Human pressures on marine habitats - PREHAB

Human pressures on marine habitats - PREHAB

Backgroundpresent and future concerns ofsea uses,key properties of the ong>pressuresong> aswell as the sensitive marinehabitats and species.M. Snickars 2007introduction to how GIS can beapplied in analysing thevulnerability of sensitiveecosystem features in the BalticSea, case studyMetsähallitus 2003

• Extraction of sea resources• Wind farming• Navigational & recreational activities (-> case study)• Fishing• …

Large differences across small distances• Hard substrate• Macroalgae, musselsExposedshoreShelteredshore• Soft substrate• Vascular plantsMetsähallitus 2006

Species adapt – biological traits

Furcellaria lumbricalis• Red algae• Hard substrates• -20 m depth• ExposureMetsähallitus 2006

Filamentous algae-opportunistic-annual speciesCladophora glomerata Metsähallitus 2006

Filamentous algae-as pressure due nutrient loads

Mytilus trossulus (edulis)• Hard substrates• 2~15-20 m• Exposure• Siltation• SpaceMetsähallitus 2006

Macroalgae zone• Filamentous algae• Brown algae• Red algae• Blue musselMetsähallitus 2006

Sandy - soft substrates• Zostera marina (eelgrass)• Freshwater species(Potamogeton spp.)• Chara spp• Extraction• Light conditionMetsähallitus 2006

Medeltemp i majSpring temperatureCPUE of juvenile fishCPUE• Spring aggregation of spawning fish (e.g. pike,perch) Nursery area, Functional habitat• Habitat requirement:- temperature1816141210864201816141210864200-25 26-50 51-75 76-100Percentage vegetation coverageTäckningsgrad i procenty = -1,7102x + 15,491R 2 = 0,55780,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0Water exchangeMynningsdjup- vegetation coverageMetsähallitus 2006Husö Biological Station2002, Martin Snickars

Coastal lagoons as an example of multiple activitiesin a high priority habitatDREDGINGBUILDINGSBOAT TRAFFICLAND RUN-OFFCOASTAL LAGOON (Habitats Directive Annex 1 *habitat (type 1150)Photo: Jan Ekebom, 1996

From sea use to ong>pressuresong>-Extraction of various resources-wind farming-navigational and recreational activities,-> habitat destruction/loss…?Stress, a deviation of environmentalconditions beyond the expected range.Activity 1Activity 2Activity nPressure 1Pressure 2Pressure nSensitivity, the degree to which marinefeatures respond to stress. (~recoverability)Vulnerability, the probability that a featurewill be exposed to a stressor to which it issensitive.(Zacharias and Gregr 2005)

2. Tools to support marine planning – Example 2• Ecosystem components are sensitive to different ong>pressuresong>• Impact aka vulnerability = Pressure * SensitivityWhat impacts pressure?Distance (effective)TimingFrequencyDurationSynergyAdditive->Cumulative impact -> affect EGS

• From uses to vulnerability to species• Data processingSustainable use• Knowledge stepsEcosys-based apprto managementVULNERABILITYPRESSURESENSITIVITYUSEACTIVITYToday informationDistanceSPECIESHABITAT

Examples• Marine StrategyFramework DirectiveWorks with ong>pressuresong>not usesAbrasion = mechanicalscraping of a surfaceby friction

Coastal Coastal lagoons lagoons as an as example an example of multiple of multiple activitieswith potential cmulative impactong>pressuresong> in a high in a high priority priority habitat habitatSMOTHERINGDREDGINGSMOTHERINGBUILDINGSABRASION BOAT TRAFFICLAND RUN-OFFNUTRIENT INPCOASTAL LAGOON (Habitats Directive Annex 1 *habitat (type 1150)Photo:COASTALJan Ekebom,LAGOON1996(Habitats Directive Annex 1 *habitat (type 1150)Photo: Jan Ekebom, 1996

Mixed terminologysea use/pressure/impact(HELCOM BSPA management and planning tools)

1110 sandbanks1170 reefs1180 leaking gassesCetaceansBirds eating FishBirds eatingBenthosPhoca vitulinaLarge fishLarge moluscsNatural physicalprocessesselected speciesxxSea use / sea featureAn example of the use of the matrixSite A (hypotetical)(see point 5.5 of the main texte)Users Habitats Species Other elements ofconservation concerns but notlisted in EC DirectivesThe Sea Use Table in theguidelines gives us the basic[ong>pressuresong>] and it also show uswhich ones would requireregulation (indicated by 5colours).SPACEwindmills ? ?HarboursArt. islandsOil and gas explorationOil and gas exploitationShipping channels ?Pipelines/cablesMilitary practiceTidal energyFISHERIESBottom trawling ?Shell fishery/dredgingCollection biogenic structuresPelagic fisherySeines, driftnet, line fisheriesSet netsMINING/DREDGINGSand miningGravel miningChannel dredgingnot relevantno impacteasy regulationzoning of activityconflict -> regulation

Snickars & Pitkänen 2007

Maritime traffic case study• Existing lane toStockholm - a existingMaritime traffic zone• Economy/safety• Categorical traffic lane- on the exemplifying the use of zones for Marine Spatial Planning under the zone category Maritime TrafficStockholm

Revision before starting overWhat is MSP (2/2)?24. Assessment and Reporting23. Monitor Performance Indicators1. Define Vision and ObjectivesSTART2. Define Region3. Define Legal Framework4. Define Principlesfor Marine Spatial Planning21. MarineSpatial Plan19. Set up MonitoringProgramme20.Hold PublicHearing22.Dissemination5. FinalAssessment& Reporting4.Implementation1. VisionandObjectives2. InitialAssessment5. AnnounceStep 1INPUT OFHARMONIZEDMAPPING DATA6. EnvironmentalCharacterisation18. Set Specific Targetsfor Individual Zones,Uses & Activities16. Draft Management Plan15. Calculate Costs and Benefits14. Draft Zoning Plan& Map17. ConsultStakeholders3. Planningprocess12. ConsultStakeholdersIn thematicgroups13. Zone SelectionProcess (based on 8 to 12)11. Set Targets for Marine Regions(environmental and human activities & uses)7. Assessment ofong>Humanong> Impactand Pressures8. Socio-economic Analysis9. Assessment of Biodiversity10. Define Environmental StatusJan Ekebom, 2010

Following the Zoning TemplateData on biophysical, socio-economical featuresCompile:Fish habitatsAnnex IPiers

Pressure evaluation matrix(PEM) e.g .maritime trafficUse+Impact (scale)+Sensitive features=Assess vulnerability

• Overlay:• PEM• Conflicts

Thank you!

Snickars & Pitkänen 2007

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