(Religious Apperception Test).

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(Religious Apperception Test).

Studia Religiologica 45 (3) 2012, s. 203–213doi: 10.4467/20844077SR.12.016.0969Prayer and its Functions in Narratives.Based on Projective Method of Research(Religious Apperception Test).The Results of the Projective Study.Zofia GrudzińskaAbstractIn religious studies, prayer has been extensively researched. Psychological studies use survey methods,so low-educated respondents often cannot comprehend the items. A projective method is presented,based on the Thematic Apperception Test by A. Murray and Ch. Morgan. Data collected insemi-structured interviews are used for qualitative research and for statistical analysis. Quantitativeanalysis of the references to prayer in narratives has yielded certain results, confirming the usefulnessof the test. Qualitative analysis has revealed specificity of the petition and intercession prayerand has called attention to association of location to specific types of prayer.Keywords: religiosity, structure of religiosity, prayer, projective techniques, TAT (ThematicApperception Test)Słowa kluczowe: religijność, struktura religijności, modlitwa, metody projekcyjne, TAT (TestApercepcji Tematycznej)IntroductionAn attempt to study the way people perceive prayer has been effected, using a tool ofa projective nature 1 . Prayer has been an object of numerous scientific undertakingsin all the fields of the study of religion since it emerged as a discipline of science. Tonarrow the overview of literature to the most recent endeavours, a large-scale surveyin the field was conducted in the US 2 . It helped sketch the map of the prayer as conceptualisedin the human mind.1Z. Grudzińska, Please, God...: Prayer and its functions in narratives. Based on projective methodof research – The Religious Apperception Test. Theoretic background and rationale of the study, “StudiaReligiologica” 2012, No. 45/2.2M.M. Poloma, G.H.Gallup Jr., Varieties of prayer: A survey report, Philadelphia 1991.Publikacja objęta jest prawem autorskim. Wszelkie prawa zastrzeżone. Kopiowanie i rozpowszechnianie zabronione.Publikacja przeznaczona jedynie dla klientów indywidualnych. Zakaz rozpowszechniania i udostępniania serwisach bibliotecznych


204On the more analytic plane, there exists a body of research concentrating on therelation of faith and its practices to well-being and health, often related to the issue ofconvalescence or healing. It has brought interesting insight into the issue of the conceptualisationof prayer: for example, Ai et al 3 has noted the presence of both a salutaryinfluence of prayer on the health of postoperative patience (“the positive path”)and the “negative path” – linking prayer to a preoperative acute stress syndrome.Another context in which prayer is studied is in the sociocultural approach, wherethe researcher concentrates on the inter-relational aspects of prayer, such as enhancingconnectivity 4 or giving support 5 . Interestingly, the authors argue for widening theindices present in any study of prayer beyond the simplest “frequency of” measure,often serving as the only way of operationalising the subject under scrutiny.The research toolThe Religious Apperception Test consists of a set of nine black-and-white cardsdepicting everyday scenes imbued with a degree of religious elements or symbols.Such method facilitates the research among low-educated respondents. They find itdifficult to comprehend the complex language of those questionnaires, which itemsprobe more complex indicators of personal religion than the frequency of church attendance.Having constructed a tentative system of interpretation of open-structured narrativesresulting from the interviews 6 , it has been decided to apply the statistical analysisto the data, converted from the qualitative into the quantitative format. Prayer hasbeen chosen as a prime example of one of the basic elements of religion. The aim ofthe study has been to investigate the concept of prayer among people socialised ina Catholic society, independent of their faith.The procedureThe interviews were conducted over the period of several months by the author of theresearch and a team of voluntary research assistants, who prior to the sessions hadbeen instructed in the procedure. After delivering a standard instruction cards wereshown to the respondent in a set order (in three cases there are separate versions for3A.L. Ai, T.N. Tice, B. Huang, W. Rodgers, S.F. Bolling, Types of prayer, optimism, and well-beingof middle-aged and older patients undergoing open-heart surgery, “Mental Health, Religion and Culture”2008, No. 11/1, p. 131–150.4K.L. Ladd, B. Spilka, Inward, Outward, and Upward: Cognitive Aspects of Prayer, “Journal forthe Scientific Study of Religion” 2002, No. 41/3, p. 475–484.5K.L. Ladd, D.N. McIntosh, Meaning, God, and prayer: Physical and metaphysical aspects ofsocial support, “Mental Health, Religion and Culture” 2008, No. 11/1, p. 23–38.6Z. Grudzińska, The Religious Apperception Test “RAT” – a Projective Test to Research the Structureof Religiosity. Constructing the System of Interpretation (in print).Publikacja objęta jest prawem autorskim. Wszelkie prawa zastrzeżone. Kopiowanie i rozpowszechnianie zabronione.Publikacja przeznaczona jedynie dla klientów indywidualnych. Zakaz rozpowszechniania i udostępniania serwisach bibliotecznych

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