Lighting A to Z

Lighting A to Z

IndexIncandescent/Halogen Lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–15Incandescent Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Halogen Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Lamp Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Bulb Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–8Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Filaments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Bulb Finishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–14Heat Lamps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15Marathon CFL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Marathon Broad Product Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Compact Fluorescent Lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Lamp Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Fluorescent Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21Bulb Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Color Temperature and CRI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24ALTO ® Fluorescent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-26HomeLight Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27HomeLight Color Selection Chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28High Intensity Discharge (HID) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-33Featured Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-38Energy Saving Substitution Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39-40EPACT Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41Special Order Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43-55Lighting Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56–582 Product Knowledge

IntroductionWho is Philips? Royal Philips Electronicsof the Netherlands is one of theworld’s largest electronics companies,with sales in 2002 of US $28 billion; itemploys nearly 164,000 people in over60 countries. The foundations for whatwas to become the world’s largest lightingcompany were laid in 1891 whenGerard Philips established a company inEindhoven, the Netherlands, to “manufactureincandescent lamps and otherelectrical products.”Royal Philips Electronics is tenth onFortune’s list of global top electronicscorporations. We are active in about 60businesses, varying from consumer electronicsto domestic appliances, and fromsecurity systems to semiconductors toCompact Disc players to lighting.Check this out:As one of the world’s largest lightingcompanies – Philips produces over 2.4billion incandescent lamps every year.That’s over 2,400,000,000 bulbs! I guessyou could say we are very bright.Philips Lighting CompanyCommitment to sustainability is evidentby our support of the following agencies:Quick GuideIncandescent . . . . . . 4Halogen . . . . . . . . . . 5Inc. Bulb Shapes . 7–8Inc. Bases . . . . . . . . . 9CFL . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Fluorescent . . . . . . 18Color Chart . . . . . . 28HID . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29FeaturedProducts. . . . . . 34-38SubstitutionGuide . . . . . . . . 39-40EPACT . . . . . . . . . . 41Special Order. . . . . 42Glossary . . . . . . 43-55Calculations . . . 56-58Lighting A–Z 3

Incandescent OperationIn an incandescent bulb, a tungstenfilament is heated by an electric currentuntil the filament becomes incandescentor gives off light. The intense heat causesthe tungsten filament to slowly evaporate.This filament evaporation causes twothings to happen. First, it causes the bulbto get blackened over time. The blackeningof the bulb causes the bulb to becomeslightly dimmer over time. Second, as thefilament evaporates, it gets thinner andthinner until finally it gets so thin, it breaksand the bulb fails. This is the normal endof life for an incandescent bulb.The life of a bulb depends on the thickness of the tungstenfilament, a thick filament will last longer than a thin one. But athick filament does not get as hot so it produces less light. That’sthe trade-off—if you want more life, you get less light and viceversa.A standard bulb’s life is 750–1000 hours and longer lifebulbs last 1000–1250 hours.People often ask what causes a bulb to burn out prematurely.One reason is over-voltage. If an incandescent bulb is subjectedto a higher than rated voltage or even a surge or spike, it willcause the filament to overheat and it will evaporate at a muchfaster rate, the result—short life. Another reason for short lifeis shock and vibration. If the bulb’s filament is not a rough servicedesign with filament supports, shock and vibration may shortenits life.4 Product Knowledge

Halogen OperationReflectorHalogen CapsuleCut-away view ofa PAR38 HalogenHalogen Bulbs are technically incandescent bulbs, butthey have three features that make them superior tostandard incandescent.They are Brighter, Whiter, and Last Longer.A Halogen lamp has a thin filament. A thin filament producesmore light than a thick one. This makes it brighter and whiter.But how does it last longer with a thin filament? The answer is…The Halogen CycleThe filament is in a glass capsule. The glass capsule containsan incandescent bulb, but before the tungsten deposits onthe bulb wall, the halogen gas transports it back to thefilament—replenishing it and keeping the bulb clean and bright.The halogen gas actually regenerates the filament. This is whyHalogen bulbs last much longer and stay bright throughout theirlife. However, the tungsten does not go back exactly to the samespot on the filament, so eventually it gets weak at one point andfails, ending the cycle.VoltageHalogen lamps are available for low-voltage operation (for whicha transformer is needed) or for 120 volt as direct replacementsfor incandescent lamps.Lighting A–Z 5

Incandescent Lamp PartsFilamentGlass BulbFilament SupportLead-InWiresGas or VacuumBaseFuseFilamentCoil of tungsten wire. Tungsten is used because it has the highestmelting point of any metal.Lead-In WiresConduct the current from the base through the glass bulb tothe filament. The part exposed to the inert gas is made of nickel.The part embedded in the glass is made of dumet and the partconnected to the base is made of copper.Filament SupportThis part protects the filament from shock and vibration.Glass BulbPrevents oxygen from attacking or oxidizing the filament. Theglass bulb will contain a vacuum or an inert gas.Gas or VacuumInert gas contained in the bulb is usually a mixture of nitrogenand argon. Krypton is also used. A vacuum is used in lowwattage bulbs.BaseProvides a means of connecting the bulb to the socket. Bases aremade of aluminum or brass. Brass bases are anti-corrosive. Thebases are attached to the bulb with basing cement.FuseUsually an arc forms when the filament fails which could tripthe circuit breaker in the lighting circuit. The fuse prevents thefilament from drawing excess current when it fails.6 Product Knowledge

Incandescent/Halogen Bulb Shapes Letters designate the shape of the glass bulb.ABBACPBRBTArbitraryDesignationBulletArbitraryDesignationBrilliantCrystalBulgedReflectorBulgedTubePARF G KCParabolicAluminizedReflectorFlame Globe Director ConeRTMRSMiniReflectorReflector Spherical Tubular Numbers indicate thediameter of the bulb ineighths of an inch. For example, “A-19”indicates an ArbitraryDesignation shaped bulbhaving a diameter of19/8 or 2 3 ⁄8⁄ inches.Lighting A–Z 7

Incandescent Bulb ShapesABBACFGKBRPARR S T8 Product Knowledge

Halogen Bulb ShapesT-3/T-4BT-15CP-19 F-10 1 /2CandelabraF-10 1 /2Stylized FlameF-15PostlightMR-16MRC-16MRC-11PAR-16 PAR-20 PAR-30S PAR-30L PAR-38 T-4Mini-Can.T-4DC BayT-5 T-3 T-4Med. 2-pinIncandescent/Halogen BasesMogulMedium SkirtedMed-Skt.MediumMed.Three ContactMogul 3C Med.IntermediateInter.CandelabraCan.MiniatureCandelabraCandelabraBayonet Single(S.C.Bay)or Double Contact(D.C.Bay.)RecessedSingle ContactRSCBipinGU-5.3TwistlineGU-10BipinG-4/GY-6.35Screw bases are made of Aluminum, Brass or Nickel-PlatedBrass. Aluminum is the most economical material. Brass andNickel-Plated Brass bases are corrosion resistant and areused on bulbs designed for outdoor use, very long life, orin corrosive environments.WidepinGY-8.6Brass bases or Nickel-Plated Brass bases should be used inapplications where corrosion might cause a bulb to seize in thesocket and make replacement difficult.Lighting A–Z 9

FilamentsC-2VCC-2VC-5 C-6CC-62CC-6 C-7A C-8CC-82CC-8 C-9 C-11CC-11C-13CC-13C-2RCC-2RFilament designations consist of a letter or letters to indicatehow the Tungsten wire is coiled, and an arbitrary number toindicated the arrangement of the filament on the supports.C=Coiled Filament—filament in a single coilCC=Coiled Coil— filament is coiled and then coiled again,reducing its length.Filament supports are elements that protect the filament fromshock and vibration. The more filament supports a bulb has themore shock resistant it is. A RoughHouse or a Tough Bulb hasmany filament supports that cushion and protect the filamentfrom shock and vibration.10 Product Knowledge

Bulb FinishesIncandescent bulbs are available in Clear, Soft White, Inside Frost,Softone Pastel, Colored, Agro, and Silicone Coated. Clear bulbs—Provide sparkle, especially in fixtures that aremade of chrome, have mirrored surfaces, multiple sockets orhave cut glass parts. If glare is a problem, use a dimmer or alower wattage bulb to reduce brightness. Clear bulbs are alsoused in fixtures with reflectors. Soft White—Provides the ultimate in soft, uniform, diffusedillumination with reduced glare. Inside Frost—Reduced glare. Softone Pastel—Used for decorative effects to createambience or set a mood with a hint of color. Available in SoftoneBlue, Peach and Pink 60 watt A19. Colored—Used to create a festive party atmosphere or aspecial effect. Available in Blue, Green and Red 60 watt A19. Agro—Promotes plant growth by producing the appropriatelight spectrum for plants to thrive. Silicone Coated (Tough Bulb ) —Designed to containglass should breakage occur. Used in applications such as overfood service areas, trouble lights, and in open fixtures. SiliconeCoated bulbs can be used outdoors with no protection.Lighting A–Z 11

Incandescent/Halogen TypesGeneral ServiceABTCSTIncludes, A, BT, C, S, and T shapebulbs.Used mainly for general illumination.Reflector TypesProvide directional illumination. Reflectorbulbs (R) and (BR) are often used inrecessed down lights and track lighting.They have a soft, smooth beam and areRBRavailable in spot and flood. They cannot be used outside in openfixtures.All Philips Parabolic AluminizedReflectors (PAR) are Halogen types thatPAR save energy and can be used in recessed downlights, track lighting, and in outdoor floodlights.They are more efficient than R and BR bulbsand provide more “punch”. The light is whiterthan standard incandescent and they last longer.Halogen PAR bulbs have a more controlled beam which makesthem ideal for accent lighting, downlighting, and outdoor floodlighting.Decorative“Deco” bulbs come in a myriad ofGshapes, sizes, and finishes. They aremost often used when the bulb is indirect view. Decorative bulbs meet aBBAFvariety of decorative needs including Chandeliers, Wall Sconces,Vanity Strips, and surface mounted decorative fixtures.Industrial Grade and Contractors ChoiceAlso referred to as 130 volt bulbs. These bulbs are designed tolast 3 times as long as a standard incandescent. 130 volt bulbshave an extra thick filament and are ideal for hard to reachapplications and areas that have a lot of surges and spikes on thepower line. Because of the thick filaments, they produce less lightthan a standard bulb, and have a warmer color appearance thanstandard bulbs.CP12 Product Knowledge

Incandescent/Halogen TypesRough Service BulbsInclude Roughhouse and Tough Bulb types. These lamps are designed withmany filament supports to withstandextreme shock and vibration. They caneasily withstand the punishmentencountered in trouble lights, portablelighting, and on or near machinery. TheTough Bulb has a translucent siliconecoating that makes it weatherproof andholds the glass together should it breakfrom an impact. Silicone coated bulbs are often required for useover food service areas.MR-16MRAre small low voltage lamps (12 volt) and require afixture with a transformer. They produce brilliant whitelight with good beam control. If the fixture does nothave a cover glass over the face of the bulb, a coveredMR-16 must be used. MR-16s are often used in tracklighting and down lighting.Halogen CapsulesAre tiny halogen lamps that produce a sparkling whitelight. Halogen capsules must always be used in anenclosed fixture. Common applications include tasklighting and under cabinet lighting.Low voltage types require a fixture with a 12 volttransformer. 120 volt types require a fixture specificallydesigned for 120 volt operation.Never interchange 12 and 120 volt types.Standard bulbs shatterSilicone coated bulbs aremore apt to stay intactLighting A–Z 13

Halogen TypesHalogen Double-Ended(Linear)These 100–500 watt lamps are 120 volt and must be used in anenclosed fixture. Care must be exercised when using these typesdue to the 300–500 watts of heat produced. Typical applicationsinclude torchieres, outdoor flood lighting, portable lighting andgeneral lighting.Halogená ® are 120 volthalogen bulbs designed to beused anywhere you would usea regular incandescent bulband produce a crisp white light.They last three times longerthan standard incandescentbulbs and have a compact size. They are dimmable and availablein a variety of wattages for design flexibility and energy savings.Halogená bulb shapes include the high tech BT15 shape for generallighting, F-10 1 ⁄2⁄ and F15 Flame shapes for decorative/postlightapplications as well as the CP19.BT CP-19 F-10 1 /2 F-1514 Product Knowledge

Heat LampsInfrared Heat Lamps (RedBRand clear) provide a source of heatPAR that instantly reaches any surface towhich it is directed. Heat lamps canbe used to heat surfaces, objects,food, people, and animals. They areavailable in 250W Reflector shapesand 175W PAR shapes. The 175W PARs and the 250W Red canwithstand direct contact with liquids making them ideal for foodservice. The 250W Red lamps not only heat things but the redcolor makes things appear hot. Red bulbs have reduced lightoutput because of the red filtered glass. The clear lamps producethe same amount of heat as the Red, but with more light.Money saving tip: use the 175W PAR lamp in place of the250W BR.The precise PAR shape directs the same amount ofheat to the target and saves up to $30 per year.Energy Saving Calculation250 Watt Replaced by 175 Watt Saves 75 Watts4000 Annual Operating Hours x 4000 hrs.300,000 whr.Convert to Kilowatt Hours ÷ 1000Energy Saved300 kwhr.Multiply By Energy rate x $0.10Annual Savings Per bulb $30.00Based on 4000 hours per year @ $0.10 per/kwhr.Lighting A–Z 15

The Philips Marathon Collectioncombines super long life, superiorquality and energy savings withcompact sizes to meet a widerange of lighting applications.Compact Fluorescent Lamps combinethe economies of fluorescentlighting with the comfort and versatilityof standard incandescentlamps. Featuring a warm color temperatureof 2700K and an excellentcolor rendering of 82 CRI, theyprovide outstanding quality light.With an average rated life of 6,000 –15,000 hours*, Marathonlight bulbs last up to 15 times longer than ordinary incandescentsand save up to 75 percent on energy. Their super long life providesthe convenience of infrequent bulb replacement, and savingson maintenance and replacement costs.Because Marathon light bulbs screw into existing incandescentsockets and have an identical color temperature, a cost-savingupgrade is easy. They offer high-quality, economical lightingsolutions in residential, office,hotel/motel, restaurants,healthcare, retail, education, foodservice, and propertymanagement applications.Most Philips Marathonlamps feature Amalgamtechnology which providesstable light output regardlessof temperature.Lumen Output vs.Ambient Temperature*Based on 3-4 hours average daily usage, 7 days per week.16 Product Knowledge

Broad Product SelectionLighting A–Z 17

PL Family of CompactFluorescent Lamps• High lumen output• Excellent lumen maintenance• Compact size• Ideal for interior lighting applicationsPL-S PL-C PL-T PL-L NEW PL-HPL-S (2-pin)5W7W9W13WPL-C (2-pin)13W18W26W15mm 22W*15mm 28W*PL-C (4-pin)13W18W26WPL-T (4-pin)18W26W32W42W57WPL-L (4-pin)18W24W36W40W50W80WPL-H (4-pin)60W85W120W2700ºK 3000ºK 3500ºK 4100ºK 5000ºK*Non-ALTO ® lamps18 Product Knowledge

Fluorescent Lamp PartsBasePhosphor coatingElectrodeBulb wall Gas fill MercuryBulb wallA glass tube or bulb coated with phosphors.Gas fillUsually an electrically conductive mixture of neon and argon gasis used. Krypton is used in Econ-o-watt lamps.MercuryAll fluorescent lamps contain a small amount of liquid mercurywhich vaporizes during lamp operation. Philips ALTO ® lampscontain less mercury than standard lamps.BaseThe base is cemented to each end of the lamp to connect thebulb to the electrical circuit.ElectrodeThe electrodes are a coiled tungsten wire that conductselectricity to the gas fill. The electrodes are sputtered away asthe lamp starts and is vaporized as it operates. When theelectrodes are used up, the lamp can no longer start. Philipsbulbs contain an exclusive electrode guard that minimizes endblackening (shown on page 28).Phosphor CoatingPhosphor coating on the bulb wall converts ultraviolet energyto visible light in a process called fluorescence. Newer, moreexpensive phosphor coatings are used on bulbs with high colorrendering and higher light output.Lighting A–Z 19

Fluorescent Lamp OperationGlass bulbVisible LightPhosphor Crystals2.3.Electrode1.MercuryOperationWhen started, the electrodes at each end of the lamp emitelectrons.1. The electrons travel through the tube in the form of anelectrical current. The electrons collide with the mercuryatoms contained in the glass bulb.2. After the collision, the mercury atom releases invisibleultraviolet energy.3. The ultraviolet energy strikes the phosphor coating and thephosphor converts the ultraviolet to visible light.BallastAll fluorescent lamps need a ballast to operate properly. Theballast provides the proper starting voltage and limits thecurrent through the lamp. It is important to have the correctballast for proper operation. The ballast label has importantinformation such as which lamps the ballast will operate and awiring diagram.20 Product Knowledge

Fluorescent TypesPreheat LampsThe first type of fluorescent lamps waspreheat. These lamps require a starter orpreheat switch. Several seconds ofwarm-up time is required before starting.They are usually 30 watts or less andequipped with a bipin base.Slimline (Instant Start) LampsThe ballast provides sufficient voltage to startthese lamps instantly. Only a single pin on eachend of the lamp is required.Rapid Start LampsAre the most popular type, usually 32 wattsor more. Continuously heated electrodesprovide smooth, fast starting (~1 second)without a starter. Rapid start lamps areavailable with Bipin and Recessed DoubleContact bases.Lighting A–Z 21

Fluorescent Bulb ShapesThe letter indicates the shape of the bulb and the number tellsus the diameter in eighths of an inch. Example: A T8 Bulb is a tubular shape that is 8 eighths orone inch in diameter.T5 Miniature BipinT8 Medium BipinT9 4-Pin CirclineT12 Medium BipinT12 Single PinT12 Recessed Double ContactT12 Medium Bipin U-Bent Lamp22 Product Knowledge

Fluorescent BasesA green color base indicates the lamp is a low mercuryALTO ® lamp. See pages 25-26 for more on ALTO ® .Miniature BipinT5MediumBipin T8MediumBipin T12Single PinRecessed DoubleContact(RSC)4-PinCircline To determine the length of a fluorescent lamp, you do not measurethe lamp. The Nominal Length of the bulb is the measurement fromback of socket to back of socket on the fixture.Lighting A–Z 23

Color Temperature and CRIColor TemperatureDescribes the appearance, atmosphere, ambiance, or moodcreated by the light. It is usually desirable to maintain aconsistent color temperature throughout a space.The Color Temperature is measured in Kelvins (K). Standard lightsources range from 2700K (incandescent) to 6500K (daylight).Warm: Color Temperature 3000KCreates a cozy, inviting, comfortable, relaxing atmosphere. Warmchoices: Home Light Soft White, Incandescent, Halogen.Neutral: Color Temperature 3500KCreates a friendly, inviting, balanced atmosphere. Neutralcolor choice is Spec 35Cool: Color Temperature 4100KCreates a clean, efficient, fast paced, atmosphere. Cool choices:Cool White, Home Light Cool White Plus.Daylight: 5000K-6500KCreates a crisp, bright alert, active atmosphere. Daylight choicesinclude Natural Sunshine (5000K) and Daylight Deluxe (6500K)color. Note: Natural Sunshine should be specified for customersdesiring full spectrum lighting.Sunlight: 6500KColor Temperature ChartColor Rendering Index (CRI)The CRI is the ability of a light source to produce natural colorsin objects. CRI is measured on a scale from 0–100 where 100is best. The higher the CRI the more natural people and objectswill appear when lighted. Incandescent and Halogen bulbs as wellas natural daylight have a 100 CRI.24 Product Knowledge

Philips ALTO ® Fluorescent LampsAll fluorescent lamps contain mercury. Standard fluorescent lampsfail the United States Federal Government Toxic CharacteristicLeaching Procedure (TCLP) * test for hazardous waste. Thereforethey must be either recycled or disposedof as hazardous waste.A FirstThe first fluorescent lamps that pass the USEPA’s test for non-hazardous waste.Identical PerformanceSame rated lamp life, color rendering,light output and energy-efficiency asstandard lamps.Philips ALTO ® lamps pass the governmenttest for hazardous waste becausethey contain less mercury than regularbulbs. Philips ALTO reduced mercuryfluorescent lamps contribute tomercury source reduction through anenvironmentally-conscious design.Green End-CapsAllow for product differentiation at time ofpurchase and at end of lamp life.Philips Lighting Company supports the EPA’scommitment to reduce, reuse and recycle.Philips ExclusivePhilips ExclusiveElectrode Guard*The TCLP is the EPA’s toxicity characteristic leaching procedure.Lighting A–Z 25

Philips ALTO ® Fluorescent LampsPhilips ALTO ® fluorescent lamps are available in a variety ofcolors in the following sizes:Mercury contentF20T12F30T12F34T12F40T12F40T12EWF96T12EWF15T8F30T8F32T84 foot ALTO T8 lamps contain approximately 3.5 milligramsof mercury.ALTO fluorescent lamps are the first fluorescents to pass theUS EPA’s Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testfor non-hazardous waste, a test designed to measure substancesthat might dissolve into the ecosystem.Consult local laws and regulations which may vary. PhilipsLighting encourages the recycling of all fluorescent lamps.For disposal informationand Material Safety Data SheetsContactPhilips Customer Information Hotline1-800-555-0050.26 Product Knowledge

HomeLight Collection of ConsumerFluorescent LampsF8T5F40T12 2pkF40T12FC8T9SOFT WHITEComfortable, pleasant lightGreat for the kitchen, bath, or any roomFlattering light that shows colors accuratelyEnhances skin tones and furnishingsCOOL WHITE PLUS(Formely UTILITY)General purpose lightFor the garage, workshop or basementCool white colorOutperforms shop lightsNATURAL SUNSHINE(Formely NATURAL COLOR)Simulates natural, full-spectrum lightFor any room in the homeBright, white lightDAYLIGHT DELUXECreates a cool, refreshing environmentFor any room in the homeArctic-white lightPhilips Specialty Fluorescent LampsF40T12BLACKLIGHTTrue Blacklight-blue fluorescent lightIdeal for special effect lightingWhite objects have a dramatic glowunder blacklightF20T12PLANT & AQUARIUMThe right spectrum for growingindoor plantsIdeal for freshwater aquariumsLighting A–Z 27

HomeLightFluorescent Color Selection ChartThis chart combines 4 foot fluorescent lamps and can help youselect appropriate colors.(a) Color is a personal preference. Select a bulb that creates the mood you desire tohave in the room.(b) A higher number can make a big difference, even in laundry rooms. Then you willbe able to distinguish between similar colors.28 Product Knowledge

High Intensity Discharge (HID)Mercury vapor, MetalHalide and HighPressure Sodiumcomprise the familyof High IntensityDischarge lamps (HID).In HID lamps, light isproduced by passingan electric currentthrough a gas or vaporat high pressure. Thecurrent produces ahigh intensity arc ordischarge of light thatis very efficient and hasa longer life.Common Characteristics of HID Lamps All HID lamps have a warm-up period that lasts from 3–10minutes (depending on the type and wattage) before itproduces full light output. It is important that an HID lamp have correct ballast tooperate properly (compare ANSI code on ballast andlamp package). HID lamps have a restrike time which ranges from1–15 minutes depending on type and wattage.Lighting A–Z 29

High Intensity Discharge (HID)Mercury VaporLife = +24,000 hoursCRI = Clear 20, Deluxe White 45Color Temperature = CoolEfficiency—50 Lumens per wattMercury Vapor lamps feature low initial cost, buthave higher operating costs than HPS or MetalHalide due to its lower efficiency. The clearmercury bulb has a bluish green appearance andthe Deluxe White has a higher color rendering.Mercury lamps get dimmer over time andrarely burn out, so it is wise to replace them andrestore light level. Mercury lamps are used forlandscape lighting, dusk to dawn fixtures, roadway,parking lots, floodlight, and security.Mercury BulbANSI Code from ballast50 Watts H4675 Watts H43100 Watts H38175 Watts H39250 Watts H37400 Watts H3330 Product Knowledge

High Intensity Discharge (HID)Metal HalideLife = 6000—24,000 hoursCRI = 65Color Temperature = Cool, 4000KEfficiency—up to 100 Lumens per wattMetal Halide lamps are the fastest growingsegment of the HID family due to their crispwhite light, high efficiency, and good colorrendering. Because of their good colorrendering, Metal Halide lamps are used ininterior as well as exterior applications. MetalHalide lamps are used extensively in shoppingmalls, retail commercial buildings, roadwaylighting, parking lots, airports, sports lighting, andbuilding flood lighting.Metal Halide BulbANSI Code from ballast50 Watts M11070 Watts M98100 Watts M90150 Watts M107175 Watts M57250 Watts M58400 Watts M59Lighting A–Z 31

High Intensity Discharge (HID)High Pressure Sodium (HPS)Life = +24,000 hoursCRI = 20Color Temperature = Golden White, 2100KEfficiency—up to 120 Lumens per wattHigh Pressure Sodium lamps are the most efficientHID lamps available. If color rendering is notcritical and energy saving is important, HPS is anexcellent choice. HPS lamps attract less insects thanother light sources. HPS fixtures cycle on and off when it is timeto replace the bulb. Applications include security lighting, dusk-todawnfixtures, parking lots, flood lighting, roadway, and Industrial/Commercial installations.High Pressure Sodium Bulb ANSI Code from ballast35 Watts S7670 Watts S68100 Watts S62150 Watts S54250 Watts S55400 Watts S5132 Product Knowledge

High Intensity Discharge (HID)Bulb Shapes and BasesA-23 ED-18 ED-23 1 /2 ED-28 ED-37MediumMogulAll Philips HID lamps feature a corrosion resistant brassbase and have been lubricated with a black spot of graphiteto ensure easy lamp removal at end of life.Lighting A–Z 33

Featured ProductsMini-Household Ideal for light fixtures where a smallerbulb size is desired including table lamps,wall sconces and open ceiling fixtures Lasts 5 years—up to 6 times longer thanstandard incandescent lamps* Smaller in size and fits into standardincandescent sockets Saves up to 70% in electricity costscompared to standard incandescent lamps Available in 16W version equivalent toa 60W incandescent lamp ENERGY STAR ® qualifiedMini-Decorative Twister Ideal for light fixtures where a smallerbulb size is desired including table lamps,wall sconces and open ceiling fixtures Lasts 5 years—up to 6 times longer thanstandard incandescent lamps* Popular spiral shape Compact size fits most smaller lightfixtures Saves up to 75% in electricity costscompared to standard incandescentlamps Available in 15W version equivalentto a 60W incandescent lamp ENERGY STAR ® qualified*Based on 3-4 hours average daily usage, 7 days per week.34 Product Knowledge

Reflector Flood Ideal for recessed and track lightingfixtures, indoors and outdoors Lasts 5 years—up to 3 1 ⁄2⁄ times longerthan standard incandescent flood lamps* Provides diffused, soft, white light withless heat Suitable for use in wet locations Utilizes Amalgam Technology whichprovides stable light output over a broadrange of temperatures Saves up to 75% in electricity costscompared to standard incandescentflood lamps Available in 16W version equivalent toa 65W incandescent flood lamp ENERGY STAR ® qualifiedVanity Globe Ideal for vanity strips and hanging pendants Lasts 5 years—up to 4 1 ⁄2⁄ times longer thanstandard incandescent globes* Popular globe shape Provides soft, white light Saves up to 70% in electricity costscompared to standard incandescent globes Available in 12W version equivalent to40W incandescent globe ENERGY STAR ® qualified*Based on 3-4 hours average daily usage, 7 days per week.Lighting A–Z 35

Featured ProductsGuaranteed to last for 2 years*The elegant replacement forstandard incandescent lighting. Long LifeLasts three times longer thanstandard incandescent. Crisp White LightFrom a halogen light source. Replaces Standard IncandescentCompact size with medium screw base available in a varietyof wattages. DimmableFor added design flexibility and energy savings. ApplicationsTable lamps, wall sconces, commercial downlights, enclosedoutdoor, etc. Use anywhere you would use a regular bulb.PostlightIdeal for...Post lights, decorative fixtures,enclosed outdoor, ceiling fans.* Guarantee based on 4 hours average usage per day, 7 days a week.36 Product Knowledge

Decorative LampsThe elegant, long life alternative to standard incandescent thatoffers superior light quality, less maintenance and energy savings! Long LifeReduces maintenance costs Light Quality–Provides a clean, crisp, white light–Maintains high light quality when dimmed Dimmable–For greater design flexibility–Saves energy Energy SavingsLowers electricity costs when dimmed Direct ReplacementAvailable in both candelabra and medium base to replacestandard incandescent decorative lamps Full LineAvailable in a variety of shapes, wattages and basesLighting A–Z 37

Featured ProductEnergy SaverHalogen 90 Watt 2500Efficient reflector designproduces a smooth roundbeam with high efficiency andlasts 2,500 hours to reduce bulbchanging. Plus it only uses 90 wattsof energy while replacing lessefficient 150 watt bulb. This Halogenflood can save up to $15.00 inenergy costs over the life of just one bulb.Money saving tip: Using a Halogen bulb in place of anincandescent saves money, provides a brighter, whiter light, andlasts longer.Energy Saving Calculation150 Watt Replaced by 90 Watt Saves 60 Watts2500 Annual Operating Hours x 2500 hrs.Saves 150000 whrConvert to Kilowatt Hours ÷ 1000Energy Saved Saves 150 kwhrMultiply By Energy rate x $0.10Annual Savings Per bulb Saves $15.00Based on 2500 hours per year @ $0.10 per/kwhr.38 Product Knowledge

Philips Energy SavingSubstitution GuideWatts Annual EnergySuggested Substitute Light Saved Cost SavingsPresent Lamp Energy Saving Lamps Level per Socket per Socket*Incandescent7W Nightlight 4W Nightlight 55% 3 $1.2040WG25 Globe Marathon Vanity Globe 12 115% 28 $11.2060W Soft White Marathon SLS 15 105% 45 $18.00Marathon EL/O 15 93% 45 $18.00Marathon Mini-Decorative Twister 15 105% 45 $18.00Marathon Mini-Household 16 93% 44 $17.6060W Bug-A-Way Marathon Bug-A-Way 145% 45 $18.0065WBR30 Flood 50WPAR30/HAL 100% 15 $6.00Marathon Reflector Flood 16 93% 49 $19.6064WBR40 Flood Marathon Flood SLS 15 91% 50 $20.00Marathon Flood SLS 20 120% 45 $18.0075W Soft White Marathon EL/O 18 93% 57 $22.80Marathon SLS 20 102% 55 $22.00Marathon Household 20 93% 55 $22.00Marathon Decorative Twister 20 93% 55 $22.20*Based on 4000 operating hours per year @ $0.10 per/kwhr.Lighting A–Z 39

Philips Energy SavingSubstitution Guide(continued)Watts Annual EnergySuggested Substitute Light Saved Cost SavingsPresent Lamp Energy Saving Lamps Level per Socket per Socket*75WR20 50WPAR20/HAL/NFL30 100%+ 25 $10.0045WPAR16/HAL/NFL27 100%+ 30 $12.0085WBR40 Marathon Flood SLS 20 89% 65 $26.0090WPAR38/HAL 60WPAR38/HAL 80% 30 $12.00100W Soft White Dimmable SLS 23 89% 77 $30.80Marathon SLS 25 102% 75 $30.00100W Post Light Halogená ® Post Light 90% 40 $16.00100W Bug-A-Way Marathon Bug-A-Way 79% 85 $34.00100WG40 Globe Marathon Globe G40 20 110% 85 $34.00120WBR40 90WPAR38/HAL/FL 110% 30 $12.0060WPAR38/HAL/FL 76% 60 $24.00250WR40/HEAT 175WPAR38/HEAT NA 75 $30.00FluorescentF30T12 F30T12EW 85% 5 $2.00F40T12 F34T12EW 85% 6 $2.40F96T12 F96T12EW 85% 15 $6.00F96T12/HO F96T12/HO/EW 85% 15 $6.00*Based on 4000 operating hours per year @ $0.10 per/kwhr.40 Product Knowledge

National Energy Policy Act(EPACT)Signed into law October 24, 1992 by President Bush, theNational Energy Policy Act (EPACT) is designed to reduce thenation’s energy bill by some $250 billion over 15 years. Energyused for lighting, the primary focus of the bill, could be slashedup to 50%, reducing the national electricity usage by 10%.EPACT mandates energy efficiency standards for lamps in termsof efficacy, measured in lumens per watt (LPW), and colorrendering index (CRI), the ability of a light source to rendercolors accurately. EPACT has established minimum LPW andCRI standards, which has eliminated those fluorescent andincandescent lamps that provide the least amount of light forthe highest use of energy. This has affected some full wattage 4-foot, 2-foot U-Bent, 8-foot Slimline, and 8-foot high-output lamps.Lamps with a very good CRI and special service fluorescentlamps have been excluded from the Act.Due to the high CRI of incandescent lamps (100), stringentefficacy standards have been set. These standards have eliminatedmany popular R and PAR types, including the R-30, R-40 andPAR-38. Lamps with a diameter of less than 2.75 inches, suchas the R20 and PAR-16, are exempt from the Act, as are ERand BR lamps.New information required on packaging and product literaturewill help you compare products. The information includeslumen output, estimated efficiency (lumens per watt) and lamplife. Fluorescents packaging will also list Color Rendering Index.Although they are exempt from efficiency standards, A-lampsand compact fluorescents must be labeled. The information canhelp you compare light output and pick the appropriate lamp forthe job while reducing lighting energy usage.Lighting A–Z 41

How To Use Our CatalogFrom SAG-100Bulb: Bulb designationsindicate approximate shapeand size.Base: Full base namesand configurationdrawings are shown inthe back of each lampsection.Ordering code:Must be used whenplacing orders.Volts: For lampslisted with voltageranges.Package Qty.: Numberof lamps packaged in ashipping container.(Quantity shown is minimumshipping container.)Pyramid symbol:Footnote, explanationis listed at the backof each lamp typesection.Product Number:Both product Numberand complete orderingcode should be usedwhen placing orders.L.C.L.: LightCenter Lengthin inches.M.O.L.: MaximumOverall Length ininches.ApproximateHours Life/Initial Lumens:Approximate hours lifeand approximate initiallumens rating representaverage performance.42 Product Knowledge

GlossaryAbsorption Conversion of light to heat by interactionwith matter.Accent Lighting Directional lighting to emphasize aparticular object or to draw attention to the field of view.Alternating Current (AC) Flow of electricity which cyclesof alternates direction many times per second. The number ofcycles per second is referred to as frequency. The most commonfrequency used in this country is 60 Hertz (cycles per second).Amalgam A mixture of mercury and other metals used inCompact Fluorescent lamps to allow the lamps to have a stablelight output over a wide range of temperatures and burningpositions. The amalgam causes the lamp to have a 60 secondwarm-up time.Ambient Lighting General lighting, or lighting ofthe surrounding area.American National Standards Institute (ANSI)A consensus organization which coordinates voluntarystandards for the physical, electrical, and performancecharacteristics of lamps, ballasts, luminaires, and other lightingand electrical equipment.Amperes (amps or A) The unit of measurement of electriccurrent. The is current related to voltage and power as follows:Current (amps) = Power (watts)/Voltage (volts).Arc Discharge (in gas or vapor) Electric dischargethat produces light without a filament.Average Illuminance (E av)) Over a surface. Illuminanceaveraged over the specified surface.Ballast Device used with fluorescent and HID lamps to providenecessary starting voltage and limit the current duringoperation.Base The end of the lamp that inserts into lamp socket.Beam Spread The angle over which the intensity of thebeam drops to 50% of its peak intensity. Measured in degrees.Brightness A visual sensation that describes how muchlight an area appears to emit. There are no units of measure forbrightness; its measurement is relative. In other words, moreor less bright.Lighting A–Z 43

GlossaryBritish Thermal Units (BTUs) Measurement of heatproduced Unit BTU, BTUs per hour = Watts X 3.413Bulb The glass outer or envelope of a lamp. Also, a lamp iscommonly referred to as a bulb.Burning Position The position in which a lamp is designed tobe operated.Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Anorganization that writes standards and tests lighting equipmentfor performance as well as electrical and fire safety. Canadianprovincial laws generally require that all products sold forconsumer use in Canada must have CSA or equivalent approval.Candela The unit of measure for intensity in a given direction.The term has been retained from the early days of lighting whena standard candle of a fixed size and composition was used as abasis for evaluating the intensity of other light sources.Candlepower (CP) The intensity or the strength of thebeam in a given direction. Unit candela, cd.Chromaticity See color temperature.Class “P” Ballast Contains a thermal protective device,which deactivates the ballast when the case reaches a certaincritical temperature. The device resets automatically when thecase temperature drops to a lower temperature.Color Appearance The color impression when lookingdirectly at a light source.Color Rendering Expression for the effect that the light hason the color appearance of objects.Color Rendering Index (CRI) of a light sourceA scale from 0–100 that describes how natural the color ofobjects will appear as compared to a standard light source (100CRI). The standard light sources are Incandescent/Halogen bulbs(100 CRI) for warm sources and Natural Daylight (100 CRI) forcool sources.Color Temperature A term used to describe the“whiteness” of light. It is the temperature of a piece of metal(or black body) that emits the same color light as the comparedlight source. Unit Kelvin, K.44 Product Knowledge

GlossaryCompact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) The general termapplied to families of smaller diameter fluorescent lamps, someof which have built-in ballasts and medium screw bases for easyreplacement of incandescent lamps.Cone Photoreceptors in the retina containing light-sensitivepigments responsible for seeing color.Contrast The difference between the object andits background.Cornice Lighting Lighting system comprising light sourcesshielded by a panel parallel to the wall and attached to theceiling, distributing light over the wall.Correlated Color Temperature The temperature ofa piece of metal whose perceived color most closely resemblesthat of a compared light source at the same brightness. UnitKelvin, K.Cosine Law of Incidence The law that states thatilluminance at a point on a plane is proportional to the cosineof the angle of light incidence (the angle between the the incident light and the normal to the plane). E=I/d direction of2 cosCove Lighting Lighting system comprising light sourcesshielded by a ledge or recess, and distributing light over theceiling and upper wall.Diffuse Reflection Diffusion by reflection in which, on themacroscopic scale, there is no regular reflection.Diffused Lighting Lighting in which the light is not comingmainly from one particular direction.Diffuser Device used to alter the distribution of light anddepending essentially on the phenomenon of diffusion.Diffusion (scattering) Change of the distribution of abeam of light when it is deviated in many directions by a surfaceor by a material.Dimmer A device in the electrical circuit for varying thelight output from lamps in a lighting installation. Dimming anincandescent lamp extends its life.DiOptic Reflector A segmented, dual parabolic reflectorthat increases the reflector efficiency up to 20%.Lighting A–Z 45

GlossaryDirect Current (DC) Flow of electricity continuously inone direction.Direct Glare Glare resulting from high luminances orinsufficiently shielded light sources in the field of view.Direct Lighting Lighting by means of fixtures or luminairesthat have 90 to 100 percent of the light reaching the workingplane directly.Directional Lighting Lighting in which the light on theworking plane or on an object is coming predominately from oneparticular direction.Discharge Lamp Lamp in which the light is produced,directly or indirectly, by an electric discharge through a gas, ametal vapor, or a mixture or several gases and vapors.Discomfort Glare Glare that causes discomfort withoutnecessarily impairing the vision of objects.Dispersion To split light into the colors of the rainbow.Distance (D) The distance from the light source to theworking plane.Downlight (Can, High Hat) Small luminaire, whichdistributes the light downward, usually recessed in the ceiling.Efficacy Of a source. Efficacy is the rate at which lamp is ableto convert electrical power (watts) into light (lumens), expressedas lumens per watt. Divide light produced (lumens) by the powerconsumed (watts). Lumens/Watts = LPW. Units lumen per wall,LPW, lm/WEfficiency Often misused term in lighting, to describe lumensper watt; the correct term is efficacy. See efficacy.Electric Discharge The passage of an electric currentthrough gases and vapors. This results in the emission of electromagneticradiation (light).Electromagnetic Spectrum A continuum of electric andmagnetic radiation that can be characterized by wavelength orfrequency. Visible light encompasses a small part of theelectromagnetic spectrum in the region from about 380nanometers (violet) to 770 nanometers (red) by wavelength.46 Product Knowledge

GlossaryElectronic Ballast A short name for a fluorescent highfrequency electronic ballast. Electronic ballasts use solid stateelectronic components and typically operate fluorescent lampsat frequencies in the range of 25—35 kHz. The benefits are:increased lamp efficacy, reduced ballast losses, and lighter, smallerballasts compared to electromagnetic ballasts.Emergency Lighting Lighting provided for use when thesupply to the normal lighting fails.Energy Policy Act (EPACT) Comprehensive energylegislation passed by the US Congress in 1992. The lightingportion includes lamp labeling and minimum energy efficacy(lumens/watt) requirements for many commonly usedincandescent and fluorescent lamp types. Similar legislation isbeing proposed in Canada.Escape Lighting That part of the emergency lighting providedto ensure that an escape route can be effectively identifiedand used in case of failure of the normal lighting system.Federal Communications Commission A USFederal Agency which is charged with regulating emissions in theradio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Forexample, a regulation entitled, “Part 18” deals with electromagneticinterference (EMI) from all lighting devices operating at frequencieshigher than 9 kilohertz (kHz). Typical electronically-ballastedcompact fluorescent lamps operate in the range of 24–100 kHz.Flicker Impression of fluctuating brightness or color.Floodlight 1. A fixture designed for floodlighting, usuallycapable of being pointed in any direction and of weatherproofconstruction. 2. A lamp with a wide beam of light usually greaterthan 20˚ beam spread.Fluorescent Lamp Discharge lamp of the low-pressuremercury type in which most of the light is emitted by a layer offluorescent material excited by the ultraviolet radiation from thedischarge. For example: F40T12.Footcandle (FC) The amount of lumens falling on an areameasured in square feet. One lumen falling on one square foot isequal to one footcandle.Lighting A–Z 47

GlossaryFull Spectrum Lighting There is no official definition ofthe term “full spectrum” but most agree that it is a source thathas a cool temperature and a high color rendering that mimicsnatural daylight. Philips Colortone 50 or C50 is described as afull spectrum light source.Fuse Safety device to prevent excess current flow.General Lighting Substantially uniform lighting of an area,excluding task lighting.Glare Condition of vision in which there is discomfort or areduction in the ability to see significant objects, or both, due toan unsuitable distribution or amount of light.Group Relamping An economical method to predict bulblife and replace all lamps at one time. Saves time and money.Halogen Lamp Gas-filled lamp containing a tungsten filamentand a proportion of halogen gas. The halogen gas recyclesevaporated particles of tungsten back onto the filament surface.Heat Measured in British Thermal Units (BTUs).Unit BTUs per hour = Watts x 3.413High Intensity Discharge Lamps (HID) HID lampsinclude groups of lamps known as Mercury Vapor, Metal Halide,and High Pressure Sodium.High Pressure Mercury (Vapor) Lamp A long lifelamp, with or without a coating of phosphor, in which an arcflowing through mercury vapor produces a bluish-white light.Deluxe phosphor coated lamps have a higher CRI.High Pressure Sodium Lamps (HPS) A high efficiencyand long life bulb in which an arc flowing through sodium vaporproduces a yellow light.Hot Re-Strike Time In HID lamps, the amount of timeafter a momentary power interruption to return of full light output.Ranges from 1–15 minutes or more, depending on lamp typeand fixture.48 Product Knowledge

GlossaryIlluminance (E) At a point on a surface. The amount of lightstriking a surface. Unit footcandle, fc in USA, lux, lx. in Europe.The orientation of the surface may be defined, e.g., horizontal,vertical, hence horizontal illuminance, vertical illuminance.Illumination Application of light to a scene, objects or theirsurroundings so that they may be seen.Incandescent (electric) Lamp Lamp in which light isproduced by heating a filament to incandescence by the passageof an electric current.Indirect Light On a surface. The light received by the surfacefrom a lighting installation after reflection from other surfaces.Indirect Lighting Lighting by means of fixtures or luminairesthat have 90–100 percent of the light reaching the workingplane indirectly or reflected from the ceiling or walls.Infrared Radiation Long wavelengths of energy, that heatobjects instantly.Instant-start Lamp Fluorescent lamp designed to startwithout reheating of the electrodes. Usually has a single pin andstarts instantly.Intensity (I) Of a source in a given direction. Used mainly indirectional light sources; the strength of the beam. Unitcandela, cd.Inverse Square Law The law that states that the amountof light striking a surface varies directly with the intensity of thesource and inversely as the square of source and the surface. FC = CP/D the distance between the2Kilowatt (Kw) A measure of electrical power equal to1000 watts.Kilowatt-Hour (KwH) Unit of electrical power consumedover a period of time. One thousand watts used for onehour equals one kilowatt-hour. KwH = Watts/1000 x hours used.Lamp An artificial source of light commonly referred to as abulb. Also portable luminaire equipped with a cord and a plug.Lamp Mortality See Mortality Rate.Lighting A–Z 49

GlossaryLight Any radiation capable of causing a visual sensation direct,i.e., visible radiation.Light Output Amount of light produced by a light sourcesuch as a lamp. Measured in lumens or candlepower.Lighting (or illumination) Application of light to ascene, objects, or their surroundings so that they may be seen.Louvre Shield made of translucent or opaque material andpositioned to prevent lamps from being directly visible over agiven angle.Low Pressure Sodium Lamp (LPS) The most efficientman made light source. LPS only produces yellow light thereforeit has a 0 CRI. Example: A SOX lamp.Lumen The unit of measure for the total amount of light froma light source, regardless of direction. Unit lumen, L.Luminaire A fixture or apparatus that distributes, filters, ortransforms the light given by a lamp or lamps which incudes allthe items necessary for fixing and protecting these lamps and forconnecting them to the supply circuit.Luminance (L) In a given direction, the amount of lightcoming off of the surface. Unit candela per square foot, cd/ft 2 .Lux (FC) The metric unit of illuminance. The amount oflumens falling on an area measured in square meters. One lumenfalling on one square meter is equal to one lux.Maximum Beam Candlepower (MBCP) The maximumintensity of the beam in a given direction. Usually in thecenter of the beam. Unit candela, cd.Mercury Vapor Lamp A high-pressure mercury lamp inwhich the light is produced by the mercury vapor and sometimesby a layer of fluorescent material on the inner surface of theouter bulb excited by the ultraviolet radiation of the discharge.Metal Halide Lamp Discharge lamp that produces a whitelight with good color rendering and high efficiency.M.O.L. The maximum overall length of a lamp from the tip ofthe base to the top of the glass.Mortality Rate The number of operating hours elapsedbefore a certain percentage of the lamps fail.50 Product Knowledge

GlossaryMounting Height The distance between fixtures and theworking plane.Operating Current Current in amps consumed by a lamp atrated watts.Operating Voltage Voltage at rated watts after a lampfully warms.PAR Lamps Parabolic Aluminized Reflector lamps whichoffer excellent beam control, come in a variety of beam patternsfrom spot to flood, and can be used outdoors unprotectedbecause they are made of “hard” glass that can withstandadverse weather.Parabolic A concave mirror, the reflecting surface of which hasthe shape of a paraboloid, capable of focusing rays parallel to itsaxis to a point.Peak intensity The luminous intensity of a luminaire orlamp in the direction of the beam axis.Pendant (Pendant) Luminaire Luminaire provided with acord, chain, tube, etc. which enables it to be suspended from aceiling or other support.Point Source A source of light in which the dimensions aresmall, compared with the distance between the source and theworking surface. Produces sharp shadows.Power Factor Power factor in lighting is primarily applicableto ballasts. It is the ration of watts over volts multiplied byamperes. Since volts and watts are fixed, amperes (the current)will go up as the power factor goes down. This necessitates theuse of larger wire sizes to carry the increased amount of currentneeded with low power factor ballasts as compared to highpower factor ballasts.Preheat Fluorescent Lamp A fluorescent lamp designedfor operation on a circuit requiring a manual starting switch or astarter to preheat the electrodes in order to start the arc.QL Induction Lamp (System) A super long life lamp(system), based on the low-pressure mercury discharge principle,but without electrodes, in which the ionization of the gas withina discharge vessel is brought about by the induction of ahigh-frequency electromagnetic field. Philips QL Systemfile = 100,000 hours.Lighting A–Z 51

GlossaryR lamps Reflectorized lamps available in spot (clear face) andflood (frosted face).Radiation Emission or transfer of energy in the form ofelectromagnetic waves or particles.Rapid Start Fluorescent Lamp A fluorescent lampdesigned for operation with a ballast that provides a low-voltagewinding for preheating the electrodes and initiating the arcwithout a starter or the application of high voltage. Takes aboutone second to start.Recessed Luminaire Luminaire mounted above the ceilingor behind a wall or other surface so that any visible projectionis insignificant.Reflectance Ration of the reflected light to the incident lighton a surface.Reflected Glare Glare resulting from reflections of highbrightness sources in polished or glossy surfaces in the fieldof view.Reflection Light striking a surface is either absorbed,transmitted, or reflected. Reflected light is that which bouncesoff the surface, and it can be classified as specular or diffusereflection. Specular reflection is characterized by light rays whichstrike and leave a surface at equal angles. Diffuse reflection leavesa surface in all directions.Reflector Device in which the phenomenon of reflection isused to alter the distribution of the light source.Reflector Lamp Lamp in which part of the bulb is coatedwith a reflecting material, either diffuse or specular, so as to controlthe light. Example: R, BR, PAR bulbs.Re-strike Time The time it takes for a lamp to re-strikeafter a power interruption. In most HID lamps, if the lamp is atfull brightness and the power is removed for even a split second,the lamp will extinguish and will have to cool down before it restrikes,which can take between 1–15 minutes depending on lamptype, wattage and fixture variables.Retina Membrane at the back of the eye which is sensitive tolight stimuli and containing photoreceptors (cones and rods) andnerve cells that transmit the stimulation to the optic nerve.52 Product Knowledge

GlossaryRod Photoreceptors in the retina containing light-sensitivepigments. Rods probably play no part in color discrimination.Rough Service Lamps Incandescent lamps designedwith extra filament supports to withstand bumps, shocks,and vibrations.SAD Seasonal Affective Disorder is a type of depression, afeeling of lethargy, that may be related to the reduction ofsunlight as days grow shorter. Also known as “Winter TimeBlues” or “Cabin Fever”. It is sometimes treated with “FullSpectrum” lighting.Shielding An arrangement of light-controlling material toprevent direct view of the light source.Spacing The distance between the centers of two successiveluminaires in an installation.Spacing to Mounting Height Ratio (S/M) The ratio ofthe distance between luminaire centers to the height above thework plane. Gives the maximum spacing of luminaires at whicheven illumination will be provided.Speed of Light Approximately 186,000 miles per second.Spill Light The scattered light of a floodlight falling outsidethe beam that is usually considered wasted light.Spotlight A (small) projector giving concentrated light usuallynot more than 20˚ beam spread.Stand-by Lighting That part of emergency lighting thatenables normal activities to continue substantially unchanged.Starter Device for starting a fluorescent lamp that providesfor the necessary preheating of the electrodes and/or causes avoltage surge in combination with the series ballast.Task Lighting Lighting for a specific visual task, additional toand controlled separately from the general lighting. The term isoften applied to lighting designed to illuminate a particularly smallarea, e.g. a desk top.TCLP Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure. AUS Environmental Protection Agency test for non-hazardouswaste, a test designed to measure into the ecosystem. Philips ALTO substances that might dissolve® lamps pass this test.Lighting A–Z 53

GlossaryTransformer Device used to raise or lower voltage to alamp.Transmission Passage of light through a material.Troffer A long, recessed luminaire usually installed with theopening flush with the ceiling.Tungsten-Halogen Lamp A gas filled incandescent lampwith a tungsten filament containing a certain proportion ofhalogens (usually bromine).Ultraviolet Radiation Invisible radiation in which thewavelengths are shorter than those for visible radiation.UniformityA measure of the variation of light over a givenarea expressed as either:1. The ratio of the minimum to themaximum illuminance, 2. The ratio of the minimum to the averageilluminance.Valance Lighting Lighting system comprising light sourcesshielded by a panel parallel to the wall at the top of a window.Visible Radiation Any radiation capable of causing a visualsensation directly.Visual System The group of structures comprising the eye,the optic nerve, and certain parts of the brain, which isresponsible for seeing.Warm-up Time The amount of time from turn-on to 90%light output.Watt (W) The unit for measuring power. W= V x AWavelength Distance of a periodic wave between twosuccessive points at which the phase is the same. Unit meter, m.Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation Radiant energy in the rangeof about 100—380 nanometers (nm). For practical applications,the UV band is broken down further as follows:Ozone-producing180–220 nmBactericidal (germicidal) 220–300 nmErythermal (skin reddening) 280–320 nm“Black” Light320–400 nm54 Product Knowledge

GlossaryUnderwriter Laboratories (UL) A private organizationwhich tests and lists electrical (and other) equipment forelectrical and fire safety according to recognized UL and otherstandards. A UL listing is not an indication of overall performance.Lamps are not UL listed except for integrated compactfluorescent lamps—those with screw bases and built-in ballasts.Volt (V) The unit for measuring electric potential. It definesthe force or pressure of electricity.WISO With Industry Superior Optics. A segmented parabolicreflector designed specifically for an axially mounted halogencapsule. Produces an extremely smooth, round beam with highefficiency. See picture on page 5.Work (or working) Plane Reference surface defined asthe plane at which work is usually done. Example: The table top isthe working plane.Zenith The direction directly above the luminaire.Lighting A–Z 55

Lighting FormulasEnergy Saving FormulaTo calculate Energy dollars saved over the life of a bulb, use thisformula. All you need is the Present Bulb Wattage and yourrecommended Bulb Wattage and Life.Energy Saving CalculationPresent Bulb WattageSubtractRecommended Bulb WattageEquals Wattage SavedMultiplyBy Recommended Bulb LifeEquals Energy SavedWattsWattsWattsHours LifeWatt-HoursTo Convert to Kilowatt Hours Divide by 1000 ÷1000Equals Energy SavedMultiply by Energy Rate* X $0.10KiloWattHoursEquals Energy DollarsSaved by Each Bulb$*Based on $0.10 per/kwhr. Use your local rate to determine savings.56 Product Knowledge

Lighting FormulasUse this formula to determine the diameter of the beam of areflector or PAR lamp at a specific distance. You will need ascientific calculator and the beam diameter in degrees.Formula:(Beam Spread÷2) tan x Distance x 2 = BeamDiameterOn scientific calculator: Enter beam spread, divide by two, hitequal, hit tangent button (TAN), multiply by distance, multiply bytwo—this equals the diameter of the beam.Example: 90PAR 38 HAL/FL28˚ at 12 feet distance, what will thediameter of the beam be?On scientific calculator:Enter beam spread 28˚ 28Divide by 2 2Hit equal button 14Hit tangent button .2493Multiply by distance12 feetMultiply by 2 2Equals diameter of beam 5.98 feet or about 6 feetLighting A–Z 57

Lighting FormulasUse this formula to determine the illuminance in footcandles(FC) hitting a target from a reflector or PAR lamp at a specificdistance. You will need the Maximum Beam Candlepower(MBCP) for the specific bulb and the distance from the lampto the target. You can get the MBCP from the Philips LampSpecification and Application Guide.Formula:FC = MBCP/D 2Take the MBCP and divide by the distance squared (distance xdistance)Example: 90PAR 38 HAL/FL28˚ at 12 feet distance, what willthe illuminance in footcandles be?The MBCP is 4500 candlepowerThe distance squared is 12 feet x 12 feet or 144 square feet4500/144 = 31.25 footcandles or about 30FC58 Product Knowledge

Customer Information HotlineTelephone 1-800-555-0050Monday–Friday, 8:30 A.M.–5:00 P.M. (EST)• Detailed Product Specifications• New Products• Lamp Specifications• Material Safety and Data SheetsPhilips Customer ServiceTelephone 1-800-933-3768 or 1-800-795-2114Customer Service Representatives are availableto assist you Monday–Friday, 8:30 A.M.–5:00 P.M. (EST)The Light SitePhilips Lighting on the A–Z 59

Philips Lighting Company200 Franklin Square Drive, P.O. Box 6800Somerset, NJ Division of Philips Electronics North America CorporationPrinted in USA 9/03P-8278-CPhilips Lighting281 Hillmount RoadMarkham, OntarioCanada L6C Division of Philips Electronics Ltd.

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