Master Plan forty years oncombine a larger population with a reduced average household size (from 4.15in 1964 to 3.5 in 1981) and better space standards (12.5 sq.m. per person, soonraised to 17.5). This required nearly doubling the 1964 housing stock (25,000more dwellings by 1971, 63,000 by 1981), all to be financed from public funds.Natural population growth was estimated at 2% pa, to which was added inmigrationin search of jobs in reconstruction. The survey of post-earthquakebuilding condition was soon criticised for condemning too many buildings todemolition, and had to be revised to keep more of the existing stock. Dwellingsof ‘adobe’ construction were especially targeted for slum clearance (seen as anessential prerequisite for redevelopment), and many self-built postearthquakedwellings were also demolished in the central area reserved forfuture high-value development.10: Railway and road bridge to left, high-rise housing to rear,taken from left bank of Vardar River. Source: The authorSocialist planning principles placed all land under state control, so that littleregard needed to be paid to private market land values or development by theprivate sector. Skopje was fortunate in having ample potential developmentland, with the so-called ‘Skopje Field’ (or valley floor) extending some 33kilometres by ten. The application of Polish threshold analysis techniquesresulted in an ‘area of search’ of 9000 ha for new housing development,reduced to 4200 ha after seismically unsuitable land had been excluded. Only1000 ha was needed, so there was ample space to accommodate the planneddevelopment in a dispersed pattern. The development area was divided into280 ‘land-area units’ for calculating total development costs, and eight zonesfor compensation calculation purposes. Threshold analysis allocated land13


Papers in Land Management: No.7Reconstructing Skopje after the 1963 earthquake:The Master Plan forty years onwhere the development costs (ie costs of infrastructure and utilities) werelowest. So-called ‘expansion barriers’ around the city were set, assuming athreshold which could not be passed without incurring increased developmentcosts. For example, the bus system was planned for a maximum of 45-minutetravel time between home and work, which set development limits.Following contemporary design orthodoxy, neighbourhood units wereplanned for a standard 6000 population, based upon the optimal size ofprimary schools. 15 Most of the new housing was initially placed in theAerodrom area, on land released from a disused airfield, where a newmunicipality for 80,000 inhabitants was created. The planners created ahierarchy of units and centres, with three district centres around the main citycentre, intended to serve a city of 0.7 million. 16 Net residential densities wereset at 540 persons per hectare, and to achieve the rapid house-building rate,industrialised and prefabricated methods were applied. Skopje already had acement factory and steel works, and the USSR donated a factory for pre-castconcrete prefabrication.11: Park along old railway line (Southern Boulevard) with Karposhousing and bus park in background. Source: The AuthorA strategic transport decision was made to base the city’s future massmovement needs upon the bus (rather than train or car), assuming relativelylow car ownership levels (47 vehicles per 1000 people, expected to rise to 200by 1981). The transport strategy assumed that two east-west ‘expresswayswould skirt the northern and southern edges of the city centre, with‘transverse expressways’ through Aerodrom and Karpos, and an inner by-pass14


Papers in Land Management: No.7Reconstructing Skopje after the 1963 earthquake:The Master Plan forty years oneast of the central area. An additional 150 km of major roads and roadimprovements were planned by 1981, while housing areas were plannedaround a maximum walking distance of 400m to the nearest bus stop.The railway network was also transformed. The partly-destroyedrailway station was left as a monument to the earthquake, and now containsthe city museum. The rail-tracks and marshalling yards in that part of townwere removed so that road traffic from the southern suburbs on the slopes ofMount Vodno could avoid ‘a weary wait at a level-crossing that mustfrequently be closed to let shunting engines shepherd their wagons hither andyon’. 17 A new central station was built east of the city centre (driven byregional rather than local economic needs), and was raised on massivereinforced-concrete columns to allow east-west roads to pass under. Aninterurban bus station was later added under the station (opened 2004), and anew road bridge over the Vardar (opened 2005).The Vardar River itself was an important part of the Master Plan. Before theearthquake snow meltwaters had frequently caused flooding in the city, andmuch earthquake damage had been in the areas affected by the 1962 floods,which had weakened building foundations. Geological studies of seismic riskdetermined that riverside land needed to be kept free of development. Oncethe unruly river itself had been channelled, the banks were kept relativelybuilding-free and reserved for recreational use: parks, playing fields, sportstadia and riverside walks. 18 New bridges were built, notably the Goce Delcevbridge (opened in 1971), which replaced the smaller Jewish bridge and formeda major road link to the Belgrade motorway. Upriver the Matka II dam andhydro-electric station were built, controlling the flow of the river, andproviding for canoe-slalom and other recreational activities.The earthquake also brought about the first regional plan to be made inYugoslavia, undertaken mainly by Polish professional experts. The keystrategic question was whether to keep industrial development in Skopje or todecentralise, and eventually a mixed solution was adopted. The Macedonianrepublic was already receiving the largest share of such investment inYugoslavia, and the allocated reconstruction funds were estimated at fourtimes that needed to restore pre-earthquake production levels. The MasterPlan proposed a great expansion of Skopje’s eastern industrial zone (includingthe Zelezara steel works), while the existing industrial area immediately eastof the city centre was largely cleared to allow future extension of the centre.Industrial employment was expected to grow 50% by 1971 and a further 10%by 1981, and was to be shared with three satellite towns, while ‘culturalresources’ directed to six other towns. 1915


Papers in Land Management: No.7Reconstructing Skopje after the 1963 earthquake:The Master Plan forty years onThe new City CentreThe Master Plan demarcated nearly 300 hectares for the new city centre, andan international design competition was held, attracting eight submissions(half of them Yugoslav). The special jury of architect-planners in 1965 agreedto divide the prize money 60:40 between the ‘conceptual layout plan’ of theJapanese architect Kenzo Tange 20 , and the Zagreb-based firm of Miscevic andWenzler. Construction had to be deferred until after the first reconstructionphase was completed in 1971, and in the intervening period much illegalhousing appeared on the site, later mostly cleared.12: Skopje centre looking south-west, with Stone Bridge inforeground, Karpos housing in background. Source: The authorThe pre-earthquake city centre had been largely on the left bank, in the oldCarsija area, linked to the right bank by the Stone Bridge or Kamen Most.After the earthquake the old city buildings along the river front were largelydemolished or abandoned, including some historic mosques and churches.The planners decided to maintain the Carsija ‘not merely as a picturesqueside-show for tourists but as a functioning service-trade and workshopcentre.’ 21 They positioned a new bridge and major road so as to avoidtunnelling under Kale Hill, or locating high buildings around the Carsija, andthe pedestrian-only Stone Bridge connected to a new Department Store,completed in 1977.. The riverside sites on the left bank were allocated for16


Papers in Land Management: No.7Reconstructing Skopje after the 1963 earthquake:The Master Plan forty years onuplifting cultural institutions, such as the Macedonian National Theatre,television building and courts, ‘in much the same way as that of London’sSouth Bank was raised by the building of the Royal Festival Hall.’ 22 Part ofthe University was located on the left bank, even though it required majordemolition and rehousing, and the rest distributed around the city, the statedaim being to avoid a ‘town-and-gown’ separation, and neutralise the ‘sociallypernicious division of the city’.13: View across Vardar River to Skopje town centre, with MountVodno in background. Source: The authorThe city centre on the right bank was allocated for administration, commerce,shopping and entertainment. A third of the area was zoned for housing(30,000 people), and the city core was enclosed by so-called ‘city walls’ ofhigh-density slab-block housing (seismic precautions required the height ofthe city wall to be reduced from that originally designed). Traffic was to befunnelled through a ‘city gate’, supposed to serve as an administrative ‘citadel’,where the Macedonian Telecommunications and Post Office buildings (‘afuturistic, insect-like structure’, according to Lonely Planet) now stand. Theexisting business-residential area around Marshal Tito Street and linking tothe old railway station was reconstructed, and is now a lively and successfulcentral area. A new Shopping Centre by the river was completed in 1973, withspacious café terraces (25m wide) along the river bank, while a large new citysquare (100x165 metres) was built, show-casing the Stone Bridge as a majortourist feature, floodlit at night.17


Papers in Land Management: No.7Reconstructing Skopje after the 1963 earthquake:The Master Plan forty years onSocial engineeringThe Skopje master planners showed themselves to be self-confident andinterventionist social engineers. The prevailing planning ideology favoured therehousing of ‘slum inhabitants’ - respecting their different cultural traditions,but working towards a progressive levelling up of living standards andintegration into a homogeneous society adapted to modern urban life.The Ottomans had maintained segregated communities in a multi-ethnic city,while the post-war Yugoslav Constitution guaranteed minority rights, andthese factors governed much of the social reconstruction of Skopje. Within afew months of the earthquake a social survey was undertaken (itself a newventure for Yugoslavia), using 85 university students to interview 4000families at home. The minority communities (Albanians, Turks and Gypsies)were mainly concentrated on the left bank in the ‘Old Town’, known to theplanners as Town B’, where dwellings tended to be older, households morecrowded (only 7 sq.m. floorspace per person), and incomes lower. In thesimplistic planners’ perceptions, the Turks were seen as attaching greaterimportance to the privacy of family life, while the Gypsies lived ‘gregarious,outdoor lives: hardly a blade of grass survives on the hard-trodden earthbetween their randomly jumbled cabins.’ 23 Pre-earthquake Skopje residentswere ethnically divided into 60% Macedonian, 8% Turkish, 7% Roma(Gypsies), 7% Serb, and 6% Albanian. Average household sizes varied (5.7 forthe Turkish, Albanian and Roma groups, lower for the Macedonians at 4.2).The planners wanted the slums cleared where possible, and the people to be‘re-educated’ to accept high-rise and medium-rise housing. The Master Planassumed that 30% of the pre-earthquake slums would be cleared by 1971, andthe city council resolved to clear 13,000 single-storey slum dwellings.Available resources, however, could only support the rehousing of 5% of thoseoccupying ‘sub-standard’ dwellings, and even that would have necessitated aspace standard per person that was actually lower than that in the retainedpre-earthquake dwellings. The planners had to engage in much juggling of theassumptions upon which the numbers of required housing units and spacestandards were based, so as to achieve the desired slum clearance rate.Computers (a new technology for planners at the time) were used to calculatedifferent possible permutations and combinations of family structure,dwelling size and internal room arrangement, in an attempt to reconcilelimited public resources with the projected house-building rate.The new housing was designed to accommodate nuclear rather than extendedfamilies, and the ‘doubling-up’ of families with in-laws was activelydiscouraged, even though this might over-ride ‘cultural practices’ (such as thecited right of Roma mothers to live with their married son). The traditionalpractice of a reception (or ‘white’) room for guests, with a back (or ‘black’)room where the family might live, eat and sleep, was regarded by the plannersas ‘dysfunctional’; they aspired instead to re-educate the people into a more‘rational’ and efficient use of domestic space, through the medium of tenant18


Papers in Land Management: No.7Reconstructing Skopje after the 1963 earthquake:The Master Plan forty years oncommittees in the new housing estates. In practice people were frequentlyreluctant to move into the new housing, where they might find themselvesseparated from their communities, and the social survey found many owneroccupierspreferring to pay toward the costs of rebuilding their own homes,which was not what the planners wanted. The social survey team, however,recommended against interfering with minority cultures until they could bere-educated and habituated to regular employment. The Roma, for example,rather than being forced straight into high-rise apartments, were relocated tothe edge of town in an ‘unplanned, do-it-yourself community’ in Suto Orisari.The planners also attempted to apply their social engineering to rural life.They disapproved of families growing their own food in garden plots: ‘theassiduity with which the present occupants of the prefabs have been takingadvantage of the opportunity to cultivate gardens of their own makes itdoubtful if they will now take quite so kindly to high-density living.’ 24 Theland reserved for the new city necessarily reduced the land available foragriculture, and large mechanised farms were proposed to boost productionwith modern methods (at a preferred optimal size of 1000 hectares).Meanwhile the planners were ‘anxious lest the impending flood of urbanizedweekenders should dilute the vitality of what they termed the ‘folklore’ of theMacedonian countryside (traditional ways of life and quaint costumes). Theforeign planners even proposed by-laws to prohibit the ‘adulteration’ of thecharacteristic Macedonian style of domestic architecture, but failed in thissemi-colonial approach to separating town from country (which would havebeen familiar to any British ‘dual mandate’ colonial administrator).ConclusionsThe rebuilding of Skopje was largely completed by 1980, and was celebrated atan exhibition held in that year. 25 The main elements of the Master Plan wererealised on the ground, creating a new city that is today spacious and generallywell-organised. The earthquake itself is a distant memory, and there are fewsurviving signs of it, apart from the symbolic ruined railway station, with itsclock hands permanently at 5:17. The ‘Southern Boulevard’ created by theclosure of the railway line exists, and a modern air-conditioned shopping mallrecently opened next to the old railway station, although the Adriatic Highwaywas not fully completed as the master planners envisioned it, and the railwaylands have been only partially reused. In some areas smart modern planneddevelopment stands alongside the surviving remnants of pre-1963 housing, or‘illegal constructions’ by squatters that were never removed, while temporaryresettlement housing has been gradually transformed by incremental buildinginto attractive low-rise, medium-density development.The break-up of Yugoslavia resulted in the creation of a smaller Republic ofMacedonia in 1992 (Kosovo being separated, and now falling under a NATOmandate). The planning of Skopje’s reconstruction proved to be the beginningof a continuing UN involvement in the region. The three municipalities ofSkopje contained 312,000 inhabitants in 1963 (in 152 villages), of whom19


Papers in Land Management: No.7Reconstructing Skopje after the 1963 earthquake:The Master Plan forty years on220,000 lay within the Master Plan area. Subsequent local governmentreorganisations divided Skopje into seven municipalities (1996), later ten,under a City Assembly and Mayor. The city now has about half a millioninhabitants. 26Relatively little of pre-earthquake Skopje now survives, and its older residentsexpress regret that the old city was swept away so comprehensively, as muchby the master planners as the earthquake itself, and claimed that something ofthe soul of the city has gone. 27 Some of the prefabricated housing from theimmediate first phase of reconstruction has survived, notably in the Taftalidzequarter, and buildings ‘retro-fitted’ with earthquake reinforcement are still tobe seen. But little remains of the old city, often just some of the old cobbledstreets preserving the historic street pattern. Development on the two sides ofthe river is poorly integrated, with the Carsija area being separated from thetown centre by a major road and building set-backs from the river-bank.The Master Plan was a creature of its time. Architect-planners of the modernmovement, confident in their role of remaking the postwar world, worked withthe state rather than with the people. Public participation was limited to thepublic being allowed to view the scale model of the new city when the plannershad finished it. Planning orthodoxy followed the recognised principles of theday: dispersed settlement in neighbourhood units; separation of land uses;priority to industry and the motor vehicle; preservation limited to some publicbuildings rather than area conservation; large-scale slum clearance for highdensityhousing, and hierarchies of service centres. The Master Plan left alegacy of submissive public attitudes, possibly linked to centuries of Ottomansubjugation - an expectation that the state and its technocrats would dictatesolutions. This was far removed from a Thatcherite world of private enterpriseand minimal state intervention. The state regulated the built environment indetail, and only in recent years has the planning thinking recognised the rolethat private development can have, requiring more flexible developmentguidelines.To return to the Lonely Planet’s judgment (‘this superb period ensemble’),Skopje is well worth a visit for a planning historian, as a fully realised exampleof an era of master planning and international co-operation in reconstructingafter a natural disaster. In the words of Kenneth Watts it was ‘the first majorinternational collaborative exercise of this magnitude to prepare adevelopment plan for a sizeable city’. 2820


Papers in Land Management: No.7Reconstructing Skopje after the 1963 earthquake:The Master Plan forty years onReferences1United Nations Development Programme (1970), Skopje Resurgent: The Story of aUnited Nations Special Fund Town Planning Project United Nations, New York(flyleaf). This book of nearly 400 pages, largely compiled by the British plannerDerek Senior, celebrated the UNDP’s work in planning Skopje’s reconstruction, andwas an important source for this article.2Lonely Planet Guide to Western Balkans (2006) p.236.3See Larkham, P.J. & K.D.Lilley (2001) Planning the ‘City of Tomorrow’: BritishReconstruction Planning, 1939-1952: an Annotated Bibliography, Peter Inch,Pickering. See also Bullock, N. (2002) Rebuilding the Post-War World: ModernArchitecture and Reconstruction in Britain Routledge, London; Diefendorf, J.,N.Tiratsoo & others (2002) Urban Reconstruction in Britain and Japan 1945-1955;C.Hein, J.Diefendorf & Y.Ishida (eds) (2003) Rebuilding Urban Japan after 1945,Palgrave; and S.V.Ward (2002), Planning the Twentieth-Century City, Wiley,chapter 6.4For case studies, see Cavalcanti, M. (1994) ‘Ceausescu’s Bucharest’, PlanningHistory, vol.16 no.3, pp.18-24; Ehrbeck, H. (2001) ‘The Socialist City and theDevelopment of Magnitogorsk’, Planning History, vol. 23 no.3, pp.22-27; Williams,G. (2000) ‘Rebuilding the entrepreneurial city: the master planning response to thebombing of Manchester City’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design5Skopje Resurgent, p. 352.6Mainly Macedonians, Albanians, Turks and Jews. The latter were deported andmurdered by the Nazis in the Second World War, and the former Jewish quarter ismarked by a Holocaust memorial.7Watts, K. ((1997) Outwards from Home: A Planner’s Odyssey, Book Guild, Lewes.This autobiography contains a brief discussion of his work in Skopje (pp.127-130).8T.Whitley Moran, civil and structural engineer, of the Liverpool firm Moran & Long.9Skopje Resurgent, p. 52.10IZIIS (2003) Proceedings of International Conference in Earthquake Engineering,to mark 40 Years from Catastrophic 1963 Skopje Earthquake and Successful CityReconstruction, held at Ohrid, August 2003.11Constantinos Doxiadis (1913-75) was a world-renowned Greek architect-planner.For planning consultants and post-war British reconstruction, see Larkham, P.J.(2005) ‘The costs of planning for reconstruction’, Planning History vol.27 nos. 1 & 2,pp.20-26.12Skopje Resurgent, p.124.13Skopje Resurgent, p.355.14Skopje Resurgent p.114.21


Papers in Land Management: No.7Reconstructing Skopje after the 1963 earthquake:The Master Plan forty years on15See Schubert, D. (1995), ‘Origins of the Neighbourhood Units Idea in Great Britainand Germany’, Planning History, vol.17 no.3, pp. 32-40. After the earthquake all 42primary schools in Skopje were operating in at least two shifts.16These were Karpos/Skopje I (near the centre), Cair/Topana (left bank), andAerodrom (right bank, east of the new railway station).17Skopje Resurgent, p.18018Green space planning also included ‘isolation belts’, projects for cable cars onMount Vodno, and transverse vegetation belts to bring cool air down into the city, butthese did not materialise.19These were Negotino, Pristina, Leskovac, Djakovica, Bitola and Stip. The threesatellite towns were Kumanovo, Tetovo and Veles.20Kenzo Tange (1913-2005) had won the competition for the redesign of Hiroshimaafter the atomic bomb. See P.Riani (ed), Kenzo Tange (London, Hamlyn 1969). Hewas criticised (perhaps unfairly) by some Skopje residents as ‘the Japanese tyrant’who had destroyed their beautiful city in rebuilding it.21Skopje Resurgent, p.18022The Macedonian National Theatre (according to the Lonely Planet guide ‘thisstunningly chunky concrete behemoth’) is partly modelled on London’s South Bankcentre, and looks like a bunker because of seismic precautions.23Skopje Resurgent, p.17124Skopje Resurgent, p.17525Union of Associations of Architects of Macedonia (1980), Exhibition guide Skopje:Urban Development. In 2005 the artist Sean Snyder celebrated the re-building(including images of the scale-model in the Skopje City Museum) in an exhibitionheld in Amsterdam, St. Gallen and Vienna.26‘Centar’ (the City Centre) is one municipality (85,000 population), and Aerodrom(81, 0000) another. Cair municipality is mainly Albanian (63,000), and Suto Orizarimainly Roma (14,000).27Watts commented on this in his autobiography (see fn 7 above). For measureddrawings of the pre-earthquake older buildings, see Arsovski, T. & Tachkovska-Arsova, N. 1988 Old Skopje: (in Macedonian). For the place of oral history inreconstruction, see Hubbard, P., L. Faire, et al. (2002), Remembering Post-WarReconstruction: Modernism and City Planning in Coventry, 1940-1962,Planning History 24(1): 2002, 7-20.28Watts op.cit., p,128.22

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