By Theodora NyamandiDairibord Malawi Limited
INTRODUCTION MILK SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN SUB SAHARANAFRICA DEFINITIONS RECOMBINATION ADVANTAGES ANDDISADVANTAGES APPLICATION OF RECOMBINATION IN EIGHTCOUNTRIES IN EAST AND SOUTHERN AFRICA CONCLUSION
Milk plays an important role in nutrition ofwhole populations. Studies have shown correlation between thelevel of milk consumption of a population andthe proportion of undernourished. Of the 925 million hungry andundernourished people in the world in 2010;62% lived in Asia and pacific while 26% livedin Sub Saharan Africa. 30% of the populationin SSA was undernourished.
This presentation is based on literaturereview and data received throughquestionnaire administered to some countriesin East and Southern Africa
Demand for milk and dairy products in SSA isestimated to grow by 3.2-3.5% annually Demand is estimated to grow to 400 millionlitres by 2020 against a production level of200 million litres per annum Gap between local supply and demand can beas low as 2%(SA) or as high as 90% (Botswana) Recombination technology provides anopportunity to avail milk to deficit areas tomitigate the gap between supply and demand
RECOMBINATION – refers to production of milkproducts from rehydration of milk powder i.erecombining milk fat with milk solids not fatwith or without addition of water so as toachieve the desired fat:SNF ratio andsolids:water ratioRECONSTITUTION – refers to rehydration ofmilk powder that already has milk fatFor the purpose of this presentationrecombination includes re-constitution.
Recombination has its roots in excessproduction of milk in the EU and subsequentsearch for alternative new uses in the earlyeighties. Drying milk produces a more shelfstable product that can be transported toregions of deficit at a lower cost.
Provides an opportunity to avail milk todeficit areas. Ideal for emergency feedingprograms to reduce storage costs. Reduces transport and handling costs Milk powder provides flavour andfunctionality in production of dairy productssuch as yoghurts, ice-creams and cheese
Emulsification (proteins and lecithin inpowder assist in emulsification andstabilization of oil/water emulsions eg icecream) Gelation ( un-denatured proteins in milk formrigid heat induced irreversible gels that holdoil and water providing textural support) Water Binding (Gels help bind water toimprove texture and reduce cost. Cheesespread, yoghurts)
Whipping/Foaming ( Milk protein aidsfoaming by stabilising the gas liquidemulsion eg Ice-cream) Flavour (Milk fat adds to flavour and alsoacts as carrier for fat soluble flavours andcolour)
Reduced organoleptic taste especially forliquid milk Threat to local dairy development in somecountries due to price un-competitiveness oflocally produced milk
South AfricaZimbabweMalawiZambiaNamibiaTanzaniaKenyaResponded toquestionnaire‣BotswanaReviewed from Literature
COUNTRY ANNUAL PRODUCTION PER CAPITAmillion LitresLitresKenya 4000 100South Africa 2700 60Tanzania 1650 45Zambia 215 22Zimbabwe 51.6 8Namibia 28 19Malawi 18 6Botswana 7.7 25
There is correlation between milk productionlevel and per capita consumption Zimbabwe is an anomaly possibly becauseboth production and consumptionplummeted following land reforms (perCapita consumption was 25l in 1990) Per Capita consumption of milk in the eightcountries is generally low compared to WHOrecommended 200l (Implications on nutritionstatus of populations?)
1. ZIMBABWE2. SOUTH AFRICA3. NAMIBIA4. MALAWI5. ZAMBIA6. KENYA7. TANZANIA 10,000 9,583 6,000 4,080 4,000 3,062 607COUNTRYMETRIC TONNESp.a.(2011 est)
1. BOTSWANA2. ZIMBABWE3. ZAMBIA4. SOUTH AFRICA5. NAMIBIA6. KENYA7. TANZANIA8. MALAWI 39 36 28 11 10 8 2 1COUNTRYMILLION LITRESp.a.(2011 est)
COUNTRY Plant capacity CAPACITY UTILISATION000 litres/day %South Africa 10,000 70Kenya 2,900 45Zimbabwe 2,000 35Tanzania 410 30Zambia 350 43Malawi 300 45Namibia 150 90Botswana ? ?
Capacity utilisation is less than 50% exceptfor Namibia and South Africa Among the seven countries, there is 5.2million litres of idle capacity each day (Costimplications?) There is potential to increase capacityutilisation and milk consumption throughrecombination (Cost considerations?)
To supplement inadequate raw milk supply To improve quality of products To lower production costs
‣ Zimbabwe (67c vs 60c)‣ Malawi (64 c vs 30 c)‣ South Africa‣ Namibia (56c vs 43 c)‣ Zambia (100 c vs 60 c)‣ Tanzania (50c vs 40c)HIGHER THAN RAW MILKLOWER THAN RAW MILK
Seven countriesMostly reconstitution South Africa (not forUHT) Zambia Zimbabwe Malawi Namibia Tanzania BotswanaYesOne CountryKenyaNo
UHT milk Ice-cream Yoghurt Other (Cultured milk;lacto; chambiko ) 4/7 (57%) 5/7 (71%) 4/7 (57%) 3/7 (42%)ProductFrequency
Countries in the region have low per capitaconsumption of milk; Africa has the highestincidence of under-nutrition at 30% Dairy plant capacity utilization is generally low. Recombination provides an opportunity toincrease milk consumption, improve nutritionwhile utilising idle capacity in the region if thecost is sustainable. A variety of products are already being producedthrough partial or complete rehydration of milkpowder although some countries have restrictivelegislation.