Checklist of the birds of Selous Game Reserve -

Checklist of the birds of Selous Game Reserve -

Tanzania Wildlife Discussion Paper No. 35Rolf D. Baldus and Ludwig Siege (Eds.)Checklist of the Birds of Selous Game Reserve.byDr. Neil StronachLittle Bee-eater (Merops pusillus)Wildlife DivisionDeutsche Gesellschaft für Technische ZusammenarbeitGTZ Wildlife Programme in TanzaniaDar Es Salaam 2003

ForewordThis checklist covers the birds of Selous Game Reserve and the wildlands immediatelysurrounding the reserve. It is a follow up of a first checklist which we produced in ten yearsago and which was published as No. 15 of this series.The new list, which may help you enjoy your visits to the reserve, is not in any wayspeculative and all records have been verified. The area (approximately 75,000 km 2 ) is one ofthe ornithologically least known parts of Africa. As such, the list can be considered to beincomplete and it is hoped that it will encourage people with observations of species notpreviously recorded to make their records known. Future versions of the checklist willinclude these additional species. A more ambitious annotated checklist of the birds is beingprepared for Selous Game Reserve and will include details of distribution, populations,habitat preferences, breeding and seasonal movements. Contributions for all species, whichwill be acknowledged individually in the checklist, will be welcome. Those interested incontributing records may do so to:Neil Stronach,Ballyspillane,Midleton,Co. Cork,Ireland.The sequence of Orders and Families follows that in Birds of Kenya and Northern Tanzaniaby D.A. Zimmerman, D.A. Turner and D.J. Pearson.We thank Bodo Meier who has provided the painting on the cover.Dr. Neil Stronach and Dr. Rolf D. Baldus

Order PodicipediformesGrebesFamily PodicipedidaeAquatic birds with lobed toes that spend all their time on water. They feed by diving for fish,insects and other small animals. They also swallow feathers to protect their stomachs from sharpfish bones. The nests are of floating vegetation.Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollisCormorantsFamily PhalacrocoracidaeLarge aquatic birds that dive for fish and other animals, catching these with a strong hooked bill.In order to reduce buoyancy during dives, their plumage is not entirely waterproof and theirwings are held out to dry between dives.Long-tailed Cormorant Phalacrocorax africanusGreater Cormorant Phalacrocorax carboDartersFamily AnhingidaeLarge aquatic birds, similar to cormorants, that spear fish with a long sharp bill. They often swimwith the body submerged and only the head and neck above the water.Darter Anhinga rufaOrder PelecaniformesPelecansFamily PelecanidaeVery large aquatic fish-eating birds: among the very largest of flying birds. Their long bills havean extensible pouch for catching fish. They are often nomadic, moving large distances in searchof fish.White Pelecan Pelecanus onocrotalusPink-backed Pelecan Pelecanus rufescensOrder CiconiiformesHerons, Egrets & BitternsFamily ArdeidaeLarge birds with long legs for wading in water and long necks and sharp dagger-like bills forspearing fish and other animals. Species vary in stature, some being tall and slender and othersrelatively small and short. They possess powder-down feathers that are used for cleaning fishmucus and other dirt from their feathers.

Abdim's Stork Ciconia abdimiiWoolly-necked Stork Ciconia episcopusSaddle-billed Stork Ephippiorhynchus senegalensisMarabou Leptoptilos crumeniferusYellow-billed Stork Mycteria ibisIbises & Spoonbills Family ThreskiornithidaeLarge wading birds with long bills: curved in ibises and spatulate in spoonbills. Some speciesnest colonially.Hadada Bostrychia hagedashGlossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellusSacred Ibis Threskiornis aethiopicaAfrican Spoonbill Platalea albaOrder AnseriformesDucks & GeeseFamily AnatidaeA diverse group of stockily built waterbirds. Their bills are short and broad, with lamellae alongeach side that allow filter feeding in water and mud.Fulvous Whistling Duck Dendrocygna bicolorWhite-faced Whistling Duck Dendrocygna viduataWhite-backed Duck Thalassornis leuconotusRed-billed Teal Anas erythrorhynchusSouthern Pochard Netta erythrophthalmaMaccoa Duck Oxyura maccoaEgyptian Goose Alopochen aegyptiacusSouthern Pochard Netta erythrophthalmaAfrican Pygmy Goose Nettapus auritusMaccoa Duck Oxyura maccoa

Spur-winged Goose Plectopterus gambensisKnob-billed Duck Sarkidiornis melanotosWhite-backed Duck Thalassornis leuconotusVultures, Eagles, Hawks, Kites, Buzzards & OspreyFamily AccipitridaeA diverse group of small to very large hunting and scavenging birds, with sharp hooked billsand strongly clawed gripping feet.Palm Nut Vulture Gypohierax angolensisAfrican White-backed Vulture Gyps africanusRüppell's Vulture Gyps rueppelliiEgyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterusHooded Vulture Neophron monachusEgyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterusLappet-faced Vulture Torgos tracheliotusWhite-headed Vulture Trigonoceps occipitalisEurasian Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosusPallid Harrier Circus macrourusMontagu's Harrier Circus pygargusAfrican Marsh Harrier Circus ranivorusHarrier Hawk Polyboroides radiatusBrown Snake Eagle Circaetus cinereusSouthern Banded Snake Eagle Circaetus fasciolatusShort-toed Snake Eagle Circaetus gallicusBateleur Terathopius ecaudatusShikra Accipiter badius

Great Sparrowhawk Accipiter melanoleucosLittle Sparrowhawk Accipiter minullusOvampo Sparrowhawk Accipiter ovampensisAfrican Goshawk Accipiter tachiroCommon Buzzard Buteo buteoAugur Buzzard Buteo augurLesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarinaTawny Eagle Aquila rapaxWahlberg's Eagle Aquila wahlbergiAyre's Hawk Eagle Hieraaetus dubiusBooted Eagle Hieraaetus pennatusAfrican Hawk Eagle Hieraaetus spilogasterLizard Buzzard Kaupifalco monogrammicusLong-crested Eagle Lophaetus occipitalisGabar Goshawk Melierax gabarDark Chanting Goshawk Melierax metabatesMartial Eagle Polemaetus bellicosusCrowned Eagle Stephanoaetus coronatusAfrican Fish Eagle Haliaeetus vociferBlack Kite Milvus migransCuckoo Hawk Aviceda cuculoidesHoney Buzzard Pernis apivorusBlack-shouldered Kite Elanus caeruleusBat Hawk Macheiramphus alcinusOsprey Pandion haliaetus

Order FalconiformesSecretary BirdFamily SagittariidaeA large bird of prey with very long legs. Hunts on foot for ground-living animals. This familyis exclusively African.Secretary Bird Sagittarius serpentariusFalconsFamily FalconidaeBirds similar to hawks and eagles except in their notched bills and relatively pointed wings.Some species are impressively swift in hunting flight.Pygmy Falcon Polihierax semitorquatusEastern Red-footed Falcon Falco amurensisGrey Kestrel Falco ardosiaceusRed-necked Falcon Falco chicqueraSooty Falcon Falco concolorAfrican Hobby Falco cuvieriDickinson's Kestrel Falco dickinsoniEleonora's Falcon Falco eleonoraeLesser Kestrel Falco naumanniPeregrine Falcon Falco peregrinusHobby Falco subbuteoKestrel Falco tinnunculusOrder GalliformesQuails & Francolins Family PhasianidaePartridge-like birds that usually live and forage on the ground. They use their clawed feet toscratch the ground in search of food. When disturbed they hide amongst herbage, aided bytheir cryptic plumage patterns and coloration.Blue Quail Coturnix adansoniiHarlequin Quail Coturnix delgorguei

Red-necked Spurfowl Francolinus aferCoqui Francolin Francolinus coquiHildebrandt's Francolin Francolinus hildebrandtiCrested Francolin Francolinus sephaenaShelley's Francolin Francolinus shelleyiGuineafowlFamily NumididaeLarge partridge-like birds with horny or feathery crests, dark pale-spotted plumage, and loudcalls. This family is exclusively African.Crested Guineafowl Guttera pucheraniHelmeted Guineafowl Numida meleagrisOrder GruiformesButton-quailsFamily TurnicidaeSmall quail-like birds that live unobtrusively in grassland.Button Quail Turnix sylvaticaRails, Coots & GallinulesFamily RallidaeA diverse group of ground-living or aquatic birds with compact form and apparently weakflight that nevertheless allows some species to migrate long distances. Many species liveskulking and secretive lives in dense vegetation.Corncrake Crex crexAfrican Crake Crex egregiaLesser Moorhen Gallinula angulataBlack Crake Limnocorax flavirostraFinfootFamily HeliornithidaeSecretive grebe-like waterbird. Its sharp bill is used for catching fish and other animalswhiling diving.African Finfoot Podica senegalensis

BustardsFamily OtididaeLarge to very large ground-living birds, usually inhabiting grassland or bushland. Legs andnecks are relatively long.Black-bellied Bustard Eupodotis melanogasterBuff-crested Bustard Eupodotis ruficristaOrder CharadriiformesJacanasFamily JacanidaeRail-like aquatic birds with enormously elongated toes that allow them to walk on floatingvegetation. The nest is of floating vegetation and incubation of the eggs and care of the youngis by the male alone.Jacana Actophilornis africanusPainted-snipesFamily RostratulidaeSnipe-like wading birds in which, unusually, the female has the brighter plumage and themale incubates the eggs and cares for the young.Painted Snipe Rostratula benghalensisAvocets & StiltsFamily RecurvirostridaeVery long-legged wading birds with webbed feet and thin bills, upturned in the avocet andstraight in stilts.Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopusAvocet Avosetta avosettaThick-kneesFamily BurhinidaeRelatively large plover-like birds with large eyes and cryptically-coloured plumage. Normallynocturnal.Spotted Thicknee Burhinus capensisWater Thicknee Burhinus vermiculatusCoursers & PratincolesFamily GlareolidaePlover-like birds of open and wooded habitats. Coursers feed on the ground, while pratincolesare aerial feeders and may assemble in large flocks. Some species of courser are nocturnal.Temminck's Courser Cursorius temminckii

Violet-tipped Courser Rhinoptilus chalcopterusWhite-collared Pratincole Glareola nuchalisCommon Pratincole Glareola pratincolaPloversFamily CharadriidaeShore birds with, variously, short legs, compact bodies and rapid flight, or long legs androunder wings that beat to a jerky rhythm. Plovers inhabit grasslands or aquatic margins.Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticulaGreater Sandplover Charadrius leschenaultiiWhite-fronted Sandplover Charadrius marginatusKittlitz's Sandplover Charadrius pecuariusThree-banded Plover Charadrius tricollisGrey Plover Pluvialis squatarolaWhite-headed Plover Vanellus albicepsBlacksmith Plover Vanellus armatusCrowned Plover Vanellus coronatusSenegal Plover Vanellus lugubrisSpur-winged plover Vanellus spinosusSandpipers, Phalaropes & SnipesFamily ScolopacidaeA diverse group of wading birds that typically probe mud and damp soils for small animalprey with their sensitive bill. The majority of species occurring in Tanzania migrate hereduring the northern winter.Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucosWood Sandpiper Tringa glareolaGreenshank Tringa nebulariaGreen Sandpiper Tringa ochropusMarsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis

Common Snipe Gallinago gallinagoGreat Snipe Gallinago mediaCurlew sandpiper Calidris ferrugineaLittle Stint Calidris minutaRuff Philomachus pugnaxGulls & TernsFamily LaridaeMostly white-plumaged birds, associated largely with wetlands, or occasionally grasslands,where they fish or hawk for small prey. Some species migrate long distances seasonally.White-winged Black Tern Chlidonius leucopterusWhiskered Tern Chlidonius hybridusGull-billed Tern Gelochelidon niloticaSkimmersFamily RhynchopidaeStriking tern-like waterbirds whose lower jaw is longer than the upper and used for catchingfish while slicing the water surface during flight. In Selous they are found on the main rivers.African Skimmer Rynchops flavirostrisOrder ColumbiformesPigeons & Doves Family ColumbidaeFruit or grain eating birds of forest, woodland or grassland. Most utter soft calls. Unusuallyamong birds, they drink by sucking water directly into their mouths without tilting the headback.Lemon Dove Aplopelia larvataSpeckled Pigeon Columba guineaNamaqua Dove Oena capensisRing-necked Dove Streptopelia capicolaRed-eyed Dove Streptopelia semitorquataLaughing Dove Streptopelia senegalensisBlue-Spotted Wood Dove Turtur afer

Emerald-spotted Wood Dove Turtur chalcospilosTambourine Dove Turtur tympanistriaGreen Pigeon Treron calvaOrder PsittaciformesParrots & Lovebirds Family PsittacidaeNoisy, brightly coloured birds with short hooked bills and rapid flight. They are mostlyarboreal seed and fruit eaters but some also forage for grass seed.Brown-headed Parrot Poicephalus cryptoxanthusBrown-necked Parrot Poicephalus robustusOrder MusophagiformesTuracosFamily MusophagidaeLong-tailed birds of woodland and forest that eat fruit. While the turacos are brightlycoloured, the go-away birds are more soberly coloured brown or grey and white. This familyis exclusively African.Go-away Bird Corythaixoides concolorLivingstone's Turaco Tauraco livingstoniiViolet-crested Turaco Tauraco porphyreolophusOrder CuculiformesCuckoos & Coucals Family CuculidaeLong-tailed birds with distinctive calls. Cuckoos are notable for being brood parasites and infeeding largely on caterpillars. Coucals care for their young and have a more varied diet ofsmall animals. Somes species of cuckoos migrate to Selous from Europe and Asia, whileothers are intra-African migrants.Barred Long-tailed Cuckoo Cercococcyx montanusDidric Cuckoo Chrysococcyx capriusEmerald Cuckoo Chrysococcyx cupreusKlaas' Cuckoo Chrysococcyx klaasGreat Spotted Cuckoo Clamator glandarius

Black and White Cuckoo Clamator jacobinusLevaillant's Cuckoo Clamator levaillantiiEurasian Cuckoo Cuculus canorusBlack Cuckoo Cuculus clamosusAfrican Cuckoo Cuculus gularisLesser Cuckoo Cuculus poliocephalusRed-chested Cuckoo Cuculus solitariusThick-billed Cuckoo Pachycoccyx audebertiYellowbill Ceuthmochares aereusBurchell’s Coucal Centropus burchelliBlack Coucal Centropus grilliiWhite-browed Coucal Centropus superciliosusOrder StrigiformesBarn OwlsFamily TytonidaeSpecialised nocturnal predators. Unlike other owls, the facial disc is heart-shaped. They huntfor small animals and can do so in pitch darkness with their sensitive hearing.Barn Owl Tyto albaTypical OwlsFamily StrigidaeSmall to large nocturnal predators with large eyes surrounded in most species by a facial disc.The pattern and colouring of the feathers is usually cryptic, rendering owls inconspicuousduring the day.Spotted Eagle Owl Bubo africanusVerreaux's Eagle Owl Bubo lacteusAfrican Wood Owl Ciccaba woodfordiiBarred Owlet Glaucidium capensePearl-spotted Owlet Glaucidium perlatum

White-faced Scops Owl Otus leucotisAfrican Scops Owl Otus scopsPel's Fishing Owl Scotopelia peliOrder CaprimulgiformesNightjarsFamily CaprimulgidaeNocturnal birds with tiny bills and large mouths that are used for catching large insects inflight. The plumage is wonderfully cryptic in order to hide the birds against the background ofdead leaves, bark or soil. They lay their eggs on the bare ground.Eurasian Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeusGabon Nightjar Caprimulgus fossiiFiery-necked Nightjar Caprimulgus pectoralisFreckled Nightjar Caprimulgus tristigmaPennant-winged Nightjar Macrodipteryx vexillariusOrder ApodiformesSwifts & SpinetailsFamily ApodidaeThese birds are almost entirely aerial in their habits, some species even sleeping during flight.They have long wings allowing rapid flight, a small bill and large mouth for catching insectsin flight, and tiny legs that do not allow them to take off from the ground. Some species aredifficult to identify in the field.Little Swift Apus affinisEurasian Swift Apus apusWhite-rumped Swift Apus cafferHorus Swift Apus horusPalm Swift Cypsiurus parvusBohm's Spinetail Neafrapus boehmiMottle-throated Spinetail Telecanthura ussheri

Order ColiiformesMousebirdsFamily ColiidaeSmall birds with long pointed tails and short bills, with a diet of fruit, leaves, flowers andinsects. Living in small groups, they are unusually acrobatic among the branches of trees andbushes. This family is exclusively African.Speckled Mousebird Colius striatusBlue-naped Mousebird Urocolius macrourusOrder TrogoniformesTrogonsFamily TrogonidaeForest dwelling birds with brightly coloured soft plumage, long tails and short bills. Withtheir green plumage and soft calls they are difficult to see.Narina's Trogon Apaloderma narinaOrder CoraciiformesKingfishersFamily AlcedinidaeOften brightly coloured birds with large bills. They hunt by scanning the water or ground,depending the species, for small animal prey. Some species are intra-African migrants.Giant Kingfisher Ceryle maximaPied Kingfisher Ceryle rudisMalachite Kingfisher Alcedo cristataHalf-collared Kingfisher Alcedo semitorquataBrown-hooded Kingfisher Halcyon albiventrisStriped Kingfisher Halcyon chelicutiChestnut-bellied Kingfisher Halcyon leucocephalaWoodland Kingfisher Halcyon senegalensisMangrove Kingfisher Halcyon senegaloidesPygmy Kingfisher Ispidina pictaBee-eatersFamily MeropidaeSlender, brightly coloured birds with long pointed wings and long gently down-curved bills.

They feed on insects caught on the wing. The nests are tunnels dug into the ground or earthbanks, either alone or in dense colonies. Several species are long-distance migrants.White-throated bee-eater Merops albicollisEurasian Bee-eater Merops apiasterBohm's Bee-eater Merops boehmiWhite-fronted bee-eater Merops bullockoidesSwallow-tailed Bee-eater Merops hirundineusNorthern Carmine Bee-eater Merops nubicusBlue-cheeked Bee-eater Merops persicusLittle Bee-eater Merops pusillusMadagascar Bee-eater Merops superciliosusRollersFamily CoraciidaeBrightly coloured birds with harsh voices and strong bills. Their diet is mostly of smallanimals, taken either from the ground or in flight. The nests are normally in holes in trees ortermitaria. Several species are long-distance migrants.Lilac-breasted Roller Coracias caudataEurasian Roller Coracias garrulusRufous-crowned Roller Coracias naeviaRacquet-tailed Roller Coracias spatulataBroad-billed Roller Eurystomus glaucurusWood-hoopoes & ScimitarbillsFamily PhoeniculidaeSmall slender birds with long tails and slender down-curved bills. The bills are used forprobing tree bark and dead wood. Smaller species are solitary, larger ones live communally.This family is exclusively African.Scimitarbill Phoeniculus cyanomelasGreen Wood Hoopoe Phoeniculus purpureusHoopoeFamily Upupidae

Beautifully patterned slender birds with broad wings. The long down-curved bills are used forprobing trees and soil for insects and other small prey.Hoopoe Upupa africanaHornbillsFamily BucerotidaeBirds with stout down-curved bills, topped with a horny casque. They feed on animal prey orfruit, depending on the species. Unlike most birds they have large eyelashes. In most speciesthe nest is a cavity into which the female is sealed by blocking the entrance with mud, leavingonly a small slit through which the male feeds her.Silvery-cheeked Hornbill Bycanistes brevisTrumpeter Hornbill Bycanistes bucinatorCrowned Hornbill Tockus alboterminatusVon der Decken's Hornbill Tockus deckeniRed-billed Hornbill Tockus erythrorhynchusGrey Hornbill Tockus nasutusPale-billed Hornbill Tockus pallidirostrisGround Hornbill Bucorvus caferOrder PiciformesBarbetsFamily CapitonidaeCompact birds with strong bills that they use for eating fruit or insect prey. Nests are cavitiesexcavated in trees, termitaria or the ground. Some species have distinctive monotonous calls.White-eared barbet Buccanodon leucotisWhyte's Barbet Buccanodon whytiiSpotted-flanked Barbet Lybius lacrymosusBrown-breasted Barbet Lybius melanopterusBlack-collared Barbet Lybius torquatusYellow-rumped Tinkerbird Pogoniulus bilineatusYellow-fronted Tinkerbird Pogoniulus chrysoconusGreen Tinkerbird Pogoniulus simplex

Levaillant's Barbet Trachyphonus vaillantiiHoneyguidesFamily IndicatoridaeSmall insectivorous birds of forest and woodland that also eat beeswax. One species leadspeople and honey badgers to bees’ nests which, when raided, provide wax and bee grubs tothe bird. Honeyguides are brood parasites, laying their eggs in the nests of other birds. Theeggs are incubated and the young reared by the foster parents.Black-throated Honeyguide Indicator indicatorLesser Honeyguide Indicator minorScaly-throated Honeyguide Indicator variegatusWrynecks & WoodpeckersFamily PicidaeBirds specialised for excavating wood for insect prey and nest sites, using their exceptionallystrong bills. Their tongues are unusually long and extensible, and are barbed for catching anddrawing out their insect prey.Red-throated Wryneck Jynx ruficollisGolden-tailed Woodpecker Campethera abingoniBennett's Woodpecker Campethera bennettiiLittle Spotted Woodpecker Campethera cailliautiiNubian Woodpecker Campethera nubicaCardinal Woodpecker Dendropicos fuscescensOlive Woodpecker Dendropicos griseocephalusStierling's Woodpecker Dendropicos stierlingiBearded Woodpecker Thripias namaquusOrder PasseriformesPerching or Song BirdsBroadbillsFamily EurylaimidaeSmall forest birds with broad flat bills. The species found in Selous has a strange that lends aparticular atmosphere to the forests and thickets.African Broadbill Smithornis capensis

PittasFamily PittidaeBrightly coloured birds of the forest floor. Most species of Pitta are found in Southeast Asia.The African species migrates north to Selous from southern Africa.African Pitta Pitta angolensisLarksFamily AlaudidaeSmall brown or grey and white birds that live on the ground in grassland or other openhabitats, their plumage blending with the background. Identification of species can bedifficult and their characteristic songs are a considerable help in this respect.Fischer's Sparrow Lark Eremopterix leucopareiaRufous-naped Lark Mirafra africanaDusky Bush Lark Mirafra nigricansFlappet Lark Mirafra rufocinnamomeaSwallows & Martins Family HirundinidaeSmall birds with long wings, long often forked tails, and short legs. They catch their insectprey on the wing and, consequently, spend much of their time in graceful flight. Nests areeither made of mud or tunnelled into earth banks or flat ground.House Martin Delichon urbicaStriped Swallow Hirundo abyssinicaEthiopian Swallow Hirundo aethiopicaGreater Striped Swallow Hirundo cucullataAfrican Rock Martin Hirundo fuligulaGrey-rumped Swallow Hirundo griseopygaEurasian Swallow Hirundo rusticaMosque Swallow Hirundo senegalensisWire-tailed Swallow Hirundo smithiiBlack Roughwing Psalidoprocne holomelasEastern Saw-Wing Psalidoprocne orientalisAfrican Sand Martin Riparia paludicola

Eurasian Sand Martin Riparia ripariaPipits, Wagtails & LongclawsFamily MotacillidaeSmall ground-dwelling birds of grasslands, bushland, woodland and wetlands. Pipits andlongclaws spend furtive lives among the herbage, while wagtails live more conspicuously inthe open.Little Tawny Pipit Anthus cafferRichard's Pipit Anthus novaeseelandiaeWoodland Pipit Anthus nyassaBuffy Pipit Anthus vaaalensisYellow-throated Longclaw Macronyx croceusAfrican Pied Wagtail Motacilla aguimpYellow Wagtail Motacilla flavaGolden Pipit Tmetothylacus tenellusCuckoo-shrikesFamily CampephagidaeQuiet unobtrusive birds of woodland or forest, feeding mostly on insects, notably caterpillars.Black Cuckoo Shrike Campephaga flavaWhite-breasted Cuckoo Shrike Coracina pectoralisBulbulsFamily PycnonotidaeShy birds with nondescript undistinguished greenish or grey plumage, offering a challenge toidentification. Most species live furtively in dense vegetation but many have loud calls.Zanzibar Sombre Greenbul Andropadus importunusLittle Greenbul Andropadus virensYellow-bellied Greenbul Chlorocichla flaviventrisNicator Nicator chlorisGrey-olive Greenbul Phyllastrephus cerviniventrisTiny Greenbul Phyllastrephus debilis

Fischer's Greenbul Phyllastrephus fischeriYellow-streaked Greenbul Phyllastrephus flavostriatusNorthern Brownbul Phyllastrephus strepitansBrownbul Phyllastrephus terrestrisCommon Bulbul Pycnonotus barbatusThrushes & Chats Family TurdidaeA varied group of small to medium sized birds. Some with strikingly coloured and patternedplumage. Depending on species, the choice of habitat varies from dense forest to opengrassland. Some species are Palaearctic winter migrants.White-chested Alethe Alethe fulleborniRed-tailed Chat Cercomela familiarisWhite-browed Scrub Robin Cercotrichas leucophrysEastern Bearded Scrub Robin Cercotrichas quadrivirgataMiombo Bearded Scrub Robin Cercotrichas barbataMorning Thrush Cichladusa arquataSpotted Morning Thrush Cichladusa guttataWhite-browed Robin Chat Cossypha heugliniRed-capped Robin Chat Cossypha natalensisMiombo Rock Thrush Monticola angolensisRock Thrush Monticola saxatilisRed-tailed Ant Thrush Neocossyphus rufusNorthern Wheatear Oenanthe oenantheCapped Wheatear Oenanthe pileataPied Wheatear Oenanthe pleschankaWhite-starred Forest Robin Pogonocichla stellataWhite-headed Black Chat Thamnolaea arnoti

Cliff Chat Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventrisOrange Ground Thrush Turdus gurneyiKurrichane Thrush Turdus libonyanusWarblersFamily SylviidaeA varied group of small insectivorous birds occupying a variety of habitats from grasslands toforest. Some species are Palaearctic migrants, and some are of skulking habit that makesobserving them difficult. Several species offer a significant challenge to identification in thefield.Great Reed Warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceusAfrican Reed Warbler Acrocephalus baeticusSedge Warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenusYellow-breasted Apalis Apalis flavidaBlack-headed Apalis Apalis melanocephalaGrey-backed Camaroptera Camaroptera brachyuraBarred Wren warbler Camaroptera steirlingiDesert Cisticola Cisticola aridulaSiffling Cisticola Cisticola brachypteraSinging Cisticola Cisticola cantansRattling Cisticola Cisticola chinianaRed-faced Cisticola Cisticola erythropsTabora Cisticola Cisticola fulvicapillaWinding Cisticola Cisticola galactotesZitting Cisticola Cisticola juncidisCroaking Cisticola Cisticola natalensisYellow-bellied Eremomela icteropygialisGreen-capped Eremomela Eremomela scotopsRed-winged Warbler Heliolais erythroptera

Olivaceous Warbler Hippolais pallidaYellow-bellied Hyliota Hyliota flavigasterKretschmer's Longbill Macrosphenus kretschmeriWillow Warbler Phylloscopus trochilusTawny-flanked Prinia Prinia subflavaMoustached Warbler Sphenoeacus mentalisGarden Warbler Sylvia borinWhitethroat Sylvia communisBarred Warbler Sylvia nisoriaRed-faced Crombec Sylvietta whytiiFlycatchersFamily MuscicapidaeSmall birds of woodland and forest with, in most species, undistinguished plumage. The billsare rather broad and flat and used for catching insects in flight or on the ground. Some speciesare Palaearctic migrants.Pale Flycatcher Bradornis pallidusWhite-eyed Slaty Flycatcher Melaenornis fischeriSouthern Black Flycatcher Melaenornis pammelainaAshy Flycatcher Muscicapa caerulescensSpotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striataLead-coloured Flycatcher Myioparus plumbeusBatises & Wattle-eyesFamily PlatysteiridaeSmall strikingly marked flycatcher-like birds of woodland and forest. They are notable formaking whirring or clicking sounds with their wings in flight.Black-headed Batis Batis minorForest Batis Batis mixtaEast Coast Batis soror

Black and White Flycatcher Bias musicusBlack-throated Wattleye Platysteira peltataMonarch FlycatchersFamily MonarchidaeFlycatcher-like birds of forest and woodland. They glean insects from foliage and also catchthem in flight and are conspicuous wherever they occur.Livingstone's Flycatcher Erythrocercus livingstoneiParadise Flycatcher Terpsiphone viridisBlue-mantled Crested Flycatcher Trochocercus cyanomelasBabblers & ChatterersFamily TimaliidaeBrown plumaged birds living in noisy social groups in woodland and thickets.Arrow-marked Babbler Turdoides jardineiiRufous Chatterer Turdoides rubiginosusTitsFamily ParidaeSmall compact acrobatic birds of woodlands with short bills used for gleaning insects fromvegetation. Their plumage is strikingly patterned and they nest in tree cavities.Black Tit Parus leucomelasRufous-bellied Tit Parus rufiventrisPenduline TitsFamily RemizidaeTiny insectivorous birds of woodland. Notable for constructing bag-like nests of felt fromplant down. The nest has a false entrance that confuses potential predators.African Penduline Tit Remiz caroliCreepersFamily CerthiidaeSmall arboreal birds with slender downcurved bills that habitually cling to the bark of trees.The single species in Selous is uncommon and inconspicuous.Spotted Creeper Salpornis spilonota

SunbirdsFamily NectariniidaeSmall birds with fine bills typically adapted to feeding on the nectar of flowers, or on smallinsects. The plumage of most species is beautifully iridescent in the males. They occupy allwooded and forested habitats.Collared Sunbird Anthreptes collarisViolet-backed Sunbird Anthreptes longuemareiUluguru Violet-backed Sunbird Anthreptes neglectusAmethyst Sunbird Nectarinia amethystinaLittle Purple-banded Sunbird Nectarinia bifasciataMariqua Sunbird Nectarinia mariquensisOlive Sunbird Nectarinia olivaceaScarlet-chested Sunbird Nectarinia senegalensisShelley's Double-collared Sunbird Nectarinia shelleyiVariable Sunbird Nectarinia venustaWhite-eyesFamily ZosteropidaeSmall gregarious birds of woodlands, with distinctive white eyerings. Their brush-liketongues allow them to drink nectar from flowers but they also eat insects and fruits. Theirtaxonomy is still under discussion.Yellow Whiteye Zosterops senegalensisOriolidaeFamily OriolidaeBirds of woodland and forest where they inhabit the canopy. Curiously, their striking plumagehelps to camouflage them from view and it is often only their conspicuous calls that indicatetheir presence.African Golden Oriole Oriolus auratusGreen-headed Oriole Oriolus chlorocephalusBlack-headed Oriole Oriolus larvatusGolden Oriole Oriolus oriolusShrikesFamily LaniidaeLarge-headed predatory birds of open habitats, with short hooked bills somewhat like those ofhawks. Several species are Palaearctic migrants.

Long-tailed Fiscal Lanius cabanisiCommon Fiscal Lanius collarisRed-backed Shrike Lanius collurioRed-tailed Shrike Lanius isabellinusLesser Grey Shrike Lanius minorMagpie Shrike Urolestes melanoleucusBush-shrikesFamily MalaconotidaeInsectivorous and predatory birds occupying dense vegetation, often in woodland or forest.Plumage and calls are often striking. Furtive habits in dense vegetation make some speciesdifficult to observe. The family is endemic to Africa.Black-backed Puffback Dryoscopus cublaTropical Boubou Laniarius ferrugineusGrey-headed Bush Shrike Malaconotus blanchotiBlack-fronted Bush Shrike Malaconotus multicolorFour-coloured Bush Shrike Malaconotus quadricolorSulphur-breasted Bush Shrike Malaconotus sulphureopectusBrubru Nilaus aferBrown-headed Tchagra Tchagra australisMarsh Tchagra Tchagra minutaBlack-headed Tchagra Tchagra senegalaHelmet-shrikesFamily PrionopidaeGregarious forest and woodland birds living in tight-knit noisy and active groups. The headtypically bears a bunch of fine plumes.Helmet Shrike Prionops plumataRetz's Helmet Shrike Prionops retziiChestnut-fronted Helmet Shrike Prionops scopifrons

DrongosFamily DicruridaeNoisy birds of woodland and forest, with irridescent black plumage. They are noted forhabitually mobbing and chasing large predatory birds that pass through their territories.Drongo Dicrurus adsimilisSquare-tailed Drongo Dicrurus ludwigiiCrows & Ravens Family CorvidaeThe largest of the Passerines. Mostly black, or black and white, plumage and with predatoryhabits. Many species are very adaptable and exceptionally intelligent and are able to live closeto human habitation where they subsist on waste.White-necked Raven Corvus albicollisPied Crow Corvus albusIndian House Crow Corvus splendensStarlings & OxpeckersFamily SturnidaeA large group with varied (often iridescent) plumage and occupying all types of habitat fromopen grassland to dense forest. Most have a varied diet including both insects and fruits. Theoxpeckers are unusual in being dependant on large herbivorous mammals from which theyglean ticks.Violet-backed Starling Cinnyricinclus leucogasterWattled Starling Creatophora cinereaBlue-eared Glossy Starling Lamprotornis chalybeusLesser Blue-eared Glossy Starling Lamprotornis chloropterusBlack-breasted Glossy Starling Lamprotornis corruscusYellow-billed Oxpecker Buphagus africanusRed-billed Oxpecker Buphagus eryrthrorhynchusSparrows & PetroniasFamily PasseridaeSmall birds with unobtrusive plumage, living in open habitats, and with conical bills adaptedto feeding on grass seeds.Southern Grey-headed Sparrow Passer diffusus

Grey-headed Sparrow Passer griseusYellow-throated Petronia Petronia superciliarisWeaversFamily PloceidaeA large group of species inhabiting diverse habitats from grassland to forest. Like thesparrows, many species are adapted to feeding on grass seeds. They weave beautiful sphericalnests of grass and many species are colonial.Grosbeak Weaver Amblyospiza albifronsRed-headed Weaver Anaplectes rubricepsParasitic Weaver Anomalospiza imberbisWhite-winged Widowbird Euplectes albonotatusRed-naped Widowbird Euplectes ardensFan-tailed Widowbird Euplectes axillarisYellow Bishop Euplectes capensisBlack-winged Red Bishop Euplectes hordeaceusZanzibar Red Bishop Euplectes nigroventrisDark-backed Weaver Ploceus bicolorBlack-headed Weaver Ploceus cucullatusMasked Weaver Ploceus intermediusSpectacled Weaver Ploceus ocularisOlive-headed Golden Weaver Ploceus olivaceicepsGolden Weaver Ploceus subaureusVitelline Masked Weaver Ploceus velatusRed-headed Quelea Quelea erythropsRed-billed Quelea Quelea queleaRed-billed Buffalo Weaver Bubalornis nigerWhite-browed Sparrow Weaver Plocepasser mahali

Waxbills & Mannikins Family EstrildidaeVery small birds, adapted to feeding on seeds, and found in most habitats from grassland toforest. The species of whydahs and indigo birds are brood parasites of other species in thisfamily.Zebra waxbill Amandava subflavaWaxbill Estrilda astrildLavender Waxbill Estrilda perreiniPeter's Twinspot Hypargos niveoguttatusAfrican Firefinch Lagonosticta rubricataRed-billed Firefinch Lagonosticta senegalaLesser Seed-cracker Pyrenestes minorOrange-winged Pytilia Pytilia afraGreen-winged Pytilia Pytilia melbaCordon Bleu Uraeginthus angolensisBlack and White Mannikin Lonchura bicolorBronze Mannikin Lonchura cucullataMagpie Mannikin Lonchura fringilloidesQuail Finch Ortygospiza atricollisWhydahs, IndigobirdsFamily ViduidaeRed-billed Firefinch Indigobird Hypochera chalybeataAfrican Firefinch Indigobird Hypochera funereaPin-tailed Whydah Vidua macrouraBroad-tailed Paradise Whydah Vidua obtusaParadise Whydah Vidua paradisaeaSeedeaters & CanariesFamily Fringillidae

Small birds whose bills are specially adapted to feeding on seeds. They occupy a variety ofhabitats from open grassland to forest edge.Yellow-rumped Seedeater Serinus atrogularisYellow-fronted Seedeater Serinus mozambicusStripe-breasted Seedeater Serinus reichardiOld-World BuntingsFamily EmberizidaeSmall birds of bushland and woodland, similar to finches in that their bills are adapted forseed-eating.Cabani's Bunting Emberiza cabanisiGolden-breasted Bunting Emberiza flaviventrisCinnamon-breasted Rock Bunting Emberiza tahapisi

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