Course Guide - USAID Teacher Education Project

Course Guide - USAID Teacher Education Project


This product has been made possible by the support of the American People through the United StatesAgency for International Development (USAID). The contents of this report are the sole responsibility ofthe authors, and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States Government.Technical Support: Education Development Centre (EDC); Teachers College, Columbia University

How this course guide was developedAs part of nation-wide reforms to improve the quality of teacher education, the Higher EducationCommission (HEC) with technical assistance from the USAID Teacher Education Project engaged facultyacross the nation to develop detailed syllabi and course guides for the four-year B.Ed. (Hons) Elementaryand two-year Associate Degree in Education (ADE).The process of designing the syllabi and course guides began with a curriculum design workshop (oneworkshop for each subject) with faculty from universities and colleges and officials from provincialteacher education apex institutions. With guidance from national and international subject experts, theyreviewed the HEC scheme of studies, organized course content across the semester, developed detailedunit descriptions and prepared the course syllabi. Although the course syllabi are designed primarily forstudent teachers, they are useful resource for teacher educators too.In addition, participants in the workshops developed elements of a course guide. The course guide isdesigned for faculty teaching the B.Ed. (Hons) Elementary and the ADE. It provides suggestions for how toteach the content of each course and identifies potential resource materials. In designing both the syllabiand the course guides, faculty and subject experts were guided by the National Professional Standards forTeachers in Pakistan 2009 and the National Curriculum 2006. The subject experts for each coursecompleted the initial drafts of syllabi and course guides. Faculty and student teachers started using draftsof syllabi and course guides and they provided their feedback and suggestions for improvement. Finaldrafts were reviewed and approved by the National Curriculum Review Committee (NCRC).The following faculty were involved in designing this course guide: Sardar Nasim Akhtar Khan, GCET (M)Rawalakot; Safina Rouf, GCET (F) Muzaffarabad; Humaira Abbasi, University of AJK; Shumaila Azmat, BoCBalochistan; Talat Jahan Ara, GCE Quetta; Ghulam Mustafa, GCEE Uthal; Asima Idrees, Sardar BahadurKhan Women University, Quetta; Syed Muhammad Aamir, RITE (M) Peshawar; Shehla Sheikh, GomalUniversity, DI Khan; Tarranum Kehkasan, RITE (F) Kohat; Uzma Dayan, IER University of Peshawar; IazazAli, IER University of Peshawar; Habib Elahi Sahibzada, Hazara University, Mansehra; Maria Bint Shahid,Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi; Sajid ul Islam, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad;Sadia Mubeen, GECE (F) Hussainabad, Karachi; Muhammad Hasil Pato, GECE Mirpurkhas; MaqsoodAhmed Sahito, GECE (M) Mithi; Rasheed Channa, GECE (M) Hyderabad; Syed Saleha Shah, BoC Sindh;Ayaz Ali Mughal, University of Sindh, Hyderabad; Abdul Sattar Gopang, University of Sindh, Hyderabad;Imtiaz Ahmed, University of Karachi; Dr. Mussaret A. Sheikh, Fatima Jinnah Women University,Rawalpindi.Subject experts guiding course design: Dr. Hina Ashraf, AIR University, Islamabad; Dr. Graeme Cane andShaista Bano, Aga Khan University, Centre of English Language, Karachi.Date of NCRC review: 3 March 2012NCRC Reviewers: Ms. Qaisera Sheikh, Beacon House University; Mr. Allah Noor Khan, Gomal University.

ENGLISH 1: COURSE GUIDEContents:COURSE SYLLABUSABOUT THE PLANNING GUIDETHE PLANNING GUIDEUnit 1 IntroductionsOverviewDetailed Planning GuideUnit 2 Social InteractionOverviewPlanning GuideUnit 3 Giving and Following DirectionsOverviewPlanning GuideUnit 4 Sharing ExperiencesOverviewPlanning GuideUnit 5 Functioning in EnglishOverviewPlanning Guide.3

SYLLABUSYEAR/SEMESTER: Year 1/Semester 1DURATION: 03 credits, 48 class hoursPREREQUISITES: noneCOURSE DESCRIPTIONThe purpose of this course is to develop the English language proficiency of prospectiveelementary school teachers, and to help them become confident in reading, writing, speaking andlistening to the English language.Instead of teaching grammar in isolation and at sentence-level only, this course is based ondeveloping the language abilities of student teachers through an integrated approach thatprovides opportunities to develop their listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. With afocus on social interaction, the course draws specific attention to accurate use of structures,improved pronunciation and to developing active vocabulary in descriptive, narrative andinstructional texts.COURSE OUTCOMESAfter completing this course, student teachers will:• have improved their listening and reading skills in English following significant exposureto texts in the target language• be able to communicate in written and oral English with class-fellows, peers and teachers• rely less on first/native language and reduce their use of code-switching in formal andinformal situations• have a deeper understanding of correct English structures in descriptive, narrative andinstructional texts.LEARNING AND TEACHING APPROACHESThe course uses an integrated approach to language teaching which enables learning of all thefour skills of language i.e. listening, speaking, reading and writing, in natural settings. Theteachers and student teachers are encouraged to respond through pair/group work and activelearning strategies such as role play, debates, presentations, brainstorming, etc. Teachers andstudent teachers are encouraged to use online resources and make the best use of the interactiveexercises in various websites. The course links learning approaches with assessment tasks toprovide student teachers with the opportunity to accept responsibility for their own learning.Even if student teachers begin the course unable to communicate fluently in English, instructorswill use English as the language of instruction. Instead of switching to Urdu or other languageswhen there is a problem, instructors will use other strategies such as slowing down, repeating atext, asking others to explain, or using simpler vocabulary.4

SEMESTER OUTLINEUNIT 1 – INTRODUCTIONS (3 weeks/9 hours)The first unit will provide student teachers with an opportunity to interact with one another inoral and written forms. It will serve as an icebreaker and help develop conversations throughsuggesting simple words and phrases to describe people, likes/dislikes, etc., in a logicalsequence.Making introductionsWeek 1 • Make effective self and peer introductions• Take useful introductory notesRequests and enquiriesWeek 2 • Make appropriate requests and enquiries• Respond to enquiries• Listen for specific information in English.Practice Practical Classroom EnglishWeek 3 • Use different classroom language routines (functions) for effective classroommanagement• Develop effective classroom language by following the given examples/situations• Demonstrate and practice practical classroom language routines.UNIT 2 – SOCIAL INTERACTION (4 weeks/12 hours)This unit is aimed at developing student teacher social interaction in English and developingtheir interpersonal skills. Through class activities they actively engage in formal and informalcontexts to congratulate, express gratitude, make invitations and respond to speakers in oral andwritten contextsGreetingsWeek 4 • Greeting friends and family on different occasions/reasons• Responding to a happy event• Using formal greeting expressions appropriatelySaying thank youWeek 5 • Using formal/ informal expressions of gratitude appropriately• Reading a story which uses expressions of gratitude• Writing a formal letter to say thank you to a teacher/parent/friendInviting peopleWeek 6 • Demonstrating the use of formal and informal expressions of invitation• Developing verbal and written skills for invitations• Responding to invitation requests (accepting and declining)Week 7 Regrets• Expressing regrets orally and in writing in an appropriate manner• Saying sorry and accepting apologies5

UNIT 3 – GIVING AND FOLLOWING DIRECTIONS (3 weeks/9 hours)In this unit, students will learn how to follow directions from a map, to give directions to searchfor a location and specific information. This is to be followed by structuring clear instructionsand learning how to put something together from a recipe or manual. .Week 8Week 9Week 10Following and giving directions• Following directions from a map• Giving directions for a location in oral and written forms• Reaching a destinationGiving clear instructions• Carrying out instructions• Structuring instructions• Writing clear instructionsDesigning instruction manuals• Exploring instruction manuals of different products• Comparing instruction manuals for developing critical understanding of theessentials of a manual• Designing an instruction manual for a new student enrolling in college. Thiscould be group project.UNIT 4 - SHARING EXPERIENCES (3 weeks/9 hours)In this unit, student teachers will engage with meanings in a variety of written and visual textsthrough shared, guided and independent readings of narratives in different genres. They’ll beencouraged to respond to the narrative and imaginative texts by building up stories and sharingthem in written and oral form.Sharing narrativesWeek 11 • Reading short stories• Reading excerpts; comic strips, interviews, etc.Week 12Sharing unique experiences• Summarizing/Narrating true stories• Solving word puzzles to develop language awareness• Reading a short stories followed by exercises/worksheet• Converting an event into a short story• Using pictures as stimuli for narrative creation• Using songs as examples of personal experienceWeek 13Imaginative texts• Identifying imaginative texts• Developing imaginative texts by giving engrossing stories and descriptions ofscenes6

UNIT 5 – FUNCTIONING IN ENGLISH (3 weeks/9 hours)Student teachers will be involved in learning how language works and critically evaluating textsin terms of effectiveness, meaning and accuracy. This unit draws their attention tounderstanding how grammatical patterns change according to the purpose and audience.Week 14Week 15Week 16Writing styles• Changing narration: converting a dialogue into a report• Converting a story into a news report• Converting a graph/picture into short report/storyWriting mechanics• Punctuation and structure• Sentences, Fragments and run-ons• Subject-predicate and pronoun-reference agreement• Project presentations• Course RevisionTEXTBOOKS AND REFERENCESCarver, T.K. & Fortinos-Riggs, S. (2006) Conversation Book II – English in Everyday Life. New York,Pearson Education Limited.Eastwood, J. (2005) Oxford Practice Grammar, Karachi: Oxford University Press.Swan, J. Practical English Usage (3 rd editions) Oxford University PressThomson and Martinet, A practical English Grammar (Intermediate) Oxford University PressAllama Iqbal Open University Compulsory English 1 (Code 1423)

Grammar software free download materials and other materials are attached in the resource booklet developed with thisguide.GRADING POLICYA variety of assessments should be used to assess student learning. It is recommended thatcourse work count towards at least 50% of the final grade. Instructors should advise whichpieces of course work (assignments) will be graded. The remainder of the grade will bedetermined by mid and end of semester exams..8


UNIT 1: INTRODUCTIONUNIT OVERVIEWThe first unit will provide the Student Teachers with an opportunity to interact with one anotherin oral and written forms. It will serve as an icebreaker and help develop conversations throughsuggesting simple words and phrases to describe people, likes/dislikes, etc., in a logical sequence.Week 1:Making introductions• Make effective self and peer introductions• Take useful introductory notesWeek 2:Requests and enquiries• Make appropriate requests and enquiries• Respond to enquiries• Grammar Practice & Listen for specific information in English.Week 3Practice practical classroom English• Introduce different classroom language routines (functions) for effective classroommanagement• Develop more classroom language by following the given examples/ situations• Demonstrate and practice practical classroom language routines (CLRs).Learning Outcomes:At the end of the unit, the Student Teachers will be able to:• Introduce themselves to their peers and their teachers• Describe in connected speech and writing each other’s personal information e.g. usinginformation gathered from a questionnaire/interviews.• Seek information and make enquiries politely during a conversation• Use appropriate classroom language routines to manage their classes.Essential Questions:• What are the most interesting ways of making personal introductions?• How can a demand be differentiated from a request?• How can effective requests be formulated?• What are classroom language routines (CLR)? Can they also be helpful outside theclassroom?Enduring Understanding• Language is a living phenomenon which can best be learnt through using it correctly.• Using correct language structures and appropriate adjectives can make a simpledescription more interesting for the audience• A politely formulated demand can be softened to become a request.10

• Listening carefully and contextual understanding of a situation help develop receptiveskills.Practical Grammar• First and second person pronouns• Descriptive adjectives, adjective (i.e. relative) clauses• Present Simple and Present Continuous• Use of modals: can, could, would, will• Conditional structures• Use of WH questions for interviewingSuggested Assessments:Active learning strategies• Dialogues – in role play and writing• Listening comprehension• A friendly note/letter stating a request or sending a reply• Developing a questionnaire or set of questions for an interviewResources for teachers & students:Carver, T.K. & Fortinos-Riggs, S. (2006) Conversation Book II – English in Everyday Life. New York,Pearson Education Limited.Eastwood, J. (2005) Oxford Practice Grammar, Karachi: Oxford University Press.Writing a friendly letterPDF PowerPoint comprehension skills for Developing Additional Topics in the Unit:Making requests enquiries suggestions: a complaint11 a friendly letter also useful for developing listening skills: to use WH questions to a poem: Spontaneous poetry www.storyart.orgListening activity resources:Shilpa Sethi talking about her career to a story

UNIT 1: INTRODUCTIONSWeek 1/Session 1: Make effective self and peer introductions (60 min)Introduction to the Course (20 min. maximum)• Teacher introduces her/himself to the Student Teachers.• Teacher gives a brief overview of the course and will explain that the aim is to developthe participants’ English language skills so that they can function independently asEnglish users.Introduction to the syllabus• Hand out copies of the syllabus. Give the ProspectiveTeachers an opportunity to look it over, and thenhighlight the various sections.• Point out that the approach to teaching and learningthat will be used in this course is interactive and willinvolve pair work, group work and self-directedlearning [SDL].Faculty who arecomfortable with activelearning may want totry to develop PairShare into a dialogue orrole playBrainstorming (10 min)• Ask the Student Teachers to discuss with each othertheir own strengths and weaknesses in English:o How do you think you can learn to function independently in English?o What kind of conversation can you easily take part in?o What of the fours skills do you find easy to handle i.e. listening, speaking,reading or writing? And which do you find difficult?o What part does family, culture and environment play in using English forcommunication?• The teacher takes feedback from a few Student Teachers.Instructor’s GuideInstructor (Inst) introduces Activity 1 and gives instructions to the Prospective Teachers(Student Teachers).Inst distributes the questionnaire in pairs. Student Teachers will fill in the questionnaire by askinga partner some relevant questions. Inst divides the class into pairs or allows the Student Teachersto find a partner with whom they are not very familiar.Activity 1(30 min.)Instructions for Student TeachersRead the questionnaire “Getting to know each other” carefully and choose all or at least 8-10questions that you would like to ask a partner. Choose someone from your class that you don’tknow at all, or don’t know very well. Next enquire about that person’s personal, professionaland childhood memories and make introductory notes on any important points. Then youshould change your partner and introduce the person you have previously interviewed to yournew partner. Keep going around and introduce yourself by giving your name and then introducethe first partner to as many people as you can. It will be fun to see that some participants alreadyknow you.13

The questionnaire will be used to:• ask for information• make introductory notes;• introduce your partner to the whole class.NOTE FOR INSTRUCTORS: The ideas suggested here help to ‘break the ice’. Instructorsmay use some of their own original ideas to create a friendly and communicative atmosphere inthe classroom.14

Handout 1Greet your partner: Hello, how are you? /Introduce yourself: My name is ___________________________________________Seek permission for asking questions: Would you like to tell me about yourself.PersonalWhat is your name?Where are you from?Tell me one interesting/funny/ thing about the people who live in your neighbourhood.How many members are there in your family?How many languages can you speak? What language(s) do you speak with your family members?What is your favourite dish?Do you often listen to music?Is there any particular song that you love to listen to again and again?What is your Zodiac Sign?What are the strengths / weaknesses of people born under your star sign?What is the strongest aspect of your personality?What language do you speak with your students in your class/ would like to speak with them?What polite expressions have you learned at home and at school?Do you believe that primary grade children cannot follow instructions in English? Is this yourown belief or a learned reality?Have you attended this/ any other teacher training course before?What was it like?Why have you chosen to become a teacher?What do you like best about this profession?What is your reading preference: books, magazines or the internet?What latest books/ news/magazine do you read in bed?What about TV? How many hours per day do you watch TVt?Which is your favourite TV programme?Do you remember any story or characters from your favourite programme? sDid you ever ring your neighbour’s door bell and then run away?Did you ever secretly dance in your room wearing your father’s/mother’s clothes/shoes?What is your favourite occasion in the family? Why?Which occasions or festivals did you enjoy most as a child?Do you still enjoy them?Were you ever scolded by your parents?What were the main reasons for being scolded?Do you have any other interesting childhood memories?15

Week 1/Session 2: Taking useful introductory notes (120 mins)Guide for the InstructorSession 2 in the Course Guide is divided into two parts. Each part is of 60 minutes.In the first part of the session, the instructor gives some grammar and vocabulary input to helpStudent Teachers practice adjective forms. The Instructor can also use the above URL linksindicated for grammar learning, either for classroom input or use the links for SDL.The second part is a role play. The teacher divides the class into required number of groupsbefore doing the activity: Talk Show. Instructions appear below. Pre-task preparations will guideStudent Teachers how to perform the role play.Language Check. Instructor checks Student Teachers’ understanding of using adjectives. He/shemay consult grammar references mentioned above in the teacher & student resources. This isessential input before going to the next activity. The Instructor must ensure the StudentTeachers have done enough practice.16

Handout 2Grammar Practice: 60 min.Use verbs in the present simple and present continuous along with suitable adjectives to describe your personalqualities, for example, ‘people say that I am too sensitive’. Choose appropriate words from the list to describeyour personal and professional traits (e.g. I am quite a confident person in my work.)AssertiveEnthusiasticIntelligentPleasantConsiderateFriendlyInterestingRomanticDecisiveHappyKindSensitiveConfidentHonestLoyalSincereEmotionalHospitableHumorousQuietPatientSympatheticTolerantPoliteUse the correct prefix if you want to make an adjective mean the opposite, for example;1. The successful teacher is confident, friendly and patient.2. An unconfident, unfriendly and impatient teacher is an unsuccessful teacher.17

Session 2 (part 2): Taking useful introductory notes (60 min.)Guide for the InstructorThe Instructor divides the class into groups. There should be seven people in each groupincluding the anchor person. In this role play, the Instructor may choose any group size and givestudents a choice to select their own profession from the suggested list of professions givenbelow. Alternatively, they can choose another profession of their choice or think of a celebritythey would like to be. This task will further help Student Teachers to develop skills for takinguseful introductory notes.18

Unit 2 - OverviewUNIT 2 – SOCIAL INTERACTION (4 weeks/12 hours)This unit is aimed at developing students’ social interaction in English language and developingtheir interpersonal skills. Through class activities they are given opportunities to congratulate,express gratitude, make and respond to invitations in both formal/informal oral and writtencontextsWeek 4 Greetings• Greeting friends and family on different occasions/reasons• Responding to a happy event• Using formal greeting expressions appropriatelyWeek 5 Saying thank you• Using formal/ informal expressions of gratitude appropriately• Reading a story which uses expressions of gratitude• Writing a formal letter to say thank you to a teacher/parent/friendWeek 6 Inviting people• Demonstrating the use of formal and informal expressions of invitation• Developing verbal and written skills for invitations• Responding to invitation requests (accepting and declining)Week 7 Regrets• Expressing regrets orally and in writing in an appropriate manner• Saying sorry and accepting apologiesLearning Outcomes:At the end of the unit, students will be able to:• Use informal/formal social expressions appropriately in English• Express gratitude, congratulations and regrets in social interaction• Invite people to functions through sending letters, invitation cards and through oralcommunicationEssential Questions:• Why is it essential to learn appropriate social exchanges in English?• How do various forms of social interaction differ in their respective colloquial andwritten forms?Enduring Understanding:• Good interpersonal skills demand appropriate responses in various social situations. IfEnglish is the language of communication, the acquisition of various interpersonalexpressions in the target language helps maintain appropriate conversation.• Using appropriate expressions on the right occasion helps in building strong ties anddevelops effective interpersonal relationships with colleagues and others19

Practical Grammar• First and second person pronouns• present tense and past tense – simple and progressive aspect• Use of modals: use of can, could, would• Tag questions• Prepositions and sentence structure• Expressing past regrets: wish + past perfectSuggested Assessments:Active learning strategies• Dialogues – in role play and writing• Listening comprehension• Friendly invitations by creating invitation letters /cards• Friendly letters to accept or decline invitationsResources for teachers & students:Carver, T.K. & Fortinos-Riggs, S. (2006) Conversation Book II – English in Everyday Life. NewYork, Pearson Education Limited.Eastwood, J. (2005) Oxford Practice Grammar, Karachi: Oxford University Press.Listening comprehension skills polite invitations of gratitude for reading:Sample story given in the link below. Teachers may use some other story. informal invitations an invitation regrets/wishes practice quizzesExpressions of past regret: wish + past participle sorry and responding for Developing Additional Topics in the Unit:Saying congratulations – guidelines and audio files with transcripts to bad news – guidelines and audio files with transcripts expressing regret – script of ‘The House of Usher’ by Edgar Allan Poe polite invitations a letter to a teacher – ideas teacher could develop from invitations an invitation sorry an apology21 activity resources:Expressing regret sorry an apology

UNIT 2 SUGGESTED ACTIVITIESWeek 4Week 4 Session 1: GreetingsSuggested Activities• Through dialogues/role play Student Teachers develop situations of expressing variousgreetings, in formal or informal settings. This can be done through group or pair work.• Write one formal and one informal letter of congratulations. (Adjust time accordingly)• Listen to the given audio files in the links and follow activity sheets prepared by the teacherWeek 4 Session 2: Responding to a happy eventSuggested Activities• Write a letter of thanks after receiving an award.• Through role play/dialogue enact a scene where some happy event has taken place• In an informal note/letter/email respond to a friend’s letter on your promotion to CollegeMagazine editor. (The event could be any, for example, being appointed school prefect,winning a prize in a quiz competition, etc.)• Use the worksheet in the given link– or modify it accordingly to learn appropriate expressions for responding to good news.Week 4 Session 3: Writing a formal letter of congratulationsSuggested Activities• Using the formal letter format, ask students to write a formal letter of congratulations. Thiscould be to a senior, or to a relative, or someone in the college.Week 5Week 5 Session 1: Expressing gratitude to friendsSuggested Activities• Using a role play approach, ask the PTs to develop scenarios in which they have to thank afriend for paying for lunch; for lending a book; for lending their library card; for sharinglecture notes, etc.• Student Teachers send a thank -you note to each other through informal note/email/digitalsocial network such as Facebook, etc., using some creativity in language.23

Week 5 Session 2: A story of gratitudeSuggested Activities• Read the anonymous story on gratitude, and discuss how some form of help/support atsome point could go a long way.• The story reading could be followed by comprehension and vocabulary exercises. Theteacher should design meaningful comprehension exercises, thinking clearly in terms ofthe aim to be achieved through the story.• Sample story given in the link below: However, ifthe level of difficulty does not match PTs’ aptitude, teachers are encouraged to use someother text.Week 5 Session 3: Saying Thank youSuggested Activities• Ask students to plan the letter carefully:o Think of one or two very specific instances in which your teacher helped youto understand something difficult or to think about something in a new way.o Tell the story of at least one of these instances. Did you initially lackconfidence? Were you unruly? Shy? What did your teacher do to help youimprove your attitude and how did you show your gratitude to him/her?What positive qualities did your teacher display? Write a short note about yourgoals, and how the teacher encouraged you to select them and then achieve them.o Conclude. Say thank you to the teacher for his or her guidance, support andunderstanding.• Ask Student Teachers to work in pairs and design a thank-you card, write a formal letterof thanks to a current teacher or to some teacher who helped them in the past.Week 6Week 6 Session 1: Planning a celebrationSuggested activities• Ask Student Teachers to write about an event that they would like to celebrate at thebeginning of the semester. This could be a short paragraph that would help them workout its significance, and how they’d like to plan the event.• Next, ask the Student Teachers to design an invitation card for the event. The cardshould include the event title, time, venue, name of invitee, and any special instructions ifrequired.• Once the card is ready, ask students to prepare a list of guests in order of priority.• The second list is for the items that they’d like to purchase for the celebration.• At the end of the whole exercise, the Student Teachers must assess and reflect on theirlanguage skills developed as a result of this activityWeek 6 Session 2: Inviting: over the phone & through a letterSuggested activities• This could be taken as a series of activities from the event planned in the last class. Askstudents to select a few guests that they’d like to invite over the phone, and those they’dhave to send letters to.• Encourage them to distinctly state reasons for making this selection.24

• As a class activity, ask students to work in pairs as the host and the guest and enact thetelephonic invitation. Point out polite expressions of invitation. Help could be takenfromthelink:"• As homework, students could write a letter of invitation formally to a friend they’d liketo invite to the party. The friendly letter format is to be followed for the letter.Encourage them to use polite expressions of invitation for the letter.• A follow-up quiz given in the link can be used for understanding the grammaticalstructures and appropriate expressions used in this activity: 6 Session 3: Accepting/Declining invitationsSuggested activities• Teacher to discuss expressions used to accept/decline an invitation, follow the link• Student Teachers to work out brief informal letters of accepting an invitation. Expressingjoy and intention to come to the party.• Students work out brief letters of regret for declining an invitation. They should be ableto state a reason that sounds valid and wish good luck for the event.• In the form of dialogue or role play students accept or decline invitations. Teachershould be able to point out appropriate helpful expressions.Week 7Week 7 Session 1: Expressing regretSuggested activities• Story reading followed by comprehension questions. Sample story attached is given inthe link, However, ifteacher finds the level of difficulty high or the context irrelevant, they could substitutethis with some other story. Teachers will have to design comprehension activities for thestory provided, keeping clear learning objectives in mind.• Select a story from a newspaper about some unfortunate event for reading in the class.Should be followed by a task planed by the teacher prior to the activity. Teacher couldask students to write a story based on some form of regret. They could be encouraged tobuild in conversation in the story and use expressions of regret.Week 7 Session 2: Saying sorry and accepting apologies25

Suggested Activities• From the reading pack use the attached handout on expressions of apologizing/sayingsorry and accepting apologies; and help Student Teachers understand how to respond indifferent situations in English.• Teacher is encouraged to download the listening activities and play them in the class anduse follow-up• Through role play or dialogue, Student Teachers to enact scenes in which they useexpressions of apology and of accepting apologies.• Student Teachers write a letter of apology to a friend or peer on some misunderstandingin the class/party yesterday and send or receive a reply accepting apology.• Student Teachers work in small groups write a formal letter of apology to the schoolguard on being reprimanded for something for which he was not responsible.Week 7 Session 3: Expressions of regretsSuggested lecture• From the web links given below, use the handout on expressions past regrets/usingexpressions of wish + past participle; and help students understand how to respond indifferent situations in English.•• Also use listening activities and prepared worksheets.Once students have learned the correct structures, use the quizzes given in for reinforcement.AssignmentYou are given the chance to meet someone who helped you in a very special way at some pointin your life. This may be somebody with whom you have now lost contact. Imagine you have aconversation with her/him today after many years. Write a dialogue in which you meet thisperson by chance and you talk together about the time he/she helped you. Express yourgratitude, saying how their help changed your life in some way. Imagine what he/she would sayto you in return. Write at least four speech turns by you in the dialogue and four turns by theother person.26

Unit 3 OverviewUNIT 3 – GIVING AND FOLLOWING DIRECTIONS (3 weeks/9 hours)In this unit, Student Teachers will learn how to follow directions from a map of a specific place to agiven destination, and to give directions to a specific location. The focus is on giving clearinstructions.Week 8Following and giving directions• Following directions from a map• Giving directions for a location in oral and written formsWeek 9Giving clear instructions• Follow instructions to carry out a task• Structuring instructions for a specific task• Writing clear instructions for different purposes, e.g. a recipe, an English reading/writing testWeek 10Designing a school/college guide• Collect samples of college/school prospectus• Comparing the logical order of their format and the language of instructions for developingcritical understanding of the essentials of a guide/prospectus• Designing an instruction guide for new students enrolling in college.Learning Outcomes:At the end of the unit, Student Teachers will be able to:• Follow written and oral instructions for familiar products and services.• Follow and give detailed directions, messages and information (e.g. directions from a map,guide or brochure)• Compare and contrast the language of formal academic documents• Develop a simple instructional guide from the cover page to the end.Essential Questions:• What makes it difficult to follow instructions/directions?• How can oral directions be given effectively?• What makes an instructional guide functional and comprehensible?Enduring Understandings:• Clarity of language and structure is a must in enabling somebody to follow directions andinstructions.• To extract specific information from the oral instructions/directions it is essential to ensureclarity of language and vocabulary, the audible quality of the message, and avoidance ofconfusion.• A study guide or prospectus can only be functional if it is comprehensible with clearlydescribed instructions. The guide’s layout, formatting of fonts and language, figures anddiagrams and logical information need to be clearly presented in order to be useful.27

Practical Grammar• Present tense in simple, habitual and progressive aspects• Using the imperative for instructions• Vocabulary related to transitions• Clarity of sentence structureSuggested Assessments:Active learning strategies• Listening comprehension• Giving and following instructions through dialogues• Designing a working guideResources for teachers & students:Carver, T.K. & Fortinos-Riggs, S. (2006) Conversation Book II – English in Everyday Life. New York,Pearson Education Limited.Eastwood, J. (2005) Oxford Practice Grammar, Karachi: Oxford University Press.Directions: comprehension skills: directions (activity and wordlist)URL: and following directions (complete lesson plan) - Brochure attached. instructions quiz - Giving sequence to jumbled up instructions information on planning and developing guides can be explored on the internet.Prospectus samples can be downloaded from authentic websites of well-known universities orother institutions.28

Resources for Developing Additional Topics in the Unit:Asking and giving directions instructions used for giving directions in instructions activity resources:Giving and following directions: Audio and activity transcript attached in folder a process 3 SUGGESTED ACTIVITIESWEEK 8Week 8 Session 1: Following directions from a mapSuggested Activities• Using the handout given in the link, teachers discuss the expressions in English used for following and givingdirections.• They could further elicit examples from their everyday home and college route.• Download the listening text from the given web-link, and play it in the class for studentsto become familiar with the language used for giving and following directions. Thetranscript of the dialogue is attached in the folder. If teachers are unable to download it,they are encouraged to speak aloud the text in the class, or ask two Student Teachers torole play.• Once the Student Teachers have heard the text, the teacher encourages them to listen tothe attached audio material or download from the given URL, and fill in the route on the given map. Map attached as activity in thefolder.Week 8 Session 2: Giving directions to a locationSuggested ActivitiesIn pairs, Student Teachers draw maps of their home location/some local place and askstudents to follow directions from the map.29

• Encourage Student Teachers to give directions to their home address. Their partnerdraws the map.• The teacher brings in a street map and asks students to give directions to differentdestinations. The rest of the Student Teachers guess the route.• Student Teachers write out the directions for their home address, or some other place.More Suggested Activities on giving and following directions• Teachers download material from the URL( or take studentsto the computer lab and allow them to take part in the online activity withcomprehension questions, true/false & vocabulary items.• From the lesson plan giving in the link and giving directions, teachers pick up ideas. They could start off the warm-updiscussion with the expressions used for directions, and find out if students are familiarwith them.• The dialogue in the lesson-plan-handout could be enacted in the class. Students could beasked to give a summary of the dialogue, to give them some more speaking practice.• Using the pair-work discussion activity ideas in the handout, students to construct adialogue.WEEK 9Week 9 Session 1: Carrying out instructionsSuggested Activities• Working in pairs consisting of a listener and a speaker, have each set of Student Teachersimagine that they are standing outside the speaker's front door. Have the speaker verballygives the attentive listener an imaginary errand to do. The speaker must carefully explainto his or her partner how to go into the house, walk to the bedroom, and, once there,give hints where to find a special treasure, hidden somewhere in the room. The speakertells the partner a story about why the thing to be retrieved is special and then asks thespeaker to verbally explain how to walk back to the front door to bring the special itemout to where the speaker will be waiting.o This improvisational speech exercise encourages confidence in one's ability to describe a sequenceof events. The journey from one's own front door to one's bedroom is usually to be followed by thespeaker as well as the listener. The speaker may discover in discussing this exercise afterwards,that he or she imagined the house clearly and "saw" more detail than was mentioned. Telling afolktale has a similar process. The teller imagines the landscape of the tale and guides thelisteners on a mental journey. (• Student Teachers write out a set of instructions for doing different chores, and ask theirfriends to carry them out. The instructor will need to ensure they use the imperative andclear language for this purpose. The instructions should be listed out instead of puttingthem in paragraphs.o Students to give instructions to do certain things, e.g., changing a tyre, setting upa printer, making tea, serving breakfast, etc.Week 9 Session 2: Structuring instructionsSuggested Activities30

• Based on a listening text, the instructor prepares a lesson on teaching students thelanguage to be used for giving instructions while describing a process. Follow the weblink, the teacher could also base the lesson on some recipe or televisionprogramme e.g., of cooking, of teaching swimming, of setting up the printer, etc.• Using the handout given in the link, the instructor clarifies to the class how instructionsare to be structured. S/he draws attention to the significance of sequencing and use ofaddition words for giving instructions.• Using the given link teachers download/take students to lab for to listen to the set ofinstructions and fill in the activity sheet.Week 9 Session 3: Writing clear instructionsSuggested Activities• Ask students to write a set of instructions for a process. This could be for setting up theprinter, installing a device on the computer, making a cup of tea, designing a documenton the MS Word, applying for admission to a college, etc. If the teacher offers theStudent Teachers more than one topic for putting together the instructions, these couldbe distributed in the class for a follow-up activity.• The instructor could later assess the class assignment on the basis of language structureand practicality.• Using the quiz on giving instructions in the link, the teachers ask students to write out the correct sequence of thejumbled instructions.WEEK 10Week 10 Session 1-3: Instructional guides (3 hours)Suggested Activities• Beginning with a review, the instructor passes on the handout on Giving Instructionsfrom web link to students and reinforces the language of instructions. This would alsobe useful after the class assignment in the previous section for lending more clarity tostudents who need revisions.• The teacher brings in teacher guides/ different academic prospectuses/or asks studentsin advance to bring an instruction manual from home. S/he asks students to go throughthem and in groups discuss the way instructions are presented in them.• On the basis of vocabulary/jargon, clarity and structure, a review of instructional guidesto be done in groups. They draw comparisons on the basis of the strengths andweaknesses in each of them.• Groups present their findings and work out a strategy for bringing in more clarity inguides.Unit 4 OverviewIn this unit, student teachers will engage with meanings in a variety of written and visual textsthrough shared, guided and independent reading of narratives in different genres. They will be31

encouraged to respond to the narrative and imaginative texts by building up stories and sharingthem in written and oral form.Week 11 Sharing narratives• Reading short stories• Reading excerpts; comic strips, interviews, etc.Week 12 Sharing unique experiences• Summarizing/Narrating true stories• Solving word puzzles to develop language awareness• Reading a short stories followed by exercises/worksheet• Converting an event into a short story• Using pictures as stimuli for narrative creation• Using songs as examples of personal experienceWeek 13 Imaginative texts• Identifying imaginative texts• Developing imaginative texts by giving engrossing stories and descriptions of scenesLearning Outcomes:At the end of the unit, students will:1. have gained an understanding of the structure and content of narrative texts2. have reflected on the kinds of stories they like and why3. be aware of multi-modal texts and the effect of modality on the way a story is told andinterpreted.4. be able to summarize the main content of a narrative text5. be aware of the differences between a narrative and a descriptive text6. be aware of the differences between function words and lexical words7. be able to write their own short narrative and descriptive texts.Essential Questions:• What kinds of narratives interest me?• What are the different forms of narratives?• What makes a narrative interesting?• How can I use vocabulary, clauses and structures to create meaningful narrative andimaginative texts?Enduring Understandings:• Extensive exposure to various narrative texts would help understand what kinds of readinginterests could exist for an individual.• A text consists of various levels of the meaning.• Narratives exist in stories, reports, auto/biographies, interviews, etc.• The plot, characters, setting and narration in varying degrees contribute to making a textpowerful.Practical Grammar• Descriptive and narrative style32

• Use of the reporting and reported speech simultaneously• Use of relevant vocabulary, adjective and adverbial clauses• Use of past tensesSuggested Assessments:Active learning strategies• Comprehension and vocabulary exercises• Listening/Visual comprehension• Task-based summariesResources for Developing Additional Topics in the Unit:Short story with online activities story online resources expressing regret – script of ‘The House of Usher’ by Edgar Allan Poe by Edgar Allan Poe – for imaginative stories activity resources:Learning English British Council resources artswww.storyarts.org33

UNIT 4 SUGGESTED ACTIVITIESWeek 11/Session 1: Reading short storiesGuide for InstructorsThe following activities are intended to motivate the student teachers to think about why peoplelike to read and listen to narratives (stories) and to investigate their own reading/listeninginterests. The session also introduces some simple stories and explores their meaning, structure,language and impact on the reader. The activities are addressed directly to the student teachers inorder to involve them as much as possible in the learning process. Deciding if one finds a storyenjoyable and meaningful or not is fundamentally a matter of personal choice, and the studentteachers should be encouraged to express their reactions to the stories given in the Unit and toshare their personal reading likes and dislikes. If you wish to use narrative texts which you thinkwill be more successful in the class, please do so provided you keep the learning objectivesclearly in view when you are teaching.Guide for Student TeachersWith your Instructor, work through the following activities. As you will see from the instructionsgiven, some of the exercises should be done with a partner or group members; others should bedone by yourself.Activity 1: What kind of stories do you like? (15 minutes)Work by yourself and tick your top three reading choices from the list below.a. Religious storiesb. Stories that teach us something about lifec. Love storiesd. Stories about people who lived many years agoe. Science fiction storiesf. Stories about sportg. Horror storiesh. Fantasy storiesi. Animal storiesj. True storiesk. Other ………………………Add together the results of the survey across the whole class. Based on your class survey, whatare the top three choices for story types amongst all your class members?1. ____________________2. ____________________3. ____________________Why do you think human beings have always liked to hear stories? Discuss this question withyour group members and report your ideas to the whole class.Activity 2: What is a story? (15 minutes)Read the following text. Do you think it can be counted as a story or not? Why?34

Omar got up early this morning. He washed his face, put on his clothes and had breakfast. After saying goodbyeto his mother, he went to school. After school, he came home again.Discuss with your group members: Is this a story? What ingredients are necessary in order toclassify a text as a story?Possible suggestions: Stories should have a beginning, middle and end/Stories should have someemotional effect on the reader/By the end of the story, some change should have taken place inthe main characters.Do you think the following text can be considered a story or not? Discuss your views with apartner.Mr Brown, Mr Green and Mr White work in the same building. One is a banker, one is a lawyer and one is adentist but not necessarily in that order. The dentist, who is Mr Green’s friend, is the youngest of the three. MrWhite is older than the lawyer. Use this information to work out each man’s job.Does the cartoon tell a story? Find a cartoon in a newspaper or comic. How is it different from astory told completely in words?Activity 3: Different versions of a story (30-45 minutes)Read the following text:Claudio and Maria lived in the same street in a small town in Italy. Claudio loved Maria, but she never evenlooked at him. One day, she decided to leave their town to become a dancer in the circus. Claudio followed her. Hecouldn’t dance so he learned to be a clown. Every day, he laughed and laughed for the circus audience, but deepinside he was crying for love of Maria.What do you think is going to happen next? Discuss your ideas with a partner.Self-reflection: Do you think you that, as a person, you are more like Claudio or more like Maria?Do you think Claudio was very loving or very stupid? Do you think Maria was hard-hearted orrealistic?Now read the ending. If you are not sure of the meaning of the word ‘trapeze’, look it up beforereading:One day, Maria fell from the high trapeze. She was taken to hospital but died the next day. From that day,Claudio the clown could not laugh any more. He lost his job because he could no longer be a clown.(The above story has been adapted from Storybuilding by Jane Spiro OUP, 2006).Did you guess this outcome or did you predict a different ending?With your partner, answer the following five questions on the text:a. In your opinion, which of the adjectives in the list apply to Maria (underline yourchoices):35

uncaring / ambitious / talented / brave / loving / selfish / loyal / unrealistic /foolish / unreliable/cruel /pretty / kind / unattractiveb. In your opinion, which adjectives in the list below apply to Claudio (underline yourchoices):uncaring / ambitious / talented / brave / loving / selfish / loyal / unrealistic /foolish / unreliable/cruel /handsome / kind / unattractivec. Why did Claudio become a circus clown?d. What was the reason Claudio was eventually unable to laugh?e. Do you think this story is interesting or not? Briefly give your views.What happens in a fictitious story depends on the writer’s imagination and intention. Here isanother version of the story about Maria and Claudio written specially for this course. Pleaseread it carefully. If you are not sure of the meaning of trapeze, baggy, padded or loseconsciousness, please look these words up before reading.Claudio and Maria lived in the same street in a small town in Italy. Claudio loved Maria, but she never evenlooked at him. One day, she decided to leave their town to become a dancer in the circus. Claudio followed her. Hecouldn’t dance so he learned to be a clown. Every day, he laughed and laughed for the circus audience, but deepinside he was crying for love of Maria. However, she continued to pay no attention to Claudio.The circus manager liked Maria and asked her to join the group of trapeze artists called The Flying Angels intheir high-wire act. One of the trapeze artists, a handsome young man named Pablo, taught Maria how to swingthrough the air, high above the ground, and how to jump from one trapeze to another. The most exciting part oftheir act was when Maria swung from one trapeze through the air and was caught by Pablo hanging by his legs onanother trapeze.What do you think is going to happen next? Discuss your ideas with a partner.Now read the ending:One evening, during The Flying Angels’ performance, Maria swung gracefully from her trapeze through the airtowards Pablo, high above the circus crowd watching below. He went to catch her but somehow she slipped throughhis fingers and started falling towards the ground. Claudio the Clown, in his baggy padded clown suit, ran acrossthe circus ring, holding out his arms. As he reached the centre of the ring, Maria fell into his arms knocking theclown hard to the ground. Both lost consciousness and were immediately taken to hospital. After two days Mariaawoke and asked about Claudio. A doctor told her that the clown had died a few hours after being taken to thehospital.Does the following sentence apply to Version 1 or Version 2 of the story?‘The clown lost his job after the dancer died.’Summarize Version 2 in one or two sentences.Which version of the story do you prefer? Explain why?36

Week 11 Session 2: Reading and discussing short stories continueGuide for InstructorsAfter being exposed to a selection of very short stories and exploring their meaning andstructure, in this session, the student teachers are asked to create their own versions of theclown-dancer story. They are also given some more short narratives and are asked questionsrelating to the language used in these narratives. Instructors will need to help the students withexplanations about word usage, grammatical structures and discourse meaning, where necessary.Guide for Student TeachersIn this session, you will be asked to write your own version of the clown-dancer story, as well asexploring some more very short narratives. Follow the instructions with your course instructor.Activity 1: Creative Writing Activity: (20 minutes)Now work with your group members and write your own new version of the clown-dancerstory. Use the following paragraph as your beginning:Claudio and Maria lived in the same street in a small town in Italy. Claudio loved Maria, but she never evenlooked at him. One day, she decided to leave their town to become a dancer in the circus. Claudio followed her. Hecouldn’t dance so he learned to be a clown. Every day, he laughed and laughed for the circus audience, but deepinside he was crying for love of Maria.Activity 2: A story from Japan for you to read and discuss (10 minutes)A Cup of TeaNan-in, a Japanese Zen master, received a university professor who had come to him to learn about Zen. Theprofessor was, like many men of his profession, rather arrogant and proud of his own knowledge. They began totalk and the professor told Nan-in his views about religion and life. After some time, Nan-in served tea. Hepoured his visitor’s cup full and then kept pouring. The professor watched the overflow until he could no longerrestrain himself.‘The cup is already full,’ said the professor. ‘No more will go in.’‘Like this cup,’ Nan-in replied,’ you are full of your own importance and opinions. How can I show you Zenunless you first empty your cup?’Answer these questions:a. Circle two adjectives in the list below which you think describe Nan-in and two whichdescribe the university professor:hospitable / understanding / highly educated / patient /conceited / self-aware / forgiving / unfriendly / humble /b. What do you think this story is trying to teach us? Explain your views in one sentence.c. Do you think the story is successful in conveying its meaning? Why or why not?Activity 3: Late for School (20 minutes)The new family in the neighborhood overslept and their six-year-old daughter missed her school bus. The father,though late for work himself, had to drive her. Since he did not know the way, he asked his daughter to direct himto the school. They drove several blocks before she told him to turn left and then several more before she to told him37

to turn right. This turning right and left went on for 20 minutes or so but, when they finally reached the school, itproved to be only a short distance from their home. The father, much annoyed, asked his daughter why she'd ledhim around in such a circle. The child explained, "That's the way the school bus goes, Daddy. It's the only way Iknow."Answer these questions:1. Why didn’t the father know the way to his daughter’s school?2. Why did their journey to school take so long?3. Underline all the verbs in the past tense (e.g. overslept)4. Which two sentences are in the form of direct speech?5. What would you say is the genre (text type) of this text? Is it (a) descriptive (b) narrativeor (c) persuasive?38

Week 11 Session 3: Reading excerpts and interviewsGuide for InstructorsIn this session, the student teachers are asked to read a longer text – an interview with a famousactor. They are then asked to examine the language used in the interview and to devise somequestions they would ask someone famous. They are then asked to role play an interview withtheir partner.Guide for Student TeachersIn this session, you will be asked to read an interview with a famous actor and to examine thelanguage used in the interview. You will then be asked to design your own mini-questionnaireand to role play an interview with a partner. Follow the instructions with your course instructor.Activity 1: Read this interview with ShahRukh Khan (30 minutes)Starting life in Delhi as a bright young student, ShahRukh Khan was tipped to be someone veryspecial one day He always believed that he was destined for bigger things in life than just runninga restaurant and right from the beginning he was known to be a determined little khan. He wasthe pride and joy of his family His father, who was a well-respected person in the community,taught him that life was not easy and this training made him a hard-working and a verydetermined young man. Shahrukh's mother taught him how to love life and make the most of it.When I arrived, ShahRukh was still busy surfing the net. Eventually, the "Khanna" finished and,with his laptop closed, I was ready with lots of questions.Shahid: ShahRukh, Welcome to England from all your fans here. How do you feel when youcome to London?ShahRukh: Thank you, I love coming to London, It's a great place and I have a massivefollowing here so I feel very much at home. My fans make me feel really welcome and it’s almostnever too hot here (hahaha).Shahid: How do you feel about having so many fans?Shahrukh: I am just grateful to God for giving me the abilities to perform well, which hasresulted in such a large number of admirers. I think lots of hard work and dedication to theprofession and commitment bring in a lot of success, and success brings in very many admirers. Iget a large number of letters, faxes, e-mails from all corners of the earth from both genders andof all ages - people who admire my work and even make the effort to write to me.I am just a normal guy who knows how to act and please his fans. I think it’s because I put all myheart into acting. That's why people admire it. I also value my fans very much. Hence, I wouldalways make an effort to meet people, shake hands and be with them. It gives me enormouspleasure and happiness to be with people. I am very much a people person.Shahid: ShahRukh, you recently went through difficult times professionally? How do you copewith the ups and downs of life?ShahRukh: In every profession one goes through highs and lows. The thing to remember isnever to lose heart and never give up. Going through life is a learning curve. Throughout thiscurve, sometimes you are up and sometimes you are down, but if you remain confident and true39

to your cause you can always bounce back. Early on in life I learnt that life is not a bed of rosesbut you can surely change it for the better with lots of hard work and a bit of good luck. Youalways need a little extra when it comes to luck, but most of it you make yourself. From the earlystages of my life I have always found it easy to focus on my aim and I think once you are able tofocus that's half the achievement. Fortunately, all through my life I have managed to achieve mygoals to a very large extent. Focus, Dedication and Hard work pay off and in my case it pays verywell.Shahid: Shahrukh, are you materialistic?ShahRukh: No no, not at all. On the contrary, money means nothing to me. It's the good will ofthe people around you and the love, which makes you rich. You cannot buy love and fame withmoney. Fame and love are gifts from God and for that reason alone I feel richer than tenbillionaires put together as I get a lot of love from people wherever I go. I could be in any partof the world and people will come up to me. Sometimes they don't even say anything; they justwant to shake hands with me or stand next to me for a few moments. They value thesemoments for the rest of their lives and I feel very humble that God has given me the ability toenrich so many lives.Shahid: People call you a tower of energy. How do you manage to stay so energetic and full oflife?ShahRukh: I think energy comes from being creative and I feel I am very creative. Hence, thatgenerates enormous energy and also inner happiness. Satisfaction of achievement revitalizes yourinner being and makes you full of life. Again you must utilize this energy; otherwise, you arebeing ungrateful to God, who has given you a talent to make this world a better place.Here are four questions on the interview to discuss with your partner and then with the wholeclass.a. In your opinion, which adjectives in the list below apply to ShahRukh Khan based onwhat is said during the interview? (Underline your choices):uncaring / ambitious / talented / hard-working / arrogant / selfish / self-aware / unrealistic /foolish/ creative /lazy /handsome / kind / confidentb. What expression does ShahRukh Khan use to say that life can sometimes be difficult?Clue: not a b…….. o… r………..c. What two ingredients are necessary to be successful in life, according to Mr Khan?d. What are two differences between a narrative text and a conversation or interview in thetelling of someone’s personal story?e. Is it easier to read/understand an interview or a narrative text? Give two reasons tosupport your views on this question.Activity 2: What’s your favourite food? (20 minutes)Write down five questions you would ask your favourite actor / singer / sports personality/writer if you were able to interview her/him.Now ask your partner these questions, with your partner pretending to be the famouspersonality. Then you should try to answer her/his questions. The instructor will choose 2 or 3of the student interviews and these will be acted out in front of the whole class.40

Activity 3. Text as a Puzzle (5 minutes):Here is a puzzle for you to solve:1. Two fathers and two sons went fishing. Each fisherman caught one fish but only three fish were caught.Please explain.The answer will be given in the next class.41

Week 12/Session 1: Critical thinking exercises to develop language awareness andthinking skillsGuide for InstructorsIn order to develop the student teacher’s awareness of how English is used in the world, thestudent teachers are asked to solve some word puzzles with their group members. They are thengiven the opportunity to add some of their own original sentences to the opening lines of wellknownnovels. If you wish, you can find the original opening sections from these novels frominternet sites and get the student teachers to compare their versions with the original. Finally, thestudent teachers are given some printed jokes to read and interpret.Guide for Student TeachersThe following activities should be worked through with your instructor. Ask him/her if you haveproblems with word meanings. The session is to help you develop a greater awareness of howthe English language works in different social contexts.Activity 1: Puzzles to solveSuggested answer to the puzzle given in the previous class: A grandfather, a father and a son (=2 fathers and 2 sons) went fishing.Six more puzzles for you to solve with your partner or group members. Suggested answers willbe given at the beginning of the next session. (10 minutes for puzzle solving)a. There was a plane crash. Every single person died but two people survived. How is thispossible?b. A taxi driver is going along a one-way street in the wrong direction. A policeman seeshim but says nothing to the taxi driver. Why?c. What gets wet as it dries?d. What can travel around the world but always stays in one corner?e. Can you understand the following poem?YYURYYUBICURYY4ME(Clue: the first line is ‘Too wise you are’.)Activity 2: Which Path?You are in a remote, desolate mountainous area far away from any town. You are walking up alonely mountain road and find that, at one point, the road divides into two paths. One path leadsto the other side of the mountain, and the other will get you lost forever. Two identical twinsknow the path that leads to the other side. You can ask them only one question but one twinalways lies and the other one always tells the truth, and you don't know which is which. Whatquestion do you ask the twins so that you can choose the correct path?Activity 3: First Lines (30 minutes)42

The sentences given in 1-8 below are taken from the opening lines to eight well-known novels.Choose one of the opening sentences and continue the story by writing 3 or 4 sentences of yourown. The instructor will ask you to read your paragraph aloud to the rest of the class.1. You too will marry a boy I choose,' said Mrs Rupa Mehra firmly to her younger daughter.2. There was no possibility of taking a walk that day3. The place I like best in this world is the kitchen4. Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way5. I write this sitting in the kitchen sink6. Miss Brooke had that kind of beauty which seems to be thrown into relief by poor dress.7. It was love at first sight.8. In my younger and more vulnerable years my father gave me some advice that I've beenturning over in my mind ever since.Activity 4: Story Jokes (15 minutes)Read these three jokes with your partner. Which one do you think is the funniest? Give reasonsfor your choice.Joke #1: Nabeel was walking down the road one morning when he met his friend Hamza."Morning, Hamza. Why are you wearing a glove on one hand and none on the other?”"Yes, well I heard the weather forecast this morning, you see.""The weather forecast?""Yes, the weather forecast. The forecaster said on the one hand it might be fine but on the otherhand there might be some rain."Joke #2: One day a rabbit walked into the butcher's shop and asked the butcher, 'Do you haveany carrots?'The butcher replied, 'No, I'm sorry, sir, this is a butchers' shop. We don't sell vegetables in here.Go to the greengrocer at the other end of the street. I'm sure he's got some carrots.' The rabbitthanked the butcher and left the shop.The next day the rabbit went into the butcher's shop again.'Good morning! I'd like a lettuce and some carrots, please.''Look, I'm sorry, sir! I told you yesterday - we don't sell any vegetables in here, only meat.''OK, I see,' said the rabbit and left the shop.On the third day, the rabbit walked into the shop again and said,'Hello, could you give me some carrots and a cabbage, please?'This time the butcher was very angry.'I told you yesterday and the day before. We don't sell any vegetables in here. No carrots, nolettuce, no cabbage and no onions. Do you understand? The next time you come in here and askfor vegetables, I'm going to take a hammer and I'm going to nail your ears to the floor!'The next day, the rabbit was in the butcher's shop again.'Good morning!' he said. 'Do have any nails?''No,' said the butcher, 'I don't have any nails.''Do you have a hammer?' asked the rabbit.43

'No, I don't,' the butcher replied.'Good,' said the rabbit, 'Then can I have some carrots, please?'Joke #3: The manager of a large office asked a new employee to come into his office. "What’syour name?" was the first thing the manager asked."John," the new guy replied. The manager scowled. "Look, I don't know what kind of place youworked at before, but I don't call anyone by their first name! It breeds familiarity and that leadsto a breakdown in authority," he said. "I refer to my employees by their last name only - Smith,Jones, Baker - that's all. Now that we’ve got that straight, what is your last name?" The new guysighed and said, "Darling. My name is John Darling." The manager said, "Okay, John, the nextthing I want to tell you..."After discussing the jokes with your partner, choose one and summarize in writing what takesplace in that joke in one or two sentences.44

Week 12 Session 2: Personal responsesGuide for InstructorsAfter soliciting the student teacher’s own solutions to the puzzles and, if necessary, helping themto find the right answers, the main focus of the session will be writing a story which is inspired insome way by one of the pictures given below. Allow the student teachers to make as liberal useas they wish of the picture as a stimulus. After finishing their story, the student teachers shouldshare it with other class members and be given the opportunity to make improvements based onthe feedback.Guide for Student TeachersIn groups, present your solutions to the word puzzles to the rest of the class. Then, followingyour instructor’s advice, write your own original story based on one of the pictures you seebelow. After finishing your story, you should share it with other class members and then makeimprovements to it based on their feedback.Activity 1: Answers to puzzles (10 minutes)With your group members, discuss your answers to the puzzles discussed in the previous class.Compare your solutions with the suggested answers below:1. The two people who survived were married (not ‘single’).2. The taxi driver was walking.3. A towel.4. A stamp on a letter.5. Too wise you are / Too wise you be / I see you are / Too wise for me.6. The question you should ask is: ‘Which path would your brother say was the correct path?’Explanation for No. 6: Let’s say the correct path is on the left side. So you ask the liar, "Whatwould your brother say?" The liar would know his brother was honest and so his brother wouldsay the left side. However, since the liar always lies, he would say the right. If you asked thehonest twin the same question, he would say the right path because he knows his brother will lie.Therefore, you would know that the correct path was the left.Activity 2: Stories from pictures (25 minutes)Look at the three pictures below. Choose one of the pictures and write an original short story ofyour own in one or two paragraphs based on the picture.Once you have finished your story and are happy with it, the instructor will ask you to read italoud to the rest of the class for their comments and compliments. Note down the feedbackmade by your colleagues and use this to improve your story.45

Week 12/ Session 3: Thinking about song lyricsGuide for Instructors46

This session looks at popular songs as a source of sharing personal experiences. Work with thestudent teachers as indicated below. If Instructors would prefer to use alternative song lyrics,that would be fine provided the lesson objectives remain the same.Guide for Student TeachersFollow the materials with your course instructor, as indicated.Activity 1: Song LyricsLook at the lyrics of What a Wonderful World. They are available at: possible, use the internet to listen to the song.Discuss the lyrics and their meaning with your partner and then together write 2 or 3 sentencessummarizing the main ideas of this song. Share your paragraph with other class members.Now look at the lyrics of the song “Where do the children play?” by Yusuf Islam. It’s available at: possible, listen to the song sung by Yusuf Islam on the internet. Once you have read andunderstood the text, write 2 or 3 sentences summarizing the song’s main ideas. Share yourparagraph with other class members.Discuss with your group members which of the two songs you prefer. Do you find the lyrics ofthe first song more interesting, meaningful, poetic, or do you prefer the second song? Explainwhy. Other groups will share their views with the class.47

Week 13/Session 1Guide for InstructorsThis session looks at popular song lyrics and asks the Student Teachers to write their own verses.Work with the Student Teachers as indicated below. If Instructors would prefer to usealternative lyrics that would be acceptable provided the lesson objectives remain the same. TheStudent Teachers are then asked to use a picture as a stimulus for descriptive writing,Guide for Student TeachersFollow the materials with your course instructor, as indicated.1. Write your own lyrics (20 minutes)Review the lyrics of the two songs discussed in the previous session. In groups, using your ownwords, add another verse to either of the songs. Below is an example. Once you have completedyour verse, read (or sing) it aloud to the other groups in the class.Our example:Don’t know much about Shakespeare’s plays,The teacher’s talking but my head’s in a daze.Don’t know much about United NationsI’ve got no clue about punctuation.But I do know that my words are trueAnd I know that if you love me too,What a wonderful world this would be.2. Writing from photographs (40 minutes)Choose one of the photos below and write a paragraph about it. Try to include some interestingdescriptive words. Use the following questions to help you in your writing.• What do you see in the picture?• What season is it? How can you tell?• Did you notice the way the light is shining? Do you see any special reflections? Describethem.• Imagine you were present at the time of the photo. Complete the similes: ‘The air smellslike… The wind rustles through the leaves like …’ – Use your other senses to describehow and what you feel.• What does the photo make you feel like doing?• Does it create any emotion(s) in you? Describe that emotion.• Any other thoughts?48

Week 13/Session 2: Language structuresGuide for InstructorsThis session looks at language structures which may prove problematic to English learners.Instructors will need to provide support and their own examples of these structures in realcontexts. Instructors should also discuss the assignment with the Student Teachers.Guide for Student TeachersFollow the materials with your course instructor, as indicated. Try to become more aware of thestructures discussed are used in English. Discuss the assignment with your Instructor.Activity 1: Phrases with two meanings1. In the joke below, ‘take her flowers’ can mean two different things. Explain the two meanings toyour instructor. (5 minutes)Jill: Where did you get those flowers?Jack: From your mother’s garden.Jill: What? Are you crazy?Jack: Why? It was your idea.Jill: No, I asked you to take her flowers.Jack: That’s what I did!Jack / took / her flowers.(He stole the flowers belonging to her)Jack / took / her / flowers.(He took some flowers to her)Activity 2: Eat your words: The Language of Food and DrinkFill in the blanks with a food or drink item.Example: After the wedding, they had a short …honey...moon in Japan.Answers are given in the next unit.1. Grammar is just not my cup of …….2. She is the ………….. of his eye.3. The twins are as alike as two …………… in a pod.4. It was as easy as taking ….... from a baby5. Dan Brown’s new book is selling like ……………………6. The mistake has left the government with ……. on its face.7. He is a couch …………… He just watches TV all day long.8. Despite the pressure, she seemed as cool as a ………………9. There’s no use crying over spilt………………..10. They pay me very little in this job; I’m working for ……………Write a very short story in only 4-5 sentences using at least 3 of the above food & drinkexpressions. (20 minutes)50

Activity 3: How to use ‘in case’ (15 minutes)Look at these sentences, all taken from the writing of Pakistani users of English:1. In case you see Anisa, please give her this book.2. Communication can completely break down in case of total ignorance in this area.3. In case you want some samosas from the tuck shop, please SMS.4. In case I fail the exam, I will have to repeat the course.In Standard British, American or Australian English, ‘in case’ is generally used when people aretalking about doing something as a precaution.5. I always take a book to bed with me in case I can’t sleep.6. Bond put a pistol in his coat pocket in case he needed it later on.7. Let’s take some sandwiches with us in case we get hungry.Therefore, in British English, speakers would say:If you see Anisa, please give her this book.Communication can break down if there is total ignorance in this area.If you want some samosas, please SMS.If I fail the exam tomorrow, I will have to repeat the course.(NOT *in case I fail the exam…)Look at the difference between the following sentences:- People telephone the fire brigade if their house catches fire.- People insure their house in case it catches fire.- If it’s raining tomorrow, I’ll take my umbrella .(only if it’s raining will I take my umbrella)- I’ll take my umbrella tomorrow in case it rains.(I’ll take my umbrella whatever the weather just in case it rains)Exercise: a. Say whether the following sentences are correct or not. Answers are given in thenext unit.i. I’ll ask Mehnaz to bring the drinks just in case you can’t come to the picnic.ii. In case you see Anjum, tell him to phone me immediately.iii. We can have lunch together tomorrow in case you are free.iv. In case of fire, break the glass and press the alarm button.Activity 4: Vocabulary: The following are the 20 Most Common Nouns in English. From theletters given, try to work out what each word is. Answers will be shared in the next unit. (551

minutes)1. ti.. 2. ye.. 3. peo… 4. wa.. 5. ma… 6. da… 7. thi. 8. chi.. 9. Mr10. go…….. 11. wo.. 12. lif.. 13. wo...... 14. sys…… 15. ca..16. par… 17. gro….. 18. num….. 19. wo….. 20. hou…..Activity 5: Function words vs. Lexical Words (10 minutes)We can make a distinction between function words, which have only grammatical meaning (e.g.the, for, because, in, and) and lexical words, which refer to things in the real world around us (e.g.chair, blue, run, quickly, etc.)In the following story, all the lexical words have been deleted from the text. Can you make anysense of it?… … were … on a ... … … A ... came … and … the … ... (and only …) ... each.“I … I was … … with my … and …,” … the … … and, in a ……., he … back …“I ... I was ... with my … …,” ... the … … and he also ………...“It’s very … here now,” ….. the … … “I … my … … were here with me.”Here is the same story but this time only the lexical words are given – no function words. Why isthis text easier to understand?Three men ... stuck ... … remote desert island. … fairy came … … offered … men one (……. one) free wish …….“…. wish … … back home … … family … friends,” said … first man ..., … … flash, …disappeared …… home.“… wish … … back … … family …,” said … second man … … ... disappeared.“… … … lonely … ...,’ said … third man. ‘… wish … two friends … … … …”Work with a partner and use the two texts to construct the complete story.Assignment: Ask a family member (e.g. your grandmother, father, uncle, aunt, etc.) to tell you atrue story about something that happened to the family years ago or an old traditional story thatis known in your area. Make detailed notes so that you can remember the story well enough totell it in the next English class.52

Week 13/Session 3: Family storiesGuide for InstructorsGo through the answers to the exercises from the previous session with the Student Teachers.Instructors will then need to help the Student Teachers to tell the family story they wrote for theassignment to the rest of the class (developing their oral presentation skills). The StudentTeachers should then share their written stories and get feedback on it from their classmates.Instructors should show the Student Teachers how to give positive and negative feedbackpolitely, and how to use feedback to write a more compelling text.Guide for Student TeachersFollow the materials with your course instructor, as indicated. Use the feedback given to makeimprovements to your family story. First, look at the answers to the quizzes from the previoussession.Activity 1: Answers from the previous sessionGo through these answers to the quizzes given in the previous lesson. Compare them with youranswers. (5 minutes)Food & Drink: 1. tea 2. apple 3. peas 4. candy 5. hot cakes 6. egg7. potato 8. cucumber 9. milk 10. peanutsIn Case:i. I’ll ask Mehnaz to bring the drinks just in case you can’t come to the picnic. - Correctii. In case you see Anjum, tell him to phone me immediately. – Not correct. It should be: If you seeAnjum,…iii. We can have lunch together tomorrow in case you are free. – Not correct. It should be: …ifyou are freeiv. In case of fire, break the glass and operate the fire extinguisher. - CorrectThe Top 20 English Nouns1. time 2. year 3. people 4. way 5. man 6. day 7. thing 8. child 9. Mr10. government 11. work 12. life 13. woman 14. system 15. case16. part 17. group 18. number 19. world 20. houseActivity 2: Retelling traditional and family storiesReferring back to the assignment from the previous class, use your notes to tell your groupmembers the story you heard from your relative either about something that happened in yourfamily or a traditional story from your area. The instructor will select one story from each groupto be told to the whole class.Write down your family story in English, adding relevant descriptive words to give the storymore power and interest. Share the written version of your story with your partner and with theinstructor. Use their feedback to improve your story. Put your finished story in a portfolio or file.Don’t lose it as it will be a useful record of your family history.Unit 5 FUNCTIONING IN ENGLISH (3 weeks/9 hours)53

Student Teachers will be involved in learning how language works through critically evaluatingtexts in terms of effectiveness, meaning and accuracy. This unit draws their attention tounderstanding how grammatical patterns change according to the author’s purpose and audience.Week 14: Writing styles• Changing narration: converting a dialogue into a report• Converting a story into a news report• Converting a graph/picture into short report/storyWeek 15: Writing mechanics• Punctuation and structure• Sentences, Fragments and run-ons• Subject-predicate and pronoun-reference agreementWeek 16: Project presentations and revisionLearning Outcomes:At the end of the unit, students will be able to:• Construct sentences effectively through becoming more aware of word order, of the use oftenses appropriate to text type, of the structure of noun phrases, and the use of appropriatepunctuation (e.g. capital letters and full stops)• Write well-formed sentences using grammatical features that help to achieve the purpose ofthe text, e.g. reported and quoted speech in narratives, structure of noun phrases ininformation reports, past tense in recounts, use of relating verbs in descriptions, use ofmodality in expository texts• Write consistently without major communication-distorting grammatical errorsEssential Questions:• What elements of grammar do I need to be aware of to create meaningful texts?• How do sentences become complete in themselves?• What are the different strategies to convert one text type into another, e.g, a narrative into areport?Enduring Understandings:• Grammar accuracy can be achieved through intensive exposure to texts in the targetlanguage.• A complete sentence differs from a fragment. A series of fragments and run-ons complicatesthe text and its meanings.• With an understanding of the required structure in different text types, we can transmit thesame message through different genres.Practical Grammar• Descriptive and narrative style• Sentence structure; identifying run-ons and fragments in sentences• Subject-verb agreement• Pronoun-reference agreement• Punctuation• Tense variation54

Resources for teachers & students:Free grammar practice software: 3-D Grammar fragments speech agreement - for Developing Additional Topics in the Unit:3-D Grammar free download quizzes quizzes activity resources:Punctuation artswww.storyarts.org55

UNIT 5 SUGGESTED ACTIVITIESWEEK 14Week 14 Session 1: Changing narration: converting a dialogue into a reportSuggested activities• Teacher brings in a set of dialogues and asks Student Teachers to convert them intoreported speech.• OR T asks Student Teachers to write dialogues and then convert them into reportedspeech.Week 15 Session 2: Converting a story into a news reportSuggested activities• From the narratives read in the previous unit, the teacher asks Student Teachers toconvert the selected narrative(s) into a news report. The essential purpose is to make thewriting more factual and objective. The narrative style would thus change into areporting style.• The emerging text should be to-the-point, concise and concrete.Week 11 Session 3: Converting a graph/picture into a short report/storySuggested activities• Teacher brings in a series of pictures and asks the Student Teachers to write out a shortstory.• Last year students from the three colleges given below won awards for winningcompetitions in Cultural Events, Athletics and Sports. Present this information in areport of 150 words..14121086420Cultural Events Athletics SportsCollege of EducationInstitute of EducationEducation University• The line graph below represents the performance of students in English language skills inthe first four semesters. Write a report of about 120 words in a paragraph to describe thisinformation. On the χ axis are average scores.56

90807060504030201001st Sem 2nd Sem 3rd Sem 4th SemWritingReadingSpeakingWeek 15 Session 1 - 3: Writing mechanicsEssential knowledge for this week’s topics:• Differentiate a sentence from a fragment (e.g. Fragment : ‘ Though she could not leave’.Sentence: Though she could not leave, she managed to send a message via email.)• There is a need to develop correct sentences with subject-verb agreement (e.g., They doINSTEAD OF They does.) and pronoun-reference agreement (E.g., Sarwar is ahardworking man, and he knows how to manage his time. INSTEAD OF THEINCORRECT VERSION: Sarwar is a hardworking man, and they know how to managetheir time.)Suggested activities• Student Teachers to be given worksheets on the given topics. These could be repeated ifrequired by the teacher.• Give Student Teachers a list containing sentences and fragments. Student Teachers toidentify complete sentences.• This could be followed by giving a set of fragments, and Student Teachers to makecomplete sentences out of them.• Worksheets on subject-verb agreement.• Worksheet on pronoun-reference agreement, so that Student Teachers can point outwhat each pronoun refers to.Week 16 Sessions 1 &2: Project presentationsNote:Project ideas will have to be introduced at an earlier stage in the semester to give studentssufficient time to prepare these. A good idea is to allow students to work in groups for projects.Suggested activities• The idea of a guide has been given in sufficient detail in Unit 3 planning.• For narratives, students could be asked to construct stories with structured plots. UsePlot Structure Scenarios devised by Heather Forest available at: same site also has other ideas for story writing.57

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