أضغط على هذا الرابط - أطفال الخليج ذوي الإحتياجات الخاصة

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أضغط على هذا الرابط - أطفال الخليج ذوي الإحتياجات الخاصة

الفروق التجهيزية في الانتباه الانتقائي والموزع و مكوناتالذاكرة العاملة لدي الأطفال المتخلفين عقليا والعاديينمدخل تشخيصي– Lأستاذ علم النفس التربوى المساعدآلية التربية بالعريش אאLمدرس علم النفس التربوى ‏(تربية خاصة)‏آلية التربية بالعريش אאאwww.gulfkids.com1


الفروق التجهيزية في الانتباه الانتقائي والموزع و مكونات الذاكرة العاملة لديالأطفال المتخلفين عقليا والعاديين – مدخل تشخيصيمقدمة:‏ . " " (37 1996 ) ( ) . : ( Lowry & Sovner, 1991) . ( Lowry & Sovner 1991,1055 ). (417-415, 2004 ). .(Smith ,et al.,1993, 45) ( 1999 ) Odekirk . ( 2001) Fabio & Cossutta . 2


( Lowry & Sovner, 1991) ( Lowry & Sovner 1991,1055 ) . . . . ( Rosenquist,2001) . . ( Numminen , et al ., 2001) Phonological loop , . ( Cherry , et al ., 2002 ) . ( Numminen & Service, 2002) – . ( Rosenquist , et al., 2003 ) – . (Sewing ,2004) . 3


( ) أن إلي (Wyatt & Conners 1998) . . ( Carlesimo , et al., 1997) : . : (1) (Heber,1959) 1992 1959 (1983,11) Grossman .Grossman Heber (1992 , 282) Gearheart ,e t al . (2): . 4( )


( Hardman , et al., 1993,95) . & Orlansk . (1992) Heward 20 15( Heward & Orlansky , 1992 ,93) . ( ) 70 .71 . ( King ,et al.,2000) (King ,et al., 2000 , 2589-2591) . Szymanski & ( Kirk, et al., 1997, 182 ) . (,1997,605-606) Wilska () . ( 1996) . 5


) . (42 1996 .1992 . (): . . , . ( 1997, 605) Szymanski & Wilska . . -1-2-3-4-5 (2001) Rosenquist , , / , ,self-care , , self-direction , community resources. , leisure , . 6


(1999) (102-101 ,1999 ). () (1992) . ( 430 ,1992 ). (1996 ) ( 46 1996 ) . ( 100 2004 ) . ) . ( 2001 -213 2001 ) . (214 . . 7


. . : - , ) , / , ( , أهداف الدراسة : - , ) . ( مصطلحات الدراسة:‏أولا-‏ التخلف العقلي :The Mental Retardation . " (Heber ,1959)& Orlansky ,1992 , 90) . (Heward8


1966 1961 1959: . -1. -2. 18 -3 %15.87, 1973 1983 1977 1973 (1983) Grossman " Grossman (Grossman ,1983 ,11)" Heber % 2.27 " . : ( AAMR ,1992 , 21 ) . . . 75 Gresham & Macmillan (1997 ) 9


& Macmillan ,1997, 402). %4.75 %2.28 .( Gresham , . . educable ( IQ ) 55-70 , , . trainable , 54-40 , severe . , 39-25 25 , ( In Sebastian . , ,2002,1-1 (2000 ) King al et 10 2 . DSM_APA ( King ,et al,2000,2591 ) . " . . , , . . , , . 10


-:ثانيا :عمليات التجهيز المعلوماتي-1 تعريف الانتباه The Attention ( W. James ,1890) " ." Shiffring & ) (Boies & Posner , 1971 ) (La Berge ,1995) (Parasurman & Davies ,1984) (Schneider,1977 Focus orientation . Consciousness (The .(in Gage , Gerliner, 1979) ( ) " Encyclopedia Dictionary of Psychology,1986) " " ( In Pettijohn, et al. 1986: 21 ) والانتباه ليس مكون من عملية واحدة بل يتضمن ثلاثة مكونات فرعية عملياتية هامة حدده آل منوهي:‏ :Selection or Orientation" The Attentive Brain " ( ‏(فى آتابه 1998) Parasurmanالمكون الأول-‏ التوجه أو الانتقاء , , .. . . (Parasurman 1998,6 )المكون الثاني - التيقظ sustained attention :Vigilance . (Parasurman,1998,7).المكون الثالث ‏-الضبط التنفيذي : Executive control . , Attentional Control Parasurman . In )executive attention Posner & Di Girollamo (Parasurman, 1998 ,401-40411


: -1 . . ,. . .(in Cowan 1988 : 175-179 In ) ( In Cowan, 1988 , 179 ) (Baddeley 1996 Episodic Buffer . ( Baddeley,1996-2000) , ) . . ( / , . ( in Baddeley, 2000) . -2-3-4-5 . In: ) (Parasurman 1998 , 3-4 . Dykeman (1998 ) , ( Dykeman 1998 , 359-361 ) , . Focus Attention , Sustained , Divide Attention ,( ) , . 12


ثانيا ‏–الانتباه البصري الموزع Divided Visual Attention (Braun,1998) . crucial . , . . Visual texture . . segregationSagi & Julesz 1987, Sagi In) ( ) effortlessly 1990 , Bravo & Nakayama 1992)(*) (Braun 1998, 327-329)الذاآرة العاملة :Working Memory . (Shiffrin & ,1968) Short-term Memory Atkinson . – ) . – (Digit Span (WM) Baddeley & Hitch ( Shiffrin & Atkinson ,1968) . (2000) Episodic Buffer .(1974) (Baddeley 2002 In Baddeley1996) . مكونات الذاآرة العاملة :The components of W.M (2000-1974) Hitch & Baddeley Central Executive Control : 213


Visuo -Spatial Sketchpad , Phonological Loop / . ) ) ( , (*) .( (2000) Baddeley Episodic Buffer . . (Baddeley , 2002) . (Baddeley & Hitch , 1974) , 2000) . “The Episodic Buffer – New component of W.M ” )(Baddeley (1 اللوحة البصرية-المكانيةVisuo-spatialsketch padالتنفيذ المرآزيCentral Executiveالتكرار الصوتيPhonological loopEpisodic Buffer المعانى البصريةVisual semanticsمرحلة الذاآرة طويلة الأمدEpisodic LTMLanguage (1) (Baddeley , 2000, 421 )14


أ)‏ مكون الضبط التنفيذي المرآزي : نظر للأهمية التي يتصف بها هذا المكون ودوره عبر العديد منمراحل تجهيز المعلومات ؛ فقد استقر رأي الباحثين علي اختياره آدالة لدراسة الذاآرة العاملة . , . , (Norman &, 1986) . (1) Shallice (2) – . (in Baddeley2002 , 89) -1 : (Smith & Jonides, 1999) -2 . (Smith & Jonides, 1999,1657-1666). Task Management (SAS) Supervisory Attention System (Norman & Shallice,1986) . . . -: Focusing Attention . – Dividing Attention . . – Switching Attention (In. Rubinstein ,et al., 2001,764). (1(2(3 ,goal- shifting , rule- activation( Rubinstein et al., 2001)task-switching A Stage Model of( Rubinstein,et al., 2001) . (4 )Executive Control for Task Switching15


عمليات الضبط التنفيذىExecutive control processes Gool shifting RuleactivationTask cuingملامح المهمةStimulusdiscriminabilityالقدرة على تمييز المثيراتRule complexityتعقيد الضوابطTask cuingملامح المهمةStimulusالمثيرات Stimulusidentification Responseselection MovementproductionResponseالاستجابةTask processesتجهيزات المهمةA Stage Model of Executive Control for Task (4 ) Rubinstein,et al., 2001 Switching (Baddeley , 1996) , frontal syndrome . Slips of dysexecutive syndrome Baddeley . Action coordination , inhabitation . concurrent . Kyllonen& Christal .multitask coordination Baddeley . 16


(Baddeley,2000) . episodic buffer , Baddeley , ) . ( 2000, 89-91 :The Phonological loop ( . 3-2 . sub- vocal articulation . continuous rehearsal , . . . Vallar Papagno Baddeley ( Baddeley 1996 : 13478) . , . / . ( In Baddeley 2000) : / ( . . ,17


( – – – – – ) . ( ) – . . , . . , . – frontal parietal occipital , – . , Mc. Connell & Quinn . . ( Baddeley 2000) مدي الذاآرة :Memory Span . visuo -spatial sketchpad / , Phonological loop Vallar Papagno Baddeley. ( Baddeley 1996 : 13478) , visually presented ( ) / . , . 5 7 7 .(In Baddeley 2000) . 7 . . . 18


. . digit span visuo-spatial tracking – ( ) . Baddeley ,2000).). , , , , ( Karpicke &Pisoni 2000,396) Daneman & Carpenter (1980) – ( .Daneman & Carpenter 1980 , 460) , . / , , . ) .( : فروض الدراسة :: ) " ( " 19


: ) " ( " : ) " ( " : ) / " ( " : ) " ( " إجراءات الدراسةعينة الدراسة 82) 180 7.80 98 0.904 13.74 ( ) (0.951 – – . – () : . 20


() ( )(1) 0.6750.8661.1898.4618.5678298 (1) , () :أدوات الدراسة:‏أولا:‏ اختبار رسم الرجل (181 1995 ) . 1926 GOODENOUGH – – 1963 HARRIS DRAWING TEST (217 1997 ) . 3 15– 10 15(143 1999 ) . 15-10 ( 69 1996 ) . ) (1986 21


ثانيا ‏-إجراءات قياس مهام الانتباه والذاآرة العاملة : , , . , 2004 2003 ) . , ( 2004(*). مهام قياس عملية التوجه ‏(الانتقاء)‏ : (Target) (1)(Treisman, et al. ,1985) – (Distracts) . 1500 , 5000 ( Z) . . (/) Monitor ) – " . ( () . (**) " – ( ) ) (27 ,9،18) ) 250 250 (*)cue 250 500 ( T 500 , ( L ) . , 1500 – ( * *). . (**).22


. 12 . , , . . ( ) . 27 , 18 ,9 , %50 . ( 2 ) ) . – (0.828) (2003) 1000 (0.893) (2004) *TL(T)ومضةفاصلمثيرفاصلميللثانيةمثيرومضةنهایة المحاولةوبدایة محاولة250جدیدة500 500ميللثانيةزمن الاستجابة المسموح5000 ميللثانية(2)(1)250ميللثانية*250ميللثانية (2) . . (2003) (4.462) (ADD) (2004) (0.001) (0.001) 2.56 (18.33)(2004 2003 ) (Treisman, et al. , 1984) .() 30 ) 31 0.928 13.29 0.519 ( 0.877 7.86 0.786 0.533 . 0.868 23


: . 30 30 (2) ( ) (30)=(30) =(30)=( 30 ) =(30) =(30) =1202.071554.691113.381644.931150.821640.56306.23536.52243.721262.17251.661096.07** 3.16* 2.30* 2.4210.455.279.974.309.064.002.26 2.39 2.69 1.91 2.90 2.06 *** 8.69*** 9.45*** 7.16 ) (2) . ( : , : . , ( ) " . , T , L , , . ( Z ) ( ) . ( / ) ( ) , , 24-1


". , . ,( ) , : , , , ) . . ( . , . ,-2: : , . . ( ) (Laural & Audrey ,1998) . . ( Laural &Audrey 1998,213) , . . , (Pashler ,1998) . . . , , . , (Pashler ,1998,218) . : . . -1-225


, . . , . . . -3-4 (2004) . (CG,EF,QO,TL ) . : : : . : . . , . . ( 0940 ,0 .817 ) . ( .52 ) . ( .,01 ) ( 20 .49 , 15 .8 ) Critical Ratio . ( 1500 -1000 ) . ( 96 ) (.,986 - .,919 ) (142-138 :2004, ) . ( .,01 ) , , 0.620 0.615 . 0.866 .0.774 .0.001 : . 30 3026


) : (3) \( (30) =(30) =(30) =( 30 ) =(30)=(30) =1622.072460.981575.362114.651511.761980.54503.621781.93437.821148.70457.01962.83*2.522.43* 2.448.81 4.83 8.93 4.93 8.97 4.53 2.43 2.52 2.81 2.31 2.33 2.33 ***6.276.04*** 7.43) (3) . ( . (2004) : . . (C.O) . 12 , 36 , . 2+9 2 +27 . 2+18 . . . ( 1500 ) ( 5000) , (3 ) . ((((27


*COCOومضةفاصلمثيرفاصلميللثانيةمثيرومضةنهایة المحاولةوبدایة محاولة250جدیدة500 500ميللثانيةزمن الاستجابة المسموح5000 ميللثانية(2)(1)250ميللثانية*250ميللثانية (3) . C " ( ), O , C O . ( Z ) ( ) ) , O C , , . ( / ) ( . ". . . . ثالثاً‏ :مهام قياس مكونات الذاآرة العاملةأ)‏ مهام قياس مكون عملية الضبط التنفيذي المرآزي : (Kale, 2004) (Norman & Shallice,1986) . – ( J . R . Stroop,1935) – – . (in : Kale , 2004) . . 28


Stroop Phenomenon /) ( Sowanson, et al.,1998) . . ( ( /) .Conflict Resolution Task . (Abrams,2002) . .Psycholabe , Abrams . , ) Abram . ( , (Kunts, et al. , 2001) (Smith & Jonides, ( Gearge, et al. , 1997) ( Carter, et al., 1995) .( In Smith & Jonides, 1999,1657-1666).1999(ADHD ) / (2003 , ) Stoop, 2002) : . , ( Abrams . ( , , , ) . .( ) . : . X : Neutral Condition (1. – ) : Consistent Condition (2.( ( ) : Inconsistent Condition (3. 29


( 36 ) (Block) . (12) , . . . , 500 ( ) , 5000 .) . 1500 , ( ( 5 ) . *إلماعةفاصلالمثيرأحمرأزرقأخضرأصفرفاصل5000 ميللثانيةزمن الاستجابةالمتاحإلماعة×××××500 ميللثانية500 ميللثانية*250ميللثانية (5) , , .( , ,) . ) . Abrams , (138-136 2003 .(0.8057) -142 2003 ) .(0.001 8.101 () (143 0.559 0.650 30 0.785 31 . 0.001 0.823 : , 30


( 4) ( ) (31)(30)(31)( 30 )(31)(30)1118.921457.721104.251812.821131.811496.29318.39756.24340.821319.13377.10519.05* 2.29** 2.89** 3.149.192.409.093.568.253.433.22 1.65 2.88 1.48 3.29 1.99 *** 10.29*** 9.39*** 6.90 ) (4) . ( . ( ) . . (Baddeley , 2002) . تعليمات تطبيق مهام مكون الضبط التنفيذي المرآزي :( ) , . . , ". . ( , , , ) ( ) . ( ) . ( ) , ( ) . ( ) , ( Z ) 31


.( . ) , ( / ) , ( X ) . ) ( : ) ( . ( , , ) ( XXX ) ( .( ( XXXX ) . ( , ". , , , 32. / : / (Words Memory , Memory Digital Span , Span . (Goh & Pisoni , 1998) ) Karpiche & Pisoni (2001) . , . sequence . , . : , 5 ) . . 9 0 . , 2000 = 7 , 3 , , 4 5 , . " . . . 9 0 . , . . . ( , ) . { } ".


: . -9 -8 . -7 . -6. -5. -4 . -3. -2 . -1 . -0) . . ( . ,( 2000 ) . ( ) . . . 33وصف مهام مكون التكرار الصوتي )مدي الذاآرة السمعية)‏ : : ) . 3 9 : , , , . . : . , . : , . . . , ( . , ) RT . , ( /. حساب الثبات لمهام مدي الذاآرة البصري والسمعي 30 , 30) 60 , 14 ,.(


: . . , 0.516 ( ) - 0.832 , 0.489 . 0.832. ( ) 0.816 0.558 - . 0.816 0.545 . 0.692 , 0.667( ) -. 0.691 0.661 . ( ) 0.674 0.868 ( ) - 0.671 0.868 0.01 . ) (5)( - ( 30)(30) ( 30)(30) 11008.8516744.5310635.4517067.608937.497643.176441.189511.69** 2.69** 3.117.901.5710.191.733.68 1.35 3.64 1.59 *** 8.86*** 11.69 - ) (5) . (. 34


(6) ( - ) ( 30)(30) ( 30)(30) 6011.6815669.444581.598136.523275.155130.362462.553981.94*** 8.79*** 4.206.391.0010.222.832.88 1.31 3.08 1.85 *** 9.33*** 11.29 - ) (6) . (. نتائج الدراسة :نتائج الفرض الأول " ( ) " () : . 35


() (7) (98)(82)(98)( 82 )(98)(82)1396.822075.371358.671846.561229.401917.251300.291610.371281.151685.91330.681568.03**3.13* 2.20*** 4.239.39 5.12 10.40 5.41 10.12 5.89 2.58 2.89 2.29 2.64 2.29 2.50 ***10.45***13.57*** 11.01 ."" (7 ) . "" . ( 4.23 ) RT ( 11.01) "" , ( .001) "" . (.001) ( 13.57) "" ,(.05) (2.20) .(.001) (3.12) "" (10.45) "" , (.01) . (.001) . ( Odekirk,1999) (Fabio & Cossutta,2001) . . 36


نتائج الفرض الثاني:‏ " ( )" () ) . (8 () (8) (98) (82)(98) ( 82 )(98)(82)1875.242440.211664.482442.871704.682623.74742.611786.23646.601786.70968.362140.76** 2.85*** 4.11*** 3.848.675.018.615.158.185.712.88 2.50 2.52 2.40 2.78 2.70 *** 9.00*** 9.34*** 5.990.001 ***0.01 ***0.05 * (8) ( ) . "" . "" "" , (.001) (3.84) . (.001) (5.99) "" , (.001) (4.11) """" . (.001) (9.34) "" , (.01) (2.85) 37


. (.001) (9.00) ( ) . , . . . . , .(82 2004 ) . " نتائج الفرض الثالث : ) " (" () ). . ()(9 () (9) " " (98)(82)(98)( 82 )(98)(82)1146.051478.251117.861457.231175.751398.62396.66632.85394.92697.56583.95455.80*** 4.28*** 4.09** 2.818.56 4.04 8.62 3.09 8.10 3.88 3.27 2.12 2.96 1.72 3.23 1.97 *** 10.72*** 14.88*** 10.3238


(9) " " "" , (10.32) "" , (.01) (2.81) (4.09 ) "" . (.001) . (.001) (14.88 ) "" ,(.001) (.001) (4.28) "" . (.001) (10.72) "" (9) ( ) .( ) ( ) Baddeley (1996) .( ) , (1986) Norman& Shallice . , . . , , . "" , . . (2000) Baddeley . , 39


. . ( Baddeley 2002, ) 2004 ) . (82/ " ( ) ." () : . () (10) ( ) / . ( 98)(82) ( 98)(82) 10759.9719562.439121.6212004.2610167.1414801.178649.878908.52*** 4.70* 2.197.951.4110.562.113.63 1.44 3.07 1.77 *** 15.33*** 22.06 : (10) ( – ) 40


. ( , (0.05) (2.11) "" . (0.0001) (22.06) "" . , Carlin (2001) . . , . ( Carlin ,M.2001) . نتائج الفرض الخامس:‏ " ( ) " () : . () (11) ( ) ( 98)(82) ( 98)(82) 12154.4418083.145653.198053.199771.0013791.102677.125727.96*** 3.36*** 3.697.204 0.7561 10.55 2.53 3.168 1.025 3.06 2.00 ***17.66***20.3341


: (11) ( – ) "" . .(0.001) ( Rosenquist,2001) , . ( Rosenquist,2001) . (Numminen , et al .,2001) , . (Numminen , et al .,2001) . (Rosenquist , et al.,2003) , (Rosenquist , et al.,2003). ( Sewing,2004) .( Sewing,2004). (11 10 ,9) , . , . . : . . . ( Kirk ,et al., 1997 ,192-193 )42


خلاصة البحث : . Bray &Turner (1986-1987) , , , , . Spitz , Zeaman &House (1979) , Ellis (1970) Memory Organization Deficit Theory (1973-1979) .(In Bray , et al. 1998 ) . . . . . , . , , , / Baddeley (1976-2002) . . , . . , , , . 43


قائمة المراجع:‏ : (2003) -1 . : (2004) . : . . : (1995) -2-3 : : (1992) -4.436-417 3 2 . : (1995) -5 3 : (2001)-6. . : (1999) . : (1996) -7-8 ( ) : (1999). -9. . : (2000) -10.125-77 28 . - –: : (1997) -11.. الطلاب المبتكرین وغير المبتكرین تحت: (2004) -12ظروف الشوشرة وغير الشوشرة،‏ رسالة دآتوراه غير منشورة،‏ آلية التربية بالعریش جامعة قناة : (2001)السویس.‏ -13 – .90-41 30 14- -American Association On Mental Retardation ( 1992): Mental Retardation ,Definition, Classification And Systems Of Supports. Washington , DC : AmericanOn Mental Retardation.44


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