Defender - Spotlight on National Defense Technologies ... - Raytheon

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Defender - Spotlight on National Defense Technologies ... - Raytheon

Vol. 3, No. 2

Coastal Defense

and Security


ong>Defenderong> ®

Executive Editor

Joseph Militano

Managing Editor

Kearney Bothwell

Art Director

Kim Ige

Associate Art Director

Linda Currey

P.O. Box 3064

Cedar Rapids, IA 52406-9851

e-mail: defender@kermar.com

Copyright © 2006 Raytheon Company. All rights reserved.

In this issue:

Coastal Defense and Security

Vol. 3, No. 2

When Katrina lashed New Orleans

it was “all hands man the pumps!” 2

One disaster triggered another as the Big Easy was

battered by a storm of unprecedented force — but

with the help of the nation’s military and emergency

services and thousands of volunteers, the city is is

being rebuilt

The “brown water” Navy roars back

with a broad range of new missions 6

Formed in response to the war on terror, the Naval

Expeditionary Combat Command is a highly versatile,

light, mobile and fast reaction force tasked with

securing and defending vital coastal region

Modernizing the USCG fleet for the

21st century is a Deepwater Project 8

New classes of cutters, patrol boats, and manned and

unmanned aircraft sharing information through a

“system of systems” are needed to protect America’s

350 ports, 95,000 miles of coastline and 3-millionsquare-mile

exclusive economic zone

ong>Defenderong> Data 12

A roundup of news items about

defense technologies

Cover: A U.S. Coast Guard helicopter on morning patrol

over the Houston Ship Channel and the Fred Hartman

Bridge. USCG photo by Mark Sowa of NASA.

Photo of Golden Gate bridge © 2006 Jupiterimages

Corporation.


Nearly 191 years after the buccaneer

Jean Lafitte helped the vastly outnumbered

American forces under Gen.

Andrew “Old Hickory” Jackson save

New Orleans from a foreign invader,

the city again was under attack.

This time, it was not one that could be

repulsed by shot and shell. It was a onetwo

punch from nature’s most potent

weapons of mass devastation — the

powerful hurricanes named Katrina

and Rita.

Separated by nearly two centuries, these

two attacks against a single American city

demonstrate most profoundly the theme of

this issue of ong>Defenderong>: the importance of

coastal defense to protect the free world’s

historical, cultural and economic centers.

The French founded New Orleans in

1718 — on land that was mostly silt and

mostly below sea level, amid bayous and

swamps infested with poisonous snakes,

alligators and yellow fever-carrying

mosquitoes and repeatedly subject to

hurricanes, floods and other natural

disasters — as the key port for commerce

on the Mississippi River. It was, as Pierce

Lewis, professor emeritus of geography

at Penn State University, wrote: “an

inevitable city on an impossible site.”

Coastal Defense and Security

New Orleans has survived shot and shell

and the powerful Hurricanes Katrina, Rita

It has been ruled by France, Spain, the

United States and the Confederate States

of America; been invaded by the British;

been occupied by “foreign” troops longer

than any other U.S. city when it was

captured by Union forces during the

Civil War; and it gave the world jazz

and the blues.

But its role as one of the key commercial

and transportation hubs for the heartland

of North America is what drew the

attention of buccaneers, invaders and

President Thomas Jefferson, who offered

to buy the city from France. Instead,

Napoleon nearly doubled the size of the

United States by selling it the whole

Louisiana Territory in 1803 for $15

million to finance his war with England.

When war broke out between the U.S.

and England in 1812, there was little

impact on life in New Orleans. But that

changed in the fall of 1814 when word

reached the city that a British force was

approaching with some 12,000 crack

troops, mostly veterans who served

under Wellington at Waterloo.

In preparation, the British had approached

Lafitte in September, 1814, at his stronghold

on Grand Terre Island in Barataria

Bay — where the infamous pirate

Blackbeard once hid from the Royal Navy

— with an offer of a commission, money

and lands if his forces would lead them

through the swamps and help take New

Orleans. He and his men knew routes

through the Mississippi Delta the way

only successful smugglers did.

To buy time, Lafitte agreed to consider

the British offer, but instead offered to

help defend the city — even though

Louisiana Gov. William Claiborne had

repeatedly tried to capture and imprison

Lafitte for piracy and smuggling.

When Claiborne and his defense council

responded by destroying Lafitte’s stronghold,

Lafitte and his men melted into the

swamps and bayous to await Jackson’s

arrival. When Old Hickory arrived on

Dec. 2, he had only 1,800 men — low

on powder and musket flints after months

of fighting insurgents in Alabama. The

only reinforcements he could count on

were 2,000 militia — the Kentucky

Rifles — marching to join him.

Jackson had heard of Lafitte’s offer from

Claiborne and rejected it. But he changed

his mind after a personal meeting with

Lafitte, who offered to supply the

defenders with 7,500 musket flints, a

warehouse full of gunpowder and 1,000

experienced fighters — not to mention

an intimate knowledge of the terrain.

On Jan. 8, 1815, the defenders met the

British about seven miles south of the

city on the Plains of Chalmette, a bottleneck

strip of land between the river and

the swamps. Occupying well-prepared

positions, they held their fire until the

British marched out of the fog into pointblank

range and repulsed the invaders

with devastating fusillades. Ironically, it

was a battle that never would have been

fought had communications been better.

The Treaty of Ghent ending the war had

been signed on Dec. 24, 1814.

In this issue of ong>Defenderong>, we focus on

the challenges facing the modern day sea

services to protect and defend the highly

vulnerable and valuable coastal regions

of the world from new millennium

threats — as well as the oldest foe of all,

the implacable forces of nature.

– Editor

ong>Defenderong> 1


SPOTLIGHT

When Katrina lashed New Orleans

it was “all hands man the pumps!”

One disaster triggered another

as the Big Easy was battered by a

storm of unprecedented force —

but with the help of the nation’s

military and emergency services

and thousands of volunteers,

the city is being rebuilt

2 ong>Defenderong> Vol. 3, No. 2

For Coast Guard Vice Adm. Thad

Allen, it has always been about

family. When Allen was awarded his

first star, Coast Guard Commandant

Robert Kramek made two telephone

calls. One, of course, was to then

Rear Adm. (select) Allen. The other

went to Allen’s dad, retired Chief

Petty Officer Clyde Allen, who during

World War II lied about his age so he

could enlist in the Coast Guard. A

native of Tucson, Ariz., Vice Adm.

Allen, who has served on three

cutters and commanded one off

Coos Bay, Ore., is today the Coast

Guard Chief of Staff.

Imagery of Hurricane Katrina from

a National Oceanic & Atmospheric

Administration satellite Aug. 28, 2005,

a day before the Category 5 storm

hit the U.S. Gulf Coast. Photo

courtesy NOAA.

Editor’s Note: As this issue was being

prepared, the White House announced

that President George W. Bush has

nominated Vice Adm. Thad W. Allen

to be the next Commandant of the

Coast Guard.

The devastation at first glance gave zero

hint of the enormity of the destruction

that was soon to follow. As nature’s fury

overwhelmed and wrought total devastation

on the man-made defenses of New

Orleans, the terrifyingly unprecedented

reality of one disaster triggering another

began to emerge. The Principal Federal

Official who led the United States federal

response called the monster a “hybrid,”

essentially two disasters wrapped into

one, with an exponential force vastly

greater than the sum of its two parts.

Simply put, it was a phenomenon that

had never happened before.

Yet as the day dawned last Aug. 29, and

a Category 4 hurricane packing 140 mph

winds slammed into New Orleans, a city

dear to the very soul of America would

soon be nearly completely destroyed.

The sheer magnitude of Hurricane

Katrina, and the calamity that it set off in

the city, will remain daunting for eternity:

• More than 1,000 killed.

• 600,000 families displaced to

all 50 states in the U.S.

• 250,000 homes rendered

uninhabitable.

• 80 percent of the city under water.

• Damages exceeding $130 billion.

• The U.S. Coast Guard saved more

lives in ten days – 33,000 – than it

had in the prior six years put together.


• History would soon reveal that

Hurricane Katrina was the largest

disaster ever to occur in the United

States, a massive displacement of

Americans that exceeded even the

Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 or

the “Dust Bowl” evacuations from

America’s heartland in the1930s.

Four years earlier, on Sept.11, 2001, U.S.

Coast Guard Vice Adm. Thad Allen was

the Atlantic Area Commander responsible

for a swath of maritime territory

from the Rocky Mountains to the tip of

Maine. As the attacks unfolded, it

became clear to Allen that some of

America’s most treasured assets, from

shipping ports to national monuments,

were potentially in harm’s way. After a

“quick scrub” to assess the exact

location of each major Coast Guard ship

on the eastern seaboard, Allen ordered

an immediate redeployment unprecedented

in U.S. history, at one point

involving two-thirds of all Coast Guard

assets. A 270-foot cutter was diverted

and positioned between the tip of

Manhattan Island and the Statue of

Liberty, with its deck guns uncovered at

threat level “Condition One.” A 378-foot

cutter was diverted and stationed

beneath the Verazzano Narrows Bridge,

at the mouth of the Hudson Bay in New

York, and an 87-foot Coastal Patrol Boat

was dispatched to the Potomac River in

Washington, D.C. Now, four years after

9/11, after Hurricane Katrina had

delivered a one-two knockout punch to

New Orleans, the telephone rang again

in the office of Vice Adm. Thad Allen, by

then the Coast Guard Chief of Staff. The

nation needed his help.

Coastal Defense and Security

Vice Adm. Allen would soon be named

the Principal Federal Official to coordinate

the federal response to Katrina, and

later his role was expanded to include

Hurricane Rita. In fact, he would be the

first ever “PFO” assigned to any U.S.

natural disaster since the job itself was

created in the National Response Plan

established in the wake of 9/11. With

Katrina’s devastation in many ways still

escalating, Allen would provide unity of

command and would harmonize and

integrate the capabilities of multiple

The U.S. Coast Guard photo (above) by Petty Officer 2nd Class Kyle Niemi shows some

of the flooding in New Orleans on Aug. 29. Photo at left showing how nature's fury

rearranged some of the city's landmarks was taken by photographer Tyrone Turner, a

New Orleans native who one year earlier had developed a photo essay for a National

Geographic article titled “Gone with the Water” that underscored the vulnerability

of the Mississippi Delta and the levee system. Like Vice Adm. Allen, Turner was

dispatched to New Orleans in the wake of Katrina to recapture for National Geographic

the devastation wrought on New Orleans.

ong>Defenderong> 3


federal agencies — to strengthen the

nation’s response to hurricanes Katrina

and Rita in three states, Louisiana,

Mississippi and Alabama. As Thad Allen

put the phone back on the receiver

Sept. 5, he had suddenly, and unexpectedly,

become a central figure in the

largest natural disaster in U.S. history.

First Things First

When Katrina first struck, Vice Adm. Allen

watched the “deteriorating situation and

frustration” in New Orleans on television

from Coast Guard headquarters. Now,

with a new mission and sense of urgency,

he quickly hand-picked an A-Team with

specific skillsets, including three fellow

Coast Guard officers, and told them to

get to New Orleans “as quick as they can

and find me.” The team included:

• Capt. Tom Atkin, the Coast Guard

officer assigned to the Assistant

Secretary of Defense for Homeland

Defense, who was responsible for

on-water security and tactical law

enforcement during the high-tempo

operations in the aftermath of 9/11;

• Lt. Cmdr. Adrian West, who had

led the Coast Guard Atlantic Area

Operations Center, with considerable

prior operational experience

in Florida;

• And Lt. Cmdr. Ron Lebrecht, Vice

Adm. Allen’s Public Affairs Officer in

the Coast Guard’s Seventh District

Command in Florida during the

Elian Gonzalez controversy.

“There was no blueprint for this.” Vice

Adm. Allen said, “And it was obvious we

had a lot of work to do. To see a major

American city almost entirely under

water is truly a daunting sight to behold.”

Helicopter overflights revealed a city in

meltdown. The Coast Guard, along with

state and local officials, were continuing

house-to-house search and rescue. The

Army Corps of Engineers was helping

the city and local parishes repair the

breaches in the levee system.

When he arrived in Baton Rouge, where

Federal Emergency Management Agency

and state officials had established an

emergency management center, it was

apparent to Allen that the response

4 ong>Defenderong> Vol. 3, No. 2

teams had an insufficient footprint in the

city of New Orleans itself. Three FEMA

Mobile Emergency Response Systems,

which are trailer-sized mobile command

posts, and a larger mobile command

center called “Red October,” were

dispatched. The units were placed

dockside contiguous

to the 840-foot USS

Iwo Jima, the U.S.

Navy amphibious

assault ship ported on

the Mississippi River,

that housed the

military’s Joint Task

Force Katrina led by

Army Lt. Gen. Russell

Honore. Allen

connected with the

general and the New

Orleans Director of

Homeland Security,

Terry Ebbert. One day

after getting the call,

he was up and

operating.

From his dockside

command post on the

Mississippi, Vice Adm.

Allen organized and

led the unified federal

command, ultimately

comprised of 200

representatives of

dozens of federal

The U.S. Navy amphibious

assault ship USS Bataan used

its landing craft to deliver

relief supplies to New

Orleans. U.S. Navy photo by

Photographer’s Mate Airman

Pedro A. Rodriguez.

A pregnant woman was one

of 11 persons rescued from

their flooded New Orleans

apartment building Aug. 30

by the U.S. Coast Guard.

USCG photo by Petty Officer

2nd Class NyxoLyno

Cangemi.

entities including the Department of

Defense, FEMA, the Coast Guard, the

Environmental Protection Agency, the

Department of Health and Human

Services, the Army Corps of Engineers

and federal law enforcement organizations.

They would have five basic

National Guard and U.S. Coast Guard helicopters taxiing at Coast Guard Air Station New Orleans.

Both services worked tirelessly to rescue survivors and deliver supplies to stranded victims during

the Katrina rescue operations. USCG photo by Public Affairs Specialist 3rd Class Luke Pinneo.


priorities: 1. Preserve life through

continued search and rescue; 2.

Complete the evacuation; 3. “Unwater”

the city; 4. Carefully remove the remains

of the dead; 5. Facilitate the flow of

goods and commodities back into New

Orleans to sustain the first responders

and get the city back on its feet.

Thad Allen, the United States Coast

Guard Chief of Staff, returning temporarily

from duty as the Principal Federal Official

in the largest disaster in American history,

spoke to ong>Defenderong> twice recently, once

right before Katrina, and once after. In

addition to the calamity along the Gulf

Coast, he discussed the Coast Guard’s

broader efforts in homeland defense and

security, environmental protection and,

of course, the Coastie’s “bread and butter,”

search and rescue. Here’s what Vice

Adm. Allen had to say in two interviews,

one on Aug. 25, just four days before

Hurricane Katrina struck, and the other

11 weeks later, following his appointment

as the Principal Federal Officer for the

greatest natural disaster in U.S. history.

ong>Defenderong>: Describe the factors that

combined to create Katrina and the total

impact from your perspective.

Vice Adm. Allen: It was evocative of

9/11. My first sight of Katrina was at

the maximum level of flooding. It was

the equivalent level of devastation that a

weapon of mass effect would cause. Yet

in this case, there was no criminal or

terrorist intent. Katrina really was a

‘hybrid event’ in which two things

occurred. First, a hurricane of substantial

size and force created Hurricane

Andrew-like devastation in Mississippi

and two parishes in Louisiana. That

would have been tragic enough. Then

the water in Lake Pontchartrain was

driven up to the northwest corner of the

lake. When the swirling winds of the

hurricane reversed direction, the water

was driven back down into New Orleans

and soon overwhelmed the flood walls

and the levee system. At that point, we

went from the mode of a hurricane

natural disaster to the equivalent of what

a weapon of mass effects would cause,

Members of a Coast Guard Disaster Area Response Team from Kentucky approached this flooded

house near Lake Pontchartrain searching for trapped Katrina survivors. USCG photo by L.F. Chambers.

Coastal Defense and Security

although Mother Nature was the culprit.

When many of the first responders

became victims themselves, and the

continuity of government was in

question, essentially an entire city had

been taken down.

ong>Defenderong>: How do you begin to

provide relief with such a vast

magnitude of needs and chaos?

Vice Adm. Allen: The fact is that the

effort began long before the storm surge.

For example, the 8th District Commander

of the Coast Guard, who had local

control of the Coast Guard search and

rescue effort, moved all of the required

assets — including additional ships and

aircraft — to a strategic position at the

edge of the storm. From there, they could

be brought back in right behind the storm.

They also made sure their own people,

including family members, were out of

harm’s way so they could have clear

heads. The local field commander was

given autonomy to move the units to

where they were needed most, which

is part of the operational genius of the

Coast Guard. There is a sense that

nobody has to ask permission ... just get

it done. The Coast Guard was flying

missions out of three air stations —

Houston, Mobile and New Orleans —

and moving in all available assets from

as far away as Cape Cod. In one week,

Coast Guard Air Station New Orleans

did more search and rescue than it did

in its entire 60-year history combined.

ong>Defenderong>: While the Army Corps and

the city took the lead in “unwatering”

the city, what role did the unified

command play in this area and how was

the mission accomplished?

Vice Adm. Allen: The Army Corps had

a deep understanding of the levee and

pumping system in and around New

Orleans even before Katrina. Working

directly with the city and the parishes,

unwatering the city was a function of

bringing the pumping stations back on

line, getting emergency generators in

place where needed, and at all times

Continued on page 10

ong>Defenderong> 5


The “brown water” Navy roars back

with a broad range of new missions

Formed in response to the war on terror, the Naval Expeditionary Combat Command is a

highly versatile, light, mobile and fast reaction force tasked with securing and defending

vital coastal regions.

Nearly four decades since they plied the

rivers of the Mekong Delta to support

American ground troops in Vietnam, the

United States Navy’s inshore riverines

and small coastal gunboats are being

pressed back into action, resurrected by

the global war on terror, Operation Iraqi

Freedom and ultimately 9/11. With a

broad range of missions — from

protecting ports, to interdicting terrorists

through shallow littorals or rivers, to

securing beachheads for Marines and

special forces to go ashore — the

“brown water” Navy is roaring back.

Four years after the attacks on Sept. 11,

the Navy Expeditionary Combat

Command has been established to

organize, train, maintain and equip a

highly versatile, light, mobile and fast

reaction force. Its broad mission is to

protect, defend and secure coastal

regions and installations in the U.S. and

abroad. The command’s current force of

40,000 military and civilian personnel,

including active duty sailors and

reservists, is expected to grow in the

future. Possibly available to them will be

the Navy’s cache of 38 different types of

boats — not ships — ranging in length

from 20 to 34 feet. Many of the boats

had been destined for reserve duty before

9/11 changed the game.

The first commanding officer of the

NECC is a 55-year-old fighter pilot and

former aircraft carrier battle group

commander, United States Navy Rear

Adm. Donald K. Bullard. The man who

just last summer was directing combat

missions over Iraq is today reorganizing

and redirecting existing forces and

assets, and recognizing additional needs

and capabilities, to execute a mission

6 ong>Defenderong> Vol. 3, No. 2

Rear Adm. Donald K. Bullard

Deputy Chief of Staff for Operational Readiness

and Training, U.S. Fleet Forces Command

Commanding Officer, Naval Expeditionary

Combat Command

conceived in the wake of the greatest

terrorist attack in history. The former

commander of the carrier USS

Constellation and the John F. Kennedy

battle group is today wearing two hats,

one as the Deputy Chief of Staff for

Operational Readiness and Training for

U.S. Fleet Forces Command and the

other as the first commanding officer of

the new expeditionary combat force.

“One goal of this force is to exclusively

play ‘away games’ and keep the threats

as distant from our shores as possible,”

he said. “The Navy has been an expeditionary

force for 230 years, so in some

respects the notion of expeditionary

sailors is not new.”

From the pilot’s seat of F/A-18 strike

fighter and A-7 attack aircraft, to the

helm of a vital new naval force, Rear

Adm. Bullard is perfectly suited for

mission success. This decorated aviator,

who obtained his pilot’s license as a

University of Southern California ROTC

student, is uniquely committed to the

mission. On Sept. 11, 2001, he was

inside the Pentagon when an airliner

blasted through the southwest wall and

set off an asymmetrical war. Here’s what

Rear Adm. Don Bullard had to say about

the threat, the “long-term evolution” of

the war on terrorism, and the newly

organized naval forces being arrayed to

enter the fight.

ong>Defenderong>: Describe the mission of

the new Navy Expeditionary Combat

Command.

Rear Adm. Bullard: We provide

expeditionary forces to the Operational

Commander. We have a broad mission


that includes interdiction, harbor security,

force protection, sea basing and participating

more fully in the intelligence

arena. The command can address needs

for harbor and port surveillance and

security as some of our forces are

already protecting oil terminals in the

Middle East. We’re building more

inshore boat units. We’re increasing our

capability to create forward sea bases.

And we’re putting more forces on our

air and surface ship platforms to add to

the information collection capabilities

of the nation. It’s about adaptive force

packaging.

ong>Defenderong>: What are some examples

of this mission?

Rear Adm. Bullard: We could follow

suspected terrorists or smugglers from

blue water, through the coastal region,

right up an inland waterway — or vice

versa. We can open ports with divers

and salvage crews and provide surface

cargo and force protection. We’re

enhancing our ability to create and

secure netted sea bases and beachheads

through which Marines and special

forces can come ashore and pass through

to their objectives. By putting more

sensors in the hands of our expeditionary

forces, we’re building a greater capacity

for maritime intelligence.

ong>Defenderong>: How are you jump-starting

the command?

Rear Adm. Bullard: The capabilities

were already available, it’s just a matter

of organizing them and integrating them

into a single command. We’re addressing

the need to better align our forces to

gain synergies. We’ve started with the

“three Rs.” We’re

reorganizing our

current forces to

be more effective.

We’re redistributing

our current

capabilities to

where they are

most needed.

And we’re

recognizing the

need to build

new forces to

fight the war on

terror.

The Naval Expeditionary Combat Command is a light,

mobile, fast reaction force using a variety of small boats,

such as the Special Operations Craft – Riverine (top) and

the 28-foot Sea Ark harbor patrol craft (bottom), capable of

operating in coastal waters or in harbors, ports, and river

areas such as Boston, Mass. (left). U.S. Navy photos by

(top) Photographer’s Mate 2nd Class Eric Logsdon and

(bottom) Photographer’s Mate Airman Kathleen Gorby.

Left photo © Corbis.

Coastal Defense and Security

ong>Defenderong>: Describe the command’s

intelligence goals.

Rear Adm. Bullard: In the past, many

times we missed the opportunity to

collect and provide information from

assets already on the water or in the air

because we were not as tightly connected

to the overall information grid. Our

people and assets in some cases were

already out there. On the other hand,

good force protection is about receiving

good intelligence. So we will be much

better equipped to be the recipients of

high quality actionable information.

We recognized the need for horizontal

intelligence and to be a full spectrum

player in the intelligence arena.

ong>Defenderong>: In addition to defending the

coastal regions of the United States and

providing expeditionary forces for

forward sea-basing and force protection,

how can the new command help

America’s allies fight the war on terror?

Rear Adm. Bullard: We can make a

big difference to stem the maritime

flow of terrorism. We can demonstrate

and train our allies in harbor protection

and security, logistics tracking, barrier

construction or how to de-arm explosives.

We can help improve our coalition

partners’ maritime command and control.

We can provide a wide range of benefits

for our allies.

ong>Defenderong>: Regarding U.S. coastal

defense and security, how will you

coordinate with the Coast Guard?

Rear Adm. Bullard: We will work very

closely with the Coast Guard, continuing

our great partnership and tradition. Of

course the Department of Homeland

Security will have the lead. Yet we can

provide robust forces to add to the mix.

ong>Defenderong>: To what extent is this

command the result of 9/11?

Rear Adm. Bullard: Sept. 11 precipitated

the growth in our capabilities.

Now the goal is to become more broadly

engaged in the global war on terror. The

needs are not going away. This is a longterm,

evolutionary fight. ■

ong>Defenderong> 7


Modernizing the USCG fleet for the

21st century is a Deepwater Project

New classes of cutters, patrol boats, and manned and unmanned aircraft sharing information

through a “system of systems” are needed to protect America’s 350 ports, 95,000 miles of

coastline and 3-million-square-mile exclusive economic zone

Rear Adm. Patrick M. Stillman

Program Executive Officer of Integrated

Deepwater System, Coast Guard

International Programs

When Patrick Stillman was a young man,

boating on Lake Erie off the shores of his

hometown of Cleveland, he quickly

developed a self-described “unique

infatuation with things maritime.” What

struck him most was the awesomeness

of the vast 10,000-square-mile body of

water, larger than the state of New

Jersey. As Stillman considered the

potential ferociousness of the fourth

largest of the Great Lakes, with the tiny

pleasure boats bobbing up and down

within its grasp, or the huge iron ore

barges just mere specs on the horizon,

an utter sense of humility set in. Taming

such an enormous creature, in vessels

built by mere mortals, would require a

keen sense of situational awareness, a

sturdy set of maritime skills — and a

healthy dose of respect. “It has been said

that any fool can set sail, yet it takes a

‘sailor’ to know when to shorten-up” and

trim sail to continue on safely, he says.

8 ong>Defenderong> Vol. 3, No. 2

Today, this respect for the sea, and the

man-made craft that traverse and fly over

it, are central to the philosophy of U. S.

Coast Guard Rear Adm. Patrick M.

Stillman, the man who leads the largest

and most profound recapitalization and

modernization effort in Coast Guard

history. Its goal is to catapult a service of

aging cutters, patrol boats, helicopters

and fixed-wing aircraft far beyond 9/11

into a state-of-the-art, highly interoperable

and fully networked “system of systems”

— to bridge the multimission task of

providing safety and security for

95,000 miles of coastline, an exclusive

economic zone of 3 million square miles

and 350 ports. In a service that still

operates the vintage 63-year-old cutter

Storis, which patrolled the seas off

Greenland during World War II, it will be

the most profound transformation since

Alexander Hamilton, the American patriot

and first Secretary of the Treasury, founded

the Coast Guard as the U.S. Revenue

Cutter Service in 1790 as “sentinels of

the law” off the nation’s coastlines.

The centerpiece of Coast Guard transformation

and modernization, dubbed the

“Integrated Deepwater System,” ultimately

will produce three new classes of cutters,

small patrols boats, and manned and

unmanned aircraft, including the “Eagle

Eye” tilt-rotor vertical takeoff-and-landing

unmanned aerial vehicle. All of it will be

connected by C4ISR (command, control,

communications, computers, intelligence,

surveillance and reconnaissance). A

future 418-foot National Security Cutter,

slated to be delivered in 2007, will possess

detection and defense systems to protect

the crew from the effects of weapons of

mass destruction, with state-of-the-art

aircraft to increase its “blue and brown

water” maritime domain surveillance by

400 percent to 56,000 square miles. A

multi-year sustainment program, meanwhile,

will extend the service lives of

39 existing cutters.

Such a monumental modernization

and recapitalization effort falls onto the

shoulders of a man with a keen awareness

of the maritime world, the two-star

Coast Guard admiral and 1968 graduate

of the Coast Guard Academy who grew

up on the banks of Lake Erie to fulfill

Secretary Hamilton’s vision. “Unimpeded

movement along the maritime domain,

and protection of our economic ports

and coastal assets, keeps the lifeblood

of globalization flowing,” Rear Adm.

Stillman said. “Our job is to provide a

full and ruthless intersection of the

safety and security mission.”

Rear Adm. Patrick M. Stillman, the

38-year Coast Guard veteran who once

commanded the three-masted, squarerigged

training barque, the USCGC

Eagle, the only operational sailing ship in

the U.S. sea services, understands his

place in maritime history. The Eagle, void

of high technology, provides future Coast

Guard officers with more fundamental

training in the basics of “leadership,

seamanship and character.” Here’s what

Rear Adm. Stillman had to say about the

modern-day Coast Guard and the

service’s efforts to sail full speed ahead

into the new millennium.

ong>Defenderong>: How can you characterize

the extent of the modernization and

recapitalization effort by the Coast Guard?

Rear Adm. Stillman: Simply stated,

the Deepwater Program is essential to

sustain the Coast Guard’s operational

performance. By keeping older and older

assets around for years, and trying to


maintain them and keep them in service,

you might say that the Coast Guard was

riding these assets into a death spiral. The

legacy assets had simply grown inefficient

and not up to the modern challenges. At

some point, they can’t go on any further.

ong>Defenderong>: What are the ultimate goals

of the effort?

Rear Adm. Stillman: We’re creating a

“system of systems” approach to provide

multi-mission flexibility with a common

performance foundation. Our multimission

requirements include blue- and

brown-water surveillance — at sea and in

ports, waterways and coastal areas — to

detect and classify targets of interest and

to be able to prosecute those targets if

necessary. At the same time, as we’ve

seen during hurricanes Katrina and

Rita, we must also maintain a high

operations tempo in search and rescue.

Our improved surveillance capabilities

will serve multiple mission areas, and

we will become far more adroit. With

increased and more capable aviation

assets, and our system of systems

network-centric approach, we can triple

our total surveillance capability.

ong>Defenderong>: How did the program evolve

after 9/11?

Coastal Defense and Security

Rear Adm. Stillman: The implementation

plan was revised to incorporate

more capable functional requirements for

selected platforms, including improved

asset capabilities for detection and

defense for chemical-biological-radiological

threats. This is essential to survival

and continued operations of our assets in

the event of an attack by a weapon of

mass destruction.

ong>Defenderong>: How do you define the term

‘system of systems?’

Rear Adm. Stillman: In our world, this

will mean a fusion of capability and

Continued on page 12

This U.S. Coast Guard chart shows how the Integrated Deepwater System will be composed of three classes of new cutters and their associated small

boats, a new fixed-wing manned aircraft fleet, a combination of new and upgraded helicopters, and both cutter-based and land-based unmanned air

vehicles, all linked with state-of-the-art Command, Control, Communications and Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance systems

and supported by integrated logistics. Graphic courtesy U.S. Coast Guard.

ong>Defenderong> 9


When Katrina lashed New Orleans it was “all hands man the pumps!” – Vice Adm. Allen

(continued from page 5)

repairing the breaches with helicopterdropped

sandbags or other materials.

The unified command provided support

to that effort.

ong>Defenderong>: What worked and what

didn’t work?

Vice Adm. Allen: Of course, there

will be a lot of analysis and dissection

on this. Yet the scale of this event is

sufficiently large that I don’t think we

fully understand it just yet. One

misnomer involves the success of the

preliminary evacuation. More than

1.5 million people were evacuated

before the storm even struck. So the

preliminary evacuation to a large

degree was successful. The fact that

we were united under a single incident

command system was remarkable. A

small baseball stadium west of New

Orleans, Zephyr Field, became the

de facto headquarters for the urban

search and rescue in and around New

Orleans. All the different agencies that

had aircraft flying in and out to rescue

people from rooftops, or the rubber

boats that went door-to-door, were

coordinated out of Zephyr. It was an

extraordinary, super-human effort that

happened spontaneously, much to the

benefit of the people of New Orleans.

The single biggest lesson we learned,

in my opinion, is that we had a hybrid

event and may have had trouble

recognizing that at first.

ong>Defenderong>: How would you characterize

the connectivity of the unified federal

command to the military’s Task Force

Katrina?

Vice Adm. Allen: This was the first

major PFO deployment for a natural

disaster — and the largest natural

disaster in the history of the country.

It was also the first time that a DoD

Joint Task Force, from U.S. Northern

Command, was stood up to support

state and local operations. There was

10 ong>Defenderong> Vol. 3, No. 2

absolutely no degree

of separation between

Gen. Honore and me.

We communicated with

each other constantly, at

times as much as 40 or

50 times per day, by

phone or e-mail. We

traded liaison officers

in our command posts.

We knew exactly what

each other was doing.

Because of that,

ultimately we were

able to optimize what

the DoD could bring

to the table and marry

up the DoD assets with

the non-DoD assets in

the most effective way.

ong>Defenderong>: Since

Sept. 11, 2001,

the Coast Guard has

13 percent greater

end-strength, up

4,000 “Coasties” to

41,000. How has the

overall mission of the

Coast Guard changed

since 9/11?

Vice Adm. Allen: In the maritime

environment, we’ve placed a higher

premium on homeland security. We

have created 13 Marine Safety and

Security teams at key ports across the

nation to augment our capabilities.

We have more small boats on the

water. The survivability of our cutters

is higher. Yet the Coast Guard remains

a multi-mission service, with interdiction,

environmental protection and

search and rescue responsibilities as

well. While the pie has gotten bigger

with more resources, and the relative

importance of each wedge of the pie

might have changed, we still have the

same wedges. Now we just have a

more complicated threat matrix.


ong>Defenderong>: What is the Coast Guard

doing to protect America’s inland

waterways, such as major rivers and

river ports?

Vice Adm. Allen: We are more

actively tracking barge traffic on inland

waterways, especially among vessels

carrying dangerous cargo. We’re doing

this along the Ohio, Missouri and

Mississippi rivers. Barges of a certain

size are required to provide their

positions to the Coast Guard so we can

access a common operating picture.

ong>Defenderong>: Help us understand the

concept of “pushing out the borders”

of the U.S. and what that means for

the Coast Guard.

Vice Adm. Allen: “Pushing out the

borders” transcends the Coast Guard.

It means understanding the entire

logistics and supply chain and what is

manifested aboard ocean-going vessels

coming into the United States. It’s a

shared security problem. For example,

the Coast Guard works with the U.S.

Customs Service, which places inspectors

at foreign ports of embarkation and

requires shipping companies to declare

their manifests at least 24 hours before

arriving in the U.S. — to provide more

time to understand the liabilities.

Pushing out the borders also means

intelligent interdiction at the furthest

point from the nation’s coast. Whether

it’s the Coast Guard or the Navy, we

will go out as far as the mission requires.

ong>Defenderong>: How has the evolution of

technology helped?

Vice Adm. Allen: We’re leveraging

technology to increase surveillance in

Coastal Defense and Security

and around our ports. Under a program

called Command 2010, we are implementing

a vessel tracking system using

active surveillance video, radar and

automated identification systems to

derive a better operational picture. The

Maritime Transportation Security Act

has enabled us to require that vessels in

excess of 300 gross tons, and in some

places as little as 100 gross tons, are

outfitted with transponders, much like

those on aircraft, so we know where

they are.

ong>Defenderong>: When will you get a chance

to take a breather?

Vice Adm. Allen: The President has

indicated that I will transition out of my

role as PFO for Katrina and Rita early in

2006. Maybe I’ll get to take a breather

after that. ■

Maritime assets proved invaluable in rescue and recovery efforts

following hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Examples include U.S. Coast

Guard helicopters helping fill breeches in levees, U.S. Navy Special

Operations Craft – Riverine going house-to-house along Pearl River,

La., checking on residents, and the Coast Guard Cutter USCGC

Decisive serving as command, control and communications platform

for the Mississippi Coastal Recovery Base at Gulfport, Miss. USCG

photos by (top) Christopher Evanson and (right) Petty Officer Kip

Wadlow. USN photo (center) by Chief Journalist Scott Boyle.

ong>Defenderong> 11


Modernizing the USCG fleet for the 21st century is a

Deepwater Project – Rear Adm. Stillman (continued from page 9)

capacity between the surface and

aviation environments bound together

by C4ISR. This will promote a far more

informed presence and efficient response

and leverage the power of the network

to increase our maritime domain

awareness. We will better merge and

integrate tactical and strategic information

to create a common operating

picture that is data rich. The heart of our

performance chain might be a boarding

party, not the deployment of a cruise

missile, so information is vital to understand

where and when we should act.

Our C4ISR solution enables data and

information to be transmitted in realtime

to generate a far earlier awareness of

events through more efficient gathering

and fusing of information. Our people

and assets can only be as good as the

information that fuses them together.

ong>Defenderong>: How will the new National

Security Cutter contribute to the Coast

Guard’s ability to perform surveillance?

Rear Adm. Stillman: The National

Security Cutter, the Coast Guard’s

largest, will be a far more productive

contributor, with a complement of one

helicopter and two Eagle Eye vertical

takeoff-and-landing UAVs that will

extend its eyes. It will have a surveillance

footprint of 56,000 square nautical

miles versus 13,500 for the largest

cutters today. Yet it will not be an

independent asset; it will be a system

within a network of systems and will

greatly contribute to our ability to know

and respond to maritime conditions,

anomalies, vulnerabilities and threats.

The newest and largest cutters also will

be outfitted with a 57 mm gun weapon

system, with associated sighting, radar

and control systems. That will provide

the Coast Guard with a very capable

combat system equal to our post-9/11

challenges and operational requirements.

ong>Defenderong>: What is the current status

of the modernization and recapitalization

effort?

Rear Adm. Stillman: Of course this is

a marathon that will be spread over

25 years. So far, all 25 of our legacy High

12 ong>Defenderong> Vol. 3, No. 2

Endurance and Medium Endurance

Cutters have received the first C4ISR

upgrade, providing access to classified

data communications through the

DoD’s Secret Internet Protocol Network.

The keel of the first National Security

Cutter, laid in March 2005, is more than

30 percent complete. Delivery of the

Fast Response Cutter is slated for 2008,

10 years ahead of schedule. Our aviation

assets are being upgraded. Our approach

is bound and framed by performance and

cost. We have taken a frugal approach

to our acquisition strategy, leveraging

investments by the DoD in the network

centric arena and using commercial

off-the-shelf systems whenever possible.

It’s a prudent, well-informed approach.

ong>Defenderong>: The Coast Guard and the

U.S. Navy have always maintained a

close operating relationship, which

seems to have peaked even further in

the wake of 9/11. Please comment on

this history of cooperation.

Rear Adm. Stillman: Our collaborative

efforts with the Navy have truly become

force multipliers. Interoperability is at a

premium. Our goal is to create systems

that are fully interoperable, non-redundant

and complementary, to leverage our

expertise and accentuate the effectiveness

of the national fleet. We have achieved a

high level of sub-system commonality

with the Navy in our platforms,

especially in the C4ISR arena.

ong>Defenderong>: How has the Coast Guard

enhanced its relationships with civil

maritime authorities nationwide?

Rear Adm. Stillman: It has always

been a priority of the Coast Guard

Commandant to create strong bonds

with civil marine safety offices and

local first responders. We have always

brought together our capabilities under

one umbrella and partnered with civil

authorities to ensure the unobstructed

flow of commerce and enforcement of

the law. Good habits beget good habits.

So in the wake of 9/11, our relationships

have only grown deeper. ■

ong>Defenderong> Data

A roundup of news items about

Project Athena center opened

PORTSMOUTH, R.I. – Rhode Island

legislative leaders recently joined officials

of the Raytheon Co.’s Integrated Defense

Systems for a ribbon cutting ceremony

marking the opening of the Athena

Maritime Domain Awareness Fusion

Center at Raytheon’s Naval Integration

Center here. The Athena system fuses a

large number of existing sensor data to

provide decision makers with the realtime

maritime situational awareness

they need to enable quick, responsive

actions to protect the country’s shoreline.

Recently, the U.S. Department of

Defense’s Counter-Narcoterrorism

Technology Program Office awarded

Raytheon a $1.1 million cost plus

fixed fee contract modification to

further demonstrate the maritime

domain awareness system’s capability

to provide wide-area surveillance for

coastal and national defense. Project

Athena provides a common operating

picture of real-time events, which

enables responders to quickly discern

information and respond to threats

arising from the maritime environment.

During the next several months, Project

Athena will complete Spiral 3 development,

which includes the integration of

other sensors and information sources,

a refinement of anomaly detec-tion and

response capabilities, and further

integration with other existing

command, control, communications,

and computers nodes. The award

follows a successful 45-day functionality

demonstration test conducted during an

operational field demonstration of the

Athena capabilities for maritime border

security in western New York.

Radar for Japan’s SAR aircraft

MCKINNEY, Texas – Japan’s Toshiba

Corp. has awarded the Raytheon Co.

an $8.6 million follow-on production

contract to provide APS-134LW radar

hardware for the Japan Air Self Defense

Force’s (JASDF) search and rescue

aircraft. The contract is for seven

receiver-exciter-synchronizer-processors

and four antenna gimbals. The APS-134LW


defense technologies

radar, part of Raytheon’s SeaVue family of

maritime and littoral surveillance mission

systems provides high performance capabilities

in navigation, weather, long-range

search and small target detection to support

JASDF’s SAR mission applications. Raytheon’s

co-product partnership with Toshiba provides

the APS-134LW as the basis of what JASDF

calls the APQ-2 Radar. Toshiba is supplying

the radar transmitter and antenna reflector

for the APQ-2, which is installed on the

JASDF U-125A (Hawker 800) aircraft.

Raytheon also supports Toshiba with yearly

spares, repairs and technical support.

Caribbean Coastal Surveillance

OTTAWA – The Royal Netherlands Navy

and the Coast Guard of the Netherlands

Antilles & Aruba (CGNA&A) has awarded

a €10 million ($12 million) contract to

Raytheon Canada, a wholly owned

subsidiary of the Raytheon Co., to build

an integrated coastal surveillance radar

network on the islands of Aruba, Bonaire

and Curacao, including long-term maintenance

and training. The system will enable

the precision monitoring of marine traffic in

the waters around the Dutch Caribbean. It

will be used primarily for search and rescue

and drug interdiction, but it will also help

combat illegal immigration. The baseline

system consists of eight radar sites equipped

with a single command and control center

based at the CGNA&A’s rescue and coordination

center in Curacao. Each site is

composed of a Raytheon Canada Marine

Small Target Tracker, Terma Scanter 2001

Radar from Terma of Denmark, wireless

communications and physical infrastructure.

The command and control center will be

provided by HITT Traffic of The Netherlands.

Australian air warfare destroyers

CANBERRA – The Australia Department of

Defence has selected Raytheon Australia Pty.

Ltd. as the preferred supplier for the Combat

System-System Engineer for the Royal

Australian Navy’s AU$6 billion Air Warfare

Destroyer program. The AWD program,

which will be headquartered in Adelaide,

South Australia, is intended to provide the

country with an affordable maritime air

warfare capability as a complementary part

of a comprehensive layered air defense

capability. The first of three new ships of

the class are expected to enter service in

2013. Other industry members joining the

Commonwealth of Australia in the AWD

alliance include ASC AWD Shipbuilder Pty.

Ltd., Gibbs & Cox Inc. which will provide

platform design services, Bath Iron Works

Australia Corp. which will provide assistance

to ASC AWD Shipbuilder, and the U.S. Navy

and Lockheed Martin Corp., which will

provide specific combat-system related

support and equipment. Australia’s Minister

for Defense, Senator the Hon. Robert Hill,

also announced the appointment of Dan

Smith, president of Raytheon’s Integrated

Defense Systems, based in Tewksbury,

Mass., to the Alliance Principals’ Council

for the AWD Program. The council will be

chaired by retired Royal Australian Navy

Vice Adm. Chris Ritchie with other

members including ASC AWD Shipbuilder

chairman John Prescott, Lt. Gen. David

Hurley, Chief of Capability Development

Group; and Dr. Stephen Gumley, CEO

Defence Materiel Organisation.

Suspected pirate ship captured

OFF THE COAST OF SOMALIA – The U.S.

Navy guided missile destroyer Winston S.

Churchill recently captured a suspected

pirate ship after an eight-hour chase off the

Somali coast. The Churchill was on patrol in

the region when it received a radio call that

a Bahamian-flagged bulk carrier had been

fired upon about 320 kilometers off the

Somali coast, not far from the scene of an

attack last November against the Bahamianregistered

cruise ship Seabourn Spirit

carrying 302 passengers and crew. The

Churchill, a sister ship to the USS Cole,

pursued the suspect ship and finally fired

warning shots to force it to surrender. Some

of the 26 crewmen aboard the ship claimed

their vessel had been hijacked and forced to

attack commercial ships. A small cache of

weapons was found on the vessel. In the

November attack, pirates raked the

Seabourn Spirit with machine-gun fire and

rocket-propelled grenades before being

repelled by a combination of evasive

maneuvering and the use of a sonic weapon

developed for the U.S. Department of

Coastal Defense and Security

Defense. According to a spokesman for the

Miami-based cruise line, the Seabourn Spirit

was fitted with a Long Range Acoustic Device

that delivers a directed beam of earsplitting

noise, similar to but much louder than the

tone of a smoke detector. It was developed

to keep operators of small boats from

approaching U.S. warships after the USS Cole

was attacked in 2000. The International

Maritime Bureau reports there had been at

least 23 hijackings and attempted seizures

off the coast of Somali, including two

involving ships carrying aid for the U.N.

World Food Program, between mid-March

and the November attack on the Seabourn

Spirit. The LRAD was built by a small

Southern California contractor, American

Technology Corp. of San Diego.

BCS-F passes interoperability tests

FULLERTON, Calif., – A new command and

control system developed by ThalesRaytheon

Systems has passed its interoperability tests,

earning itself the U.S. Air Force Systems

Interoperability Test certification and

positioning the system one step closer to

fielding. The system, called Battle Control

System-Fixed, is a next-generation air

sovereignty system that serves as the early

warning mechanism in the vital U.S.

homeland security mission. Advanced

technology incorporates increased sensor

capacity and improves interoperability among

hundreds of legacy sensors, including more

types of radars than any other Air Force

system. It correlates and fuses data from

airborne, ground and naval elements and

civil air traffic sensors into an integrated air

picture that allows commanders to surveil

and monitor the airspace above, beyond

and within the U.S. and Canadian borders.

Additionally, the system will monitor threats

internal to U.S. and Canadian borders,

providing a major component for homeland

defense. BCS-F communicates via the

military’s most advanced secure data links

and translates for, and acts as, a gateway

among systems that are not interoperable

today. ThalesRaytheon Systems is an equally

owned transatlantic joint venture between

the Raytheon Co. and Thales Group. ■

ong>Defenderong> 13

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