charm decays with photons in the final state and trigger counter ...

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charm decays with photons in the final state and trigger counter ...

¡¡¡particles of all fundamental interactions. Each fundamental force has its own force carrier7or carriers: photons for the electromagnetic force, ¥ ¢ £ ¥ ¦ andgluons for the strong force (table 1.3).for the weak force, andTable 1.3: BosonsBosons Force Mass¡ £¢§¤¡©¥© photon Electromagnetic 0Weak £¥¤¦£¢£¦£ ¥¥¨§gluon Strong 0gravitron Gravity 0The electromagnetic force is a fundamental force that has been classically welldescribed by the four Maxwell’s equations of electrodynamics. Quantum electrodynamics(QED) [5] describe electromagnetism at small scales. From the point of view of QEDan electron interacts with another electron by exchanging photons between them. Thesephotons can not be seen because they are “virtual photons”. Photons are virtual as theyway virtual photons are allowed to have enough energy to produce the interaction withoutexist only for a short period of time defined by uncertainty principle ©¢¢ . In thisbreaking the energy conservation law.The weak interactions have effects on all hadrons and leptons. Generally processesthrough this force produce leptons in the final state 4 .The bosons that carry the weakforce are very massive (see table 1.3). Quarks involved in weak process suffer changeof flavor. An example of this is the beta decay (see figure 1.4), in which a neutron (ddu)is transformed into a proton (uud). This can be understood in terms of weak interaction.4 But that is not always the case. There are processes in which leptons are not produced but we have flavorchange

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