Safety management standard for outdoor and adventurous activities

walsall.org.uk

Safety management standard for outdoor and adventurous activities

Contents1 Introduction 72 Standards 83 Outdoor and adventurous activities statement 104 First status review 105 Organising this management standarda Control and responsibilities 11• Group leader 11• Educational visits co-ordinator (EVC) in schools 11• Head teacher or general manager 12• General safety advice 12• School governing bodies 13• Staff and adult volunteers 13• Group members 13• Parents 14b Competence 14c Communication 15d Co-operation 156 Planning and achieving this standarda Planning 16• General risk assessments• Specific risk assessments• Changing risk assessments 17• Priorities and action plans 17• Weather forecasts 17• Local knowledge 17• Behavioural problems, illness or injury 18• Exploratory visits 18• Involving young people and pupils 18• Using contractors 19• Tour operators 19• Plan B alternatives 19• Financial planning 20• Charging for visits 20Page 2 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


jkVisits abroad• Organising a trip yourself 42• Using a tour operator 42• Vaccinations 42• Foreign laws 42• Language 43• Care orders and wards of court 43• Passports, collective passports and visas 43• Exchange visits 43• Vetting host families 44Water risks• Safety 45• Coastal visits 45• Swimming in the sea or other natural water 45• Swimming pools 46• Sub-aqua (scuba and snorkelling) 47• Dinghy sailing 47• Boardsailing and windsurfing 47• Coastal and sea cruising 48• Canoeing 497 Emergencies 50a Emergency preparation 50b Who will take charge 50c Emergency procedure framework 50e Media contact 51f First aid 51g Investigating serious incidents 518 Measuring performance 529 Corporate audit 5210 Regular status review 52Appendices1 Training grid 532 Outdoor and adventurous activity safety management audit form 543 Application for approval from the head teacher, general manager orgoverning body 554 Group leader’s visit evaluation 585 Checklist for group members going on the activity 596 Parents’ (or other) permission 607 Parents’ permission (swimming) 628 Emergency Planning Unit: summary of information 639 Duke of Edinburgh award local procedure 65Page 4 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Section 1: IntroductionWe are committed to an effective approach to managing health and safety that involves settingaims, the management programme for achieving these, and the measurement techniques tomake sure that we achieve them.This safety management standard (SMS) defines the minimum legal standard, and helps us keepto the three health and safety standards.• Telling ‘duty-holders’ (those people who have specific responsibilities) what to do• Detailing the protection to be achieved (outcome or performance)• What procedures need to be in place (process)This will help us to achieve effective and consistent systems. Corporate health and safetydocumentation will be common across the authority and controlled centrally.A simple representation of the main stages of our SMS is given below, within a continuousimprovement, quality management framework.PolicyInitial and regular statusreviewsEffective health and safetypolicies set a cleardirection for theorganisation to follow.A strong commitment tocontinuous improvementthrough developing thisstandard and techniquesof controlling risk.ActPlanOrganising the standardAn effective managementstructure and arrangementsare in place for delivering thevarious parts of the system.AuditingWe learn from all ourexperiences and applythe lessons we havelearnt.CheckDoPlanning and implementationThere is a planned approach.Measuring performancePerformance is measured againststandards.General arrangements, including responsibilities and organisational standards, based on theinternational standard OHSAS 18001 are given in the corporate health and safety policy to whichthis standard applies. All health and safety documents are stored on our intranet. You can getaccess to these documents as follows.intranet homepage health and safety safety management standardsOHSAS 18001 is the source document for the theory of the management standard that is basedin law. Even though you use this SMS, you still need to understand our responsibilities under UKlaw.Page 6 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Section 2: StandardsThis SMS provides the minimum legal standards that departments and schools must keep to. Itgives guidance but does not limit departments in how they achieve the standard. Some sectionsmay refer specifically to schools, but all managers and staff should read them.Our standards1 This safety management standard applies to:• all schools making educational visits;• all departments taking service users away from where services are usually delivered (forexample, a day centre or a residential home); and• all teams organising team-building or other adventurous ‘away days’.2 All adventurous or off-site activities must have the written approval of a general manager, theirauthorised signatory or the head teacher (using the form at appendix 3).3 Every activity group leader will make sure that the Emergency Planning Unit (EPU) has detailsof any visits that include overnight stays (using the form at appendix 8).4 If there is a major emergency or a serious unplanned event involving a Walsall group on anadventurous or outdoor activity, the Emergency Planning Unit will co-ordinate the response.5 Head teachers must be satisfied that the visit is educationally worthwhile before giving theirwritten approval.6 Head teachers should ask for the approval of their governing body in cases of doubt.7 Employers’ responsibilities will be those set out in the DfES publication ‘Responsibilities andPowers’. This means that although we are not the employer in foundation, foundation specialand voluntary aided schools, we will expect those schools to follow this standard for the safetyof pupils, including those on non-school visits (such as the Duke of Edinburgh’s Award).However, we are not responsible for protecting the safety of staff, volunteers or parents inthose schools.National standards (UK)1 All health and safety law applies to outdoor and adventurous activities in the same way as anyother work activity.2 Some adventurous activity must be licensed (see section 6i).3 Tour operator laws may apply if you are organising your own trip abroad (see section 6j).British, European and international standardsThere are many relevant British standards to outdoor and adventurous activities, how they arecarried out and the equipment that may be used. General managers and head teachers shouldcontact the relevant national governing body for advice (contact details are available from thesafety, health and wellbeing service team).Relevant national legislation• Health and Safety at Work Act• Activity Centres (Young Persons’ Safety) Act• Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations• Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations• Adventure Activities Licensing Regulations• Package Travel, Holidays and Tours Regulations• Education (Teachers) (Amendment) Regulations• Minibus (Conditions of Fitness, Equipment and Use) Regulations• Road Vehicle (Construction and Use) RegulationsPage 7 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Other guidanceA range of health and safety advice is available on our intranet from:• the Health and Safety Executive (HSE);• the Department for Education and Skills (DfES);• the Central Council of Physical Recreation (CCPR); and• the Duke of Edinburgh’s Award (DofE).There may be other guidance notes and standards which may affect outdoor and adventurousactivities. Contact the safety, health and wellbeing service team if you need more information.Section 3: Outdoor and adventurous activities statementWe recognise that managing effectively our safety risks from adventurous activities is animportant part of our health and safety preventative measures. However, the value of exposingyoung people to challenging activities and environments is a vital part of their education anddevelopment. This SMS aims to promote these activities safely.The health and safety policy for adventurous and outdoor activity is the same as the corporatehealth and safety policy.This document will act as a stand-alone resource for general managers, head teachers, groupleaders, educational visits co-ordinators (EVCs) and others. It has been adapted from nationaland local best practice, including:• Health and Safety for Pupils on Education Visits;• Group Safety at Water Margins;• Handbook for Group Leaders;• Standards for Adventure; and• Standards for Local Education Authorities.Section 4: First status review1 General managers and head teachers should check that they have appointed an EVC ifneeded, and that their qualifications and experience are appropriate.2 Appoint and train a suitable person as an EVC (see appendix 1 for training details).3 Review your current procedures (local arrangements) against this standard and plan to dealwith problems.4 The department or school should change all their forms to those in appendices 3 to 8.5 All activities should be formally evaluated using appendix 4.Page 8 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Section 5: Organising this management standardThe organisation of safety management when arranging adventurous activities is the same as thecorporate health and safety policy. However, you must also consider the following.aControl and responsibilitiesYou must record your local arrangements related to managing visits and adventurous activities(for example, the procedure for returning early).Group leaderOne staff member should have overall responsibility for supervising and running visits and shouldtake account of the health and safety of the group. The group leader should have been appointedor approved by the general manager or head teacher, and will:• ask for the general manager or head teacher’s approval before any off-site or adventurousactivity takes place;• be familiar with this safety management standard and its requirements;• appoint a deputy;• clearly define all other staff members’ roles and make sure that all tasks have been sharedout;• make sure that each supervisor knows which group members they are responsible for;• make sure that each group member knows which supervisor is responsible for them;• be able to control and lead group members of the relevant age range;• be suitably competent to instruct group members in an activity and be familiar with thelocation or centre where the activity will take place;• be aware of issues of child protection and vulnerable adults;• make sure that adequate first aid will be available;• plan and prepare for the visit, and brief group members;• carry out a comprehensive assessment of the activities’ risks;• regularly review visits that have taken place and advise the general manager or head teacherwhere adjustments may be necessary;• make sure that staff and other supervisors are aware of what the proposed visit involves;• make sure that the ratio of supervisors to group members is appropriate for the needs of thegroup;• stop the visit if the risk to the health or safety of the group members is unacceptable (andhave in place procedures for such an event);• make sure that, where appropriate, emergency procedures, contact names, medical needsand visit details are kept at the school, that every supervisor has a copy during the visit andthat they are sent to the Emergency Planning Unit (if involving an overnight stay); and• follow the guidance for staff and adult volunteers below.Educational visits co-ordinator (EVC) in schoolsIt is good practice for each school to have an EVC. This may be the head teacher. It could also bea teacher or other member of school staff – in which case, the EVC will be appointed by and acton behalf of the head teacher. This does not mean that the school should create and fund a newpost. The EVC will be involved in planning and managing educational visits, including adventureactivities led by school staff. The role of the EVC is to make sure that:• educational visits meet the school’s requirements in terms of education and our requirementsin making sure that this safety standard is met, including comprehensive risk assessment;• the head teacher and governors are supported with approvals and other decisions;Page 9 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


• competent people are appointed to lead or otherwise supervise a visit;• the competence of leaders and others is checked by using accreditations from an awardingbody (it may include practical observation or confirming their experience);• leaders and other adults going on a visit are trained in first aid, identifying dangers, riskassessment and so on;• Criminal Records Bureau checks are in place as necessary;• the group leader provides full details of the visit to parents beforehand so that they can givetheir permission (or not) based on all the information;• emergency arrangements are in place and there is an emergency contact; and• records are kept of individual visits, systems are reviewed and, occasionally, practice ismonitored.Head teacher or general managerAs the person approving the visit, the head teacher or general manager should make sure that:• visits or activities follow the guidance in this document; and• the group leader is competent to monitor the risks throughout the activity.Head teachers or general managers should be clear about their role if taking part in the visit as agroup member or a supervisor. They should follow the instructions of the group leader, who willhave sole charge of the visit.Head teachers or general managers must make sure that:• adequate child or vulnerable adult protection procedures are in place;• all necessary actions have been completed before the visit begins:o they have returned written approval for the activity to the group leader (see appendix 3);o the risk assessment and corrective action plan has been completed;o parents have returned the signed forms to give their permission;o arrangements have been made for medical and special needs of group members; ando visit details have been sent to the Emergency Planning Unit;• training needs have been assessed, planned and carried out;• the group leader has experience in supervising the age groups and special needs of thegroups going on the visit, and will organise the group effectively;• the group leader or another staff member is suitably competent to instruct the activity and isfamiliar with the location or centre where the activity will take place;• group leaders are allowed enough time to organise visits properly;• adult volunteers and helpers are suitable people to supervise children or vulnerable adults;• the ratio of supervisors to group members is appropriate;• travel times out and back are known (including pick-up and drop-off points);• there is adequate and relevant insurance cover;• the group leader, supervisors, nominated school contact and the Emergency Planning Unithave a copy of the visit details and agreed emergency procedures; and• there is a plan to deal with any delays, including a late return home.General safety adviceThe safety, health and wellbeing (SHAW) service will provide advice to general managers, headteachers or EVCs when organising and approving visits. The SHAW service will:• help groups with the risk-assessment skills needed to plan a visit;• have a good understanding of the legal responsibilities for all kinds of visits and activities;• tell groups about other resources to help them during the planning phases; and• make sure that training is made available through our ‘skills and knowledge’ programme.Page 10 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


School governing bodiesWhere the governing body is the employer (foundation, foundation special and voluntary-aidedschools), they must be satisfied that the arrangements for the visit are suitable and adequate.We recommend that they formally adopt this safety management standard in their organisation.As we are not the employer in these schools, we do not take the employer’s responsibility forhealth and safety for staff, volunteers or pupils, although we have the right to make sure thatpupils’ safety is not at risk, in line with our legal powers.Governing bodies as employers should be satisfied that:• the risk assessment has been carried out;• appropriate safety measures are in place; and• training needs have been dealt with.Governing bodies of all types of schools should make sure that:• the visit has a specific and written aim;• the head teacher or group leader shows how their plans follow regulations and this safetymanagement standard;• the head teacher or group leader reports back after each visit;• they are informed about less routine visits at an early stage; and• they assess proposals for certain types of visit such as those involving an overnight stay ortravel outside the United Kingdom; and• Duke of Edinburgh groups under our Duke of Edinburgh licence meet all their requirements.Staff and adult volunteersStaff must do their best to make sure that everyone in the group is kept safe. Adult volunteers(aged 18 or more) should be clear about the role and responsibilities during the visit. Allsupervisors must:• follow the instructions of the group leader and help with group control and discipline (althoughnormal care and control standards will still apply throughout the activity);• stop the visit or activity, and tell the group leader if they think the risk to the health or safety ofgroup members is unacceptable;• be confident that they can carry out the planned activities; and• make sure volunteer staff are not left in sole charge of group members (except where it hasbeen previously agreed as part of the risk assessment).Group membersThe group leader should make it clear to group members that they must:• not take any unnecessary risks;• follow the instructions of the leader and other supervisors, including those at the activityvenue;• dress and behave sensibly, responsibly and appropriately for the weather conditions andterrain;• be sensitive to messages or logos on clothing that may cause offence;• if abroad, be sensitive to local codes and customs; and• look out for anything that might hurt or threaten themselves or anyone in the group, and tellthe group leader or supervisor about it.Page 11 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


ParentsParents should be able to make an informed decision about whether their child should go on thevisit. The group leader should make sure that parents are given enough information in writing andare invited to any briefing sessions.The group leader should also tell parents how they can help prepare their child for the visit by, forexample, reinforcing the visits’ code of conduct. Parents should also be asked to agree thearrangements for sending a pupil home early and who will pay the cost.Special arrangements may be necessary for parents whose first language is not English.Parents will need to:• provide the group leader with emergency contact numbers;• sign the consent form; and• give the group leader information about their child’s emotional, psychological and physicalhealth which might be relevant to the activity or visit (usually on the consent form).bCompetenceProviding training is very important to putting into practice our outdoor and adventurous activitysafety management standard, and this is based on a regular assessment of what skills need to bedeveloped. Although training is an essential part of competence, it is not the only part – it shouldbe seen as a product of adequate training, experience, knowledge and other personal qualitieswhich are needed to do a job safely. Competence depends on the needs of the situation and thetype of the risks involved.We recommend that EVCs hold the Oxford Cambridge RSA (OCR) Off-Site Safety ManagementCertificate. If an EVC does not have this qualification, the head teacher should be satisfied thatthe EVC has an equivalent level of knowledge and experience.Where adventurous activities are planned (for example, canoeing), the general manager or headteacher must make sure that the group leader and other supervisors are suitably competent tolead or instruct the activity. Competencies may be shown by holding the relevant nationalgoverning body (NGB) award where it exists. You can get the names and addresses of NGBsfrom SHAW services.The main aim of our internal safety training is to help people, at entry level, understand our safetystandards. The detailed training curriculum is shown in appendix 1, which includes inductiontraining, competency training and specific training where necessary.Page 12 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


cCommunicationThe general manager or head teacher will approve all visits (with the EVC if needed). A groupleader will send an application for approval form to the relevant manager or head teacher (seeappendix 3).The head teacher or general manager will check the application, including all supportingdocuments. If they need to consult the EVC or SHAW service team, they should do this withoutdelay, before issuing the confirmation to continue (see appendix 3).Parental consent forms will be those in appendices 6 and 7, as appropriate, and will always be inwriting.For all visits involving an overnight stay, the group leader must send a summary of theinformation on:• group members and supervisors;• emergency contacts; and• the activities planned, including routes and locations;to the emergency planning unit (EPU) at the Council House (see appendix 8). The emergencyplanning unit will act as an off-site back-up if there is an emergency and will be the co-ordinatingcentre for the emergency.The SHAW service team and the EPU do not approve visits.All contractors used for driving coaches or minibuses, or for carrying out activities themselves,must go through contractor induction training that is specific to the needs of the group and in linewith the contractor SMS.dCo-operationThis management standard will apply equally to contractors carrying out work for us or on ourbehalf. Managers and head teachers must make sure contractors follow this standard.Page 13 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Section 6: Planning and achieving this standardThis management standard aims to reduce the risks from adventurous or off-site activities, andwe will only achieve this through a process of risk assessment. There is a careful balancebetween the educational benefit of these activities and any risk involved.Planning the standard involves setting clear performance conditions and monitoring these tomake sure the person responsible carries out any improvement plans.aPlanningEach department and school will carry out an assessment of risks well before the visit or activity,usually by the group leader, and approved by the general manager or head teacher.The risk-assessment procedure is set out in the risk-assessment SMS. It does not need to becomplicated but it should be in-depth. The formal assessment of the risks should aim to reducethe risks. If the risks cannot be reduced, the visit or activity must not take place.General risk assessmentsFrequent visits to local venues (for example, swimming pools) may not need a risk assessmentevery time. However, it is essential not to become complacent. A general assessment of the risksof these visits should be made regularly and careful monitoring should take place, includingchanging risk assessment on each visit. Remember to keep up with local issues (for example,park visits where there is more pickpocket activity).The SHAW service, the outdoor activity centre at Bryntysilio and our Duke of Edinburghoperational officer keep a number of general risk assessments that may help you carry out yourrisk assessment. They must be adapted for local use.Specific risk assessmentsBefore arranging a visit or adventurous activity, the group leader should get written guaranteesthat providers such as tour operators or activity centres have assessed the risks themselves andhave appropriate safety measures in place. You can find further guidance on this in thecontractor SMS.When carrying out a specific risk assessment, as well as following the corporaterisk-assessment practical guidance, group leaders should also consider the following.• The type of visit or activity and the level at which it is being carried out.• The location, routes and types of transport.• The competence, experience and qualifications of supervisory staff (get copies of certificates).• The ratios of supervisors to group members.• The group members’ ages, competence, fitness and temperament, and the suitability of theactivity.• The special educational, medical or disability needs of group members.• The quality and suitability of available equipment.• Seasonal conditions, weather and timing.• Emergency procedures.• How to cope when a group member becomes unwilling or unable to carry on.• The need to monitor the risks throughout the visit and move into changing risk assessments(see below).Page 14 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Changing risk assessmentsRisk assessment does not end when the visit begins. Changes to the itinerary, the group, theweather, incidents, staff illness – all or any of these may bring group members into contact withunexpected dangers or difficulties and mean that the risk needs to be assessed again.The group leaders (and other group supervisors) prepare ongoing assessments while the activityis taking place. These normally include judgements and decisions made as the need arises. Theyare not usually recorded until after the visit.It is good practice to have briefings regularly (such as every break or every night on longeractivities) to:• take stock and assess the circumstances for the next session (or day); and• spend some time at the start of the next session explaining arrangements to group members.Priorities and action plansPriorities and action plans will be based on the results of the activity risk assessment, settingmeasurable aims, identifying the people responsible and the resources needed, with the overallaim of reducing the risk to group members.New visits that have not been carried out before will need to be carefully considered. The generalmanager or head teacher must give final approval after the visits have been reviewed by theappropriate managers and, if needed, the EVC and the safety or health officers of the SHAWservice team.Weather forecastsOutdoor activities and group safety depend on the weather. Group leaders must check the localweather forecast to:• help make decisions on appropriate clothing;• be aware of whether water activities might be in areas that are prone to flash floods, highwinds and so on;• be aware of whether dramatic changes of weather, fallen trees, avalanches and so on: mightaffect trekking or climbing; and• help make decisions on cancelling or postponing visits.Most national parks have information centres that can help with local weather forecasts andknowledge.Local knowledgeGroup leaders must always ask for local knowledge from centre staff or other reputable sourcesabout local dangers such as:• tides;• rivers or streams that are prone to sudden increases in flow;• difficult terrain;• crossing points for roads, railways or water; and• unstable cliffs.Page 15 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Behavioural problems, illness or injuryPoor behaviour may be reduced by making sure that all group members follow agreed standardsof behaviour before (or at least at the beginning of) the visit. Group leaders should resist anytemptation to accept lower standards of behaviour because they are away from the normalworkplace or school. Poor behaviour has been the immediate cause of many off-site tragedies.The different dangers that group members may be exposed to away from their usual environmentwill mean they must follow standards of behaviour that are as least as high as, or higher than,usual.If one supervisor has to give a lot of attention to one group member, the group leader shouldassess again the supervisory roles of the other staff to make sure that all group members aresupported. Activities may need to be suspended until the other supervisor can pay all theirattention to the group.Group leaders should trust their own judgement and the knowledge and experience of groupmembers. They may have to challenge an activity leader where the group leader’s knowledge ofthe group is superior and they suspect safety may be harmed.The group leader may decide to send a group member home (through illness, injury or behaviour)for the benefit of the rest of the group.Exploratory visitsAny group leader who is to instruct, lead or supervise a group abroad or on a residential visit, orwho is to instruct or lead a group in an outdoor activity such as trekking in a location that is notfamiliar to them, should make an exploratory visit.In other cases, an exploratory visit is good practice to:• make sure that the venue is suitable to meet the aims of the activity;• get the names and addresses of other similar groups that have used the venue;• get advice from the manager;• assess possible areas and levels of risk;• make sure that the venue can meet the needs of the staff and members in the group; and• become familiar with the area before taking a group there.If an exploratory visit is not possible, the group leader will need to consider how to adequatelyassess the risks. A minimum measure may be to get specific information, in writing, from thevenue, from other groups that had recently visited it and from local organisations such as touristboards.Involving young people and pupilsGroup members who are involved in planning and organising a visit, and who are well prepared,will make more informed decisions and be less at risk.Adventurous activities will allow group members to build on their personal knowledge of risk byproviding active opportunities to test their knowledge in practice and develop skills. Group leadersshould remember that group members may have an exaggerated opinion of their own ability or apoor perception of risk.Page 16 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Group leaders in schools should be aware that pupils involved in assessing risks may alarmparents about the kind of dangers they will face on more adventurous visits. The consent formsshould adequately set out the real risks and control measures. Remember that involving pupils inrisk assessment will help make them aware of risks, as set out in the DfES 2002 guidance ‘SafetyEducation’. Even if pupils carry out adequate assessments, the school still has a legal duty toassess the risks.Using contractorsContractors for adventurous or outdoor visits might be tour operators, expedition providers,outdoor education centres, local farms, civic museums and national organisations such as theRoyal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA), the Youth Hostelling Association(YHA) and so on. Group leaders should treat these providers as any other contractor and makesure they follow the SMS for contractors.Contractors are responsible for assessing the risks of those parts of the visit appearing in thecontract. Group leaders should get guarantees from providers that risks have been assessed andthat the provider’s staff are competent to instruct and lead groups of the relevant age group andabilities.There is more specific guidance in section i on page 37.Tour operatorsBefore using a tour operator, group leaders should make sure it is reputable (this should form partof the risk assessment). The Civil Aviation Authority licenses travel organisers and tour operatorsselling air seats or holiday packages that include air transport (the Air Travel Organiser’s Licenceor ATOL). The licence is a legal requirement and provides security against a licence holder goingout of business.A travel agent does not need to be an ATOL holder if acting only as an agent. If this is the case,the group leader should check whether or not the whole package being supplied is covered by theATOL. If it isn’t, the organiser must show other types of security to refund advance payments andthe costs of transporting people home if the organiser becomes insolvent.There are seven organisations approved by the Department of Trade and Industry.• Association of British Travel Agents (ABTA)• Federation of Tour Operators Trust (FTOT)• Association of Independent Tour Operators Trust (AITOT)• Passenger Shipping Association (PSA)• The Confederation of Passenger Transport (CPT)• Yacht Charter Association (YCA)• The Association of Bonded Travel Organisers Trust (ABTOT)If the organiser doesn’t show other types of security, group leaders should not continue with thatorganiser. This emphasises the importance of assessing risks before the activity or visit is able totake place and applying for approval beforehand.The School Travel Forum (www.schooltravelforum.com) promotes best practice in educationalschool travel.Page 17 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Plan B alternativesGood forward planning will always include other plans in case the itinerary needs to be changed.A flexible itinerary can allow activities from later in the visit to replace earlier activities if those areprevented by unexpected circumstances. Group leaders faced with possible difficulties will feelmore confident to change the itinerary if an alternative is available.No matter whether alternatives have been assessed:• always take time to assess risks again if the itinerary changes;• when arriving at an alternative site or activity, the group leader should assess the situationbefore allowing group members to get off the transport; and• an unknown location might involve risks that are not covered in the original risk assessment(for example, if an activity was supposed to take place on land only and changes to nearwater).Financial planningThe group leader should make sure that group members have early information about:• the costs of the visit;• how much will come from us or the school; and• how much each group member will be asked to pay.When planning visits, adequate time must be given to allow group members (and, in the case ofyoung people, their parents) to prepare financially for the visit. A date must be set for receiving allmoney and a decision to continue or not may have to be made.It may be useful to break the costs down into sub-headings such as travel, meals and so on.The general manager or head teacher must make sure that banking arrangements are in place toseparate the visit’s receipts from other funds and from private accounts. Handling cash should beavoided wherever possible or kept to an absolute minimum.Charging for visitsEducation provided totally or mainly during school hours is free. This means that schools may notmake a charge on parents for any visit that happens during school hours. The head teacher mayask for voluntary contributions. However, parents should be told that the contribution is notcompulsory. Children whose parents do not contribute cannot be discriminated against.The school may ask parents to contribute more than the minimum amount to pay for those pupilswhose parents have not contributed.However, the school may charge parents for board and lodging on residential visits as well as thefull costs when a visit is treated as an ‘optional extra’. An optional extra:• takes place totally or mainly outside school hours;• is not part of the national curriculum;• is not part of a syllabus towards a set public examination; and• is not covered by the legal requirements relating to religious education.Charging parents for an optional extra visits (such as a skiing holiday during school holidays) maynot include extra to cover other pupils whose families do not pay the full charge.Schools should consult Education Walsall on further charging policy matters.Page 18 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


SupervisionRatiosIt is important to have a high enough ratio of adult supervisors to group members for any activityor visit. The things to consider include:• sex, age and ability of the group, including special or medical needs;• the type of the activities planned;• the experience of the supervisors in off-site supervision;• the length and type of the journey;• the type of any accommodation;• the competence of staff, both generally and on specific activities;• the requirements of the organisation;• the locations to be visited;• the competence and behaviour of group members; and• first-aid cover.For activities that have been assessed, the minimum ratios should be as follows.• Low-risk ratios (the very lowest category of possible risk – for example, visits to local historicalsites and museums, or local walks, in normal circumstances)One supervisor for every six young people in Years 1 to 3 (aged five to seven)One supervisor for every 10 to 12 young people in Years 4 to 6 (aged eight to 10)One supervisor for every 15 to 20 young people in Years 7 and upwards (aged 11 or more)• Water risks – open water (sea, canals, rivers or other natural waters)One supervisor to every four young people in Years 1 to 3 (aged five to seven)One supervisor to every 10 young people in Years 4 and upwards (aged eight or more)(at least one supervisor must hold a recognised life-saving qualification)• Water risks (swimming pools)One supervisor to every six young people in Years 1 to 3 (aged five to seven)One supervisor to every 10 young people in Years 4 to 6 (aged eight to 10)One supervisor to every 20 young people in Years 7 and upwards (aged 11 or more)(at least one supervisor, who may be a swimming-pool lifeguard and not part of your group,must hold a recognised life-saving qualification)• Visits abroadOne supervisor to every 10 group members(at least two supervisors, one male and one female if taking mixed groups)• Residential visitsOne supervisor to every 15 group members(at least two supervisors, one male and one female if taking mixed groups)These ratios should be higher for reception classes (young people aged under five) and wherethe group is known to have other special or medical needs. When working out supervision ratios,you can include other adults who will be present (such as lifeguards and other employedinstructors).Page 19 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


The aim of some activities is to encourage investigative skills, teamwork and independence. As aresult, some of the time of a planned activity may be under remote supervision to allow this aim tobe achieved. When supervision is remote, the following should apply.• Groups should be adequately trained and assessed as competent for the level of activity to becarried out, including first-aid and emergency procedures. Remote supervision will often bethe final stage of a phased development programme.• Withdrawing close supervision should be a gradual four-stage process.o Close supervision (accompanying the group).o Shadowing the group.o Checking regularly at agreed places.o Checking occasionally at agreed places.• Group members will be familiar with the environment or similar environments and have detailsof the meeting points and times.• Clear and understandable boundaries will be set for the group.• There must be clear lines of communication between the group, the supervisor and the schoolor organising department. Do not rely only on mobile phones.• The supervisor should monitor the group’s progress at appropriate intervals.• The supervisor will be in the activity area and be able to reach the group reasonably quickly ifthe group needs support in an emergency.• There should be a recognisable point at which the activity is completed.• There should be clear arrangements for abandoning the activity if it cannot be safelycompleted.• Group members should stay together at all times, unless following the emergency plan to gethelp.Recreational timeGroup leaders should make sure that groups continue to be properly supervised duringrecreational time before, between and after activities, including in the evening on residential visits.You may consider appointing a ‘duty officer’. Too much unstructured free time in a residentialprogramme can allow time for mischief, bullying, homesickness and wandering off from the rest ofthe group. A group occupied in activity is far safer than a group left on its own in an unfamiliarenvironment.Group leaders and supervisors should make sure that:• all group members understand the standards of behaviour that apply at all times;• handover between activities is properly supervised, with a named supervisor responsible forthe group if there is free time between activities;• they understand their role continues into the evening – however hard a day it has been, that itis not a time to relax in the bar or in front of the TV;• free time in the early morning or evening is used to brief the group on the planned activities tocome (for example, the planned aims or outcomes, specific health and safety issues, mealand break times and so on);• free time is used for personal reflection and group discussion on the highs and lows of theactivities completed; andPage 21 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


• the group is occupied with mildly active activities in the evening (such as craft orenvironmental activities, quizzes, team challenges, led walks and so on).Night timeOn residential visits, night time is a particular risk. Group leaders should not be lulled into a falsesense of security by local assurances (such as ‘no need to lock doors in this part of the country’).The presence of the group may attract unwelcome attention that is unusual in the area. Groupleaders should make sure that:• the group’s immediate accommodation is only for the group to use;• supervisors (of both sexes where appropriate) have sleeping accommodation on the samefloor immediately next to the group’s accommodation;• child and vulnerable adult protection arrangements are in place to protect the group;• if there is no 24-hour manned reception, security arrangements are in place to stopunauthorised visits, including secure external doors and closed windows;• where possible, internal doors are able to be locked to keep young or vulnerable peoplesecure from other groups – but staff must have access to the pupil accommodation at alltimes;• where group members’ doors are locked, the group leader has immediate access, asnecessary, to a master key;• all staff, group members and volunteers know the emergency procedures and escape routesin case there is a fire or an emergency (where windows and doors are locked against intrusionat night, make sure that everyone knows about other escape routes and that all fire doorswork properly); and• they regularly check fire exit routes.cPreparing pupils and young peopleInvolving group membersGroup members involved in planning and organising a visit, and who are well prepared, will makemore informed decisions and will be less at risk. The group leader should make sure that thegroup members are able to carry out the proposed activity. In encouraging group members’development, they should be encouraged to take on challenges during activities but should not beforced into doing something they genuinely fear.Group members whose behaviour is such that the group leader is concerned about their safety(or the safety of others) should be withdrawn from the activity. On residential visits, the groupleader should consider whether or not that member should be sent home early.If a group member becomes ill or is injured, there must be clear procedures for relatives to collectthe group member. Supervisory staff cannot be used to transport group members home (as thiswould reduce group supervision ratios).You should tell parents and pupils before the visit about the procedures for dealing with poorbehaviour, how a pupil will be returned home safely and who will pay the cost.You should also give group members information on the activity and the expected code ofbehaviour. Use appendix 5 to check they understand the information.Page 22 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Equal opportunitiesYou should do everything you reasonably can to make sure that all journeys, visits and activitiesare available and accessible to everyone who wants to take part, no matter what their specialeducational needs, medical needs, ethnic origin, sex, religion and so on. Everyone should beencouraged to take part in as wide a range of activities as possible. If a visit is to cater for peoplewith special needs, you need to take particular care in choosing a venue to make sure thosepeople benefit as much as possible.Preparing group members for remote supervisionDuring any time that remote supervision takes place, the group leader must make sure that allgroup members are aware of the ground rules and are adequately equipped to be on their own ina group. The size of the group should also be considered. The group should at least have thefollowing.• Phone numbers and emergency contacts in case they get lost• Money• Maps, plans or other information for them to act effectively• Where local phone boxes are, and the appropriate coins• A knowledge of how to get help• A knowledge of out-of-bounds activities or areas• Identity cards and a meeting point• Remember, mobile phones don’t always workIt is important that group members:• understand not to go off on their own;• are given clear instructions about allowed remote supervised activities; and• understand and accept the ground rules.Transport and young peopleGroup leaders should make sure that group members know what to do if they miss the scheduleddeparture time. (Please see ‘Planning transport’ (section 6f) for more information.) Also, youngpeople using transport on a visit should be made aware of the basic safety rules, including:• arrive on time and wait for the vehicle in a safe place;• do not rush towards the vehicle when it arrives;• wear your seat belt, stay seated and never run about, kneel or stand on the seats;• never tamper with any of the vehicle’s equipment or driving controls;• bags must not block the aisles or emergency exits or cause obstructions;• never try to get on or off the vehicle when it is moving;• never lean out of or throw things from the windows of the vehicle;• never distract or disturb the driver or obstruct their vision;• after leaving the vehicle, always wait for it to move off before crossing a road;• if you have to cross the road to get to the transport, always stop, look and listen, rememberingin unfamiliar places that traffic may come from more than one direction; and• if you feel ill, tell a supervisor.Page 23 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


You may need to consider other dangers if transport is not by road (for example, ferry, train ornarrowboat).dSpecial considerationsGeneral managers and head teachers should make every effort to include people with specialneeds in all visits and activities, while maintaining the safety of everyone in the group. Specialattention should be given to appropriate supervision ratios, and further safety measures mayneed to be considered at the planning stage.Special educational needs and learning disabilitySchools and departments will already be familiar with a pupil’s special educational needs orlearning disability. Any limits or problems that the pupil may have should be taken into account atthe planning stage and when carrying out the risk assessment. Off-site visits may present furtherdifficulties for some and behaviour may become more challenging. You should consider thefollowing.• Is the young person able to take part in and benefit from the activity?• Can the activity be adapted so that people can take part at a suitable level?• Will further or different resources be needed?• Is the young person able to understand and follow instructions?• Will further supervision be necessary?It may be helpful if one of the supervisors knows the group member well and appreciated theirneeds fully. The group leader should discuss the visit with the parents or main carers to makesure that suitable arrangements have been put in place to maintain safety.Medical needs and allergiesFurther safety measures beyond normal care may be needed to support group members withcomplex medical needs. Arrangements for taking medication and making sure there are enoughsupplies for residential visits may be needed.All those supervising people with medical needs should be aware of those needs and the actionto take in an emergency. The summary sheets all supervisors carry during the visit should includethese details. If safety cannot be guaranteed, it may be appropriate to ask the parent or maincarer to accompany a particular pupil during the visit.If appropriate, a volunteer teacher should be trained in the relevant medical procedure, includinggiving medication. This must be in line with our and the Education Walsall guidance for schoolson pupils who have medical needs.The group leader should discuss the individual needs of group members with the parents or maincarers, who should be asked to provide:• details of medical conditions;• emergency contact numbers;• the relevant GP’s name, address and contact number;• information on whether the group member has spent a night away from home before and theirability to cope effectively;• written details of any medication provided (including instructions on the dose and times);• permission for a staff member to give the medication (or for the group member to do sothemselves);Page 24 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


• information on any allergies or phobias;• information on any special dietary needs;• information on any toileting difficulties, special equipment or aids to daily living; and• special transport needs for those group members who may need help with mobility.You should find out at an early stage about access and facilities for securing wheelchairs ontransport and at centres, including residential centres and so on.If ramps are not going to be available at certain places, the organiser may want to arrange to takeramps with them. At an early stage the group leader should assess whethermanual-handling skills will be needed and if training should be arranged.All staff supervising the visit should have the opportunity to talk through any concerns they mayhave about their ability to support people in the group. They should ask for extra help if they needit.If group leaders, general managers or head teachers are concerned about whether they canprovide for a person’s safety or the safety of others in the group because of a medical condition,they should ask for general medical advice from:• the parents or main carers;• the occupational health team (medical and nursing staff within SHAW services); or• the School Health Service.The group leader should check that the insurance policy (see section 6g) covers staff and groupmembers who have medical needs.There may be further useful guidance in the joint Department for Education and Skills (DfES) andDepartment of Health (DH) guidance ‘Supporting Pupils with Medical Needs: A Good PracticeGuide’, which is available from ‘teachernet’ atwww.teachernet.gov.uk/wholeschool/healthandsafety/medical/Sun safetyAs many adventurous activities and visits will take place outdoors, group leaders must be awareof the risks of skin damage from the sun especially during the middle of the day. We advise groupleaders to follow their local policy guidance on using sunscreens, but as a minimum they shouldadvise group members to always wear a T-shirt or shirt and wear a hat. For more information, youshould read the radiation SMS. Exposure to the sun can cause sunburn and heatstroke orexhaustion, and also raises the risk of skin cancer.Page 25 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


eCommunicating with parentsYou should tell parents, in writing, about any off-site or adventurous activity, unless it is a regularpart of the school curriculum that parents have already been told about through the schoolprospectus or a letter (for example, weekly visits to the swimming pool or some Duke ofEdinburgh activities). Asking for yearly consent for these routine visits may be appropriate.Before residential visits, trips abroad or particularly adventurous activities, parents should beencouraged to go to a briefing meeting where written details of the proposed visit should beprovided. There should be other arrangements for parents who cannot go or who have difficultywith communication.Parents need to be aware that the teachers and adult supervisors on the visit will be taking thesame care a careful parent would.You should give parents the following information on things that might affect pupils’ health andsafety.• Dates of the visit• The aims of the visit• The times for leaving and returning – parents must have agreed to meet their child when theyreturn• The place where the pupils will be collected and returned• The method of travel, including the name of any travel company• The size of the group and the level of supervision, including any remote supervision• Details of accommodation with security and supervisory arrangements on site• Details of arrangements for special or medical needs• Procedures for pupils who become ill• The names of leaders, other staff and supervisors on the visit• Details of the activities planned and of how the assessed risks will be managed• Standards of behaviour expected (for example, the use of alcohol, sexual behaviour andsmoking)• General group discipline, including items that are not allowed. This may be a code of conductwhich parents could sign.• What pupils should not take on the visit or bring back• Details of the insurance taken out for the group as a whole for luggage, accident, cancellation,medical cover, any exceptions in the policy and whether parents need to take out extra cover• Clothing, equipment and money to be taken• The information parents need to give and what they will be asked to agree to• On exchange visits, the details of the host families – including whether they have hosted anyof the school’s pupils beforeParents’ permissionGroup leaders should ask for parents’ consent (see appendix 6) for:• non-routine visits involving pupils in Years 1 to 3 (no matter how short the visit);• adventurous activities or other unusual visits;• visits abroad;• other residential visits; and• remote supervision.A special consent form should be used for swimming activities (or activities where being able toswim is essential). See appendix 7.Page 26 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


If parents do not provide permission, the pupil should not be taken on the visit, but the curricularaims of the visit achieved in some other way wherever possible. If the parents give permissionbased on certain conditions, the head teacher will need to consider whether or not the pupil maytake part.A parental consent form (model forms in appendices 6 and 7) should be filled in by the parent ofeach member of the group. Besides providing parents’ permission, the form is also used toprovide specific details about an individual pupil’s needs.If you are using a tour operator, it may be sensible to ask them what information they need. Thestandard Walsall consent form will include the following general issues.• Any allergies or phobias a pupil may have• Any medication the pupil is taking (if so, what the dose is and who can give it)• Any contagious or infectious disease within the family in the last four weeks, and any otherrecent illnesses the pupil has had• The name, address and phone number of the GP• Any special dietary or medical needs• Whether the pupil suffers from travel sickness• Information on any toileting difficulties• Whether the pupil has any night-time difficulties (such as sleepwalking) for residential visits• The pupil’s ability to swim in the pool or sea and their level of safety awareness (although youshould use the dedicated swimming consent form if planned activities include water)• Any other information the parent thinks should be known• The parents’ home and daytime phone numbers and addresses• Someone else to contact in an emergency, with their phone number and addressMedical permissionThis should form part of the parental consent form (appendix 6). You should ask parents to agreeto the pupil receiving emergency treatment (including anaesthetic and blood transfusion, asconsidered necessary by the medical authorities). If parents do not agree to this, the headteacher may decide to withdraw the child from the visit due to the extra responsibility this wouldplace on the group leader.Doctors in the UK can be expected to carry out necessary emergency treatment without parents’permission. However, it is possible that a doctor abroad may be reluctant to operate on a pupilunless they can be assured that the group leader has the parents’ authorisation to agree in anemergency.Other permissionFrom time to time other permission may be necessary for specific activities. An example may befor transporting pupils in a staff member’s private car – although this is not normally a preferredmethod of transport (remember CRB checks, vetting, supervision and insurance issues). If agroup leader thinks specific permission is needed, they should ask for the advice of the EVC andthe outdoor safety adviser.Returning earlyThe group leader should tell parents if they will be expected to pay for a pupil who gives cause forconcern on a visit to be returned home early. A written agreement may be necessary.Page 27 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Contact during the visitGeneral managers and head teachers should make sure that:• relatives can contact group members (for example, a school phone number) and the groupleader if there is a family emergency; and• they have a number to ring for information if there is an incident during the visit or groupmembers will be returning home late.Direct calls to group leaders are not appropriate.Group leaders should arrange for families to be told that the group has arrived safely, ifappropriate.fPlanning transportThe group leader must give careful thought to planning transport. They must follow the driverSMS in all cases. Here are the main things to consider.• Passenger safety• The competence and training of the driver to drive the proposed vehicle• Whether the driver holds the appropriate valid licence (and if they are one of our employees,they hold a current ‘authorisation to drive’ certificate for the class of vehicle proposed)• The number of driving hours needed for the journey and the length of the driver’s day(including hours when they are not driving). Remember, our drivers are limited to two hoursdriving before a 15-minute break.• The ability and experience of the driver to maintain concentration – is more than one driverneeded?• The type of journey – is it local or does it involve doing long distances (that is, motorways)?• Traffic conditions• That the vehicle is roadworthy and maintained regularly• What funds and arrangements there are if the vehicle breaks down or there is an emergency• Appropriate insurance cover• Weather• The journey time and distance• Suitably secure stopping points for refreshments and to use the toilet• Level of supervision – this should not include using the driver as a supervisor• That no driver should be involved in activities during a visit that will make them too tired todrive home safelySupervisionYou should consider the level of supervision needed as part of the risk assessment for thejourney. The driver should not be responsible for supervision.All group members should be made aware of where the emergency door and first-aid andfirefighting equipment is on the vehicle and how it works. The group leader should consider thefollowing when planning supervision on transport.• The level of supervision that will be necessary, especially on double-decker buses orcoaches.• Safety when crossing roads as part of the journey. Pedestrian crossings, traffic lights andfootbridges should be used where possible, and group leaders should be satisfied that groupmembers are aware of the Green Cross Code.Page 28 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Safety on buses, trains, ferries and boats – group members need to know how much freedomthey have to ‘roam’.• Booking transport – the group leader should arrange for seat reservations well beforehand tomake sure that group members be seated together.• The safety of group members when waiting at pick-up and drop-off points and when getting onor off the transport, particularly when using UK vehicles abroad as doors will open onto trafficand not onto the pavement.• Safety while on stops or rests during the journey.• The safety of the group if the vehicle breaks down or there is an accident.• Group members should always be counted when getting onto or off transport.• All group members should wear seat belts.• Drivers would not normally have unsupervised access to children or vulnerable adults, butvetting and suitability should be considered.• The group leader should arrange meeting points on ferries and so on.Hiring coaches and minibusesThe group leader is responsible for making sure that vehicles are hired from a reputablecompany.Although by law seat belts must be fitted on coaches (which carry children), this is not the caseon buses. Buses or coaches where seat belts are not fitted are not appropriate for any of ourvisits or activities.If any of the group uses a wheelchair, the group leader should make sure that transport hasappropriate access and securing facilities.Licences and permitsDrivers must hold a passenger-carrying vehicle (PCV) licence for hired minibuses, buses andcoaches, and the group leader should check that this is the case.Drivers should make sure they have the correct entitlement on their licence, and our drivers musthold a current Walsall MBC authorised driver record (see the driver SMS for details).Departments and schools can apply to the local Traffic Commissioner for a permit issued undersection 19 of the Transport Act which means they don’t need to meet the full PCV requirements,as long as there is no charge for the transport part of the visit and the drivers hold D1 category ontheir licence. (This was no longer a routine category on tests after 1 January 1997.) Separate D1tests are available for drivers who want to achieve this.You can get more advice in the driver SMS or from SHAW services.Using private carsThis is not a preferred option for transport. However, on team-building activities or small specificschool visits, using private cars may be the only reasonable method of transport. Staff who driveothers in their own car must make sure that:• their passengers are kept safe;• there are seat belts for everyone in the car and they are used;• they have the appropriate licence and insurance cover for carrying passengers; and• their car is roadworthy.Page 29 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Group leaders who want to use volunteers to help transport group members must make sure thatthey are aware of their legal responsibility for the safety of the people in their car. Staff andvolunteers should not be left in sole charge of children or vulnerable adults, and the group leadershould arrange a central dropping-off point for all group members rather than individual homedrops.Using school minibusesThe driver is responsible for the vehicle during a trip. He or she must be qualified to drive aminibus, have a valid driving licence and, in the case of our employees, hold an ‘authorisation todrive’ certificate. All minibus drivers must have completed the MIDAS training course (MIDAS orAccessible MIDAS are both acceptable).The group leader or head teacher should make sure that a driver has a rest period before driving.Also, the minibus driver must:• follow the drivers SMS;• not drive when taking medication or treatment that may affect their judgement or ability;• know what to do in an emergency;• know how to use firefighting and first-aid equipment;• understand and follow transport regulations and the requirements of the vehicle’s insurancecover;• take account of the effects of the teaching and working day; and• have regular medical checks (for example, eyesight).gInsuranceThe group leader must make sure that, well before the group leaves, adequate insurancearrangements are in place. Insurance policies are complicated documents. They will setconditions, limit the cover and not cover certain people or activities. Insurance companies, travelfirms and our insurance section can advise on particular types of insurance. However, thefollowing are examples of cover that may be appropriate for many of our visits, trips and activities.• Employer’s liability• Public liability• Personal accident cover for leaders, staff, volunteers and group members• Costs of medical treatment• Specialised risk activities (often not covered in standard policies) and the costs of bringing theyoung person back to the UK for medical reasons when abroad• Damage to or loss of hired equipment (check the wording of the hire agreement)• Transport and accommodation expenses in an emergency• Compensation against cancellation or delay• Compensation for loss of baggage and personal belongings, including money• Legal help in making a claim• Failure or bankruptcy of the activity centre or travel companyCover we providedGeneral managers and head teachers should contact our insurance section for up-to-dateinformation on standard cover.Page 30 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Package organiser’s liabilityWe recommend that a school or department has in place package organiser’s liability cover of atleast £5 million and that this figure is reviewed regularly with our insurance section. The policymust cover claims arising outside the UK and must include cover for the acts of suppliers.Contracts with group members will clearly define what you have agreed to provide as part of thepackage. They may sue for compensation if they do not receive what has been contracted for. Itis possible to take out or extend professional indemnity insurance to cover this possibility.Clauses limiting compensation should be included in the contract.Schools acting as package organisers should make sure that they have taken appropriateinsurance to cover refunds and the costs of getting everyone home in case they becomeinsolvent. This precaution is cheaper and simpler than bonding or trust-fund arrangements.Travel insurance schedulesBelow is the specific insurance cover which we consider is essential for any package. Check thatthe tour operator or package organiser provides this protection to the levels shown.Provide group members or their parents with a copy of the insurance schedule as part of thebrochure or contract information. Also, tell them that they are responsible for taking out anysupplementary cover beyond that set out in the schedule.A summary of recommended package insurance cover to be provided by the tour operator (thesefigures should be reviewed each year).Personal accidentMedicalPersonal liabilityCancellationchargesDelay in departureMissed departureLoss of baggagefrom a lockedminibusPersonal baggageBaggage delayUsually limited to £1000 – this is better covered by personal insurancearranged by the group member or their family.£2 million medical and other expenses – cover is from the leaving point tothe return to that point.24-hour emergency supportTravel and accommodation for a family member and staff representative incase a group member has to go into hospital, abroad or in the UK.£2 million to cover all activities that are part of the planned package andwork placements, if relevant.Up to the cost of the package.Up to the cost of the package.Up to the cost of the package.Very often this is not covered, so check carefully.This is often included in home insurance.Usually £100 for over 12 hours.Page 31 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Loss or theft ofpersonal moneyUp to £200. All losses must be reported to the police and the touroperator, and a written police and tour operator’s report obtained. Groupleaders carrying group members’ money should be insured up to £500.Total loss of Usually £300 to £500.baggageLoss of passport£250 in case the group member and leader need to travel to the nearestBritish Government representative to get a replacement.Legal expenses Usually £5000.Non-availabilityof servicesLeader’s liabilitySporting activitiesThis is very important for packages if meals, electricity, a swimming pooland so on are not available – up to 50% of the package costs.Usually up to £5 million.You must tell the insurance company that these are going to be part of thepackage. Winter sports should cover equipment, loss of lessons due toillness or injury, ‘no snow’ compensation and extra delayed baggagecompensation to cover skis, up to £250.Page 32 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


hTypes of non-adventurous activityFarm visitsFarms are dangerous places for the people who work on them. Agriculture has one of the highestdeath rates in the UK. Taking groups to farms should be carefully planned. The risks you need toassess should include those arising from the misuse of farm machinery and the risks associatedwith food poisoning and other infections.You should check that:• the farm is well managed;• it has a good reputation for safety standards and animal welfare; and• it maintains good washing facilities and clean grounds and public areas.Remember that we recommend exploratory visits.There are some basic safety rules. Never let group members:• place their faces against the animals or put their hands in their own mouths after feedinganimals;• eat until they have washed their hands;• sample any animal foodstuffs;• drink from farm taps (other than in public facilities);• ride on tractors or other machines;• play in the working farm area; or• leave the farm without washing their hands.Field studiesField studies are associated with a wide range of school subjects and might take pupils into urbanand other industrial sites as well as the countryside and to the coast or other areas near water.Indeed, some field studies may be carried out within the school grounds. Particular care isneeded in planning these activities as group leaders may be complacent about risks in familiarsurroundings.Group leaders, who will usually be specialists in certain subjects, should also be competent tolead and instruct their pupils within urban and non-urban environments with as few risks aspossible.Field visits in mountain or ‘wild country’ areas (as defined by the Duke of Edinburgh’s Award)must be treated as an expedition with suitable footwear, protective clothing, day sacks (smallrucksacks with a day’s supplies), emergency procedures and so on.Residential visitsWe have given advice on ratios for visits, but as well as improving ratios for residential visitsgroup leaders should carefully consider the following during their planning.• Ideally, the group should have rooms next to each other, with staff rooms next to the groupmembers’ rooms. Before the visit, the group leader should get floor plans of the roomsreserved for the group’s use.• There must be at least one staff member from each sex for mixed groups.• There must be separate male and female bathrooms and sleeping facilities.Page 33 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


• The immediate accommodation area should be reserved for only the group to use.• Make sure that there is appropriate safe heating and ventilation.• Make sure that the whole group is aware of the layout of the accommodation, its fireprecautions and exits (use English language or standard safety pictograms), its regulationsand routine, and that everyone can identify the main staff.• Security arrangements are in force particularly where reception is not staffed 24 hours, toprevent unauthorised visitors.• The manager of the accommodation should be asked to confirm that their staff have beenchecked as suitable for work with children or vulnerable adults.• Locks on doors should work in the group’s rooms (but appropriate access should be availableto the group leader at all times).• There should be drying facilities.• There should be adequate space for storing clothes, luggage, equipment and so on.• There is suitable storage for keeping valuables safe.• There is adequate lighting – is it advisable to bring a torch?• There should be arrangements for group members with special needs and who fall sick.• Balconies should be stable, windows should be secure and electrical connections (switches,sockets, lighting and so on) should be safe.• Where possible, children and vulnerable adults should not be sleeping in ground-floor rooms.• The fire alarm should be loud enough for everyone to hear throughout the building.• There should be recreational facilities that are appropriate to the group’s age and abilities.• The hotel, hostel or centre should be able to meet any cultural or religious needs of the group.• There should be an appropriate number of group supervisors on standby duty during thenight.Before booking a hotel or hostel abroad, the group leader should confirm it has fire exits and lifts(with inner doors) and that it meets local regulations. Within the European Union, there should bea similar level of safety with that expected in UK hotels and hostels.After arriving at any accommodation, we advise you to carry out a fire drill as soon as possible.Charity walks and cross-country runsThere have been a number of deaths involving people taking part in charity walks andcross-country runs. Wherever possible, these should take place in parks or sports arenas, oralong country footpaths away from the road. Remember the need to maintain supervision (evenremotely) at all times. When planning for these activities, group leaders should make sure that:• the route is away from main roads;• the footpath is wide enough to make sure that group members are well clear of any traffic;• the route is well lit if any part of the event is likely to take place after dark;• the route is well marked and marshalled;• all road crossings are supervised and marshalled (marshals working on the road must followthe road safety requirements of the driver SMS);• the start and finish are away from roads;• all marshals are briefed and easy to identify;• proper arrangements are made for anyone who needs attention or drops out of the event –including having clearly marked first-aid stations staffed by qualified first-aiders;• stops for refreshments are well away from any roads;• cars are not allowed to follow at people’s pace;• mass starts are avoided (groups of six to 10 should start at any one time);• ‘gimmicks’ such as pushing beds or prams should be avoided;• reflective clothing is worn and torches are carried at night; and• major events in public places can be assessed by our safety advisory group (contact themthrough Lifelong Learning and Community Team) made up of the police, the fire brigade, thePage 34 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


ambulance service, environmental health, SHAW services, highways and building controlcolleagues. This group will give advice on your event and advise you of other events in thearea. It is a free service and you don’t have to tell them about your event.Site-based outdoor activitiesThese events are often overlooked by general managers and head teachers, but also needcareful planning and a comprehensive assessment of the risks before the event. If outsideorganisations are to provide services on your day, they will have to follow the contractor SMS andprovide you with a written guarantee of their risk assessment and safety plans.All organisations, including council departments and schools, can refer their event to our safetyadvisory group for free advice on holding safer events. Phone them on 01922 650311.SHAW services are available to council services and community, community special andvoluntary-controlled schools to advise on larger events.Page 35 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


iAdventurous activitiesFollowing a number of fatal incidents, adventure activity facilities offered by a commercialcompany or a local authority may need to hold a licence under specific safety law.Visit organisers often need specialist knowledge and advice. We highly recommend access to thenetwork of the Outdoor Education Advisers Panel.Although this is the case, care must be taken when planning adventurous activities as licensedproviders do not necessarily have to hold a licence for all activities. Other activities may beoffered under accredited non-statutory schemes. The provider can give information on whatactivities are licensed. See ‘Licensed providers’ below.The group leader should check and agree the provider’s arrangements for supervision andrecreation during any free time. The group leader and supervisors keep overall responsibility forgroup members at all times, even when the group is under the instruction of the provider’s staff.The provider is responsible for the safe running of the activity. Clear handover and handbackprocedures should be made.The group leader or supervisors should speak to the instructor if they are concerned that thegroup may be at unnecessary risk. The group leader should check that the contractor (provider):• follows the contractor SMS;• has checked that their staff (including temporary workers) are suitable to work with youngpeople or vulnerable adults;• clearly sets out the roles and responsibilities of their staff;• has appropriate security arrangements; and• has appropriate public liability insurance.We do not put any adventurous activities into levels of risk – you must carefully consider eachproposed activity individually following the principles of risk assessment and the relevant sectionsof this safety standard.Licensed providersIt is illegal for a provider without a valid licence to offer an activity that needs a licence.The Adventurous Activity Licensing Authority (AALA) can check on the licence status of aprovider. Group leaders can contact them at:Adventurous Activity Licensing Authority17 Lambourne CrescentLlanishenCardiffCF4 5GG.Phone: 02920 755715Website: www.aala.orgHolding a licence means that the provider has been inspected and AALA are satisfied thatappropriate safety measures are in place for providing the specified licensed adventure activities.The licence does not cover other parts of the centre – such as catering and accommodation.The following activities (if carried out by young people aged under 18 without their parents) needa licence when commercially sold or provided by a local authority with or without a charge.Page 36 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


• Caving (exploring underground passages, disused mines or natural caves which need specialequipment or expertise).• Climbing (including climbing, abseiling or scrambling over natural terrain).• Trekking (going on foot, horse or pony, pedal cycle, skis, skates or sledges over moorland, oron ground over 600 metres above sea level when it would take 30 minutes to reach anaccessible road or refuge – off-piste skiing needs a licence).• Water sports (including sailing, canoeing, kayaking, rafting and windsurfing, on the sea, tidalwaters, inland waters where any part of those waters is more than 50 metres from the nearestland, and turbulent inland waters – rowing is not covered).Non-licensed providersNot all providers have to hold a licence, such as:• voluntary groups and schools providing for their own members and pupils; and• commercial organisations if their activities are not covered by the law.However, they must meet all other health and safety regulations.Not holding a licence does not mean a lack of safety. It may simply mean that the provider or theactivity does not need a licence.A national governing body (NGB) may accredit many providers. Group leaders should contactthese bodies to check a provider’s management of safety. The SHAW service team can providecontact details.If you are using a non-licensed provider, the general manager or head teacher should not giveapproval for the visit until the group leader has written guarantees that:• risks have been assessed and the provider’s staff are competent to instruct and lead groupsof the age range and abilities of the proposed group;• the provider holds the relevant NGB award (where one exists) or has successfully completedan NGB-approved in-house scheme;• all equipment is appropriate and its safe condition is checked before each use;• operating procedures follow the guidelines of the NGB for the activity;• clear management of safety systems is in place;• there are appropriate arrangements for first aid; and• there are emergency procedures, and a fire drill will take place soon after your group hasarrived at the centre.The group leader may want to ask the provider for the names of other similar groups who haverecently used its facilities.Page 37 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Checking competenceIf departments or schools continue to organise and lead their own adventure activities, theauthorising head teacher or general manager must be satisfied that the group leaders and otherstaff are competent to lead the group. For walking and other venture-type activities in ‘wildcountry’ (as defined by Duke of Edinburgh), group leaders must hold as a minimum a BELAaward.For some activities, staff will need to hold a governing body leader or instructor qualification.We do not recognise local or in-house qualifications transferred from other employers, althoughwe recognise the West Midlands ‘Moor and Fell level 3’ qualification (now closed) as equivalent tothe Walking Group Leader Award (MLTE).Although NVQs show a level of competence, head teachers and general managers should notaccept an NVQ without the relevant award from the NGB.National governing body awardsWe recognise relevant leader or instructor awards from the organisations listed below. Some ofthese may change over time. You can get more guidance from the SHAW service team.• ABRS Association of British Riding Schools• BASI British Association of Ski Instructors• BCU British Canoe Union• BELA Basic Expedition Leader Award (CCPR)• BHS British Horse Society• BMG British Association of Mountain Guides• CIC Cave Instructor Certificate (NCA)• CCPR Central Council of Physical Recreation• ESC English Ski Council• LCMLA Local Cave and Mine Leader Award levels 1 and 2 (NCA)• MLTE Mountain Leader Training England• MLTW Mountain Leader Training Wales• MLTUK Mountain Leader Training United Kingdom• MLTS Mountain Leader Training Scotland• MIA Mountain Instructor Award• MIC Mountain Instructor Certificate• ML Mountain Leader Award• MLTB Mountain Walking Leader Award• NCA National Caving Association• RYA Royal Yachting Association• SCOW Ski Council of Wales• SNSC Scottish National Ski Council• SPA Single Pitch Award (MLTE)• SRA Scottish Rafting Association• WCA Welsh Canoeing AssociationPage 38 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


jVisits abroadOrganising a trip yourselfDepartments and schools considering trips abroad may want to organise the trip themselves. Thisis likely to be controlled by the Package Travel, Package Holidays and Package ToursRegulations 1992 if you are proposing to organise any two or more things from:• accommodation;• transport; or• other tourist services.Trips abroad must be organised with the protection of using a bonded travel agent (see ‘Touroperators’ in section 5a).All other matters relating to organising visits still apply to overseas trips. However, departmentsand schools must also do the following.Exploratory visits may not always be practical (and you should ask for guidance from the internalaudit team about accepting gifts and hospitality). If this is not possible, the group leader shouldgather as much information as possible about the area and facilities to be visited, including:• the travel agent;• the provider;• the Foreign and Commonwealth Office travel advice unit;• other departments and schools who have used the facilities;• the local authority in the area to be visited;• national travel offices in the UK;• embassies or consulates;• the Suzy Lamplugh Trust; and• the internet, books and magazines.Using a tour operatorSee section 5a.VaccinationsThe group leader should find out whether vaccinations are needed and that all group membershave received it in time. Some countries ask visitors to provide proof of vaccination.Foreign lawsThe group leader should check relevant legislation, particularly on health and safety (for example,fire regulations and food safety) and driving.LanguageAt least one of the supervisors should be able to speak and read the language of the countrybeing visited. If not, the group leader must learn enough of the relevant language to hold a basicconversation and know what to say in an emergency.Page 39 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Care orders and wards of courtIf a child is under a care order, the relevant social care and supported housing directorate mustgive their permission. If a child is a ward of court, the general manager or head teacher must askfor advice from the court well before the proposed visit.Passports, collective passports and visasThe group leader must make sure that all group members have valid passports and visas ifneeded. Some countries may not allow in a traveller whose passport will end within a few monthsof entry.The group leader should personally check the passports of all supervisors and pupils to preventthe risk of anyone being turned back from borders.If any group member does not hold a British passport, the group leader must take care to makesure that immigration rules are not broken and the group member has the right to come back intothe UK.If any group member does not hold a British or other European Union (EU) passport, they mayneed a visa to travel from the UK. It is also possible that non-EU passport holders will have touse separate passport control channels from the rest of the group. In these cases, the groupleader must make sure that supervision is not broken for vulnerable adults or children.Non-British nationals do not need a visa to travel to another EU country as long as they are partof a school group taking part in an educational visit. This does not apply to other youth groupsor schools on non-educational holiday visits. Schools should phone the Home Office on 020 87608773.Collective passports can be held for an approved group of usually five to 50 British nationals(under 18 years old) travelling abroad in the charge of a responsible leader. The group leader anddeputy leader must be over 21 years old and hold a valid standard United Kingdom passport. Thegroup leader should apply at least four weeks before the collective passport is needed. Youngpeople who are not British nationals cannot be named on a collective passport.Exchange visitsThe success of exchange visits largely depends on good relationships with the partner school,department or local authority.Page 40 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Individual exchanges are different from other visits as direct supervision is limited, and hostfamilies do not have to follow English law. Careful planning must be made to reduce risk to pupils.Pupils must be made aware of the ground rules agreed between the group leader and the hostfamily. These are likely to be similar to residential and day trips. However, you must alsoconsider the following.• A good personal knowledge of the host school.• Satisfactory pairing arrangements. The partner school should tell the host families about theage, sex and any special, medical or dietary needs of their guests.• Parents, pupils and schools must be clear about the arrangements for collecting anddistributing pupils to families.• Pupils living with host families must have easy access to their teachers, usually by phone.• Parents must be made aware that their children will not always be under direct supervision.Vetting host familiesExchange or home-stay visits can be arranged through agencies, in which case the agencyshould have some responsibility for vetting host families. Group leaders making their ownarrangements need to be clear about procedures in the relevant country for vetting the suitabilityof host families, including criminal background checks if these are available.If the host school, group or agency does not have appropriate measures for carrying out checksto protect the health, safety and welfare of our young people, the group leader must ask forfurther assurances and reconsider whether the visit should take place.Page 41 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


kWater risksSafetyThere are many reasons for leading a visit near water. However, there are many dangers.Whatever your reason for going, have a clear purpose and plan, and use the relevant parts of thisstandard to make sure your group is safe.• Check what lies downstream or around the corner from your visit area. Is there a fallen tree, afence, a weir, a waterfall or another danger? If you are not happy, find another, safer place.• Develop a plan B (see section 6a).• Ask somebody with good local knowledge (the land or water owner) if there have been anychanges to the area or whether the environment changes regularly.• Always get a local weather forecast on the day of your visit.• Set physical boundaries beyond which the group must not go.• Be aware of the risk of Weil’s disease (a disease carried by rats in contaminated water).If there is a realistic chance of group members falling into or having to enter the water, you shouldconsider this a swimming or coastal visit (see below) activity and use the parental consent formfor swimming (see appendix 7).Coastal visitsGroup leaders should be aware that many of the incidents affecting pupils have taken place by orin the sea. Dangers on the coast are quite different from those involved in swimming (see below).The group leader should remember the following points when assessing the risks of a coastalactivity.• Tides, rip tides and sandbanks can be dangerous so timings and exit routes should bechecked.• Make sure group members are aware of warning signs and flags.• Have a base on the beach that members of the group may return to if they become separated.• Look out for dangers such as glass, barbed wire and sewage outflows.• Some of a group’s time on a beach may be recreational. Group leaders should consider whichareas of the terrain and sea are out of bounds.• Cliff tops can be highly dangerous for groups even during daylight. The group should keep tothe path at all times. Group leaders should consider whether it is safe or legal for groupmembers to ride mountain bikes on coastal paths.• Consider having a supervisor whose only job is supervising, not taking part in, the activity.The local coastguard, harbour master, lifeguard or tourist information office can provideinformation and advice on the type of dangers and where they are.Swimming in the sea or other natural waterSwimming and paddling in the sea or other natural waters can be dangerous activities for agroup. They should only be allowed as formal and supervised activities, preferably in recognisedbathing areas which have official surveillance (such as qualified lifeguards). However, groupmembers should always be in sight of their supervisors. One supervisor should always stay out ofthe water for better surveillance. The group leader, or another leader in the group, should hold arelevant life-saving award, especially where lifeguards may not be available. For more advice,contact the Royal Life Saving Society.Page 42 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


The group leader should assess the risks and consider an appropriate safe supervision level fortheir particular group before the activity takes place. We give example ratios in section 6b.The group leader should:• be aware that many children who drown are strong swimmers;• identify the level of the group members’ swimming ability and use the parental consent formfor swimming activities (appendix 7);• be aware of the local conditions (such as currents, weeds, or a shelving, uneven or unstablebottom) using local information from the lifeguard, coastguard, harbour master, police ortourist information office;• identify a safe area of water for the group to use;• be aware of the dangerous effects of sudden immersion in cold water;• be aware of the dangers of paddling, especially for young group members;• make sure that group members have not eaten (at least half an hour) before swimming;• make sure the activity is suitable for the group members, especially any with disabilities; and• adopt and explain the signals of distress and recall.Swimming poolsGeneral managers and head teachers will be aware of their local swimming pool. Group leadersshould follow the recommended safe supervision levels at the pool for their pupils. (We givesuggested ratios in section 6b.) Group leaders should monitor the risks of regular swimmingactivities and adjust supervision levels for their individual groups as necessary.If you are considering using a swimming pool you have not used before, or monitoring the risks ofa regularly used pool, we advise you to check the following.• Is the pool constantly supervised by enough qualified lifeguards?• If there is no lifeguard, the group leader should stay at the poolside at a raised position. Inthese circumstances, the group leader (or another leader) should have a relevant life-savingaward and be accompanied by an appropriate number of supervisors.• Is the water temperature appropriate?• Is the water clear?• Are there signs clearly showing the depth? Is there a shallow end and is the water thereshallow enough?• Does the pool cater for group members with disabilities?• Does the deep end allow for safe diving?• Is there a poolside phone?• Are there a resuscitator and other pieces of first-aid and rescue equipment, and is theresomeone trained to use them?• Is there a changing room for each sex?• Does the pool slope gradually or is there a sudden drop?• Does the pool cater for any particular religious or cultural factors?• Are the changing and showering facilities safe and hygienic?• Can clothes be stored securely?• Have the group members been instructed in how to behave in and around the water?Page 43 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Sub-aqua (scuba and snorkelling)Underwater exploration provides a challenging recreational activity. This is often developedthrough group members being introduced to snorkelling in safe conditions.Many of the principles we have explained in the sections above still apply. General managers andhead teachers should also consider the following.• All equipment is good quality and meets the relevant British Standard or national equivalent.• Wetsuits are worn in UK waters.• Life jackets are worn at all appropriate times.• Group members have mastered basic snorkelling techniques.• Scuba groups must use a surface marker buoy and use a ‘buddy system’.• Supervision from a safety boat is provided on open-water dives, with a standby diver present.• Safety boats must be skippered by an experienced and qualified coxswain.• Everyone understands and practises rescue and emergency procedures before the dive.• The possibility of decompression accidents.• Contact is made with local groups whenever visiting new diving sites to assess dangers.• Group members with epilepsy or diabetes are not allowed to take part in the activity.• Group members who are tired or suffering from a cold or an infection are not allowed to takepart in the activity until they have recovered.• All group members are fit and able to swim at least 50 metres.• All scuba group members are over 15 years old and have taken the British Sub-Aqua Club(BSAC) proficiency test.Dinghy sailingThe principles of water activities set out above apply. If group leaders wanting to organise dinghysailing activities do not hold the Royal Yachting Association (RYA) Senior Instructor award, theymust make sure that an organisation is used that provides instructors or managers with thatqualification. As well as the ratios suggested in section 6b, there is an extra need for:• RYA Dinghy instructor on crewed boats 1:3; and• RYA Dinghy instructor on singlehanders 1:6.Boardsailing and windsurfingThe principles of water activities set out above apply. Group leaders wanting to organiseboardsailing or windsurfing activities must hold the Royal Yachting Association (RYA) JuniorSupervisor award for groups of children. For groups of adults, they should hold the RYA Instructoraward at the appropriate skill level.Page 44 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Coastal and sea cruisingThe sea and coastal waters around Britain are a challenging but dangerous environment.No-one can reduce the risk of this so the recommendations in this section follow those set by theRYA. The principles of water activities set out above also apply.For passages up to 10 miles from the coast, the leader should hold at least:1 a Coastal Skipper Certificate of competence, plus confirmed log-book experience;2 a VHF radio licence;3 a current first-aid certificate; and4 a current firefighting certificate.For passages over 10 miles off shore, the leader should hold at least:1 a Yacht Master certificate of competence;2 a VHF radio licence;3 a current first-aid certificate; and4 a current firefighting certificate.The leader must take on the following extra responsibilities.• Be thoroughly familiar with the water to be sailed.• All details of the route and length of the cruise must be left at the base.• The extent of the cruise should reflect the competence of the crew.• Weather forecasts before and during the cruise must be taken into account.• Harnesses must be worn, if the skipper says so.• Life jackets must be worn at all times on deck.• Flares must be carried and the crew must know how to use them.• Consider the crew in terms of clothing, health, food and ports of call.• A comprehensive and accurate log must be kept at all times with continuous chart updating.The vessel must meet the regulation set by the Royal Yachting Association or Department ofTransport for sail training purposes, or (if chartered) by the Yacht Charter Association.• Life jackets must be available for all crew members and meet the British Standard and theBritish Marine Standards Federation.• Harnesses must also be available and every crew member must know how to fit one.• Life jackets and harnesses must be regularly checked.• Group members should be confident in the water.CanoeingPlanning for canoeing activities must always consider the most severe conditions. Canoeing onthe sea, tidal estuaries and rivers can be dangerous depending on conditions, and should bedone only under the supervision of suitably trained and highly experienced staff with a detailedknowledge of the water. Sea, tidal estuary and river canoeing is not normally an activity werecommend.The principles of water activities set out above apply. Group leaders wanting to organisecanoeing activities must hold a first-aid certificate and a relevant canoeing instructor qualificationfor the planned activity.Page 45 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Section 7: Emergenciesa Preparing for emergenciesThis section covers the emergency procedures that are an essential part of planning an outdooror adventurous activity.The group leader, other adult leaders, the school or parents and the emergency planning unitmust hold copies of the activity ‘summary of information’ (appendix 8).Our emergency planning unit (EPU) have a legal duty to co-ordinate efforts in an emergency.Group leaders are expected to contact either the school or the EPU as soon as they have anemergency. Whichever of these two group leaders contact, will tell the other team without delay.Duty emergency planning officer (EPO)Pager: +44 (0)7659 546109 (24 hours a day)Office hours (9am to 5pm): +44 (0)1922 652026b Who will take chargeThe group leader will take charge of the emergency at the visit location.At Walsall Council, normally, the duty emergency planning officer will decide if the situation canbe managed by the school or whether or not it is a council-wide emergency that needs aco-ordinated response.c Emergency proceduresAn emergency is any unplanned event that the group leader or other supervisors believe shouldbe called an emergency. If an outside organisation (such as the lifeboat service) is contacted, youmust inform EPU. If an emergency takes place during an activity, here are the main things toconsider.• Find out what the emergency is and its extent as quickly as possible.• Make sure that all the group are safe and looked after.• Find out the names of any casualties and get immediate medical attention for them.• Make sure that all group members who need to know are aware of the incident and that allgroup members are following the emergency plan.• Make sure that an adult leader goes with the casualties to the hospital and the rest of thegroup are supervised at all times and kept together.• Make sure that an adult member of the group stays by the phone.• Tell the police if necessary.• Tell the British embassy or consulate if abroad.• Tell the school or emergency planning unit.• Pass on details of the incident such as:o the type, date and time of the incident;o where the incident has happened;o the names of any casualties and details of their injuries;o the names of others involved so that parents can be reassured;o the action taken so far; ando any action yet to be taken.• Tell the insurers, especially if medical help is needed.• Tell the provider or tour operator.Page 46 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


• Write down accurately all relevant facts, witness details and preserve any vital evidence.• Keep a written account of all events, times and contacts after the incident.• Fill in an accident report form as soon as possible.• No-one in the group or at the school should speak to the media. This is done through either:o Education Walsall public relations and communications unit(office hours, - +44 (0)1922 646574); oro our communications and marketing unit (24 hours through the EPO).• No-one should discuss legal liability.d Media contactMedia contact will always be co-ordinated by communication professionals in Education Walsallor Walsall Council. If the media has contacted the school or parents, this is automatically treatedas a council-wide emergency and contact must be made with the duty EPO.The names of casualties will not be shared with the media.e First aidGroup leaders must make sure that there is adequate first-aid cover for their activity. Any activityin or near water or in ‘wild country’ needs at least one group leader to have an appropriatefirst-aid certificate.Other activities must have at least one adult with first-aid experience that the group leaderbelieves is acceptable, taking account of the nature of the trip (up to a ‘First Aid at Work’certificate if the group leader assesses this as necessary, or higher qualification such as MountainFirst Aid or a Registered Nurse).f Investigating serious incidentsInvestigations will be in line with our investigation standard. You can find details in theincident-reporting SMS.Page 47 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Section 8: Measuring performanceAs a way of measuring our performance and whether we meet our targets, we will measure theperformance of this standard as follows.‘Proactive measures’ of performance, for example:• new activities planned with reduced risk; and• the type of assessments and reports from safety committees, and how these areavailable.We expect line managers to monitor performance through direct supportive supervision.‘Reactive measures’ such as:• civil claims against us; and• the number of reports of near misses, incidences of illness or accidents.We expect line managers to monitor whether we are meeting this standard by reviewing anyincident reports and sharing findings, reviewing near-miss reports and monitoring areas andteams after incidents.Identifying the basic cause is essential to all our safety management standards, as it highlightsany problems and any improvement plans that we can put into practice.Section 9: Corporate auditThe auditing requirement for this standard is the same as the corporate health and safety policy.Section 10: Regular status reviewThe review requirements for this standard are the same as the corporate health and safety policy.Page 48 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Appendix 1: Training gridAll employeesSafetyrepresentatives(may go on all training)First and second linemanagersEducational visitsco-ordinatorsGroup leadersGeneral servicemanagers andhead teachersSafety Induction * * * * * *OCR Off-site SafetyManagement Certificate*First Aid at Work *Mountain First Aid *Incident investigation *Supervising Safely *Managing Safely *Risk Assessment * *Specialist awards asappropriate* *The department or school should arrange specific training for equipment, which should follow therecommendations of the manufacturer or training provider.Page 49 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Appendix 2: Outdoor and adventurous activity safety management audit formLocation: ………………………………………………………….. Date: ……………………………AchievementProgress made on actions from a previousauditLocal management system andarrangements in placeManagement team are competent, briefedand involvedEvidence that risk assessments are suitable,adequate and availableEducational visits co-ordinator appointedand competency has been checkedAspects of planning trips and activities useSMS guidanceEvidence of keeping to the supervisoryratios, checks and head countsPupil preparation is suitable and adequateSpecial educational needs (SEN) areconsidered and pupils with SEN included inall activities where safe to do soEvidence of communicating with parents,including consent and other permissionsEvidence of carefully choosing andsupervising transport providersEvidence of adequate insuranceEmergency procedures documented in linewith the SMS and followed if necessaryEPU aware of all overnight staysReview of last three incidents during outdooror adventurous activityWarning signs are suitableMonitoring all the above measuresPoorWeakFairGoodExcellent0 1 2 3 4 5CommentsOverall assessmentAuditor’s signature: _________________________________________ Date: ____________Site representative’s signature: _______________________________ Date: ____________Page 50 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Appendix 3: Application for approval from the head teacher,general manager or governing bodyNot all sections will be relevant to every proposed visit.If you are the group leader, please fill in this form.School or group:Your name:You should fill in this form as soon as possible once the preparations are complete. You should havealready received approval of the proposed visit in principle and should have regularly updated the generalmanager or head teacher on the progress of the preparations. You should get parents’ permission.When approval is given, the general manager or head teacher should keep one copy and you should keepthe other. You should tell the general manager or head teacher about any changes in planning,organisation or staff. If necessary, the head should ask for approval from the school governors.1 What is the purpose of the visit (and specific educational aims)?2 What places will the group visit?3 Please give the dates and times.Date of leaving: ______________________ Date of returning: ________________________Time: ______________________ Time: ________________________4 What are the transport arrangements (include the name of the transport company andvehicle registration numbers)?5 Who is the organising company or agency (if any)? Please include the licence referencenumber if the company or agency is registered with the Adventure Activities LicensingAuthority.Name:Address:Phone:_________________________ Licence number (if registered): ____________________6 What are the proposed costs and financial arrangements?Page 51 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


7 What are the insurance arrangements for all members of the group, including voluntaryhelpers (include the name of the insurance company)?Insurance cover:Policy number:Address:8 Please give details of the accommodation to be used.Name:Address:Phone:Name of the head of the centre (if available):9 Please give details of the activities.10 Please give details of any dangerous activity and the associated planning, organisationand staff.11 What are the names, relevant experience, qualifications and specific responsibilities ofstaff accompanying the group?12 What are the names, relevant qualifications and specific responsibilities of other adultsaccompanying the group?13 What is the name, address and phone number of the contact person in the school whoholds all information about the visit or journey, in case of an emergency?14 Please set out your existing knowledge of the places to be visited and say whether youintend to make an exploratory visit.Page 52 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


15 Please give details of the size and make-up of the group.Age range:Number of boys:Adult to child ratio:Number of girls:Leader to group member ratio:16 Have you received all permission forms that have been fully filled in and signed by theparents?YesNoPlease attach a copy of the information sheet you sent to parents, the parental consent form and therisk assessment form.17 Please give the names of young people who have special educational or medical needs.Your signature:Date:Your full name:To be filled in by the head teacher, general manager or other person who is authorised to sign.To the group leader:I have studied this application and am satisfied with all aspects including the planning, organisation andstaffing of this visit. I give approval.abSignature:Please make sure I have all relevant information, including a final list of group members,details on permission and a detailed itinerary at least seven days before the group is due toleave.Your report and evaluation of the visit, including details of any incidents, should be with meas soon as possible but no later that 14 days after the group returns.Date:Approver’s full name:The head teacher, general manager or other person who is authorised to sign should keep a copy of thefilled-in application form and details of any changes. A copy should also be available for the governingbody. The form may be amended if you are asking for approval from the governing body.Page 53 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Appendix 4: Group leader’s visit evaluationThis form should be filled in after all outdoor and adventurous activities.School or group:Group leader:Numbers in the groupBoys: Girls: Supervisors:Dates of the visit:Purpose of the visit:Venue:Commercial organisation:Please comment on the followingfeatures.1 The support offered by the venuebefore, during and after the visit:Rating outof 10Comment2 Travel arrangements:3 The content of the educationprogramme provided:4 Instruction:5 Equipment:6 The suitability of the environment:7 Accommodation:8 Food:9 Evening activities:10 Courier or representative:11 Other comments and evaluationincluding ‘close calls’ not involvinginjury or damage:Group leader’s signature:Date:Page 54 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Appendix 5: Checklist for group members going on the activityAnswer• Who is the group leader?• Where am I going to visit?• How can I contact my group leader?• How do I use the phone if I need help?• What will be done to keep me safe andsecure on the visit?• What should I do if I get lost or intodifficulties when not with the groupleader?• What is written in the code of conductfor my visit?• What do I do to keep my money andvaluables safe?For residential visits and exchangesDo you know the following?• The address and phone number of theplace where you will be staying:• How you should behave (house rules)where you are staying:• Where you will sleep and get dressed:• What to do if you are worried orunhappy about anything when stayingwith a host family:Page 55 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Appendix 6: Parents’ (or other) permissionSchool or group:1 Where the visit is to:Going from: Time: Going to: Time:I agree to (your son’s or daughter’s name) _______________________________________taking part in this visit and have read the information sheet. I agreetofortaking part in the activities described. I understand the needto behave responsibly.2 Medical information about the young personaDoes your son or daughter have any conditions that need medical treatment, includingmedication?YesNoIf ‘Yes’, please give brief details.bPlease give details of any special dietary needs and the type of pain relief that may begiven if necessary.For residential visits and exchanges onlycAs far as you know, has your son or daughter been in contact with any infectious diseasesor suffered from anything in the last four weeks that may be infectious?If ‘Yes’, please give brief details.YesNoPage 56 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


dIs your son or daughter allergic to any medication, food or other substance?If ‘Yes’, please give brief details.YesNoeWhen did your son or daughter last have a tetanus injection?I will tell the group leader, head teacher or centre manager as soon as possible about anychanges in the medical or other circumstances between now and the start of the journey.fIs there any other information you think we should have to look after your son ordaughter?Page 57 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


3 DeclarationI agree to my son or daughter receiving medication as instructed and any emergency dental,medical or surgical treatment, including anaesthetic or blood transfusion, as considerednecessary by the medical authorities. I understand the extent and limits of the insurance coverprovided.Contact detailsWork phone number:Home phone number:Home address:Other emergency contact:Name:Phone number:Address:Name of the family doctor:Phone number:Address:I understand that the group leader will take this form or a copy on the visit and that it maybe given to a paramedic, a doctor or a mountain rescue team in an emergency to help mychild’s rescue, treatment and recovery.Your signature:Date:Your full name (in CAPITALS):Page 58 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Appendix 7: Parents’ permission (swimming)Note to group leadersUse this form as well as the standard parents’ permission form. Even if parents give theirpermission, you still need to check the level of swimming ability.Swimming ability• Is your child able to swim 50 metres? Yes No• Is your child confident in a pool? Yes No• Is your child confident in the sea or in open inland water? Yes No• Is your child aware of safety in water? Yes No1 I would like (your son’s or daughter’s name)to take part in the specified visit. I have read the information provided and agree to himor her taking part in the activities described.2 I agree to any emergency medical treatment my child may need during the visit.3 I confirm that my child is in good health and I consider him or her fit enough to take part.Your signature:Date:Your full name:Phone numbersHome:Work:Home address:Name, address and phone number of the family doctor:The group leader will take this form or a copy on the visit.Page 59 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


Appendix 8: Emergency Planning Unit summary of informationThe group leader must fill this in before the visit. The group leader and school must keep a copy.Make sure a list of all the people going on the trip is attached.Either: send it to: The Emergency Planning Unit, Link Bridge, Civic Centre, Walsall, WS1 1TPe-mail it to: emergencyplanningunit@walsall.gov.ukor fax it to: 01922 616213School or groupName of group leaderPhone: Home:Mobile:DestinationVisit departure Time: Date:ReturnTime:Date:Drop off point:Total number in group Adults Group membersEmergency contact informationHead teacherDeputy head teacherOtherTravel CompanyCompany travelrepresentativeInsurance or emergencyassistance providerHotel, hostel or venueAdditional numbers orother informationName:Address:Name:Address:Home phone:Mobile phone:Home phone:Mobile phone:Home phone:Mobile phone:Phone number:Phone number:Phone number:Phone number:Details of person completing form: __________________________Contact phone: ____________________Date:_______________Page 60 of 72/WMBC/SHAW/SMS AD ACT/Draft UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTEDLevel Two Document


6 6 12 18 24Appendix 9:Duke of Edinburgh’s Award local procedureLikelihood5 5 10 15 204 4 8 12 163 3 6 9 122 2 4 6 81 1 2 3 41 2 3 4SeverityHazard Risk Risk groupControl measures(Describe the existing workplace precautions andrisk-control systems in place.)LikelihoodSeverityRisk levelAreexistingcontrolsadequate?YesNo*Extreme weather,cold or sun, orinjuryCold, heat,injury or deathGroupmembersand staff• Seasonal activity (usually April to October).• Consider the weather forecast.• Using suitable clothing and equipment.• Dry spare clothing and emergency equipment.Not enoughsupervisionInjury ordeathGroupmembers• The competence of group members is assessed and monitored.• Group members have adequate supervision for theircompetence, age and behaviour.• Group members know how to contact staff or ask for help.• Group members should have a written laminated sheet with theleaders’, supervisors’ and assessors’ phone numbers.(Discourage contact with home.)Hazards on theroute and in thecampsites usedDrowning,falls, injury ordeathGroupmembersand staff• The route is planned, assessed and appropriately supervised.• The group leader should visit each campsite before the visit andcarry out a risk assessment. (All ‘wild country’ panels have a listof approved campsites for their areas.)• Adequate supervision is provided at the campsites.• Remote supervision is accepted, especially for silver and gold.(One visit is recommended while the group are on the campsite.)


Hazard Risk Risk groupControl measures(Describe the existing workplace precautions andrisk-control systems in place.)LikelihoodSeverityRisk levelAreexistingcontrolsadequate?YesNo*Site security –unauthorised entryby intruders orgroup membersleaving withoutpermissionInjury ordeathGroupmembersand staff• The site has as little public access as possible.• Tents are not readily visible from roads or paths.• Leaders sleep on the site until group members are adequatelycompetent to camp on their own.• Everyone knows the arrangements for contacting people in anemergency.Fire or heathazardsHeat injury,burns, scaldsor deathGroupmembersand staff• Substances that can catch fire are not used near tents.• The group does not pitch tents close to each other.• The equipment used has been well maintained and checkedbefore use.• Nobody uses stoves brought from home.• Nobody smokes or uses matches in the tents.• Everyone understands the fire procedure.• The leader is trained in treating burns.• Flammable fuel and cooking equipment are used only by trainedcompetent people.• Group members under training must be instructed under closesupervision by competent staff.• A procedure must be agreed for using stoves and refuelling.• Groups should use only one type of stove (for example, gas orliquid fuel).Hygiene Illness Groupmembersand staff• Good practice is followed.• Group members are trained in basic hygiene.• People wash their hands before handling food.• Group members receive training in ‘wilderness’ camping and allthat this means (gold level).


6 6 12 18 245 5 10 15 20Likelihood4 4 8 12 163 3 6 9 122 2 4 6 8Duke of Edinburgh’s Award - indirectly supervised practice and final expeditions1 1 2 3 41 2 3 4SeverityHazard Risk Risk groupControl measures(Describe the existing workplace precautions andrisk-control systems in place.)LikelihoodSeverityRisk levelAreexistingcontrolsadequate?YesNo*Lack of group orindividualcompetence orability to completethe journeyInjury ordeathGroupmembers• Group members are trained for the relevant level of activity by arecognised trainer, who signs off the members in a log book.• The group prepare a route card with timed checkpoints and safeexit routes. This must be approved by the assessor.• Silver and gold must be assessed at home first.• Supervision and monitoring are ongoing. Their extent dependon the ability of the group.Falls or drowningInjury ordeathGroupmembersand staff• The route is researched and, if necessary, walked.• Specific risks (cliffs, water and so on) are assessed and, ifnecessary, avoided.Getting lost Injury Groupmembersand staff• Group members have adequate navigational skills for the areathey are walking.• Group members are trained.• Staff have enough contact to prevent significant mistakes.• The group carry mobile phones (although they can use them inemergencies only).


Hazard Risk Risk groupControl measures(Describe the existing workplace precautions andrisk-control systems in place.)LikelihoodSeverityRisk levelAreexistingcontrolsadequate?YesNo*Illness, injury oremergencyInjury ordeathGroupmembers• Group members and leaders are trained in emergency aid.• Groups, leaders and assessors carry first-aid kits.• Information about medical conditions and medication is carried.• The group know where people’s medication is carried.• The leader has planned emergency procedures.


6 6 12 18 245 5 10 15 20Likelihood4 4 8 12 163 3 6 9 122 2 4 6 81 1 2 3 4Accompanied walks in remote terrain where it is possibleto be more than 30 minutes away from a road1 2 3 4SeverityHazard Risk Risk groupControl measures(Describe the existing workplace precautions andrisk-control systems in place.)LikelihoodSeverityRisk levelAreexistingcontrolsadequate?YesNo*Falls or drowningInjury ordeathGroupmembersand staff• The leader is experienced in walking in the type of terrain and inleading groups.• The route is researched and, if necessary, walked beforehand tocheck is it safe.• Identify specific risks (cliffs, water and so on) and assess them.Getting lost Injury Groupmembersand staff• The leader has adequate navigational skills.• A group size of one to six (up to 12) is recommended.• There are frequent head counts and a ‘buddy system’(particularly in bad weather).• Group members and staff are briefed.


Hazard Risk Risk groupControl measures(Describe the existing workplace precautions andrisk-control systems in place.)LikelihoodSeverityRisk levelAreexistingcontrolsadequate?YesNo*Illness, injury oremergency awayfrom immediatehelpInjury ordeathGroupmembersand staff• The leader has had first-aid training for at least 16 hours(preferably the ‘first aid for mountaineers and instructorscourse’).• A first-aid kit is available.• A second adult is available to supervise.• Leaders have information about group members’ medicalconditions and medication. (Check visually before leaving thebase.)• Leaders are briefed and have a planned emergency procedure.Exposure toextreme weather –cold, wet, heat andsunInjury ordeathGroupmembersand staff• The leader gets daily weather forecasts.• Everyone has suitable footwear, clothing and equipment.• The leader carries emergency equipment that is appropriate tothe conditions.


6 6 12 18 245 5 10 15 20Likelihood4 4 8 12 163 3 6 9 122 2 4 6 8Risk assessment for all Duke of Edinburgh’s Award activities1 1 2 3 41 2 3 4SeverityHazard Risk Risk groupControl measures(Describe the existing workplace precautions andrisk-control systems in place.)LikelihoodSeverityRisk levelAreexistingcontrolsadequate?Visits abroadInjury ordeathGroupmembersand staff• The visit is planned with an award officer, an expeditionassessment panel member and Duke of Edinburgh technicaladvisor.• Rescuers’ or travel insurance has been taken out (check with us),including breakdown cover. Everyone knows the contact numbers.• Duke of Edinburgh expedition paperwork has been received andapproved.Use of privatevehiclesInjury ordeathGroupmembersand staff• During safety training and briefing, volunteers sign to say that theirvehicles meet the law, are insured and are maintained in aroadworthy condition.• Seat belts are worn at all times.• Parents’ have given permission for young people to travel in staff’sown vehicles.


Hazard Risk Risk groupControl measures(Describe the existing workplace precautions andrisk-control systems in place.)LikelihoodSeverityRisk levelAreexistingcontrolsadequate?Minibus travelInjury, deathor separatedfrom thegroupGroupmembersand staff• The minibus is roadworthy and insured, and meets ourrequirements.• A minibus driver has a valid PCV, MIDAS and approved drivinglicence (PCV licence if abroad).• There is adult supervision to make sure seat belts are worncorrectly.• Trailers should be used when heavy luggage or equipment isinvolved. (Make sure the trailer does not prevent the ‘emergencydoor’ from opening.)• Hand luggage inside the vehicle must be stowed on racks or otherseats. Aisles and exits must be clear.• Abroad, a tachograph is needed and the driver’s hours must followour guidelines.• Care must always be taken when parking so that everyone can getoff the minibus safely. (Remember that aboard the door could beinto the traffic.)• The group members must be counted every time they get into orout of the bus, and there must be close supervision during breaksin the journey.• Drivers should not do long walks before having to drive anydistance.Service station andother breaks in thejourneyInjury, leftbehind, orseparatedfrom thegroupGroupmembersand staff• Group members should understand what the stop is for and howlong it will last.• Group members should know how and where to contact staff.• Remind group members of moving traffic (opposite side abroad).• The group members must be counted before leaving.


Hazard Risk Risk groupControl measures(Describe the existing workplace precautions andrisk-control systems in place.)LikelihoodSeverityRisk levelAreexistingcontrolsadequate?Ferry crossingInjury, death,drowning orseparatedfrom thegroupGroupmembersand staff• There must be close supervision on the deck of the ferry.• There must be supervision leaving the deck and in the seating area.• There should be rules about moving round the ferry.• No unsupervised young person should be allowed on an open deckin the dark or on rough seas.• Make sure all group members know where the vehicle, stairway andvehicle deck is. An adult should supervise the stairway.• The group members should be counted carefully before leaving tomake sure everyone is in the vehicle.• There should be a planned procedure in case a group member goesmissing.On footInjury ordeathGroupmembersand staff• Expedition and training paperwork must be received and agreed.• Plan to avoid roads and road crossings wherever possible.• Expedition training must emphasise the care and behaviour neededwhen walking on roads.Use of publictransport – trains,planes and busesInjury, deathor separationfrom thegroupGroupmembersand staff• There should be detailed planning before the journey.• There should be close supervision particularly in crowded areas.• Group members should be counted regularly.• There should be an emergency plan if someone is separated fromthe group.


6 6 12 18 245 5 10 15 20Likelihood4 4 8 12 163 3 6 9 122 2 4 6 8Risk assessment for all Duke of Edinburgh’s Award off-site visits1 1 2 3 41 2 3 4SeverityHazard Risk Risk groupControl measures(Describe the existing workplace precautions andrisk-control systems in place.)LikelihoodSeverityRisk levelAreexistingcontrolsadequate?Exposure toweatherCold injury,heat injury oroverexposureGroupmembersand staff• Consider possible weather conditions and plan appropriateactivities, clothing and equipment.• Plan for group members who do not have suitable clothing.Check before you leave and bring spares.• Get a daily weather forecast and amend plans as a result.Young person lostor separated fromthe group, orinadequatesupervisionInjury ordeathGroupmembers• Make sure supervising staff receive training so that they arecompetent and understand their role.• Ratios of groups to supervising staff should be in line with Dukeof Edinburgh guidelines.• Supervising staff must have a copy of route cards, which shouldcontain details of contact phone numbers.• Speak to group members so that they understand they must notseparate under any circumstances.


Hazard Risk Risk groupControl measures(Describe the existing workplace precautions andrisk-control systems in place.)LikelihoodSeverityRisk levelAreexistingcontrolsadequate?Illness or injuryIllness orinjuryGroupmembersand staff• All trainers and field supervisors must hold a current first-aidcertificate.• Safety officers and volunteers must know how to contact thefield supervision and emergency services.• Group members are reminded to bring individual medication andthis is securely kept.• First-aid and travel-sickness equipment is carried.• Mobile phones are carried, if available.`Special needs forspecific youngpeopleIllness orinjuryGroupmembers• Ask for information from parents.• Make necessary arrangements for individual group members,including individual risk assessment and extra staff asnecessary.If indirect or remotesupervision isinvolvedInjury ordeathGroupmembers• Check that the location is suitable for this type of supervision.• Make sure group members are adequately briefed andcompetent.• Clear guidelines and emergency procedures must be set andunderstood.• Group members must stay in the group.• Meeting points and times are set through preparing route cards.• Group members know how to contact staff in an emergency.• Staff understand their responsibilities.• Parents have given their permission.Leaders’ ownchildrenInjury ordeathGroupmembers,leaders’children andstaff• The supervision of groups must not be harmed by the presenceof safety officers’ or volunteers’ own children.• Plans are in place in case safety officers or volunteers need towithdraw from an event.


Hazard Risk Risk groupControl measures(Describe the existing workplace precautions andrisk-control systems in place.)LikelihoodSeverityRisk levelAreexistingcontrolsadequate?Children notinvolved in anevent

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