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Trust - GIH

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The role of trustinoutdoor adventure eventsDr Pip Lynch, Norwegian School of Sport SciencesDr Mark Dibben, University of Tasmania, Australia


Points of departure• Lynch, P, Jonson, P. & Dibben, M. (2007). Exploring relationships oftrust in ‘adventure’ recreation. Leisure Studies, 26(1), 47-64.• Adventure recreation events – organiser and participants• Andkjær & Arvidsen (2012) –• patterns of accidents related to activity culture• Krein (2007)• Participants ‘value … ‘control, responsibility, judgement, skills’• Sportification of outdoor adventure recreation• multisport, adventure racing, enduro events


Near urban adventure events• ‘Nature challenge activities’ (Davidson &Stebbins, 2011)• Mass participation outdoor recreation• Organised, competitive, typically 1 - 3 days


Events• New Zealand example• http://www.goldrush.co.nz• School adventure racing, New Zealand• http://www.go412.co.nz/• http://www.maxyourmedia.com/Go4_12/2007/• Scandinavian examples:• http://stockholmextreme.se/• http://www.exploresweden.se/race/index.php


Trust• Luhmann (1979)• ‘awareness of circumstances of risk’• Dibben (2000)• Unarticulated deliberation’• With trust – mutual benefits• Without trust – rules, regulations, legalprocesses


Types of trust• Zucker (1986); Rousseau et al (1998); Dibbenet al (2000)• Situational• Learnt• Dispositional• Institutional• Sztompka (1999)• Primary and secondary targets


FunctionaltrustDysfunctionaltrustTrustFunctionaldistrustDysfunctionaldistrustTharaldsen, 2011


Functional trustTrust but verifyDysfunctionaltrustTrustFunctionaldistrustDysfunctionaldistrustTharaldsen, 2011


Functional trustTrust but verifyDysfunctionaltrust‘blind trust’TrustFunctionaldistrustDysfunctionaldistrustTharaldsen, 2011


Functional trustTrust but verifyDysfunctional trust‘blind trust’TrustFunctional distrustTakes precautionsDysfunctionaldistrustTharaldsen, 2011


Functional trustTrust but verifyDysfunctional trust‘blind trust’TrustFunctional distrustTakes precautionsDysfunctionaldistrustAbusive,subversiveTharaldsen, 2011


Functional trustTrust but verifye.g. ‘you have the snowshovels?’Dysfunctional trust‘blind trust’e.g. assumes someonehas the shovelsTrustFunctional distrustTakesprecautionsDysfunctional distrustAbusive, subversivee.g. bring own shovelTharaldsen, 2011


Findings: trust•Two-way, unequal relationship of trust•Participants: event framework, self-trust•Organisers: ‘be sensible’, disclaimers


How do you know?• ‘it is a trust thing’ (P)• ‘inherent faith’ (EO)• Participants: visible, tangible evidence• Process, situational• Organisers: ‘hope’• institutional


Competition and distrust• ‘they are like men possessed’ (EO)• ‘the bus was coming at me ... I pulled in just in time’ (P)


Functional trustTrust but verifyParticipants: self-trustDysfunctional trust‘blind trust’Participants not selfresponsibleTrustFunctional distrustTake precautionsOrganisers:disclaimersDysfunctional distrustAbusive, subversiveTharaldsen, 2011


Adventure events ‘complex’CompetenceJudgementParticipationLeisure valuesRisk managementTrust (self/other)Pip Lynch, 2013


For contactEmail: philippa.lynch@nih.no

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