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Design CovenantsVOLUME 1CDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 130/07/13 3:39 PM


VICE-CHANCELLOR’S INTRODUCTIONThe University of Western Sydney’s campuses are thevisible face of its history, diversity and commitment to theprinciples of beauty, consistency and functionality in theirbuilt form. The principles enunciated in this documentare intended to preserve and build on the character ofour campuses, all of them different by virtue of their past,their locations and planning and design decisions. Theirbuilt form is a legacy for future generations. Each campushas a structural and aesthetic personality which should bereflected in its development, through a consistent approachto designing and preserving buildings and landscapes,with reference to the master plan for each campus.Great universities of the world have been successivelyenhanced by sympathetic building, refurbishment and infillingand where they departed from design principles, oftenrued the decisions of their predecessors, as architecturalstyles and generations of practice come and go.The first impressions of a campus are often the most tellingand when visitors come to our Campbelltown, Hawkesburyand Parramatta campuses they often remark on the significantcharacter and nature of improvements, and the structuralemphasis between old and new. Bankstown, Kingswood andNirimba campuses were developed at a different time, withless coherent character and differing use, but the work thathas been undertaken on each of these over the past decadehas helped to unify and beautify the campuses as welcomingplaces for students to study and socialise and staff to work.The design covenants are intended to protect the visualintegrity of each campus, amplifying its special character andenabling the University’s growth and further developmentin the decades to come. Our goal has been to ensure thatthe first sight of a campus and the ongoing experienceof studying, working and living there is memorableand a characteristic for which UWS is renowned.These design covenants extend not only to teachingand research buildings and student precincts, but alsoto commercial development on our campuses. Thefuture physical development of our campuses can onlybe imagined, however these covenants will ensure thatfuture decisions for each campus follow a lineage ofdesign decisions and their realisation in the past andimportantly prevent built forms which, though perhapsis representative of contemporary architecture, areincongruous or unsympathetic to each campus’ character.These documents carry the authority of theUniversity’s Board of Trustees which has endorsedtheir establishment and through its standingcommittees will have responsibility for ensuring thatthe covenants are adhered to in the years to come.Professor Janice Reid AMVice-ChancellorProduced inpartnership with BVNArchitecture Pty LtdCDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 230/07/13 3:39 PM


BANKSTOWN CAMPUSBLACKTOWN/NIRIMBA CAMPUSCAMPBELLTOWN CAMPUSHAWKESBURY CAMPUSPARRAMATTA CAMPUSPENRITH CAMPUSCDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 330/07/13 3:39 PM


TEXT IS HELVETICA BLACK CONDENSED 16PTRICHMONDNIRIMBACAMPUSBLACKTOWN4STRATHFIELDBANKSTOWN5NARELLANCAMDENMAP OF GREATER SYDNEY SHOWING UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN SYDNEY CAMPUS LOCATIONSCDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 430/07/13 3:39 PM


CONTENTSVICE CHANCELLOR’S INTRODUCTION 2OVERVIEW6PROCESS6INTENDED AUDIENCE FOR THE DESIGN COVENANTS 9THE STRUCTURE OF THE DESIGN COVENANTS 9ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS9SUSTAINABILITY9GUIDING PRINCIPLES 10PRINCIPLES OVERVIEW 10PRINCIPLE DESCRIPTIONS 11SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS BY PRINCIPLE 14CAMPUS IMAGE 14COHERENT AESTHETIC CHARACTER 15PUBLIC DOMAIN FRAMEWORK 17ADDRESS AND LEGIBILITY 18DENSIFICATION AND CENTRALISATION 19SENSITIVITY TO HUMAN SCALE 20DEFINED OPEN SPACES 21SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATION BY CAMPUS 22BANKSTOWN23CAMPBELLTOWN24HAWKESBURY25KINGSWOOD26NIRIMBA27PARRAMATTA28WERRINGTON SOUTH 29BIBLIOGRAPHY30UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN SYDNEY – DESIGN COVENANTS5CDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 530/07/13 3:39 PM


UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN SYDNEY – DESIGN COVENANTS7CDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 730/07/13 3:39 PM


CDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 830/07/13 3:40 PM


INTRODUCTIONINTENDED AUDIENCE FOR THE DESIGN COVENANTSThe intended audience for the documents will be both designprofessionals and ‘non designers’ who are part of the decision makingprocess for capital projects. Capital Works and Facilities will use thedocuments to aid preliminary design preparation for projects and issuedto design consultants. The documents will be referenced by projectsteering committees and project control groups. The documentswill also be used to support decisions by the University’s ExecutiveCommittee, the Board of Trustees and its standing committees.THE STRUCTURE OF THE DESIGN COVENANTSTHE DESIGN COVENANTS COMPRISE TWO VOLUMES:Volume 1:»»Describes the guiding principles upon which the covenants are based.»»Provides a summary for each campus.»»Compares the qualities and challenges of allcampuses on a principle-by-principle basis.Volume 2:»»Gives detailed analysis and recommendations for eachcampus on a principle-by-principle basis.»»Provides explanatory graphics and images.»»Illustrates the above with positive and negative examples for each campus.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe Design Covenants were prepared by BVN for the University:Olivia Hyde, DirectorLuise Wiegand, Project ArchitectMelanie Dodd, ArchitectSUSTAINABILITYAs a long-standing signatory to the Talloires Declaration and more recentlyin endorsing the Higher Education Treaty on Education for Sustainabilityof the Rio+20 Summit, UWS is committed to making sustainabledevelopment a key guiding principle including using our campuses asliving models of social, cultural, economic and environmental sustainability.UWS has embedded design principles relating to sustainability in itscampus master plans and is adopting best practice approaches to thedesign of new buildings and refurbishment of existing buildings.UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN SYDNEY – DESIGN COVENANTS9CDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 930/07/13 3:40 PM


GUIDING PRINCIPLESPRINCIPLES OVERVIEWSeven guiding principles have been proposed as a means to establish a sharedset of criteria for a successful University of Western Sydney campus. Theprinciples are:»»Campus Image»»Coherent Aesthetic Character»»Public Domain Framework»»Legibility and Address»»Densification and Centralisation»»Sensitivity to Human Scale»»Defined Open SpacesEach campus has been analysed on the basis of these principles. On theopposite page is a description of the means of analysis. For example, in orderto arrive at an understanding of the existing ‘Campus Image’, it was necessaryto analyse the existing public realm, campus structure and architectural andlandscape character. A series of recommendations for each campus werethen derived from this analysis. The principles therefore function as both ananalytic tool, and as a means to establish a framework for recommendations.A brief description of the seven principles follows:CAMPUSIMAGEDEFINEDOPENSPACESCOHERENTAESTHETICCHARACTERSENSITIVITYTO HUMANSCALEPUBLICDOMAINFRAMEWORKDENSIFICATIONANDCENTRALISATIONLEGIBILITYANDADDRESSSEVEN GUIDING PRINCIPLESCDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 1030/07/13 3:40 PM


GUIDING PRINCIPLESPRINCIPLEANALYSISCAMPUSIMAGECOHERENTAESTHETICCHARACTEREXISTING PUBLIC REALMKEY CAMPUS STRUCTUREARCHITECTURAL & LANDSCAPECHARACTEREXISTING MATERIALS AND BUILTFORMPUBLICDOMAINFRAMEWORKEXISTING SITING, GRID ANDCIRCULATIONLEGIBILITYANDADDRESSEXISTING CAMPUS ARRIVAL, ORIENTATIONAND VISUAL CONNECTIONSBUILDING ENTRIES AND FRONTAGESDENSIFICATIONANDCENTRALISATIONEXISTING GRAIN, SCALE AND CAMPUSCORESENSITIVITYTO HUMANSCALEEXISTING BUILDING ARTICULATION ANDCURTILAGEDEFINEDOPENSPACESEXISTING OPEN SPACESAND LANDSCAPINGRELATIONSHIP OF ANALYTIC PROCESS TO EACH PRINCIPLEPRINCIPLE DESCRIPTIONSCAMPUS IMAGE“Campus identity”“Unique campus experience”The campus image is created by the landscape, site and built form.Public domain framework, building heights and scales, campusaddress and open spaces can be part of the campus image.QUADRANGLE, HAWKESBURY CAMPUSThe objective is to achieve:»»a ‘sense of place’ for each campus»»built form which is integral with the overall landscape characterUNIVERSITY OF WESTERN SYDNEY – DESIGN COVENANTS 11CDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 1130/07/13 3:40 PM


COHERENT AESTHETIC CHARACTER“The challenge is to be inspired by tradition without stiflinginnovation”“A meaningful relationship between appearance and use”The aesthetic character of a campus is formed by its buildings. Scale,massing, proportion, roof form, facade articulation, materials and colours,and specific architectural elements such as towers or arcades, may all becontributing elements. The aesthetic character of future development mustbe appropriate for the precinct and at the same time relate to its use.Objectives:»»a continuity and coherence of character»»a comprehensive building hierarchy.LIBRARY AND BOILER HOUSE, PARRAMATTA CAMPUSPUBLIC DOMAIN FRAMEWORK“Often, within a campus, the pedestrian network is the principleordering element of the public domain.”A public domain framework is established through a combinationof many elements including topography, organisation of pathways,major circulation lines, the sequence of public spaces, grid andprevailing building orientation, and the access and parking strategy.The siting of any new development must be appropriate to the campusstructure and enhance the existing public domain framework.Objectives:»»a legible and well defined public domain framework»»a coherent campus structure»»uninterrupted pedestrian movement.MAIN PEDESTRIAN SPINE, CAMPBELLTOWN CAMPUSADDRESS AND LEGIBILITY“Create a strong first year experience…”A clear address and arrival point is important for the campusentry and for each building. Legibility and orientation on campuscan be enhanced through landmarks and key nodes, visualconnections and a hierarchy of pathways and roads.Objectives:»»intuitive wayfinding»»strong entry definitions to site and buildings»»visual connections and transparency.GRAND ENTRY, HAWKESBURY CAMPUSCDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 1230/07/13 3:40 PM


GUIDING PRINCIPLESDENSIFICATION AND CENTRALISATION“Pedestrians are the most important users of the campus”Densification will create a critical mass to generate a stronger senseof student community. New infill development and the continuationof the building fabric both have many benefits. These strategieswill activate public spaces, shorten distances between functionsand is cost efficient as it utilises existing infrastructure.CAMPUS CORE, BANKSTOWNObjectives:»»a walkable campus»»a campus heart»»a vibrant campus.SENSITIVITY TO HUMAN SCALE“A vibrant inclusive community”“A place that keeps students on campus”The treatment of building curtilages and facades affect the senseof scale. Articulated building masses, facade depths, awnings andarcades, transitional indoor-outdoor spaces and landscaping aroundbuildings all contribute to an inviting and sheltered environment.BUILDING ENTRY, WERRINGTON SOUTHObjectives:»»open inviting and engaging facades»»an inclusive environment»»sheltered spaces.DEFINED OPEN SPACES“Outdoor areas contribute to the overall campus unity”“Open spaces are the incubators of social activity”Successful outdoor spaces are the result of a strong and poeticrelationship between voids and masses. Good public spacesare defined by landscape, amenities, shelter and furniture andtheir relation to circulation routes and building frontages.COURTYARD, NIRIMBA CAMPUSObjectives:»»distinct, inhabitable spaces»»range of informal, formal, intimate and larger gathering spaces»»protection and softening through landscape.UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN SYDNEY – DESIGN COVENANTS 13CDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 1330/07/13 3:40 PM


SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS ANDRECOMMENDATIONS BY PRINCIPLECAMPUS IMAGEThe campus image of all six sites is strongly linked withits landscape setting. The built environment relates to theexisting vegetation and topography of the site:»»Hawkesbury campus has an agricultural character with lines of mature trees.»»Parramatta campus has an institutional parkland setting.»»Campbelltown campus has open space around the lakeand a landscape buffer along the edges of the site.»»Kingswood campus buildings are positionedbetween the ridgeline and the lake.The buildings of most campuses are of a less dominant character andserve to form public spaces. They purposefully frame courtyard spacesor generate intimate green spaces due to their particular arrangement.A courtyard theme can be found across many campuses:»»Parramatta campus has an arrangement of heritagebuildings that create a network of courtyards.»»Campbelltown campus has a sequence of courtyards, gardens and lawns.»»Kingswood campus has a series of small intimatecourtyards within the northern campus section.»»Bankstown campus has intimate public spaces within and between buildings.»»Nirimba campus has an emerging pattern ofcourtyard spaces within building groups.»»Hawkesbury campus has many heritage buildings framingcourtyard spaces and intimate spaces between buildings.QUADRANGLE, HAWKESBURY CAMPUSBUILDINGS IN LANDSCAPE SETTING, CAMPBELLTOWN CAMPUSEach campus has specific qualities and key spaces that form its image:»»Hawkesbury campus has heritage buildings and spaces (quadrangle,Stable Square), agricultural character and avenue plantings.»»Campbelltown campus has a landscape setting, coherent materialsand architectural language and a linear framework of public spaces.»»Parramatta campus has a complex of heritage buildings, welldefinedpublic spaces with amenities and a riverside setting.»»Kingswood campus has a strong circulation spine anda coherent material language (terracotta brick).»»Bankstown campus has a circulation axis, permeablebuilt form and courtyard spaces.»»Werrington South and Nirimba campuses lack a definedcampus image, however, there are elements that could beenhanced to create a stronger campus identity:»»Nirimba campus has opportunities associated with the watertower as landmark, mountain views, courtyards and arcades.»»Werrington South campus has the lake and undulating landscape.BOILER HOUSE AND EXTENSION, PARRAMATTA CAMPUSRecommendations»»Preserve and enhance existing landscape character.»»Enhance key image qualities of each campus.»»Apply a unifying design strategy of open spaces and landscape withinlow scale, dispersed and/ or architecturally diverse campuses.»»Continue courtyard logic and sequence of public spaces.SPINE + SURROUNDING BRICK FACADES, KINGSWOOD CAMPUSCDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 1430/07/13 3:40 PM


DESIGN COVENANTSCOHERENT AESTHETIC CHARACTERBuildings on all campuses are mostly characterised by modest architecturalexpression. Many are of a utilitarian or small-scale institutional character.Kingswood, Werrington South, Campbelltown and Bankstown campuseswere planned for education uses, whereas buildings at Nirimba and inpart Parramatta campus were constructed for different functions. Inthese cases the buildings are a reflection of the site’s former use:»»Nirimba campus was formerly a Naval training base.»»Parramatta campus was developed for as range of institutional uses.ARCADES + SAND COLOURED BRICK, CAMPBELLTOWNCAMPUSThe aesthetic character of each campus is formed by:»»Its materials and colours (e.g. Campbelltown campus with its sand colouredbrick and tiled roof and Kingswood with its terracotta coloured brick)»»Its architectural language (e.g. Campbelltown campushas consistent arcades and façade articulation).»»The architectural language of historical buildings (e.g.Hawkesbury and Parramatta campuses).»»Its scale (e.g. Nirimba and Hawkesbury are both low rise campuses).»»Its style (e.g. Nirimba campus is an example of SydneySchool style architecture and many buildings onHawkesbury campus an agricultural in style).ARTICULATED ROOF FORMS, PARRAMATTA CAMPUSAll campuses comprise building groups (precincts) with a distinctaesthetic character. These are often physically separated:»»Campbelltown, Kingswood and Parramatta campuses have onemain complex containing the academic core that sets the aestheticcharacter of the campus. Student residences and miscellaneousbuildings are physically and aesthetically separated from the core.»»Hawkesbury, Nirimba and Werrington South campuses are dispersed,comprising many distinct precincts or building groups.»»Bankstown is the only campus that combines all functionsof the campus within one continuous precinct.RecommendationsBUILDINGS NESTLED IN LANDSCAPE, NIRIMBA CAMPUSHISTORIC FARMHOUSES, HAWKESBURY CAMPUS»»Ensure that the appearance of all new buildings have ameaningful and legible relation to their use, (e.g. the importanceof a library should be architecturally and spatially legible ascompared to student services or teaching facilities).»»Enhance the coherence of existing architecturallanguages and material palettes.»»Strengthen predominant aesthetic character of a campus.New developments should strengthen the predominantaesthetic character by complementing and contributing tothe existing scale, style, form, and materials palette.»»New buildings must be sympathetic in scale, form,materials and design to heritage buildings.»»Scale, form and materials of new developments should relate to thatof the existing surrounding built form within any given precinct.UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN SYDNEY – DESIGN COVENANTS 15CDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 1530/07/13 3:40 PM


BANKSTOWN CAMPUSKINGSWOOD CAMPUSCAMPBELLTOWN CAMPUSPARRAMATTA CAMPUSWERRINGTON SOUTHNIRIMBA CAMPUSHAWKESBURY CAMPUSCDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 1630/07/13 3:40 PM


DESIGN COVENANTSPUBLIC DOMAIN FRAMEWORKPEDESTRIAN SPINE, KINGSWOOD CAMPUSCampuses that exhibit a major pedestrian circulation spine as part of thecampus core structure generally have a successful public domain framework:»»Kingswood, Bankstown, Parramatta and Campbelltown campusesprovide a main circulation spine that passes through designedpublic spaces and connects to a secondary pathway system.»»While Kingswood and Bankstown campuses have a clear linear axis,the spine at Parramatta and Campbelltown campuses evolves alongthe site contours or follows pre-existing pedestrian movement.»»Hawkesbury, Nirimba and Werrington South campuses do notyet provide a well-defined hierarchy of pedestrian circulation andconsequently lack a legible and active public domain framework.»»The historic campus structure and tree groves of Hawkesbury providea strong base for a future successful public domain framework.»»Nirimba and Werrington South campuses require the establishmentof clear circulation paths that interconnect existing public spaces.A campus grid and/or coherent building orientation systemis important for the legibility of the campus structure:»»Hawkesbury, Bankstown and Nirimba campuseshave a clear orthogonal grid.»»The building orientation for Parramatta, Campbelltown and Kingswoodcampuses is related to the topography and contour lines.PEDESTRIAN SPINE, CAMPBELLTOWN CAMPUSMost campuses give pedestrian circulation priority:»»On Parramatta, Bankstown, Kingswood and Campbelltown campusesaccess roads and parking areas are located on the campus perimeters.»»Hawkesbury, Nirimba and Werrington South campuses are served by aring road but have scattered parking areas within the campus core.PEDESTRIAN SPINE, BANKSTOWN CAMPUSRecommendations»»Strengthen existing circulation spines and pathway hierarchies.»»Establish pedestrian circulation spines for Nirimbaand Werrington South campuses.»»Align new development with campus gridsand prevailing building orientation.»»Free campus cores for pedestrian movement. Group parkingareas and locate them at the edges of the campus core.PEDESTRIAN SPINE, PARRAMATTA CAMPUSUNIVERSITY OF WESTERN SYDNEY – DESIGN COVENANTS 17CDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 1730/07/13 3:40 PM


ADDRESS AND LEGIBILITYSome campuses celebrate their main entry giving thecampus an address and sense of place:»»Campbelltown campus has a well-landscaped entry road.»»Hawkesbury campus has a tree-lined entrance drive (which currentlydoes not provide direct access to key campus spaces).»»Kingswood campus has a gateway and pointof entry for the pedestrian spine.»»Bankstown campus has a landscaped and tree-lined pedestrian entrance.»»Parramatta campus could develop an address to its riverfront.»»Nirimba and Werrington South campuses requirean improved campus address.MAIN ENTRANCE, HAWKESBURY CAMPUSOrientation on the seven campuses is assisted by landmarks, stronglandscape elements, memorable public spaces and key buildings. Wayfinding is successful if these feature elements relate to the circulationroutes, e.g. provide visual connections to pathways or mark them:»»Campbelltown campus has towers that markkey nodes and views to the lake.»»Bankstown campus has covered walkwaysand visual connections to its axes.»»Kingswood campus has views to the lake and visualconnections to the main pedestrian spine.»»Parramatta campus has building landmarks includingthe Boilerhouse and Female Orphan School, the riverand visual connections to main public spaces.TOWERS, CAMPBELLTOWN CAMPUSWay finding on the other campuses is more difficult for various reasons:»»On Werrington South campus pedestrian pathways donot capitalise on the undulating site and lake.»»Hawkesbury campus has many courtyards that are memorablespaces but not well connected to the main circulation route.The presentation and orientation of building entries areimportant for intuitive way finding on campus.»»Within the core of Campbelltown, Bankstown, Kingswoodand Parramatta campuses most of the building entries aresuccessfully orientated towards the main circulation spine.»»At Werrington South and Nirimba campuses the entries are connectedto parking areas and not clearly visible from pedestrian paths.»»At Hawkesbury campus several buildings turn their ‘back’to the central oval space and main circulation routes.KEY SPACES AND ARRIVAL POINTS, BANKSTOWN CAMPUSRecommendations»»Enhance main campus entrances through landscaping. Createarrival points using important spaces and buildings.»»Preserve key views and key compositional elements.»»Provide visual connections between key features and circulation routes.»»Mark important functions and circulation nodeswith key buildings or landscape features.»»Orientate building entries to main pedestrian circulation public spaces.»»Clearly indicate building entrances, via portals, awnings, wide paths, etc.FOCUS AND ARRIVAL POINTS, CAMPBELLTOWN CAMPUSCDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 1830/07/13 3:40 PM


DESIGN COVENANTSDENSIFICATION AND CENTRALISATIONCIRCULATION NODE AND ‘HEART’, BANKSTOWN CAMPUSA vibrant student community can be found in those campuses that have adense campus core combined with well-connected public spaces. Density isimportant to generate the critical mass for an activated campus centre/ ‘heart’:»»The campus ‘heart’ of most sites has been developedaround a main circulation spine, as on Kingswood,Campbelltown and Bankstown campuses.»»The more dispersed campuses such as Hawkesbury, Nirimbaand Werrington South campuses offer opportunities for infilldevelopment in the core, with associated development ofpublic domain and pedestrian circulation strategies.»»At Parramatta campus, the site edges adjacent to thehistoric core provide limited opportunity for densification tocontinue to activate the historical campus ‘heart’.Walkable distances between all functions on campus contributeto a positive experience for the pedestrian user:»»Bankstown campus is a good example for UWS with its continuous buildingfabric and built form that decreases in density moving away from the core.»»Campbelltown and Kingswood campuses have a dense campus corebut connections to the campus edges provide opportunity for furtherdevelopment. The residential precincts are separate from the core.»»Werrington South and Nirimba have detached building groups thatcould be ‘knitted together’ via pedestrian links and infill development.MAIN PUBLIC PLAZA AND ‘HEART’, PARRAMATTA CAMPUSDevelopment opportunities on the campuses are oftenlimited by open spaces or heritage built context:»»Development sites at Kingswood, Campbelltown and Werrington Southcampuses are shaped through topography and riparian corridors.»»Development on Bankstown campus could be supplemented throughopportunities to secure adjoining lands (e.g. hockey fields).»»The low rise/scale context of the historic building stock at Parramatta andHawkesbury campuses forms a significant part of the campus image.»»Parramatta, Bankstown and Hawkesbury campuses have large oval spacesthat impact on the opportunity for densification for these campuses.DENSITIES AND GROWTH, KINGSWOOD CAMPUSRecommendations»»Increase density along spines to create a unified student community.»»In a dispersed campus, densification in the campus corearea is crucial to shorten distances between functionsand to create an active student experience.»»Continue existing building grain.»»Avoid dispersal or detachment of built form.»»Define strong pedestrian links that connect thecampus edges with the campus ‘heart’.»»Preserve significant open spaces and historic building context.DENSITIES AND GROWTH, CAMPBELLTOWN CAMPUSUNIVERSITY OF WESTERN SYDNEY – DESIGN COVENANTS 19CDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 1930/07/13 3:40 PM


SENSITIVITY TO HUMAN SCALEDifferent façade treatments and the scale of built form have animpact on human scale and surrounding public spaces. Positiveand negative examples are found throughout the campuses:»»The built core of the Campbelltown campus creates an invitingand engaging environment. This is achieved through a thoughtfularticulation of building masses, facade depth, large facadeopenings and landscaping of building curtilages. Arcades in frontof facades create changing patterns of light and shade.»»At Kingswood, Bankstown, Parramatta and Nirimba campuses manyfacades are articulated, for example with expressed structures ordifferent materials, and are softened with trees and landscaping. Sunshading details can be found as an integrated design element.»»Many other buildings on the campuses lack facade depth and articulation.Their scale and closed appearance is insensitive to human scale, for examplethe solid brick clad facades at Kingswood and Parramatta campuses.»»The historic Hawkesbury and Parramatta campuses are sensitive tohuman scale through their low-rise and articulated roof forms. Howeversome buildings lack facade depth and have an introverted character.FACADE DEPTH VIA TIMBER SCREEN, PARRAMATTA CAMPUSThe relation of building frontages to surrounding spacesinfluences the success and usage of those spaces:»»The arcades at Campbelltown campus and Parramatta’srefurbished Boilerhouse provide sheltered public spaces.»»At Kingswood, Nirimba and Bankstown campuses, intimateand interconnected courtyards between permeable buildingscreate an open and inclusive environment. Hawkesbury campus’historic buildings and spaces have similar qualities.»»Transparent facades of the School of Medicine building at Campbelltowncampus allow for visual connections between indoor and outdoor spaces.»»Although the ground level is significant for the public domain, manybuildings locate their services on ground floor. At Hawkesbury campusthese impede pedestrian circulation and at Werrington South theyvisually and physically detach the building from surrounding spaces.CHANGING PATTERNS OF LIGHT, CAMPBELLTOWN CAMPUSRecommendationsTRANSPARENCY, CAMPBELLTOWN CAMPUS, BLD 30»»Lessen the impact of large buildings by articulating their façadesbuilding masses and using landscape for screening.»»Create inviting building facades by adding depth,sun shading and numerous/ large openings.»»Establish a strong and engaged relationship betweenbuilding frontages and adjacent outdoor spaces.»»Create intimate spaces within building curtilages.»»Avoid locating building services on groundlevel adjacent to circulation routes.INDOOR-OUTDOOR SPACE, PARRAMATTA CAMPUS, BLD EKBCDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 2030/07/13 3:40 PM


DESIGN COVENANTSDEFINED OPEN SPACESThe success of an open space is related to its definition, location and usability:»»Parramatta campus has a spine of public spaces that areconnected to circulation routes and are adjacent to amenities.»»The core of Campbelltown and Bankstown campuses includespaces that are shaded, furnished and landscaped and allow fora range of activities such as informal and quiet learning.»»Courtyard spaces of Parramatta and Hawkesbury campusesprovide spaces that are distinct through a particularlandscape design, vegetation or public art.»»Bankstown campus has incidental spaces between buildings thathave been successfully furnished to provide for informal interaction.OPEN SPACE WITH PALM GROVES, HAWKESBURY CAMPUSThe core of the Campbelltown campus is successful because itprovides a broad range of formal and informal spaces of differentscale, such as internal courtyards, gardens, larger gathering andrecreation spaces. Other campuses have less variety of spaces:»»Hawkesbury, Werrington and Nirimba campuses havespaces that are not connected to main circulation routes andlack landscaping, shading and furniture. Green ‘patches’ inbetween some buildings remains as leftover space.STUDENT RESIDENCES + COURTYARDS, PARRAMATTA CAMPUSScale and definition of outdoor spaces is important to establisha legible relationship between masses and voids.»»Campbelltown, Parramatta, Bankstown campuses provide public spacesthat are well defined by the surrounding landscape and buildings.»»Public spaces that are framed by buildings can be found inthe north part of Kingswood campus and at Hawkesburycampus including the quadrangle and Stable Square.»»At Nirimba and Werrington South campuses low scale buildingsare dwarfed by the scale of the open space around them.Open space can have the purpose to protect and screen:»»At Campbelltown campus trees and vegetation define the border of thecampus, soften the edges of the built form, and screen adverse winds andtraffic noise. The landscaped recreation zone works as a green outlook.SEATING PLATFORM, PARRAMATTA CAMPUSOther campuses could adopt a similar strategy of landscape buffers:»»Parramatta campus there is opportunity to use treesand vegetation to screen frequented roads.»»On Bankstown and Nirimba campuses landscapingcould be used to define campus borders.»»On Kingswood and Werrington South campuses there is an opportunity todevelop a recreation area around lakes within the undulating landscape.RecommendationsLANDSCAPED COURTYARD, BANKSTOWN CAMPUS»»Connect open spaces to circulation routes.»»Add amenities, furniture and shading tomake outdoor spaces successful.»»Use existing landscape to establish distinct outdoor spaces.»»Provide a range of formal and informal open spaces.»»Activate leftover spaces.»»Consider the relationship between positive masses and negative voids.»»Use landscape buffers to screen frequented roads and parking areas.»»Use trees and vegetation to define campus bordersand to create large recreation areas.UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN SYDNEY – DESIGN COVENANTS 21CDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 2130/07/13 3:41 PM


SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATION BY CAMPUSThe following section provides a summary of the analysis and recommendations for eachcampus. Further detail on each campus can be found in Volume 2 of this report.Whilst each campus is distinct, a number of shared characteristics have emerged from thisassessment. These characteristics are most evident in those campuses where the overall senseof place is clearest.A key shared characteristic for UWS campuses is the idea of the campus as a landscapeexperience. In contrast to the more urban campus environments of other universitiesacross Greater Sydney, UWS campuses are typically characterised by large sites fringedwith open grassland, park land or native forest. Even at more constrained sites such theBankstown campus the landscaping setting, particularly at the entrance is strong.At the more successful UWS campuses the scale and openness of the site has beenbalanced with the creation of a dense and smaller scale campus public domain,providing intimate spaces and connective networks. In many cases, either as a guidingdesign concept (Campbelltown campus) or through thoughtful adaptation (Parramattacampus), a single primary pedestrian spine provides the principle organising andorientation system, with a network of secondary pathways connecting back to it.For UWS the challenge of future development will be to address the opportunities ofeach campus whilst encouraging and enhancing a shared landscape experience identityfor all campuses.CDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 2230/07/13 3:41 PM


DESIGN COVENANTSBANKSTOWNThe key organising element of the campus is the north-south pedestrianaxis. It links important buildings, internal malls, well landscapedoutdoors spaces, courtyards and gardens. The axis is the centrefor student life and forms the spine of the campus structure.The campus has a clear functional organisation. Parking andaccess is located to its east perimeter, major sport facilities tothe south and the academic precinct along the centre axis.Architecturally the campus offers a diverse image. There are a varietyof building scales, materials and forms.INTERSECTION OF TWO PEDESTRIAN AXESThe buildings are between one and three storeys high and generallyof a simple utilitarian character.The environment of courtyards and green spaces forms the strong campusimage. Intimate public spaces are shaped between and within buildings.The courtyards are connected through pathways and buildingpassages which creates a highly permeable campus.Large green sport fields provide a green outlook to the south. Nativewoodland creates the background and landscape setting to the north.TWO MAIN AXES THROUGH THE CAMPUS CORESIGNIFICANT LIBRARY FRONTAGE WITH FORECOURT, BLD 9Recommendations»»New development should support the campusstructure and relate to the axis.»»Strengthen the spine through placement of importantbuildings and spaces. Empty spaces along the spine havethe potential to be developed for teaching facilities.»»The variety of scales, forms and materials on campus collectively createa diverse image, this should be celebrated. The selection of coloursand materials for new buildings and refurbishments should reflect this.»»Enhance all courtyard spaces for passive recreation and outdoorteaching. Each courtyard has the potential to be ‘themed’.»»Permeability of campus should be enhanced.»»Qualities of the surrounding woodland should be exploredand brought into the campus core and south.»»Campus identity can be enhanced through a unifieddesign strategy of open spaces and landscape, ratherthan through specific built form, and palette.DIVERSE BUILDING STOCK, VIEW ON TO BUILDINGS #1,5,24UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN SYDNEY – DESIGN COVENANTS 23CDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 2330/07/13 3:41 PM


CAMPBELLTOWNApproaching the campus from the northeast one sees a series of lowscaledmasonry buildings with tiled roofs. These are set within an undulatingpastoral landscape of native and exotic trees, and overlook a lake. Thiscelebrated view immediately gives the campus a strong sense of place.The built campus is compact and continuous. Its stepped structureand punctuated towers articulate the building mass.The campus core is designed as a linear development followingthe contours of the hill and the lines of pedestrian movement.A primary circulation spine connects the main campus facilities.The spine also forms the social heart of the campus, openingup to successive intimate public spaces and gardens.VIEW FROM NARELLAN ROAD - LOW SCALED MASONRYBUILDINGS IN AN UNDULATING LANDSCAPEThere is a strong coherence in architectural language. Arcades, sandcolouredbrick and terracotta coloured roofs have been used repeatedly.The buildings designed by Philip Cox and Associates set the architecturallanguage for the adjacent developments to the southwest.Trees and vegetation play an important role. They screenthe campus from surrounding adverse winds and noise andprovide sun protection and shelter within the campus.Recommendations»»Preserve the view from the northeast (Narellan Road)including the landscaped park, tree plantings, lake,existing building frontages and forecourt.»»Continue dense building fabric and sensitivearticulation of building masses.»»New developments should be planned around public spacesand continue the network of courtyards and gardens.»»The campus is perceived as a coherent group of buildingsthat frame continuous public spaces. Ensure that newbuildings contribute to and enhance this concept.»»New buildings should relate to the existing building group:through materials, colours and massing and proportions. Thechallenge is to achieve a continuity of aesthetic character whilstallowing for change and evolving architectural expression.»»New buildings and refurbishments should be consistentwith the architectural style of the original buildinggroup including roof pitch and roof materials.»»Adopt the successful language of arcades, facadedepths, and shading strategies. Continue to engagebuilding frontages with surrounding public spaces.»»Strengthen the perimeter buffer landscape to lessenthe impact of adjacent future developments.»»Ensure that future development, roads and pathways associated withthe development of adjoining lands to the southeast are designed toclearly and legibly connect to the main campus public space network.FACADES DESIGNED BY PHILLIP COX ASSOCIATES- ARCADESAND SANDCOLOURED BRICKMAIN CIRCULATION SPINE AND ADJACENT PUBLIC SPACES-MAIN SPINE: SHELTERED BY COLLONADES WHICH OPEN UP TOADJACENT OPEN SPACESCDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 2430/07/13 3:41 PM


executive summaryHAWKESBURYThe mature tree-lined avenues of the former agriculturalcollege are a dominant element of the campus image.The built form remains low rise. Buildings are of Australianagricultural/utilitarian character, across a range of eras.The most memorable spaces on campus are the quadrangleand Stable Square. The grand oval forms a strong part of thecampus image, but also acts to disperse campus functions.GRAND MAIN ENTRANCE WITH GATES AND MATURE TREEBuildings in the campus core are typically distributed in clustersor precincts. The underlying spatial structure of the campuscore is orthogonal originating in its farmland setting.There are two types of pedestrian routes on campus: The main axial routesalong tree-lined avenues provide fast, direct links between campus precincts. Anetwork of secondary routes filters through buildings, plazas and green spaces.The celebrated campus entrance driveway does notcurrently provide a direct entry to the campus.Buildings on campus are no longer surrounded by large open spacesbut instead frame intimate spaces between them. Many of thesespaces are currently perceived and treated as leftover spaces.STABLE SQUARE WITH PORTALORTHOGONAL GRID AND TREE LINED AVENUESRecommendations»»Preserve historic buildings and curtilages.Maintain a low-rise campus core.»»Strengthen and restore historic avenue planting. Uselandscape as a design element to unify the campus andcounteract the current dispersion of functions.»»Adaptive reuse of the quadrangle and Stable Square should seekstudent functions that will ensure their continued relevance to thecampus. Establish the social ‘heart’ of the campus around key spaces.»»Massing, form, materiality and colour of new developments should relateto that of existing surrounding built form within any given precinct.»»Provide new buildings with an appearance appropriate to theireducational function and the era of their construction.»»Incorporate services into building design. Keep buildingservices away from public spaces and circulation paths.»»Align new development with orthogonal buildinggrid. Emphasise the existing axes through the site.Enhance the secondary pedestrian network.»»Avoid leftover spaces. Define open spaces with building frontages,vegetation and covered walkways. Establish a relationshipbetween building frontages and adjacent outdoor spaces.COURTYARD OF QUADRANGLE WITH MATURE TREES ANDVERANDAHSUNIVERSITY OF WESTERN SYDNEY – DESIGN COVENANTS 25CDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 2530/07/13 3:41 PM


KINGSWOODThe most significant compositional element of the Kingswood campusis the linear pedestrian spine that runs north south through the campusand acts as the primary circulation route linking all the main academicbuildings. Secondary access routes run perpendicular to the spine.The campus core is surrounded by undulating green fields.The building orientation follows the contour lines of the slopinglandscape and the linear movement of the spine.The predominantly brick clad facades are articulated and enhancedwith other materials such as glazing, cladding, sun shading and timber.Terracotta brick is used for buildings and throughout the landscape.Many buildings adjacent to the spine lack clear entrancedefinition and transitional indoor-outdoor spaces. Theirclosed brick facades have a negative impact.ENTRY GATE AND SURROUNDING TERRACOTTA COLOUREDBRICK FACADES (BLD C,D)The north part of the campus contains many small and intimatecourtyards that are currently lacking in the south. The campusrequires larger public spaces for formal and informal gathering.Recommendations»»Orientate buildings towards the spine and take advantageof topography (views to both east and west).»»New development should complement and reinforce the existingbuildings through scale, massing and form. Terracotta brick (orsimilar) should form the primary façade and landscape material.»»Construction detailing should allow for the creation of open andinviting facades with articulation to address human scale.»»Enhance the significant appearance of the mainentrance through additional planting and widening ofthe pedestrian pathways across the car park.»»The central spine should be further developed through densification andcentralisation to reach its full potential as an active student thoroughfare.»»Reduce the impact of existing closed facades throughlandscaping and refurbishment. Ensure facades aresensitive to their surroundings and human interaction.»»Add furniture, landscape and amenities to existing courtyards.Continue courtyard theme. Create a hierarchy between publicspaces and include a larger central outdoor space.»»Create a landscape buffer between the upperparking area and the campus.MAIN CIRCULATION SPINE FROM THE SOUTH LOOKING NORTH(BLD V)MAIN CIRCULATION SPINE AND SECONDARY PATHWAYSINTIMATE COURTYARD IN NORTHERN SECTION OF SPINECDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 2630/07/13 3:41 PM


executive summaryNIRIMBANirimba campus, with its large unused open spaces gives the impressionof an incomplete site. The available land within the campus centrehowever provides an opportunity to create a vibrant campus core.The buildings are arranged to a strict north-south east-west orthogonalgrid. The campus core is served by a ring road setting clear campusboundaries and providing opportunities for a car free campus core.Existing buildings on campus are low rise and modest, nestlinginto the surrounding landscape. Within a low rise site thecampus image is strongly characterised by its landscape.WIDE GRASSLAND, SMALL SCALE BUILDINGS (U2) AND WATERTOWERBuildings are arranged as distinct groups that are spatiallyseparated. Building groups in the campus centre, frame courtyardspaces and are similar in aesthetic character, but are surroundedby groups of buildings of very different architectural language.This results in a poor overall sense of campus coherence.The main challenge of the campus is its poorly defined public domain,most particularly its lack of articulated pedestrian movement.The vast open spaces of the campus centre lack vegetation, amenitiesand shade.PRECINCTS AND DIFFERENT OWNERSHIPS OF THE MULTI-INSTITUTIONAL CAMPUSARCADES AND HORIZONTAL ARTICULATION OF BUILDINGS (U3)Recommendations»»Use new developments to create central focus points for studentactivity. New developments should help to ‘heal’ the building fabric.»»New development should strengthen the existinggrid through orientation and arrangement.»»Develop a ‘pedestrian core’ and keep access roads and parking tothe site’s perimeters. Create a continuous public domain framework.»»Ensure new key buildings are designed to have a meaningful and legibleappearance. Locate them in the campus centre and at circulation nodes.»»Continue landscaping of open areas and building curtilages.Use landscape as the unifying design principle.»»Continue to arrange buildings to frame intimate spaces.»»Create pedestrian axes or spines that are well defined andlink important facilities and significant open spaces.»»Determine the function/purpose for open spaces, such asrecreation, sport, view or relaxation. Embellish these spaces withlandscaping and place amenities and furniture accordingly.LANDSCAPED COURTYARD FRAMED BY BUILDING U2UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN SYDNEY – DESIGN COVENANTS 27CDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 2730/07/13 3:41 PM


PARRAMATTAThe campus is a place of outstanding heritage significance for itscontinuous public institutional use. Its significance as a site is alsoattributed to the aesthetic character of its historic buildings, theirarrangement and relation to the landscape (parkland setting).A network of interconnected courtyards, form the public domainof the campus and generate a legible active central spine.A large number of amenities such as cafes and outdoor seating transformthe campus centre into a positive learning environment. The pedestrianuser has priority. Cars are limited to a ring road and perimeter parking.Recent work has successfully provided the campus with a morecomprehensive campus structure. The public reuse of historicbuildings has helped to continue their relevance on the site.BOILER HOUSE AND EXTENSION - LANDMARK AND PUBLIC USEThe Parramatta River was once the site’s main entry, and there isopportunity to enhance and strengthen access from this edge. Itsriverbanks provide elevated views and quality outdoor spaces.New development in the north and west interruptthe harmonious campus character.Parramatta’s smaller campus to the northwest is physically separatedfrom the main campus due to surrounding major roads.MAIN CIRCULATION SPINE WITH LARGE NUMBER OF AMENITIESRecommendations»»Maintain landscape settings for historic buildings. Future buildingsshould relate to the image outlined above in order to conservelandscape settings and the curtilages of the heritage buildings.»»Adopt courtyard design logic where appropriate.»»Preserve view lines to heritage buildings.»»New development should have appropriate heights andscale relationships with heritage buildings and landscapestructure. They should be sympathetic in form, materialsand design to adjacent heritage buildings.»»Continue with a careful and considered design approachfor all future refurbishments and campus additions. Keyhistorical buildings should have key functions.»»Exploit the opportunities of the riverside for recreational uses.Enhance the identity of the campus as a ‘riverside’ campus.»»Establish a major address and entry from VictoriaRoad relating to all forms of transport.»»Maintain priority for pedestrian movement.»»A future connection between the two campuses is critical. Thelink should strongly consider pedestrians and cyclists.IMPORTANT VIEWLINES TO THE SITE - FROM PARRAMATTA RIVERAND VICTORIA ROADTHE CAMPUS’ RIVER FRONTAGECDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 2830/07/13 3:41 PM


executive summaryWERRINGTON SOUTHThe current campus image is one of individual buildings spread outacross a large green field with little or no sense of connectivity.The open fields at the centre of the site lack cohesivelandscaping and are currently functionless.Existing buildings follow the ridgeline. Some buildings suggestan orientation and frontage towards the lake in the centre eastof the campus. The outlook over the lake and sloping landscapeprovides an opportunity for enhancing the campus.DISPERSAL OF BUILDINGS VIEWED FROM THE CENTRE OF THESITEThe main entrance to the campus leads to the main car park, which islocated in the valley below the ridgeline. It has little relation to buildingsor building entrances. It is adjacent to the lake and has a negativeimpact on the outlook from the campus ridge towards the lake.The buildings are heterogeneous in colour and material.They are mostly lightweight construction with a variety ofcladding types including brick and aluminum panels.The campus shows a variety of building scales ranging from singlestorey dwellings to large multi-storey teaching facilities.ORIENTATION OF BUILDINGS ALONG CONTOUR LINES AND VIEWTO LAKEThe campus is to be developed as a mixed-use site withfacilities for educational and commercial activities.RecommendationsLIBRARY BUILDING BA»»Potential exists to locate buildings around the lake asa centre point. Two of the existing main buildings arepositioned around the lake and this could be continued.»»The main car park should be relocated from itspresent location to the campus edges.»»Due to the existing diversity of colours and materials present on campusthere is no meaningful reason to provide material constraint. The existingheterogeneity of the campus should continue as part of its image.»»A considered and consistent approach tositing buildings should be adopted.»»Commercial uses will have a different use pattern toeducation uses. Future site strategies should reflect this andmay require review of the above recommendations.ARCH IN FRONT OF ENTRANCE TO BUILDING BJUNIVERSITY OF WESTERN SYDNEY – DESIGN COVENANTS 29CDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 2930/07/13 3:41 PM


BIBLIOGRAPHY»»UWS Draft Bankstown Campus Masterplan Report,Conybeare Morrison, September 2009»»UWS Campbelltown Masterplan adopted by Council Dec08, APP Corporation, Cox Richardson, March 2007»»UWS Campbelltown, background Environment Report, MGPlanning, APP Corporation, Cox Richardson, April 2007»»UWS Campbelltown, Development Control Plan, MG Planning,APP Corporation, Cox Richardson, October 2008»»UWS Hawkesbury Site Analysis & Structure PlanOptions Report, Jackson Teece, March 2012»»UWS Hawkesbury Draft Landscape Management Plan,JCA Landscape Architects, February 2012»»UWS Hawkesbury Conservation ManagementPlan, NbRS + Partners, October 2011»»UWS Penrith Masterplan Report, Conybeare Morrison, March 2007»»Nirimba Education Precinct, Structure Plan, Jackson Teece, December 2011»»UWS Parramatta Masterplan (DCP), Conybeare Morrison,November 2008, adopted September 2009»»UWS Parramatta Conservation ManagementPlan, Conybeare Morrison, April 2008»»Draft Masterplan (SEPP 56 & SREP 28) UWS Parramatta Campus,Tanner Architects, Planningmatters, Cab Consulting, June 2004»»UWS Landscape Masterplans & Guidelines, Francis-Jones Morehen Thorp, September 2008»»UWS Architectural Design Standards Version 02, Capital Works & Facilities»»Stanford University, Central Campus Design Guidelines & Color/Material Palette, University Architect/ Planning Office, 2002CDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 3030/07/13 3:41 PM


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BVN Architecture Pty LtdABN 46 010 724 339ACN 010 724 339Level 11, 255 Pitt StreetSydney NSW 2000T +61 2 8297 7200F +61 2 8297 7299sydney@bvn.com.auwww.bvn.com.auCDU3763 Design Covenants Vol1_new2.indd 3230/07/13 3:41 PM