Recent Achievements in Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Korea

Recent Achievements in Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Korea

International Hydrogen Energy Development Forum 2013Recent Achievements in Hydrogen andFuel Cells in KoreaJong Won Kim,Hydrogen Energy R&D CenterKorea Institute of Energy ResearchE-mail:

BudgetI. Overview of H 2 &FC Program in Korea1988-2011: 721.7 billion KRW (Gov. 398.4, 55.2%)Since 2009, support to solar and wind as short term business has been strengthen, andfuel cell budget was reduced (MKE).(2011: Budget for R&D-32 billion KRW, Budget for Dissemination-11.5 billion KRW)MillionKRWYear3

I. Overview of H 2 &FC Program in KoreaCurrent Hydrogen & Fuel Cell R&D program in KoreaProgram Sponsor PeriodHydrogen Energy R&D Center ( 2003.9-2013.3Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Program (wwwketeprekr) ( MKE 2004-Nuclear Hydrogen Development and Demonstration Project(NHDD) ( 2004-2026Korea IGCC RDD&D Organization ( MKE 2006-20162016(MKE : Ministry of Knowledge Economy, MEST: Ministry of Education, Science and Technology)R&D investment in 2008-2010Unit: 1billion KRWProgram 2008 2009 2010HERC*1 9.6 9.5 9.3KETEP*2 73.2 56.6 53.1NHDD*3 11.0 13.9 13.7Total 93.8 80.0 76.14

Fleet ProgramII. FC RD&D Program• Phase I ( 2006. 8 ~ 2010. 7) (4 years)- Vehicles : 30 Passenger cars, 4 Buses- Budget : $ 46.6 6 million (Government 50%)- Hydrogen Station: 11 sites-Outcome- Total: 1,297,799km (806,587miles)• Phase II ( 2010. 12 ~ 2013. 12) (3 years)- Vehicles : 100, Public, Seoul/Ulsan- Hydrogen station: 13 sites (2012. 2)-Outcome- Total: 1,202,083 km (746,940 miles) (Jan.,2012)SupportdisabledpersonService area-Seoul/Ulsan5Hydrogen Station

Hydrogen Station in KoreaII. FC RD&D Program13 stations in operation (Jan.,2012)NoCity Installer Year TypePressure(bar)Project1 Yongin HMC 2005 Truck-in 350/700 -2 Seoul GS-Caltex 20063 Incheon KOGAS 2007NaphthareformingNGreforming350H 2 stationDevelopment350 ↑4 Daejeon SK Energy 2007LPGreforming350H 2 stationDevelopment5 Seoul KIST 2008 Mobile 350 FCEV Fleet6 Hwaseong HMC 2008 Truck-in 350/700 -7 Ulsan8 YeosuDongdeokGasSPGChemical2009 Truck-in 350 FCEV Fleet2009 Truck-in 350 FCEV Fleet9 Seoul HMC 2009 Mobile 350 2 nd FCEV Fleet10 Seoul HMC 2010 Truck-in 350 FCEV Fleet11 Seoul Seoul city 2011LFGreforming350 -12 Jeju HMC 2011 Electrolysis 350 FCEV Fleet13 UlsanDongdeokGas2011 Truck-in 700 FCEV Fleet6

Hydrogen Station Roadmap in KoreaII. FC RD&D Program7

II. FC RD&D Program8 Source: Hyundai Motors

II. FC RD&D ProgramDissemination of Home FC system‣ Cumulative quantity : 995 units (2012)System pric ce(10 thou usands KR RW)Cumulati ive quanti ity (unit)Remarks 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Annual supply quantity 40 70 110 179 266 330 Cumulative (unit) 40 110 220 399 665 995 Unit Price (mil. KRW) 130 100 80 60 52 47 Subsidy (mil. KRW) 48 42 37 9

1 Million Green Home ProgramII. FC RD&D ProgramYearinstallerGS fuel cellManufacturerFCPowerUnitSamchully 472010FCPower 103Plan 200Hae Yang City Gas 29 Installed 179Sub- total 76 1032011GS Fuel Cell 89FCPower 40Hae Yang City Gas 21Yesco 5Daesung Energy 2Daehan City Gas 54Samchully 55Sub-total 170 96Total 246 199Plan 300Installed 266 source: www.ekn.kr10

Ulsan Hydrogen TownII. FC RD&D Program1) Objective: Build Green City using byproduct hydrogen/ New Growth Industry(FC)• Establish Hydrogen Infrastructure with economic attainable price system (H 2 )• Promote Public Relations and Understanding through Hydrogen Town Project2) Business Contents: Site; Onsan-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan3) Budget• 140 houses ( 1kW install: FCP (95), Hysco (40), Hyosung (5)• 10 Public and Commercial building: GS FuelCell (5kW, 9 unit), FCP (10kW, 1 unit)Item Budget RemarksTotal Budget 8,718 mil KRW -Gov.Private5,391 mil KRW3,327 mil KRWGreen Home program, General disseminationprogram, local government disseminationprogramUlsan city, LS-Nikko(Buyer), systemmanufacturer4) Consortium Ulsan Metropolitan city, Hysco,FCPower, GS Caltex, Ulsan TechnoPark, Samsung BP, SPG11

OutcomeII. FC RD&D ProgramR&D Progress• PEMFC for residential: 5kW stack, fuelprocessor, system design 5kW Fuel Processor Prototype: system,pump, inverter• SOFC for distributed powergenerationUnit Cell 50W- Tubular SOFC- 25 kW stack (6kW module x 4)Module 1,5kWStack module 25kW6kW (6 kW module X 4)12

OutcomeII. FC RD&D Program• MCFC for distributed power generation:MW class system• PEMFC for transportation- Design and Fabrication of power generator (FCEV)• DMFC hybrid powerStack(w/MEA) 12.98kg, 1100w@0.9M13

HERC (Hydrogen Energy R&D Center)III. HERC ProgramRole- develop the basic and applied research onhydrogen production and storage* 21 st Century Frontier ProgramR&D PeriodOct. 2003 ~ March 2013 (9.5 years for 3 phases)3 rd phase: May 2009~March 2013R&D FundTotal 100 billion KRW(Government : 87.1 billion KRW, Industry : 12.9 billion KRW)Supported by MEST (Ministry of Education, Science &Technology of Korea)gy )meeting for review of research work in attendance ofevaluation committee.special issues on hydrogen energy has been dealt at the annualmeeting of related academic societies such as the KoreanHydrogen and New Energy Society or chemical or physicalsociety in

R&D Activities in the Phase III (HERC)(2009-2013) 2013)III. HERC ProgramHydrogen ProductionHydrogen Storage (BR/AR/DE)Hydrogen storage using metal hydrides)Hydrogen storage using nano-structured materialsHydrogen storage using chemical hydridesHydrogen UtilizationAction typeBiological hydrogen production(BR/AR/DE)Photocatalytic / photoelectrochemical hydrogen production (BR/AR/DE)Water electrolysis ( PEM type)(BR/AR/DE)High temperature electrolysis (HTE)(BR/AR/DE)focusing on the non-conventionalhydrogen storage which haspotential to store hydrogen atmoderate temperature and pressure(condition).Linear power/generation system of hydrogen combustion (AR/DE)Supporting ProjectPolicy and technology assessmentThe priority of R&D was set up for achieving sustainable growth ofeconomy in 2003!BR: basic research, AR: applied research, DE: demonstration15

1 Biological Hydrogen ProductionIII. HERC ProgramReduction of pollution and production of EnergyH Dark fermentation2(2 mol H 2 /mol glucoseOR 1.6 mol HLa/molacidglucose)residuessugar richCH 4Organic wastesfermentation proteinrichPhotofermentationCH 4 residue(2 mol H 2 /mol HAc,Steam reforming3 mol H 2 /mol HLa)H 2Rhodobacter sphaeroidesKD131• 7 mol H 2 /molGlucose• H 2 conversion >60%H 2 CO 2CO 216100 L-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) systemand operation

2 Photoelectrochemical Water SplittingIII. HERC Programone of the ultimate means to produce hydrogen! Oxide and composite photocatalysts for PEC cellwith high efficiency Computational design & synthesis methods forhighly efficient H 2 production photoelectrodematerials Large-scale photoelectrode, bias-power, watersplitting system, using solar light System configuration and element PEC system○ Outcomes Photoelectrode with high photo activity[Fe 2 O 3 (2.5%STH), WO 3 (2.7%STH)] Fabrication of PEC electrode usingnanoparticle synthesis17

3 PEM type electrolyzerIII. HERC ProgramWater electrolysis can be used to produce hydrogen using electricity from a wide range of primary energy source!.Final TargetItem Present Future (Target)H2 Delivery Pressure 100 bar 350 barSystem Cost 10 million KRW/NM 3 /hr 5million KRW/NM 3 /hrStack Efficiency 84% @1A/cm 2 90% @3A/cm 2Durability 40,000 hr @1A/cm 2 40,000 hr @ 3A/cm 2 (PEM type)18

4High Temperature Steam ElectrolysisIII. HERC Program• High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) is the mostclean and efficient method for hydrogen massproduction.10 cm(20 cells)• Key technologies for tubular SOEC (extrusion,coating, sintering, sealing, stacking, etc.) weredeveloped.20-cell stack module• 4.2 liter/h of hydrogen production rate can beachieved using 3-cell short stack and total 181 litersof hydrogen was produced for 40h. Scale-up is underprogress.• Future works are focused on the development ofhighly durable advanced materials and high reliablepressurized system for long life and mass productionof HTE system.SOEC Test System19

Hydrogen Storage Group in HERCIII. HERC ProgramVIM Furnace PCT apparatus Volumetric (left)/Gravimetric(right) Measurement EquipmentsMetalhydrideSearch newmaterialNanostructuredmaterialChemicalhydrogen storageEvaluation ofmaterials•Systematic t ti approachTheory and experimentIndependent analysis• Partnership betweenUniversities, companiesand Gov-led researchinstitute for closecoordination i with basicscience• Coordination with otheragencies and InternationalOrganization-IEA-HIA Annex 22hydrogen storage-Collaboration withUniv.of Birmingham andCaltechThermal analyzers and XRD and in-situ SRXRD facilities20

MH and H 2 Storage systemIII. HERC ProgramMetal Hydride: TiCrV alloy (BCC), 10kgReversible hydrogen storage: 1.98wt%(material base), 0.88 Wt% (system base)25.89g/liter21

Nano materials/ Metal borohydrideIII. HERC ProgramReactive capacities and enthalpy of reactionfor different storage materials (Reactivehydride composite)MOF-5(S A :3000m 2 /g)H 2 uptake (w wt.%)108642MOF-177(S A :6500m 2 /g)MOF-200(S A :8000m 2 /g)Hydrog gen Content [wt%]12840LiBH 4MgH 2 +Ca(BH 4 ) 2MgH 2 +LiBH 4NaBH 4Ca(BH 4 ) 2LiNH 2+MgH 2MgH 2 +2NaBH 4 MgH 2NaAlH 4-20 -40 -60 -80Enthalpy [kJ/mol H 2 ]Based on Dornheim et al.,GKSS ResearchCenter/S.Barisson et al.,JALCOM,200822

Chemical Hydrogen StorageIII. HERC Program- To penetrate niche market, we are interestingcompact hydrogen storage system using sodiumborohydride (SBH, NaBH 4 ) and ammonia borane(AB, NH 3 BH 3 ).- Demonstration of hydrogen storage systemcombined with small fuel cell for unmanned aerialvehicle (UAV) powered by fuel cell system will becarried out.- Target- hydrogen storage capacity more than 4.5wt% as system basis.23

SummaryIII. SummaryFuel cells‣ Dissemination: FCEV, FC for residential, commercial and distributed power‣ Improve performance of fuel cells (cost, durability, compactness, weight reduction) Hydrogen station‣ SMR and Electrolyzer using electricity from renewables• Integration with renewable energy (Wind/Solar) for energy storage and FCEV‣ Surplus Hydrogen gas from industry Hydrogen storage‣ High pressure gas cylinder (700bar) for onboard hydrogen storage• Manufacturing process, carbon fiber → cost reduction‣ Chemical hydrogen storage for special application such as UAV‣ Improve Performance of hydrogen storage and systems- “Back to the basic research” onstorage material and system Hydrogen distribution‣ Pipeline, Tube trailer Local community‣ Biogas + fuel cell24

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