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لتحميل الدراسة – البحث PDF-ZIP أضغط على الرابط

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ouglas,1991) #$ % &$ $ $ + (Mastroperi,1996) .#$ % &$ \ $ +


% &$ 8 3% 5" &#$ % ! 0$ $ 1!:O &$ =. &$6 + &+ 0 5$6 !? #$ & 7 == & A- 0 $6 == &$ M@[ + ) .")+= - !. ! : % -$6" :? ^? 1-6 77= .( -% J: !"#% & ' & ( % )# %*+ + .$- ,#,# % & ' & ( / % ##01 %*+& !# ..% " ,# % & ' & 0# 3# %45 6 .2.-)# % ##0& # % 8 3# 98 % 0 6 .7- )# / % ##01 ,# % & ':,:# % & ' & / % ##01 ,#199 ! 5= &= < ! + 5$6 &$ ? &- )P *+ 0 &$6 5$6 !? &$ M@[ 3% !. . !9 1-6 8 5-; @ " '- &$ !+ 8. !=-_ + &$6 1)*9 = -7 4 1& S= 2= 6 &$` & + $ 3%.-6 & ! + 0 $ &7* (.1TGGT1! ) .%1! &$ ! &$ $ + $ A : &-O J+ 9 6 + &%: &$ $ + $ 2%- @ ! $9 !+& ! = 9 6@ 2= , 1a: + #$ % &$ $#$ J &== !9 Q &= & #$ % &$ !. &%: $ @ 1+ $ @ L J ! 1& + M9.&%: & ! ' . ! +


(Rottman, 1990. Leshwitz, 1993. Lafrance, 1994 )+ :" J 1 &%: & ! 8 !" 1&%: &$ Z- 5" ( Higher Order Thinking Skills ) $!+ 7 * !. !9 -+ &%: & $ ! ? .A- 5" $ + $:. "


= & =@ 3P $ 9 4 : = =


.&$ : 9 ! &$ 2=- 8 + = J+ :J #$ % &$ 5$6 EP


+ 0 : = = + &9 - $ 9 4 (Diversification) &$ \ & $ 4 ! &6- &6 &-P '.#$ %: # B C# =&0


+ $6 :(Metacognitive Thinking) 3/ =/ )#& + ! S- 2$ 19 : . &$+ -6 : = $ 8-. . 1& : - &? Me : -6 0 4 *: ! $$(.1TGGT 1 ! ) .- &? :


,")3/ S =@&-9


:,K# % "*: ! &-9 &$6 : = !+ 4 $ 2 - M 0P *: ! . 1J+. . ! ! * :@ &/*$ )9 M =$= *: ! 2 ,+ 1&+ % 2= 6.% + ! 7 $ 3P *: ! $ 15 *: ! @ =@ : = *: ! % + E . &P" *: ! J :  % "1 $ &PQ &9= $ : = - 1&$9 = 4. 0? *: ! [- 1$ a*: = *: ! a:$ 12= !6 41 &$ 5- &PQ &9= $.&$:< # % "1$ - . $ 0 & &- E *: ! M- 6"%Q 6? 0P *: ! '=L :,B# % "1+ &9 - ••.+ M : ," 1M6@ &? ! +L . ! (9 1 +% 2 M a:$ (TGGT)= ? 9H:& + $ *: ! ".SQ 5$6 9 !=.8 $6 + \ = !=.(% ) 7-Q \ = S . !=.!$ &$ -6 #$ - &Q @ \ = 0.&= A-$ = -6 !$ -6 ' = h h$ 2h=- 8 &9 ( Lawson ,1993 )!=@ g?- 9h#$ !. !+ + !. 5" % SP a: 2e & *: ! + !. !h+ 1 ! &9 5 &P ! iM 1& = 0 HUHTH]HFHIL••


(Costa) h=+ !" h 1& @ &= -= *: ! + / $ :" *: ! + &- &-+N ![ (9 ) 2 + 2%.&P &$ ! M &$ A- 5" $ + + (Costa,2001)!= % 9 1+ & 8/ 4 -=-Q d - !. 4d - &$ & *: !. - 1 8 ! %XG 5" &==' Z !+ &$ 18P- + 5 / -@ ! P. !+ =:$ + + $ 0$ $ !7: +. Z -"*+ A - 2= : 9< 0P : &? &$6••••••••9 : •! , 1: = & $ 6 5$6 +&$6 *: & $ 6 &$6 ! & 2= + ! L + (Wilson, 2000) .( & M ) + A )& )# M# ,## ! ?


5$6 2 : ! #/- \ &. 5" )P. !J . ? 1& a: 2 5" & + ! + !. + 1+ : =(Barry, 2001) . : :)# % " M#


#/- 6 ,$=


:#$ % &$ - - % / ! 1 $


!= & MQ 5$6 #+. 9 (Robertson , 2001) != .H:#$ % &$ \ + =8-#$ = 5$6 J[ - &$ M@[ \ &9= : 5$6 < HU.*9 =7 $+ +. 9 !+ $+ 1 M@[ \ 5$6 +L HT.#$ 5$6 ? + !9 M : !6 4 5$6 #$ % &$ 2 H].#$ &$6 *:--J = M 1 / @ $6 M M@[ $ HF.$ & &$6 *:#$ &$6 )+ )@ 2 !+ $+ 1#$ &$6 2 $ 7 M 6" HI.#$ + 5$6 8 ? 7 $+&$6 & M = : = 5$6 #$ % &$ 2 Hb. 0 3$% & = @ 8-. $ 0 1#$ & -. = 0 0 &% &E : . &? #$ 5" &$ M@[ Z HWL= !. :, 5$6 &$J ! 1 0 Q 5$6 &$ M@[ 0 HV 1q 8 5$6 -6= !. !+ % M . " :=-..q% 5" %$ ( P. &% $+ :J #$ = &== 3 #$ 5" &$ M@[ Z HX.$ &6= ! 7 + 5$6 &= /- 5$6 2 5" &$ M@[ Z HUG.5-&$ M@[ 6= , 2$ 1&=- &6 &$6 $ &$6 !. 5$6 +L HUU.6 5$65$6 &$J ! 6 +. M 6" 5$6 2 ? :- 12=Q 5$6 2 HU]. & - ; & - &$J ! 7 1#$ : %:$ &$ 7 0 8#$ &?*6 &$=. 5$6 2 HUF.& + 5$6 7+ $6 == &P6


6 :J &9 & $ 5$6 7+ 2 \ + 6 = HUI.8#$ !. 2 8 ! .#$ 0 )9 '9 !+ !. 2 & 2= + ! &$ !+ +HUb 6" 0 1$ -: = =@ !6 &$ ! = =@HUW5$6 + 9 0 + + $ $ &%.&$= >A - 1-: = =@ &? ! #$ % &$ HUV. : = 5$6 & ' 5- 5$6 7+ 0 + *: ! #+ $ S = = HUX.$ 5$6 = ' 8- S = &$6 -6 ( 6 : = 5" &$ M@[ Z HTG6" &$6 !6 6 $ S = &$6 ! 1$$ % M6 =@.M-! = &-E & g SQ & #$ % &$ !"HTU( &+ *+ = 1 #$ &$6/ % " ,# % & ' & # 3/ ##$ % &$ $ &= 1( Leshowitz,1993) 7 ?&$ &$ ! ) II &- $ 1Critical Thinking Skills 9- + != 1Arizona -7. &@ #$ % &$ ! $ & = &@ 5$6 iM- #$ %+ -% ? 17 + &%: &


5" ( = 1&9? FI ' + 1)= TI ! A- !+ ? ! &9 !6 6 :5 1&= ! . 4 ? 10=.8 . )%:$ )$6 )@9 )P. : = 1+ ! u6 \ = &$=L 4 .A - $ 1 $9 :* ! L+ 1$ @ =@ &$= ! &$=$= -?. 5$6 ( + 9- + &$ M@[ 2= + &= &$ M. \ = !. 5" 4 . ? 1 6@ $ 9$ 1& P &6 $6 ( -? )= 3%. + #$ % 0-% $ 9 5$6 9 - $ @ =@ J 9- + !:O MO ? 3%. - &$ M@[ != ,+ 195" % ? (9 $ 5$6 !? %. 1+. 3P 5$6 ? - =@.2 =@ + =@ #$ % &$ $ &= #$ % &$ ! ) TX &- $ .recall and comprehensionVW,W + !+ 1& & ( - \" @ !J 0=


.2 =@ 5$6 #$ % &$ & &$= 6=HT.#+ $ &=- ! 6 ! ( ,- !+ H](Mastropieri, 1996) 5$6 ! &$ #$ % &$ 2 5" &= 0= 5 4J


':


! &6 $ M 6" 5$6 9 $ :J + .P (chinn et al..,2001) ! !? -= 4*J = &= ! 4J 4 ! (- 1-" 1 $-") 4*J P % &$ M. !&- $ ? 1&P &L= 2 : = & & =@ Sbb&%:


& &- ! )6=. UT &6- *+ 5$6 :R '? M" A-.A- Q J = A - /. 15(Bright, 2002)#$ % &$ $ 6 + + ' & =$ &=- & & =@ : = J. & 5" &= ( TGGT 1!) ? 9#$ % ! 0 4J


:J E 6 + $ ! &9= = ! 6 ,- H].( 1+ =@ 12 =@ 1% )% &$ -6 + != 5" &9= = A - HF \:. 2- != 8% 1+ $ &%: A 9 -6 #$ ./- 2 =@ % J + ).&P &/$ &$+ = &$ $ + $ A = HI-: !" #$% &'!(),#T N8& U,:# % & ' & M# R & )# ,# R & < U R &J % &# < = UO # C8 >P.,:# % & ' & &T M ' &# /+ !V 3 % B .% "W# ,"*XJ U,:# % & ' & > # , V 0


" ;# > ,:# % & ' & & J 3/ N8& P 79# 3&J )# ,:# & 41@ :O 9G U "##,"# U() /G ># ,"# U(*) /G 4 ,"# 3/?T ) , @ D ## U( G) &V /E 4 . "+# V /G T "# ! /G &# 3/ 8 , @ O;T;# ,#0 U# / ;# [ PE P# E U') ,B#.#0 F) 08 00.0 3/ =Z& R & & +#01 > U& 41@>?@AB CD?EFG -' T& 31#T01 )# 'B )# :


U3 # U38 #U)# % " ,# .(.--.) . U"Y1.# 8#)O&+ ' / Y)& < :3/.'0 .(.--2) .& U%& .6 U & &# Uc&J < U(?&8& "T T U3+ " ,Y # U 00 Y# .(.---) .3)& U3&;.+ " 1 U U+ "g$-$$:3T/ .#& ,#0 & '& # , 3/ 3FB 0 .(.--.) .M9 U%0. B UP" &# U3FB 0 ' & U(# 8#)< $.;J >TTTT1-Allinder, R.(2001), Improving fluency in at risk readers and students withlearning disabilities remedial & special education 22(1).48-55.2-Barry,K.(2001).Teaching thinking skills. In Costa. Developing Minds.(3 rd ed).Virginia: Association for supervision and curriculum development.3-Bright,K.(2002). Effect of general problem solving strategy on secondarystudents with learning disabilities performance representation and solution.Pennsylvania University.4-Chinn, S.Mcdonagh, D.Elswijk, R.Harmsen,H.Kay, J.Mcphillips, T.Power,A.Skidmore, L.(2001). Classroom Studies Into Cognitive Style In Mathematics ForPupils With Dyslexia In Special Education In The Netherlands , Ireland And TheUk. British Journal Of Special Education 28(2).80-85.5-Costa, A , L. (2001). Developing Minds.(3 rdsupervision and curriculum development .ed).Virginia: Association for6-Douglas, C. (1991). Curricular interventions for teaching higher order thinkingto all students. Introduction to the special series, journal of learning disabilities24(5).7-Grossen, B. (1991). The Fundamental skills of higher order Thinking, Journal OfLearning Disabilities 24(6).343-353.8-Ibler,l.(1997).Improving higher-order thinking in special educating studentthrough cooperative learning and social skills development. Resources ineducation.(ERIC Document Reproduction Service.


9-Lafrance, E. (1995), Creative thinking differences in three groups of exceptionalchildren as Expressed through completion of Fergal forms. Roeper Review17(4).248-254.10-Lawson, A. (1993), At what level of education is the teaching of thinkingeffective? Theory into practice,32 summer.170-17.11-Learner, J, W. (2000). Learning disabilities theories, diagnosis, and teachingstrategies. Boston: Houghton Mifflin company.12-Leshowitz, B, Jenkens, K. (1993). Fostering Critical-thinking skills in studentswith learning disabilities: an instructional programe Journal Of LearningDisabilities 26 (7).483-492.13-Martin,A.Cary,B.Michael,W.Carolyn,H.(2002).Increasing the problemsolvingskills of students with developmental participating in general education.Remedial&Spical Education ,23(5).279-289.14-Mastroperi, M, Scruggs, T. (1996). Promoting thinking skills of students withlearning disabilities, Exceptionality 6(1).1-11.15- Mercer,C&Mercer,A.(2001).Teaching Students With LearningProblems(6 ed ).new jersey: Merrill prentice hall.16-Monahan,S.(2000).Effects of teaching organizational strategies. unpublisheddissertation: Illinois university.17-Montague, M. (2000). Cognitive strategy instruction In mathematics forstudents with learning disabilities, Journal Of Learning Disabilities 30(2)18-Peterson,K.(1994).Integration of reading and writing strategies in primary levelspecial education resource students to improve reading performance. Resources ineducation.(ERIC Document Reproduction Service.19-Presseisen,B.(2001).Thinking skills meaning and models revisited.In Costa.Developing Minds.(3ed).Virginia: Association for supervision and curriculumdevelopment.20-Robertson,H.(2001).Assist learners who are strategy-inefficicient.InterventionIn School &Clinic. 36(3) 182-187.21-Rottman, T, Cross, D.(1990). Using Informed Strategies For Learning toEnhance the Reading and Thinking Skills of children with learning Disabilities,Journal Of Learning Disabilities 23(5).270-279.


22- Scruggs,T,E. Mastropieri, M,A.(1993).Special education for thetwenty-first century: integration learning strategies and thinking skills. JournalOf Learning Disabilities 26(6) 392-398.23-Shondrick, D & others, (1992), creativity in boys with and without learningdisabilities, Learning Disabilities Quarterly 15(2).24-Sullivan,S.(1995).Reasoning and remembering coaching students with learningdisabilities to think, Journal Of Special Education 29(3) 310-322.25-Swanson, l, Cooney. J.B. and O, shaujhnessy. T.E. (1998) Learning Disabilitiesand memory. In Wong. Learning About Learning Disabilities: Academic Pries.26- Swartz,R.,&Parks,S.(1994). Infusing the teaching of critical and creativethinking into elementary instruction.United States of America:formerly Midwestpublication.27-Swartz,R. &Kiser,M.(1999).Teaching critical and creative thinking in languagearts:A lesson book, pacific grove.28-WilsonV.(2000). Can thinking skills be taught. Scottish council for researchin education.

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