Friday!!• Remember: DBQ and Journal Check onTuesday• DBQ: progressivism, and was it an effectivemovement? FYI- make sure to check out stuffabout child labor (laws and such)• You must complete all journal entries to getcredit!• The weekend is almost here!!
Last night’s reading…• Talked about “OVER HERE”- Americaduring WWI• Depending on how much time we havetoday, we will look at some stuff withthat- if we don’t have time- you can checkit out on my website if you’d like!
WWI- A New Kind of War
April 2, 1917• We declare war on Germany (andtherefore the Central Powers)• Things are not looking good for the Allies• Russia and Germany had signed a separatepeace treaty (11/1917)• Allies were losing supplies, mutinies werehappening… ahhh!!!• The US is NOT ready for war!
How “not ready” are we?• In our Army we had:• 200,000 officers and men• 300,000 old rifles• 55 out-of-date airplanes• 2 field radio sets• Last battle experience? Chasing Pancho Villaaround Mexico… we didn’t catch him…
• John J. “Black Jack”Pershing• Lead the AmericanExpeditionary Forces• Selective Service Act• The draft!So we get ready!• Registered all men between21-30• Wilson says it’s not really adraft, but a “selection froma nation which hasvolunteered in mass.”
• Black and white men aredrafted• 4 African Americanregiments were amongthe first sent into action• No black soldiers wereallowed to march invictory celebrations thatwill take place in Paris (atthe end of the war)
TRENCHWARFARE7 elements!Write the TITLEDescribe this element of trench warfare
If you are not in class today- this 2 links will helpyou fill out your chart about the trenches!• http://www.firstworldwar.com/features/trenchlife.htm• http://www.pbs.org/greatwar/chapters/ch1_trench.html
Cross-section of a front-line trenchTrench WarfareTrench Warfare – type of fighting during World War I inwhich both sides dug trenches protected by mines and barbedwire
This captured section ofGerman trench helpsexplain why the initialBritish artillery barragedid little to weaken theGermans. Much deeperthan the British trenches,the German trenchsystem offered amenitiessuch as barber shops andofficer clubs.
How to buildtrenchesunder fire
IMPORTANT ASPECTS OFTRENCH WARFARE
1. TRENCH CYCLE
3. NO MAN’S LAND!
4. DAILY DEATHFrench soldiers firing over their own dead
5. SMELL! And GAS!Soldiers digging trenches while protected againstgas attacks
GASCountry Casualties DeathsITALY 60,0004,627• First used by theFrench (tear gas)• Germans werethe first to usepoisonous gasUSA 72,8071,462AUSTRIA-HUNGARYBRITISHEMPIRE100,0003,000188,7068,109FRANCE 190,0008,000GERMANY 200,0009,000RUSSIA 419,34056,000OTHER 10,0001,000
DIARY ENTRY ofAnthony Hossack on THEFIRST GAS ATTACK
6. FROGS, LICE AND WORSE!!
Australian ambulance workers transporting mensuffering from trench foot to hospital.
A photograph of a man suffering from trench foot.
Trench RatsMany men killed in the trenches were buried almost wherethey fell. These corpses, as well as the food scraps that litteredthe trenches, attracted rats.Quotes from soldiers fighting in the trenches:"The rats were huge. They were so big they would eat awounded man if he couldn't defend himself.""I saw some rats running from under the dead men'sgreatcoats, enormous rats, fat with human flesh. My heartpounded as we edged towards one of the bodies. His helmethad rolled off. The man displayed a grimacing face, strippedof flesh; the skull bare, the eyes devoured and from theyawning mouth leapt a rat."
• http://www.history.com/topics/world-wari/photos#videos• WWI firsts and Trench Warfare clips