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Adolescent Literacy Guide: A Professional Learning ... - EduGains

Table of contentsIntroduction ......................................................................................................................................... 3The Adolescent ................................................................................................................................... 5Practice and Research ........................................................................................................................ 6A Vision of Literacy for the Adolescent Learner ................................................................................. 12Components of Adolescent Literacy .................................................................................................. 13Critical Literacy ............................................................................................................................ 16Practice and Research ................................................................................................................ 18Metacognition .............................................................................................................................. 22Practice and Research ................................................................................................................ 24Questioning ................................................................................................................................. 28Practice and Research ................................................................................................................ 30Strategy ....................................................................................................................................... 34Practice and Research ................................................................................................................ 36Voice and Identity ........................................................................................................................ 40Practice and Research ................................................................................................................ 42How to Use This Guide ...................................................................................................................... 46!!!!!!"#$%&'()"*&'+,'!-.//0$.10(+2&!345#+16!7&08 ............................................................................... 48!!!!!!34(&19+:'+*/+4016!-.//0$.10(+2&!345#+16!7&08................................................................................ 50!!!!!!"';../!38*1.2&8&4(!**&49+?!>!)!"';../!@AA&'(+2&4&::!B108&C.1D!-.44&'(+.4: ............................................................ 59Appendix B - Curriculum Connections............................................................................................... 62Appendix C - Learning Skills and Work Habits Connections ............................................................ 66Appendix D - Ministry Resources Related to the Components ......................................................... 68References ........................................................................................................................................ 74Additional References ....................................................................................................................... 771


INTRODUCTIONAs students enter adolescence they are making what some researchers assert is the most';0//&4=+4=!(104:+(+.4!.A!(;&+1!/+2&:!HI#8&E!JKKLMG!7;&6!01&!&?*&1+&4'+4=!*;6:+'0/E!:.'+0/E!&8.(+.40/E!049!+4(&//&'(#0/!';04=&:G!N6!(;&!(+8&!09./&:'&4(:!&4(&1!(;&!8+99/&!=109&:E!(;&6!;02&!/&014&9!0!=1&0(!9&0/!0$.#(!/+(&10'6G!I.C&2&1E!(;&6!4&&9!(.!/&014!8.1&G!O+(&10'6!'.4(+4#&:!(.!&2./2&!0:!(;&!C.1/9!changes and its demands shift and become more complex. Literacy is not only used for reading andC1+(+4=E!$#(!0/:.!(.!+4'1&0:&!.4&P:!#49&1:(049+4=!.A!(;&!C.1/9G!>9./&:'&4(:!1&5#+1&!'.4(+4#0/!*10'(+'&!.2&1!(+8&!(.!1&,4&!(;&+1!:D+//:!+4!(;+4D+4=E!1&09+4=E!C1+(+4=!049!.10/!'.88#4+'0(+.4G!The following key messages guide this resource:!"#$%&'()*+,,-%#*)&./)"*)/$0$1-,$/)#2%-+32)#2".4".35)$6,%$**".3)&./)%$7$'#".38Literacy development continues in adolescence; there is no one grade or! '.4(&4(!01&0!(;0(!*1.2+9&:!0//!(;&!4&'&::016!/+(&10'6!+4:(1#'(+.4!:(#9&4(:!4&&9as lifelong learners.Literacy is embedded in all content areas;!+4!A0'(E!&0';!.A!(;&!:#$%&'()01&0:!*1.2+9&:!!!! .**.1(#4+(+&:!A.1!/+(&10'6!9&2&/.*8&4(E!.A(&4!+4!#4+5#&!049!:*&'+0/+F&9!C06:G!@8$&99+4=!!literacy instruction in all subjects allows adolescents to deepen their understanding ofthe knowledge and skills in content areas.Literacy is fostered in active and responsive learning environments which! A&0(#1&!&?*/+'+(!/+(&10'6!+4:(1#'(+.4!049!8&04+4=A#/!&?*&1+&4'&:!C;+';!*1.2+9&!! 09./&:'&4(:!C+(;!02&4#&:!A.1!:.'+0/!'.44&'(+.4E!9+:'.2&16E!8.(+20(+.4E!049!1&/&204'6GAdolescents need to engage with a variety of literacy practices for a range of) ,+%,-*$*5)".'1+/".3)*#+/$.#*9)-:.),+%,-*$*8!"#$%&'()"*)'-;,1$68!


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orking closely with an advisory panel and steering team! 34!JKKL)JKRKE!&8*;0:&:!A.1!09./&:'&4(!/+(&10'6!C&1&!9&2&/.*&9!H'1+(+'0/!/+(&10'6E!8&(0'.=4+(+.4E!! ! !! 5#&:(+.4+4=E!:(10(&=+&:E!:(1#'(#1&:E!:(#9&4(!2.+'&M!$6!04!092+:.16!*04&/G! 34!JKRRE!(;&!092+:.16!*04&/!1&:*.49&9!(.!1&:&01';!'.49#'(&9!.4!(;&!&8*;0:&:!A.1!09./&:'&4(!literacy and made recommendations.Synthesizing research! 34!JKRKE!04!&?(&140/!1&2+&C!C0:!'.49#'(&9!.4!(;&!+8*0'(!.A!7;+4D!O+(&10'6!+4!T4(01+.!:';../:E!=109&:!Q)RJG! 34!JKRRE!0!1&2+&C!.A!(;&!&8*;0:&:!A.1!09./&:'&4(!/+(&10'6!C0:!'.49#'(&9!C;+';!+4'/#9&9!$.(;!0!/+(&10(#1&!!!! 049!%#1+:9+'(+.40/!1&2+&CE!A&&9$0'D!A1.8!(;&!/+(&10'6!:(&&1+4=!(&08E!049!+4*#(!A1.8!04!&?*&1(!*04&/G! U&'.88&490(+.4:!A1.8!$.(;!1&:&01';!:(#9+&:!+49+'0(&9!0!8.2&!(.C019:!0!8.1&!'.8*1&;&4:+2&!! ! !! 0**1.0';!(.!09./&:'&4(!/+(&10'6!+4!T4(01+.!:';../:GDeveloping the guide! 34!JKRRE!(;&!/+(&10'6!:(&&1+4=!(&08!9&2&/.*&9!0!A108&C.1D!(.!=#+9&!(;&!C1+(+4=!.A!(;&!1&:.#1'&G! 34!:*1+4=!049!A0//!JKRRE!0!(&08!.A!C1+(&1:!049!1&2+&C&1:!9&2&/.*&9!(;&!'.4(&4(:!.A!(;&!=#+9&GGathering feedback from focus groups! 34!JKKV)JKRRE!A.'#:!=1.#*:!C+(;!1&*1&:&4(0(+.4!A1.8!201+.#:!:#$%&'(!0::.'+0(+.4:!049!A0'#/(+&:!.A!!! !! &9#'0(+.4!*1.2+9&9!A&&9$0'D!049!092+'&!.4!;.C!(;&!:#$%&'(!01&0:!806!:#**.1(!/+(&10'6!/&014+4=G! 34!W01';!049!>*1+/!JKRJE!A.'#:!=1.#*:!C+(;!1&*1&:&4(0(+.4!A1.8!$.019:!0'1.::!(;&!*1.2+4'&!*1.2+9&9!! !! A&&9$0'D!.4!(;&!'.4(&4(:!049!092+'&!.4!1&/&0:&E!9+:(1+$#(+.4E!049!*1.A&::+.40/!/&014+4=!A.1!&9#'0(.1:GConnecting with ministry branches for alignment and coherence of work! 7;1.#=;.#(!(;&!*1.'&::E!1&*1&:&4(0(+2&:!A1.8!201+.#:!8+4+:(16!$104';&:!;02&!'.4(1+$#(&9!(.!(;&!! 092+:.16!*04&/!049!*1.2+9&9!+4*#(!+4(.!(;&!9&2&/.*8&4(!.A!(;+:!=#+9&GListening to the voices of students! 34!C+4(&1!049!:*1+4=!JKRR)JKRJE!:(#9&4(:!+4!=109&:!Q)RJ!A1.8!201+.#:!:';../:!+4!(;&!*1.2+4'&!'.4(1+$#(&9!!!! (;&+1!2.+'&:!(.!(;&!1&:.#1'&E!9&:'1+$+4=!(;&+1!.$:&120(+.4:!049!+9&0:!0$.#(!/+(&10'6!+4!049!.#(:+9&!.A!:';../G4


The adolescentKey to this guide is keeping the student at the centre. Adolescents bring to the classroom a wide range of/&014+4=!:(1&4=(;:E!4&&9:E!+4(&1&:(:E!/+A&!&?*&1+&4'&:E!'#/(#1&:E!/04=#0=&:!049!20/#&:E!C;+';!+4X#&4'&!;.C!(;&6!/&014G!7;1.#=;.#(!(;&+1!09./&:'&4(!6&01:E!:(#9&4(:!&?*&1+&4'&!:+=4+,'04(!';04=&:!)!*;6:+'0//6E!+4(&//&'(#0//6E!&8.(+.40//6E!049!:.'+0//6G!7.!&4=0=&!&0';!:(#9&4(!0:!0!/&014&1E!&9#'0(.1:!8#:(!0A,18!(;&!*&1:.40/!049!'#/(#10/!identity of each student.In the adolescent years, it becomes increasinglyimportant to consider:! (;&!/&014&1P:!9&2&/.*8&4(E!+4'/#9+4=!(;&!4&&9!!! A.1!0#(.4.86!049!:&/A)&A,'0'6the connection between literacy learning! 049!(;&!&4=0=&8&4(!049!8.(+20(+.4!.A!! !adolescentsthe increasing complexity of literacy demands! +4!0!201+&(6!.A!:#$%&'(!9+:'+*/+4&:the broad range of literacy skills of students ingrades 7-12 classrooms! (;&!+4X#&4'&!.A!:(#9&4(:P!.#().A):';../!literacy practices! (;&!09./&:'&4(P:!4&&9!A.1!:.'+0/!+4(&10'(+.4!! :#**.1(&9!+4!0!'01+4=E!1&:*.4:+2&E!049!! *.:+(+2&!'/0::1..8!&42+1.48&4(G5


Practice and ResearchConnections: Adolescent LiteracyAdolescent DevelopmentAdolescence is a period of rapid change. Physical change+:!(;&!8.:(!.$2+.#:E!$#(!09./&:'&4(:!01&!0/:.!';04=+4=!'.=4+(+2&/6E!&8.(+.40//6!049!:.'+0//6GThey also deal with shifts in their identity as they8.2&!+4(.!4&C!1./&:!049!1&:*.4:+$+/+(+&:!+4!(;&+1!social groups, interests, and communities. It is also0!9&2&/.*8&4(0/!*&1+.9!801D&9!$6!0!4#8$&1!.A!+8*.1(04(!(104:+(+.4:!049!8+/&:(.4&:!H&G=GE!1&/0(&9!(.!:';../E!C.1DE!'#/(#10/!.1!1&/+=+.#:!:+=4+,'04'&MG>(!(;&!:08&!(+8&E!:(#9&4(:!01&!/+2+4=!C+(;!0!4#8$&1!.A!(&';4./.=+'0/!+44.20(+.4:!*1&2+.#:!=&4&10(+.4:!4&2&1!experienced. Adolescents may:! $&!0''#:(.8&9!(.!1&'&+2+4=!+4A.180(+.4!5#+'D/6prefer multi-taskingprefer non-linear access to informationengage in games, simulations, and role-playing! &4=0=&!+4!:.'+0/!+4(&10'(+.4:!(;1.#=;!0!201+&(6!.A!! ! !! (&';4./.=+&:!H70*:'.((E!JKKLMGWhat teachers need to knowabout literacy and teens is“that we are a generation oflow patience and we need tolike something to put effortinto it.”Elaine S., Grade 12B.1!09./&:'&4(:E!+(!+:!0!(+8&!(;0(!806!:&&8!0//!0(!.4'&!&?;+/010(+4=!049!:(1&::A#/E!C;+/&!:+8#/(04&.#:/6!A.1!(;&!09#/(:!+4!(;&+1!/+2&:E!0!*#FF/+4=!049!;.*&A#/!(+8&G!I.C&2&1E!C;&4!/&014+4=!+:!1&:*.4:+2&!(.!(;&!9&2&/.*8&4(0/!4&&9:!.A!:(#9&4(:E!049!(0D&:!(;&+1!/+2&:!into account, adolescent learners are more likely to experience:#''&::G!>:!C+(;!046!:(0=&!.A!9&2&/.*8&4(E!&9#'0(.1:!*/06!0!D&6!1./&!+4!*1.2+9+4=!/&014+4=!&?*&1+&4'&:!C+(;!(;&!/&014&1:P!9&2&/.*8&4(!+4!8+49G6


Physical Development7;&!*;6:+'0/!';04=&:!.A!*#$&1(6!0AA&'(!&2&16!0:*&'(!.A!(;&!/+2&:!.A!09./&:'&4(:G!-;04=+4=!bodies may lead to changes in circles of friends,*01(+'+*0(+.4!+4!0'(+2+(+&:!:#';!0:!:*.1(:E!09#/(:P!2+&C!.A!09./&:'&4(:E!049!09./&:'&4(:P!2+&C:!.A!(;&8:&/2&:G!During adolescence, students are experiencing:! 10*+9!=1.C(;!1&:#/(+4=!+4!1&/0(+2&/6!:+=4+,'04(!!increases in both weight and height! 9&2&/.*8&4(!.A!*1+8016!049!:&'.49016!sex characteristicschanges in body composition, notably the! 5#04(+(6!049!9+:(1+$#(+.4!.A!8#:'/&!049!body fat! ';04=&:!+4!'019+.20:'#/01!049!8#:'#/01!!! &49#104'&E!:(1&4=(;!049!X&?+$+/+(6!! !! H"(&+4$&1=E!JKKLMG“Recent research suggests that the cerebellum[which is largely responsible for physical8.2&8&4(!049!'..19+40(+.4[!0/:.!'..19+40(&:!'.=4+(+2&!(;.#=;(!*1.'&::&:!049!(;0(!(;&!8.1&!physical exercise adolescents get, the bettertheir brains will process information... Academic'/0::1..8:!:;.#/9!0/:.!+4'/#9&!8.2&8&4(!(.!0'(+20(&!/&014+4=G\Sprenger, 2005]U&8&8$&1!(;0(!(&&4:!01&!4.(!09#/(:G!I02+4=!:'+&4(+,'!&2+9&4'&!(.!:#**.1(!(;&!2+&C!(;0(!teens are not adults can be helpful to educatorsworking with families, adolescents and other*1.A&::+.40/:!C;.!806!;02&!#41&0/+:(+'!expectations for adolescents.”Price, 2005Development may lead*#+/$.#*)#-888Teachers tap into/$0$1-,;$.#&1).$$/*)>(888Literacy LinksY!!$&!&4=0=&9!+4!/&::!*;6:+'0/!!!!!!!0'(+2+(6!Y!!&?*&1+&4'&!04!+4'1&0:&!+4!!!!:(1&4=(;E!&4&1=6!/&2&/:E!!!stamina and sexual maturationat different times and ratesY!!A&&/!A0(+=#&9!0(!201+.#:!(+8&:!during the dayY!!;02&!+4'1&0:&9!0**&(+(&!049!!!shift in their eating habitsY!!0!';04=&!+4!(;&+1!:&4:&!.A!!!!!!body imageY!!*1.2+9+4=!.**.1(#4+(+&:!A.1!!!!*;6:+'0/!0'(+2+(6!049!:.'+0/!interactionY!!'1&0(+4=!0!:0A&!049!*.:+(+2&!social and emotional climatefor learningY!!'1&0(+4=!0!/&014+4=!!!!&42+1.48&4(!(;0(!0//.C:!!!!:(#9&4(:!(.!8.2&!!!!H&G=GE!A.#1!'.14&1:E!20/#&!/+4&ME!and be kinestheticY!!'.44&'(+4=!$.96!representations to ideas!!!H&G=GE!(0$/&0#M!!Y!!-1+(+'0/!O+(&10'6S!*1.8*(!!!!:(#9&4(:!(.!5#&:(+.4E!!!!';0//&4=&!049!040/6F&!!!media images of youthY!!W&(0'.=4+(+.4S!;02&!!!!:(#9&4(:!1&X&'(!.4!(;&+1!!!!/&014+4=!+4!0!201+&(6!.A!learning settingsY!!Z.+'&!049!39&4(+(6S!+42+(&!student input on the set-up!!!.A!(;&+1!/&014+4=!&42+1.48&4(7


cognitive DevelopmentAdolescents are experiencing a brain growth spurt. This in part, explains a4#8$&1!.A!';04=&:!+4!/&014&1:!'.=4+(+2&/6G!>9./&:'&4(:!9&2&/.*!+4(&//&'(#0//6!:.!(;0(!(;&6!'04!(;+4D!+4!C06:!(;0(!01&!8.1&!09204'&9!049!8.1&!&A,'+&4(!(;04!C;&4!(;&6!C&1&!';+/91&4!H"(&+4$&1=E!JKKLMG!>9./&:'&4(:P!+4(&//&'(#0/!049!'.=4+(+2&!0$+/+(+&:!01&!9&2&/.*&9!(;1.#=;!*10'(+'&E!:.!+4:(1#'(+.4!(01=&(+4=!these skills is critical during this period of brain growth._#1+4=!09./&:'&4'&E!:(#9&4(:!01&!9&2&/.*+4=S! (;&!0$+/+(6!(.!(;+4D!8.1&!0$.#(!0!201+&(6!.A!*.::+$+/+(+&:! +8*1.2&9!0$:(10'(!(;+4D+4=!'.8*01&9!(.!(;&+1!(;+4D+4=!0:!';+/91&4! (;&!:D+//:!(.!(;+4D!8.1&!0$.#(!(;+4D+4=!H8&(0'.=4+(+.4ME!049!(;+4D!8.1&!! *#1*.:&A#//6!(.!09204'&!(;&+1!/&014+4=the capacities to engage in thinking that is more multidimensional, rather! (;04!/+8+(&9!(.!0!:+4=/&!+::#&!.1!*&1:*&'(+2&! (;&!0$+/+(6!(.!:&&!+::#&:!049!:+(#0(+.4:!0:!1&/0(+2&E!10(;&1!(;04!0$:./#(&E!! 049!(;&!1&0/+F0(+.4!(;0(!+49+2+9#0/:!'04!910C!9+AA&1&4(!'.4'/#:+.4:!A1.8!! (;&!:08&!A0'(:!H"(&+4$&1=E!JKKLMG“Adolescents are able to1&X&'(!.4!(;&+1!.C4!(;+4D+4=E!049!(;&6!01&!0$/&!(.!.$:&12&!;.C!(;&6!/&014!049!9&2&/.*!:(10(&=+&:!(.!+8*1.2&!(;&+1!learning.”Stepping Stones, 2012“Controlling impulses,planning, and makingdecisions are crucial'.8*.4&4(:!.A!.#1!&2&16906!$&;02+.#1G!7;&6!*1.2+9&!(;&!skills that we need to functionin a complex world... theneurological structures that#49&1/+&!(;&:&!;+=;&1)/&2&/!abilities are still maturingduring adolescence.”Elvevag, Giedd& Weinberger, 2005Development may lead*#+/$.#*)#-888Teachers tap into/$0$1-,;$.#&1).$$/*)>(888Literacy Links8Y!!C04(!(.!,49!.1!:&&!!!!1&/&204'&!+4!(;&+1!/&014+4=Y!!C04(!(.!*/06!0!1./&!+4!designing their own learningexperiencesY!!9&2&/.*!04!+4'1&0:&9!0$+/+(6!(.!process and make connectionsY!!C04(!(.!&?*/.1&!'1&0(+2&!!!!&?*1&::+.4!+4!0!:#**.1(+2&!!!!&42+1.48&4(Y!!5#&:(+.4!049!&?;+$+(!'#1+.:+(6Y!!$&!+88&1:&9!+4!(;&!*1&:&4(!rather than planning for thefuture or thinking thoroughly!!!0$.#(!'.4:&5#&4'&:Y!!9&2&/.*!(;&!0$+/+(6!(.!$&!8.1&!!!!&A,'+&4(!0(!:.1(+4=!.#(!!!!+11&/&204(!+4A.180(+.4!+4!.19&1!to focus on an idea or taskY!!'.)'1&0(+4=!/&014+4=!=.0/:!049!:#''&::!'1+(&1+0!049!!!!!!+42+(+4=!:(#9&4(!+4*#(!+4(.!9&'+:+.4:!1&/0(&9!(.!(;&+1!!!!/&014+4=!&42+1.48&4(Y!!#:+4=!+45#+16!.1!*1.%&'()$0:&9!*1.'&::&:!(;0(!!!!+4(&=10(&E!:64(;&:+F&!049!0**/6!'.4(&4(!D4.C/&9=&Y!!*1.2+9+4=!.**.1(#4+(+&:!A.1!'1&0(+2+(6E!';.+'&!Y!!0//.C+4=!:(#9&4(:!(.!=&4&10(&!0/(&140(+2&!:./#(+.4:!and explanationsY!!*1.2+9+4=!.**.1(#4+(+&:!A.1!:(#9&4(:!(.!.1=04+F&!abstract ideasY!!8.9&/+4=!049!=#+9+4=!(104:A&10$/&!:(10(&=+&:!and skillsY!!=#+9+4=!:(#9&4(:!(.!910C!1&0:.4&9!'.4'/#:+.4:!based on criteriaY!!*1.2+9+4=!.**.1(#4+(+&:!A.1!:(#9&4(:!(.!040/6F&!0!!!!201+&(6!.A!*&1:*&'(+2&:!049!'.8*&(+4=!*.+4(:!.A!2+&CY!!A.:(&1+4=!8&(0'.=4+(+2&!0C01&4&::!049!1&X&'(+.4Y!!*1.2+9+4=!.**.1(#4+(+&:!(.!0**/6!(;+4D+4=!:D+//:!(.!!!!:./2&!1&0/!C.1/9!*1.$/&8:Y!!A0'+/+(0(+4=!(;&!#:&!.A!].#().A):';../!/+(&10'6!practices” including technologies to support anddocument their learningY!!-1+(+'0/!O+(&10'6S!!!!+42+(&!:(#9&4(:!(.!!!!040/6F&!+::#&:!!!!1&/0(&9!(.!&5#+(6E!power and social!!!%#:(+'&!049!+42+(&!them to take acritical stanceY!!W&(0'.=4+(+.4S!!!!9&2&/.*!.**.1(#4+(+&:!!!!A.1!1&X&'(+.4E!and to act on their!!!8&(0'.=4+(+2&!(;+4D+4=!Y!!^#&:(+.4+4=S!*1.2+9&!opportunities for!!!:(#9&4(:!(.!9&2&/.*!and pose their own!!!5#&:(+.4:Y!!"(10(&=6S!=#+9&!!!!:(#9&4(:!(.!9&2&/.*!their own strategyas they engage inappropriate complextasks


Emotional Development>9./&:'&4(!&8.(+.40/!9&2&/.*8&4(!+:!'/.:&/6!'.44&'(&9!(.!(;&+1!:.'+0/!9&2&/.*8&4(!049!+:!0/:.!(+&9!(.!(;&+1!:&4:&!.A!+9&4(+(6GAdolescents often feel emotions more intensely. Recent brain researchindicates that the limbic system, the emotional centre of the brain, maturesearlier than the frontal lobes, the part responsible for emotion control. So,09./&:'&4(:!01&!8.1&!/+D&/6!(.!;02&!:(1.4=!&8.(+.40/!1&:*.4:&:!(.!:+(#0(+.4:!and issues, and may respond in ways which are considered outside the normH&G=GE!$&+4=!.2&1/6!91080(+'MG!7;&6!806!0/:.!A.'#:!.4!*&1:.40/!0:*&'(:!.A!(;&!&8.(+.4!H&G=GE!86!(&0';&1!;0(&:!8&MG!]`;+/&!09./&:'&4(:!;02&!$&'.8&!8.1&!capable of experiencing emotions, their capacity for self-regulation and fordecision making lags behind. Learning to regulate their emotions is, therefore,+4+(+0//6!5#+(&!9+A,'#/(!A.1!09./&:'&4(:\!H"(&**+4=!"(.4&:E!JKRJMG!_#1+4=!09./&:'&4'&E!:(#9&4(:!01&!9&2&/.*+4=Sabilities to accurately read facial cues and body language of others,! 049!+4(&1*1&(!(;&:&!A.1!+4A.180(+.4!0$.#(!.(;&1:P!&8.(+.40/!:(0(&a! &8.(+.40/!:&/A!'.4(1./a! &8*0(;6!A.1!.(;&1:a“Empathy during09./&:'&4'&!+42./2&:!a largely emotionalresponse, while matureempathy that emergesin early adulthood+42./2&:!0!8.1&!'.=4+(+2&!&20/#0(+.4!.A!.(;&1!*&1:.4P:!&8.(+.40/!response.”Stepping Stones, 2012.“The brain is biologicallyprogrammed to attendto information that has astrong emotional content.It is also programmedto remember thisinformation longer.”Wolfe, 2005! 80(#1&!&8.(+.40/!1&:*.4:&:!Hb#1=&/#4)7.99E!JKKcE!"(&**+4=!"(.4&:E!JKRJMGDevelopment may lead*#+/$.#*)#-888Teachers tap into/$0$1-,;$.#&1).$$/*)>(888Literacy LinksY!!&?*&1+&4'&!4&CE!+4(&4:&!and long lasting emotionsY!!4&&9!+49&*&49&4'&!049!(.!!exercise self-assertionY!!A&01!1&%&'(+.4E!049!experience feelings of!!!#4'&1(0+4(6!049!+409&5#0'6Y!!$&'.8&!8.1&!+4(1+4:+'0//6!!!!8.(+20(&9!049!+4'1&0:+4=/6!want to pursueopportunities and goals forthe own purposes and ontheir own termsY!!(&0';+4=!:(#9&4(:!;.C!(.!C.1D!&AA&'(+2&/6!!!!!049!1&:*&'(A#//6!+4!9+2&1:&!(&08:Y!!8.9&/+4=!049!(&0';+4=!*.:+(+2&!!!!'.88#4+'0(+.4!:(10(&=+&:E!'.4X+'()resolution, decision-making,!!!*1.$/&8):./2+4=E!/&09&1:;+*Y!!'.)'1&0(+4=!4.18:!.A!'.//0$.10(+.4and classroom conductY!!&:(0$/+:;+4=!049!80+4(0+4+4=!'/&01!classroom routines and structuresY!!*1.2+9+4=!/&014+4=!&?*&1+&4'&:!C;+';!!!!+42./2&!:(#9&4(:P!:.'+0/!4&(C.1DY!!=#+9+4=!:(#9&4(:!0:!(;&6!9&0/!C+(;!:(1&::Y!!*1.2+9+4=!.**.1(#4+(+&:!A.1!:(#9&4(:!!!!(.!040/6F&!0!201+&(6!.A!*&1:*&'(+2&:Y!!-1+(+'0/!O+(&10'6S!!!!*1.2+9&!.**.1(#4+(+&:!!!!A.1!:(#9&4(:!(.!040/6F&!!!!0!201+&(6!.A!!!!*&1:*&'(+2&:E!049!to imagine particular!!!*&1:*&'(+2&:Y!!W&(0'.=4+(+.4S!+42+(&!!!!:(#9&4(:!(.!1&X&'(!.4!how their attitudestoward particularsituations affect theirlearningY!!W&(0'.=4+(+.4S!;&/*!!!!:(#9&4(:!9&2&/.*!0!“growth mindset” to helpthem to see mistakes asopportunities for learning9


Social development>9./&:'&4(!:.'+0/!9&2&/.*8&4(!+:!'.44&'(&9!(.!0//!01&0:!.A!9&2&/.*8&4(E!*01(+'#/01/6!&8.(+.40/!9&2&/.*8&4(!049!+(!+:!0/:.!/+4D&9!closely to identity. How students appear in the eyes of their peers80((&1:!0!=1&0(!9&0/G!]-.4:&5#&4(/6E!09./&:'&4'&!+:!04!+4(&4:&/6!social time, when the hunger for belonging, community, social status,049!&8.(+.40/!'/.:&4&::!*1.2+9&!(;&!'.4(&?(!C+(;+4!C;+';!(&&4:!9+:'.2&1!(;&+1!+9&4(+(6\!H>18:(1.4=E!JKKfMG_#1+4=!09./&:'&4'&E!:(#9&4(:!01&!9&2&/.*+4=Sa personal identity and sense of selfa social identitya sense of independence and autonomymoral reasoning based on both personal and external factorsstrong relationships which are independent of family! 1&/0(+.4:;+*:!H>18:(1.4=E!JKKfMG“As it turns out, graduating fromg;+=;!:';../[!+:!4.(!.4&!.A!(;&!'&4(10/!9&2&/.*8&4(0/!(0:D:!.A!young adulthood... the key issue.A!6.#4=!09#/(;..9!+:!(;&!5#&:(!A.1!+4(+80'6!HA0+/+4=!C;+';!(;&!+49+2+9#0/!A&&/:!+:./0(&9MG\Armstrong, 2006“Teachers help their students to9&2&/.*!0!:&4:&!.A!'.8*&(&4'&!and self-worth when they are0$/&!(.!'.42+4'&!(;&+1!:(#9&4(:!that they care about them as+49+2+9#0/:!049!C04(!(;&8!(.!learn.”Dillon cited in ThinkLiteracy Success, 2003Development may lead*#+/$.#*)#-888Teachers tap into/$0$1-,;$.#&1).$$/*)>(888Literacy LinksY!!:&&D!0#(.4.86!Y!!20/#&!(;&+1!8&8$&1:;+*!+4!'&1(0+4!!!!:.'+0/!=1.#*:!.2&1!.(;&1!=1.#*:Y!!d(&:(!.#(P!+9&4(+(+&:!049!+9&4(+(6!1./&:Y!!9&0/!C+(;!(;&!+4X#&4'&!.A!*&&1:!049!the desire for peer acceptanceY!!$&!:&/A)'.4:'+.#:!8.2+4=!(.C019!!!!'.4,9&4'&!+4!0!C+9&1!201+&(6!.A!social relationshipsY!!:&&D!1./&!8.9&/:!Y!!=10**/&!C+(;!08$+20/&4(!A&&/+4=:!.A!independence from anddependence on parents/guardiansY!!A0'&!0!C+9&1!104=&!.A!9&'+:+.4:!(;0(!!!!806!;02&!/.4=)(&18!.#('.8&:Y!!$&!/&::!'&1(0+4!.A!(;&+1!0$+/+(+&:!!!!049!/0'D!:&/A!'.4,9&4'&!+4!:.8&!!!!:+(#0(+.4:!H#4(+/!/0(&1!+4!09./&:'&4'&MY!!*1.2+9+4=!.**.1(#4+(+&:!A.1!:(#9&4(:!(.!interact with each other to attain personal!!!049!'.//0$.10(+2&!=.0/:!Y!!=1.#*+4=!049!1&=1.#*+4=!:(#9&4(:!A.1!0!!!!201+&(6!.A!*#1*.:&:!(.!$#+/9!'.4,9&4'&!!!!049!'.8*&(&4'&!+4!201+.#:!:.'+0/!arrangementsY!!'.0';+4=!:(#9&4(:!+4!(0D+4=!1&:*.4:+$+/+(6E!and guiding their self-regulation andself-managementY!!8.9&/+4=!049!*1.2+9+4=!.**.1(#4+(+&:!A.1!decision-making, goal-setting, progresstracking, self and peer assessmentY!!*1.2+9+4=!049!1&:*.49+4=!(.!9&:'1+*(+2&!feedbackY!!(0**+4=!+4(.!(;&+1!+4(&1&:(:E!$0'D=1.#49E!!!!049!20/#&:Y!!W&(0'.=4+(+.4S!;02&!students track, ona regular basis, theirprogress toward a goalY!!"(10(&=6S!(&0';!!!!*1.9#'(+2&!'.//0$.10(+.4E!!!!0'(+2&!/+:(&4+4=!049!speaking skillsY!!Z.+'&!e!39&4(+(6S!*1.2+9&!meaningful opportunitiesfor students to drawon learning preferences,interests and backgrounds10


Learning Environment@9#'0(.1:!01&!D&6!(.!*1.2+9+4=!(;&!&42+1.48&4(!049!/&014+4=!&?*&1+&4'&:!C;+';!;&/*!09./&:'&4(:!+4!H.1!C+(;M!(;&+1!9&2&/.*8&4(G!>9./&:'&4(:!;02&!0!4#8$&1!.A!4&&9:!(;0(!:#**.1(!(;&+1!9&2&/.*8&4(G!These include:) @


a vision of literacy for the adolescent learner>//!:(#9&4(:!01&!&5#+**&9!C+(;!(;&!/+(&10'6!:D+//:!(.!$&!'1+(+'0/!049!'1&0(+2&!(;+4D&1:E!&AA&'(+2&!8&04+4=!80D&1:!049!'.88#4+'0(.1:E!'.//0$.10(+2&!'.)/&014&1:E!049!+44.20(+2&!*1.$/&8!:./2&1:!+4!.19&1!(.!0';+&2&!*&1:.40/E!career and societal goals.>//!:(#9&4(:E!+49+2+9#0//6!049!C+(;!.(;&1:E!9&2&/.*!0$+/+(+&:!(.THINK! ! 0''&::E!8040=&E!'1&0(&!049!&20/#0(&!+4A.180(+.4!+4!.19&1!(.!(;+4D!+80=+40(+2&/6!049!'1+(+'0//6! ! (.!:./2&!*1.$/&8:!049!80D&!9&'+:+.4:E!+4'/#9+4=!(;.:&!1&/0(&9!(.!+::#&:!.A!A0+14&::E!&5#+(6!and social justiceEXPRESS! ! #:&!/04=#0=&!049!+80=&:!+4!1+';!049!201+&9!A.18:!(.!1&09E!C1+(&E!/+:(&4E!:*&0DE!2+&CE!1&*1&:&4(E!!!discuss and think critically about ideasREFLECT! ! 0**/6!8&(0'.=4+(+2&!D4.C/&9=&!049!:D+//:E!9&2&/.*!:&/A)092.'0'6E!0!:&4:&!.A!:&/A)&A,'0'6!and interest in life-long learningthinkmetacognitione x p r e s svoice &identitystrategyAdolescentLEARNERquestioningcriticalliteracyr e f l e c t12


Components of adolescent literacy@8$&99&9!+4!(;&!0$+/+(+&:!(.!(;+4DE!&?*1&::E!049!1&X&'(!+:!0!104=&!.A!+49+'0(.1:!C;+';!A.18!&2+9&4'&!.A!:(#9&4(!/&014+4=!049!0!$0:+:!A.1!0!'.8*1&;&4:+2&!0**1.0';!(.!/+(&10'6G!7;&:&!/+(&10'6!+49+'0(.1:!01&!.1=04+F&9!01.#49!,2&!'.8*.4&4(:S!CRITICAL LITERACY!1&A&1:!(.!:(#9&4(:!'1+(+'0//6!040/6F+4=!049!&20/#0(+4=!(;&!8&04+4=!.A!(&?(!0:!+(!! !! 1&/0(&:!(.!+::#&:!.A!&5#+(6E!*.C&1E!049!:.'+0/!%#:(+'&!(.!+4A.18!0!'1+(+'0/!:(04'&E!1&:*.4:&!049h.1!0'(+.4GMETACOGNITION 1&A&1:!(.!:(#9&4(:!(0D+4=!0'(+2&!'.4(1./!.2&1!(;&+1!(;+4D+4=!*1.'&::&:!:.!(;0(!(;&6!! !! #49&1:(049!(;&8:&/2&:!0:!/&014&1:E!(;&6!#49&1:(049!0!=+2&4!(0:DE!049!(;&6!#49&1:(049!0!201+&(6!.A!! !! :(10(&=+&:!049!;.C!(.!#:&!(;&8!+4!0!201+&(6!.A!:+(#0(+.4:GQUESTIONING!1&A&1:!(.!:(#9&4(:P!'#1+.:+(6E!&?*/.10(+.4E!049!+45#+16!(.!&2.D&E!&?*.:&!049!&?(&49!their thinking for the purpose of deepening understanding.STRATEGY!1&A&1:!(.!:(#9&4(:!*#1*.:&A#//6!:&/&'(+4=!049!#:+4=!(&';4+5#&:!049!*1.'&::&:!+4!.19&1!to construct and communicate meaning.VOICE AND IDENTITY!1&A&1:!(.!:(#9&4(:P!9&'+:+.4:E!';.+'&:!049!0'(+.4:!(;0(!092.'0(&!A.1!(;&+1!! !! /&014+4=!049!80D&!'.44&'(+.4:!(.!(;&+1!&?*&1+&4'&E!20/#&:E!'#/(#1&E!049!+4(&1&:(:GTHE components>/(;.#=;!(;&!'.8*.4&4(:!01&!9&,4&9!:&*010(&/6E!049!01&!0''.8*04+&9!$6!0!/+:(!.A!+49+'0(.1:E!+(!+:!1&'.=4+F&9!(;0(!(;&!'.8*.4&4(:!01&!+4(&1'.44&'(&9!H%#:(!0:!7;+4DE!@?*1&::!049!U&X&'(!01&!+4(&1'.44&'(&9MG!B.1!&?08*/&E!C;&4!:(#9&4(:!#:&!8&(0'.=4+(+.4E!(;&6!01&!/+D&/6!0/:.!(0**+4=!+4(.!5#&:(+.4+4=!$6!0:D+4=!(;&8:&/2&:!5#&:(+.4:!about their learning, and may also be connecting with strategy by thinking about their success in using a*01(+'#/01!*1.'&::!.1!(&';4+5#>he graphic is intended to show how literacy is about thinking,$6,%$**".3)&./)%$7$'#".38)B#)"11+*#%&#$*)2-:)*#+/$.#*)/%&:)upon the interconnected components of critical literacy,metacognition, questioning, strategy, along with voice and"/$.#"#()&*)#2$()#2".45)$6,%$**5)&./)%$7$'#8e x p r e s svoice &identitystrategythinkmetacognitionAdolescentLEARNERquestioningcriticalliteracyr e f l e c t>/(;.#=;!(;&!'.8*.4&4(:!.2&1/0*E!(&0';&1:!806!C04(!(.!;+=;/+=;(!0!'.8*.4&4(!$6!*1.2+9+4=!&?*/+'+(!+4:(1#'(+.4!0:!:(#9&4(:!9&2&/.*!(;&:&!:D+//:G!>:!:(#9&4(:!$&'.8&!8.1&!*1.,'+&4(!049!+49&*&49&4(!C+(;!these components, it is also important to showthem how they are interconnected.13


THE components@0';!'.8*.4&4(!+4'/#9&:!0!9&,4+(+.4G!@0';!9&,4+(+.4!*.+4(:!.#(!(;&!D4.C/&9=&!049!:D+//:!:(#9&4(:!9&2&/.*!and use in their literacy learning.Student indicatorsEach component lists a set of indicators or&2+9&4'&!.A!/+(&10'6!/&014+4=!A.1!:(#9&4(:G!34!&::&4'&E!(;&6!*1.2+9&!:*&'+,'!D4.C/&9=&!049!skills students would demonstrate relatingto the component and would help to deepenunderstanding in subject areas.7;+:!/+:(!+:!4.(!8&04(!(.!$&!&?;0#:(+2&G!@9#'0(.1:E!on their own or in collaboration with colleagues,806!'.4(&?(#0/+F&!(;&:&!A.1!0!:#$%&'(!01&0GThere are links between these indicators andcurriculum expectations in all subject areas. Thisconnection may help when looking to incorporatethem into learning goals. Teachers can supportstudents in understanding these indicators byhelping students know how they connect to thelearning in a course and how they support theirliteracy growth.Teacher practices7&0';&1:!:#**.1(!(;&!9&2&/.*8&4(!.A!(;&!literacy indicators through explicit instruction.B.1!&0';!.A!(;&!'.8*.4&4(:E!0!/+:(!.A!(&0';&1!*10'(+'&:!+:!*1.2+9&9!0:!C06:!(.!:#**.1(!:(#9&4(:!+4!9&2&/.*+4=!(;&+1!/+(&10'6G!This is a sampling of practices. Teachers, ontheir own or in collaboration with colleagues,may use this list to assess their own instruction,090*(!(;&!*10'(+'&:!(.!80D&!(;&8!8.1&!:*&'+,'!for their subject area, and/or add other practiceswhich also support student literacy learning.14


Guiding questionsB.1!&0';!'.8*.4&4(E!(;&1&!+:!0!:&(!.A!=#+9+4=!5#&:(+.4:!C;+';!A0'+/+(0(.1:!806!#:&!.1!090*(!(.!*1.8*(!*1.A&::+.40/!9+0/.=#&!.1!A.1!(&0';&1:!(.!1&X&'(!.4!*10'(+'&!1&/0(&9!(.!/+(&10'6!/&014+4=GPractice and RESEARCH ConnectionThis guide also contains a set of Practice and Research Connections information articles that are+4(&49&9!(.!*1.2+9&!8.1&!+4)9&*(;!$0'D=1.#49E!'.44&'(+4=!1&:&01';!(.!*10'(+'&!A.1!201+.#:!(.*+':!related to adolescent literacy. There is a Practice and Research Connections article for each of thecomponents and one on the adolescent learner.a note about texts34!(;+:!9.'#8&4(E!(;&!(&18!(&?(!+:!+4(&49&9!(.!$&!#:&9!+4!$1.09!(&18:a!(;0(!+:E!(&?(!1&A&1:!(.!046!A.18!.A!communication that uses language and images to present information and ideas to an audience. This+4'/#9&:!*1+4(!049!4.4)*1+4(!8&9+0E!2&1$0/!049!4.4)2&1$0/!'.88#4+'0(+.4E!2+:#0/E!=10*;+'E!0#9+.!049!digital works.15


Critical Literacy refers to students critically040/6F+4=!049!&20/#0(+4=!(;&!8&04+4=!.A!(&?(!0:!+(!1&/0(&:!(.!+::#&:!.A!&5#+(6E!*.C&1E!049!social justice to inform a critical stance,response and/or actionStudentsU&'.=4+F&!(;0(!(&?(:!01&!'1&0(&9!$6!0#(;.1:!C;.!;02&!'&1(0+4!*&1:*&'(+2&:!049!$+0:&:U&'.=4+F&!(;0(!*.+4(!.A!2+&C!+4X#&4'&:!;.C!0!text is interpreted and understood_&(&18+4&!C;.:&!2.+'&:!01&!*1&:&4(!049!C;.:&!2.+'&:!01&!8+::+4=!A1.8!(;&!(&?(@20/#0(&!:.#1'&:!A.1!$+0:E!1&/+0$+/+(6E!A0+14&::!049!20/+9+(6>40/6F&!;.C!/04=#0=&!+:!#:&9!(.!&?&1'+:&!*.C&1!049h.1!80+4(0+4!:(0(#:!5#.Take a stance and engage in a response or0'(+.4!+4!(;&!+4(&1&:(!.A!&5#+(6E!A0+14&::!049!social justicei:&!(&';4./.=6!(.!:&&D!9+2&1=&4(!*&1:*&'(+2&:E!+4(&10'(!C+(;!0#(;&4(+'!audiences, and express ideasTeachers@?*/+'+(/6!*.+4(!.#(!0::#8*(+.4:!049!20/#&:!embedded in a text and model appropriateresponses


]3!0/C06:!'.4:+9&1!(;+4=:!(;0(!3!(0D&!+4!C+(;!(;&!5#&:(+.4:!d`;.!C1.(&!(;+:j!`;.!*06:!(;&8j!>49!C;0(!C.#/9!;0**&4!+A!3!$&/+&2&!(;&8jP!3A!:.8&(;+4=!:&&8:!=1.::/6!+40''#10(&E!biased and/or hateful, I will reject it outright and share my2+&C:!0$.#(!+(!C+(;!.(;&1:!C;.!01&!:&&+4=!+(G\=#3(;&/(%:>?%@$)3(/$?%A+#3(%BB]"(#9&4(:!4&&9!/&014+4=!.**.1(#4+(+&:!(;0(!9&2&/.*!(;&+1!abilities to become competent consumers and users ofinformation. An approach focused on critical literacy isan approach in which students use their literacy skills(.!&?*/.1&E!9+:'#::E!049!+42&:(+=0(&!(;&!201+.#:!:.'+0/E!political, and historical content in the print and multimediatexts that surround them at school and in their world.”C=(%D(#3.%E/3%:*2F%G/$#+&*%H(#8"(+'%D(-*+$%*/%:*2%H*%I9-+*1(%J*6',%K&$(+#86%@L&;;'?%Ministry of Education, 2009)]7&0';+4=!'1+(+'0/!/+(&10'6!+:!4.!/.4=&1!04!d.*(+.4P!.1!:.8&(;+4=!(.!$&!d099&9!.4P!(.!0!/+(&10'6!*1.=108!k!+4!(;&!intermediate grades or any other grade for that matter.It is essential for students to become critical thinkers and*1.9#'&1:!.A!4&C!D4.C/&9=&!+A!(;&6!01&!(.!:&&!(;&8:&/2&:!as stakeholders in the future.”J**$"?%MNNO“Critically literate students understand that meaning is notfound in texts in isolation. People make sense of a text, or9&(&18+4&!C;0(!0!(&?(!8&04:E!+4!0!201+&(6!.A!C06:G!"(#9&4(:!(;&1&A.1&!4&&9!(.!$&!0C01&!.A!*.+4(:!.A!2+&C!H&G=GE!(;.:&!.A!*&.*/&!A1.8!201+.#:!'#/(#1&:ME!(;&!'.4(&?(!H&G=GE!(;&!$&/+&A:!and practices of the time and place in which a text was'1&0(&9ME!(;&!$0'D=1.#49!.A!(;&!*&1:.4!+4(&10'(+4=!C+(;!(;&!(&?(!H&G=GE!#*$1+4=+4=E!A1+&49:E!'.88#4+(+&:E!&9#'0(+.4E!&?*&1+&4'&:ME!+4(&1(&?(#0/+(6!H&G=GE!+4A.180(+.4!(;0(!0!2+&C&1!$1+4=:!(.!0!(&?(!A1.8!.(;&1!(&?(:!&?*&1+&4'&9!*1&2+.#:/6ME!=0*:!+4!(;&!(&?(!H&G=GE!+4A.180(+.4!(;0(!+:!/&A(!.#(!049!(;0(!(;&!1&09&1!.1!2+&C&1!8#:(!,//!+4ME!049!:+/&4'&:!+4!(;&!(&?(!H&G=GE!2.+'&:!.A!0!*&1:.4!.1!=1.#*!4.(!;&019MG\H"(%G/$#+&*%P)++&8);)9?%H"(%E+$'?%MNBN-1+(+'0/!/+(&10'6!]0//.C:!6.#!(.!4.(!$/+49/6!$&/+&2&!things without good reasons/sources.”D#8"(;%J>?%@$)3(/$?%A+#3(%QGuiding QuestionsWhat kinds of issues of equity,power and social justice arerelevant to the subject?What relevant texts are usedin the subject that could beanalyzed for bias, reliability,fairness, and validity?What types of actions and/orresponses are appropriate inthe subject?What opportunities allowstudents to use technology toseek and share perspectives?What skills do students needin order to be critical usersand creators of information?Critical literacy17


Practice and ResearchConnections: Adolescent LiteracyEngaging students in critical literacy`+(;!'1+(+'0/!/+(&10'6E!/&014&1:!01&!0'(+2&!*01(+'+*04(:!in understanding meaning and message. Critical/+(&10'6!+42+(&:!:(#9&4(:!(.!8.2&!$&6.49!*0::+2&/6!0''&*(+4=!(;&!(&?(P:!8&::0=&!(.!5#&:(+.4E!examine, or dispute the power relations that&?+:(!$&(C&&4!1&09&1:!049!0#(;.1:G!3(!8.2&:!/&014&1:!(.!1&X&'(+.4E!(104:A.180(+.4E!049!0'(+.4!HW'O0#=;/+4!e!_&Z..=9E!JKKcMGCritical literacy means...! 1&'.=4+F+4=!(;0(!(&?(:!'.4(0+4!'&1(0+4!! *&1:*&'(+2&:!049!$+0:&:! 1&'.=4+F+4=!(;0(!*.+4(!.A!2+&C!+4X#&4'&:!;.C!a text is interpreted and understood! 9&(&18+4+4=!C;.:&!2.+'&:!01&!*1&:&4(!.1!0$:&4(]T4'&!(;&6!$&'.8&!0C01&!.A!how texts manipulate them,adolescent students can becomecritical consumers and producersof text who challenge dominant8&04+4=:!049!1&0/+F&!(;0(!(;&1&!+:!more than one way to read textsand their world. This is hard work,but it is work that could lead to amore fair and just world.”Moje, Young, Readence& Moore, 2000! &20/#0(+4=!8#/(+*/&!*&1:*&'(+2&:!A.1!$+0:E!! 1&/+0$+/+(6E!A0+14&::!049!20/+9+(6! 040/6F+4=!;.C!/04=#0=&!+:!#:&9taking a stance and engage in a response in! (;&!+4(&1&:(!.A!&5#+(6E!A0+14&::!049!:.'+0/!%#:(+'&! #:+4=!(&';4./.=6!(.!:&&D!9+2&1=&4(!*&1:*&'(+2&:E!! !interact with authentic audiences, and express ideas18


Why teach it?As adolescents experience a barrage of ideas049!+4A.180(+.4!A1.8!0!201+&(6!.A!:.#1'&:E!including social media, online, and in print,'1+(+'0/!/+(&10'6!*1.2+9&:!(;&!(../:!(.!9&(&18+4&!how to engage in, interpret, use and act onthis information appropriately. H"(%G/$#+&*%Curriculum, The Arts document points out,“With the constant stream of information andthe changing realities of contemporary culture,technology and society, by being criticallyliterate, adolescents are able to determine whatinformation is reliable... They learn to use theinformation gathered to form a personal stance049!(.!(0D&!'1&0(+2&!1+:D:!049!$&'.8&!0'(+2&!participants in bringing about change”HW+4+:(16!.A!@9#'0(+.4E!JKRKMG!-1+(+'0/!/+(&10'6!*1.2+9&:!.**.1(#4+(+&:!(.!(0*!into the interests and needs of adolescentlearners. Critical literacy is a springboard forstudents to exercise their broadened awarenessof the world around them. They are drawn(.!.**.1(#4+(+&:!A.1!*&1:*&'(+2&)(0D+4=E!A.1!5#&:(+.4+4=!(;&!:(0(#:!5#.E!049!A.1!:&&D+4=!:./#(+.4:!(.!';0//&4=&:!1&/0(&9!(.!+4&5#+(6!049!:.'+0/!%#:(+'&!H"(&+4$&1=E!JKKLMG!34!099+(+.4E!09./&:'&4(:P!4&&9!A.1!0#(.4.86E!(.!$&!;&019E!(.!80D&!0!9+AA&1&4'&!049!(.!;02&!a sense of accomplishment can be addressed(;1.#=;!'1+(+'0/!/+(&10'6!H312+4E!W&/(F&1E!W+'D/&1E!


How to teach itWhen teaching for critical literacy, teachers areA0'+/+(0(.1:!049!0'(+20(.1:!.A!/&014+4=G!-1&0(+4=!(;&!'.49+(+.4:!A.1!(;&!D+49!.A!+45#+16!049!:(04'&)(0D+4=!4&'&::016!A.1!'1+(+'0/!/+(&10'6!H&G=GE!$6!&?*/+'+(/6!(&0';+4=!1&:*&'(A#/!+4(&10'(+.4:!049!4.18:M!0//.C:!:(#9&4(:!(.!$1+4=!(;&+1!201+.#:!*&1:*&'(+2&:E!20/#&:!049!2.+'&:!(.!9+:'#::+.4:G!B.:(&1+4=!04!.*&44&::!049!:&4:+(+2+(6!:#**.1(:!(&&4:!(.!';0//&4=&!049!5#&:(+.4!*1&2+.#:/6!;&/9!0::#8*(+.4:!049!$&/+&A:E!+4'/#9+4=!(;&+1!.C4G!7;+:!:0A&!&42+1.48&4(!0/:.!encourages students to act in ways that addressimbalances of power and that promote fairness,including in their own classroom.7&0';&1:!;&/*!:(#9&4(:!9&2&/.*!(;&+1!'1+(+'0/!/+(&10'6!skills by:! *1.2+9+4=!0''&::!(.!0!201+&(6!.A!(&?(:E!+4'/#9+4=!! !! &/&'(1.4+'E!*1+4(E!2+:#0/E!049!=10*;+'0/E!(.!040/6F&!!! 049!&20/#0(&!(;&+1!8&04+4=E!20/#&!049!! ! !! *&1:*&'(+2&:!HW'/0#=;/+4!e!_&Z..=9E!JKKcM8.9&/+4=!(;&!#:&!.A!'1+(+'0/!5#&:(+.4:!! HW'/0#=;/+4!e!_&Z..=9E!JKKcM! #:+4=!1&/&204(!(&?(:!049!(.*+':!(;0(!0//.C!! :(#9&4(:!(.!(0D&!.4!201+.#:!*.:+(+.4:!! H&G=GE!0((+(#9&:!(.C019!(&&4:E!=&49&1!! ! !! 1&*1&:&4(0(+.4:E!+::#&:!1&/0(&9!(.!*.C&1M7;&!B.#1!U&:.#1'&:!8.9&/!HO#D&!e!B1&&$.96E!RVVKE!RVVVM!*1.2+9&:!0!A108&C.1D!A.1!understanding texts more fully. It outlines the rolesof code user, meaning maker, text user, and text040/6F&1G!>/(;.#=;!'1+(+'0/!/+(&10'6!+:!8.:(!0/+=4&9!C+(;!(&?(!040/6F&1E!:(#9&4(:!#:&!(;&!.(;&1!1./&:!+4!.19&1!(.!+4A.18!(;&+1!'1+(+'0/!:(04'&G!B.1!&?08*/&E!when examining a website, students take the role.A!(&?(!040/6F&1!049!806!0:DE!]`;6!+:!(;+:!*01(+'#/01!*;.(.!+4'/#9&9!.4!(;&!C&$*0=&E!049!C;0(!2&1:+.4!.A!1&0/+(6!9.&:!+(!*1&:&4(j\!34!.19&1!(.!A#//6!0991&::!(;&!'1+(+'0/!/+(&10'6!5#&:(+.4E!students need to access the other roles: as a code#:&1!H&G=GE!What are the features and organization*0%#%2(5'&$(.%!"#$%&'%$"(%'&R(%#/3%-*'&$&*/%*0%$"(%-"*$*4+#-".ME!0:!0!8&04+4=!80D&1!H&G=GE!What9(''#4(%3*('%$"(%2(5'&$(%-+('(/$.%:*2%3*('%$"(%-"*$*4+#-"%9#L(%9(%0((;.ME!049!0:!0!(&?(!#:&1!H&G=GE!!"*%2*);3%)'(%$"&'%2(5'&$(.%!"6%2*);3%$"(6%)'(%&$.MG!7;&!1./&:!01&!4.(!+4(&49&9!(.!$&!:&5#&4(+0/!.1!9&2&/.*8&4(0/a!(;0(!+:E!(&0';&1:!:;.#/9!4.(!begin with code user in isolation and work toward(&?(!040/6F&1G!34!A0'(E!C;&4!:(#9&4(:!*01(+'+*0(&!0:!(&?(!040/6F&1:E!(;&6!01&!.A(&4!8.1&!0#(;&4(+'0//6!and purposefully engaged in the other areas ofunderstanding.! *1.2+9+4=!.**.1(#4+(+&:!A.1!*&1:*&'(+2&)(0D+4=E!! !such as through role-play and writer-in-role! H`+/;&/8E!JKKJM!! 8.9&/+4=!5#&:(+.4:!(.!&20/#0(&!&8$&99&9!! !! *&1:*&'(+2&:!+4!(&?(:!A.1!20/+9+(6E!1&/+0$+/+(6!! 049!'1&9+$+/+(6!HN#1D&E!JKKRMexploring opportunities for taking action and! *1.8.(+4=!:.'+0/!%#:(+'&!HB+:;&1!e!B1&6E!JKKLMGStudents need to “use critical literacy andnumeracy skills to think more deeply about the(&?(:!(;&6!1&09!H:+(#0(+.4:!049!*1.$/&8:M!049!(;&!(&?(:!(;&6!'1&0(&!H+4(&1*1&(0(+.4:!049!:./#(+.4:MG\!School Effectiveness Framework, 201120


Critical literacy in the classroom7&0';&1:!'04!&8*.C&1!:(#9&4(:!+4!$&'.8+4=!8.1&!'1+(+'0//6!0C01&!$6!*.:+4=!'1+(+'0/!/+(&10'6!5#&:(+.4:!about a text to prompt thinking related to issues of language and power.Questions Related to a Text!"*%8+(#$(3S-+*3)8(3%$"(%$(7$.%:*2%3*%I%L/*2.% !"#$%3*('%$"(%#)$"*+%2#/$%9(%$*%L/*2?%$"&/L%*+%0((;.%!"6%3*%I%$"&/L%$"&'.% !"#$%#'')9-$&*/'%3*('%$"(%#)$"*+%9#L(%#5*)$%96%5(;&(0'?%1#;)('%#/3%L/*2;(34(.%!"#$%$(;;'%9(%$"&'.% !"#$%1&(2%*0%$"(%2*+;3%3*('%$"(%$(7$%-+('(/$.%!"6%3*%I%$"&/L%$"&'.% :*2%3*('%;#/4)#4(%2*+L%$*%&/


Metacognition 1&A&1:!(.!:(#9&4(:!(0D+4=!0'(+2&!'.4(1./!.2&1!(;&+1!(;+4D+4=!*1.'&::&:!:.!(;0(!(;&6!#49&1:(049!(;&8:&/2&:!0:!/&014&1:E!(;&6!#49&1:(049!0!=+2&4!(0:DE!049!(;&6!#49&1:(049!0!201+&(6!.A!:(10(&=+&:!049!;.C!(.!#:&!(;&8!+4!0!201+&(6!.A!:+(#0(+.4:StudentsIdentify their own understandings in relationto learning goals and success criteriaUse established success criteria and9&:'1+*(+2&!A&&9$0'D!(.!8.4+(.1!/&014+4=!and plan next stepsAre aware of their own actions and beliefs049!1&'.=4+F&!;.C!(;&+1!0((+(#9&:E!;0$+(:!049!9+:*.:+(+.4:!+4X#&4'&!(;&!&?(&4(!.A!their learningIdentify, communicate and act on their/&014+4=!*1&A&1&4'&:!049!+49+2+9#0/!:(1&4=(;:!>::&::!/&014+4=!:+(#0(+.4:!049!9&2&/.*!*/04:!of action, and select strategies and resourcesaccordinglyU&X&'(!.4!(;&+1!/&014+4=!049!&4=0=&!+4!'.42&1:0(+.4:!(.!&?*/0+4E!5#&:(+.4!049!1&,4&!their thinking"&&D!'/01+,'0(+.4!049!:#**.1(!C;&4!$011+&1:!to learning are encounteredTeachersClarify learning goals and co-construct successcriteria


W&(0'.=4+(+.4!+:!]:&*010(+4=!C;0(!6.#!*1&2+.#:/6!D4&CE!C;0(!6.#!4.C!D4.CE!C;0(!6.#!:(+//!9.4P(!D4.CE!and making decisions based on that.”Sarah G., Student, Grade 10]o..9!*1.$/&8!:./2&1:!1&=#/01/6!049!'.4:'+.#:/6!1&X&'(!.4!049!8.4+(.1!(;&+1!.C4!(;.#=;(!*1.'&::&:G!N6!9.+4=!:.E!(;&6!01&!0$/&!(.!1&'.=4+F&!C;&4!(;&!(&';4+5#&!(;&6!01&!#:+4=!+:!4.(!A1#+(A#/E!049!(.!80D&!a conscious decision to switch to a different strategy,rethink the problem, search for related contentD4.C/&9=&!(;0(!806!$&!;&/*A#/E!049!:.!A.1(;G!"(#9&4(:P!*1.$/&8):./2+4=!:D+//:!01&!&4;04'&9!C;&4!(;&6!1&X&'(!.4!0/(&140(+2&!C06:!(.!*&1A.18!0!(0:D!&2&4!+A!(;&6!;02&!:#''&::A#//6!'.8*/&(&9!+(G\!H"(%G/$#+&*%P)++&8);)9?%Grade 9 and 10, Mathematics, 2005Metacognition “encourages you to think for yourself.g3([!;&/*:!6.#!(.!$&((&1!#49&1:(049!(;&!C06!6.#!/&014G\@"#//*/%J>?%@$)3(/$?%A+#3(%Q]W&(0'.=4+(+2&!:(10(&=+&:!+4'1&0:&!1&09&1:P!8&04+4=!construction, monitoring of text and reading'.8*1&;&4:+.4E!049!(;&+1!0$+/+(6!(.!&20/#0(&!(;&!(&?(!(;&6!01&!1&09+4=G!W&(0'.=4+(+2&/6!:D+//&9!1&09&1:!01&!readers who are aware of knowledge, procedures,and controls of the reading process. They use thisD4.C/&9=&!9#1+4=!(;&!1&09+4=!*1.'&::!(.!+8*1.2&!reading and comprehension ability.”Israel, 2007Guiding QuestionsWhat opportunities dostudents in the subjecthave to use assessment&*)1$&%.".3)C$8385)*$#)3-&1*)and strategically plan forlearning)?How does the subjectsupport students tomonitor and adjust theirthinking?How does the subjectprovide opportunitiesfor students to developand use metacognitivestrategies?What resources, people ormaterials will support*#+/$.#*)#-)>$)%$7$'#"0$)on their learning?Metacognition23


Practice and ResearchConnections: Adolescent LiteracyThinking metacognitivelySimply, metacognition is thinking about thinking.`;&4!:(#9&4(:!01&!8&(0'.=4+(+2&E!(;&6!;02&!04!understanding of learning in three areas: they#49&1:(049!(;&8:&/2&:!0:!/&014&1:E!(;&6!#49&1:(049!0!=+2&4!(0:DE!049!(;&6!#49&1:(049!0!201+&(6!.A!:(10(&=+&:!049!;.C!(.!#:&!(;&8!+4!0!201+&(6!.A!:+(#0(+.4:!Hl&((.4!e!_./&E!JKKcMGMetacognition means...using learning goals, success criteria! 049!9&:'1+*(+2&!A&&9$0'D!! 1&'.=4+F+4=!;.C!0((+(#9&:!049!;0$+(:!! +4X#&4'&!/&014+4=!“Metacognition refers tohigher-order thinking that+42./2&:!0'(+2&!'.4(1./!.2&1!(;&!'.=4+(+2&!*1.'&::&:!engaged in learning. It is theprocess of thinking about.4&P:!.C4!(;.#=;(!*1.'&::&:G!W&(0'.=4+(+2&!0'(+2+(+&:!'04!include planning how to0**1.0';!0!=+2&4!/&014+4=!(0:DE!&20/#0(+4=!*1.=1&::E!049!monitoring comprehension.”School EffectivenessFramework, 2010identifying, communicating and actingon learning preferences and strengthsassessing learning situations and! 9&2&/.*+4=!*/04:!.A!0'(+.4!! 1&X&'(+4=!.4!(;&+1!/&014+4=!049!&4=0=+4=!+4!! ! !! '.42&1:0(+.4:!0$.#(!(;&+1!(;+4D+4=! :&&D+4=!'/01+,'0(+.4!049!:#**.1(!C;&4!barriers to learning are encountered24


metacognition in the classroom7&0';&1:!'04!&4=0=&!:(#9&4(:!+4!8&(0'.=4+(+2&!(;+4D+4=!$6!*.:+4=!5#&:(+.4:GRelate to themselves as learners:!"#$%#+(%96%'$+(/4$"'.%:*2%3*%I%)'(%$"(9.%% :*2%8#/%I%#3#-$%$*%#%;(#+/&/4%'&$)#$&*/%4&1(/%96%;(#+/&/4%-+(0(+(/8('.%% !"#$%'L&;;'%3*%I%'$&;;%/((3%$*%3(1(;*-.%:*2%2&;;%I%#3V)'$%0*+%'L&;;'%I%'$&;;%/((3%$*%3(1(;*-.%% !"#$%+('*)+8('?%-(*-;(?%*+%9#$(+&#;'%8#/%"(;-%9(%5(%')88(''0);.%% :*2%2&;;%I%9*/&$*+%2"#$%&'%2*+L&/4%0*+%9(.%% :*2%"#'%96%$"&/L&/4%#5*)$%$"&'%$*-&8%8"#/4(3%#'%I,1(%4#$"(+(3%9*+(%&/0*+9#$&*/.Relate to a given task:!"#$%3*%I%"#1(%$*%3*.%!"#$%#9%I%$+6&/4%$*%#88*9-;&'".%!"#$%'L&;;'%3*%I%/((3%$*%8*9-;($(%$"(%$#'L.%!"&8"%*0%$"('(%'L&;;'%#+(%96%'$+(/4$"'.%:*2%8;*'(%#9%I%$*%96%4*#;.%!"#$%2&;;%"(;-%9(%+(8*4/&R(%$"#$%I%#9%9(($&/4%$"(%;(#+/&/4%4*#;.!"#$%$"&/4'%"#1(%I%#88*9-;&'"(3%$"#$%9&4"$%"(;-%9(%5(%')88(''0);%&/%$"&'%$#'L.:*2%&'%$"&'%$#'L%;&L(%*$"(+%$#'L'%I%"#1(%#$$(9-$(3S8*9-;($(3.%!"#$%#+(%96%*-$&*/'%#/3%#;$(+/#$&1(%#--+*#8"('.%:*2%2(;;%3&3%96%8"*&8(C']%2*+L.Relate to strategies and how they use them:!"#$%'$+#$(4&('%#9%I%)'&/4.%!"#$%'$+#$(4&('%3*%I%/((3%$*%)'(.% E+(%$"(%'$+#$(4&('%I%#9%)'&/4%"(;-&/4%9(%+(#8"%96%4*#;.%I0%/*$?%#+(%$"(+(%*$"(+%'$+#$(4&('%*+%#--+*#8"('%$"#$%9&4"$%9*1(%9(%8;*'(+%$*%$"(%$#+4($.%% U*%I%/((3%$*%4*%5#8L%#/3%+(\+(#3?%+(\3*?%*+%+(\$"&/L%#/6$"&/4.%% :*2%#9%I%-+#8$&8&/4%96%'$+#$(4&('.“Assessment as Learning+:!(;&!*1.'&::!.A!9&2&/.*+4=!049!supporting student metacognition."(#9&4(:!01&!0'(+2&/6!&4=0=&9!in this assessment process:that is, they monitor their own/&014+4=a!#:&!0::&::8&4(!feedback from teacher, self,and peers to determine next:(&*:a!049!:&(!+49+2+9#0/!/&014+4=!goals. Assessment as learning1&5#+1&:!:(#9&4(:!(.!;02&!0!'/&01!understanding of the learninggoals and success criteria.Assessment as learning focuseson the role of the student asthe critical connector betweenassessment and learning.”Growing Success, 2010References-.:(0E!>G!OG!HJKKLMG!]7;&!7;.#=;()B+//&9!-#11+'#/#8\G!Educational LeadershipE!fqHqMGo1&=.16E!oG!IG!e!-;0*804E!-G!HJKKQMG!U&00(+(/$&#$(3%I/'$+)8$&*/#;%@$+#$(4&('W%G/(%@&R(%U*('/,$%[&$%E;;!HJ49!&9GMG!7;.#:049!T0D:E!-0/+A.14+0S!-.1C+4!::&::8&4(\!P#-#8&$6%J)&;3&/4%Series.O+(&10'6!o>3m"G!HJKKLMG!P*//(8$&/4%X+#8$&8(%#/3%D('(#+8"W%=($#8*4/&$&*/%A)&3(.T4(01+.!W+4+:(16!.A!@9#'0(+.4G!HJKRKMG!@8"**;%Z00(8$&1(/(''%[+#9(2*+LW%E%@)--*+$%0*+%@8"**;%I9-+*1(9(/$%#/3%@$)3(/$%@)88(''. Toronto: Author.T4(01+.!W+4+:(16!.A!@9#'0(+.4G!HJKRKMG!A+*2&/4%@)88(''W%E''(''9(/$?%Z1#;)#$&*/%#/3%D(-*+$&/4%&/%G/$#+&*%@8"**;'. Toronto: Author.m.D&:E!lG!_G!e!_./&E!lG!>G!HJKKcMG!]I&/*+4=!>9./&:'&4(!U&09&1:!(;1.#=;!@?*/+'+(!"(10(&=6!Instruction” Adolescent Literacy Research and PracticeG!m&C!b.1DS!o#+/A.19!


Questioning 1&A&1:!(.!:(#9&4(:P!'#1+.:+(6E!&?*/.10(+.4E!049!+45#+16!(.!&2.D&E!&?*.:&!and extend their thinkingStudents@?*/.1&E!C.49&1!049!+42&:(+=0(&!(.!:./2&!problems and build understanding>:D!5#&:(+.4:!(;0(!'/01+A6E!&?(&49!(;+4D+4=!049!challenge ideas to probe more deeply into anissue or topic


]@4=0=+4=!:(#9&4(:!+4!=&4&10(+4=!&AA&'(+2&!5#&:(+.4:!;&/*:!(;&8!(.!*&1'&+2&!(;&8:&/2&:!0:!0#(.4.8.#:!and independent learners, producers of knowledge,049!=&4&10(.1:!.A!+8*.1(04(!/+4&:!.A!+45#+16G\!=*''%^%J+**L"#+$%_)*$(3%&/%School Effectiveness Framework, 2010]b.#!0:D!C;0(!6.#!9.4P(!D4.C!:.!6.#!'04!/&014!049!9&2&/.*G\Siobhan M., Student, Grade 11“When teachers use these strategies to ask probing5#&:(+.4:E!:(#9&4(:!=1.C!+4!(;&+1!(;+4D+4=!*1.'&::&:G!At the same time, teachers should share the reasonsA.1!(;&+1!5#&:(+.4:G\[&'"(+%^%[+(6?%MNNO“Making meaning starts not with answers but with5#&:(+.4:G!7&0';&1:!C;.!C+:;!(;&+1!:(#9&4(:!(.!$&!skilled at formulating their own meaning and their.C4!#49&1:(049+4=!1&0/+F&!(;0(!/&::.4:!:;.#/9!4.(!A1&5#&4(/6!'.88&4'&!C+(;!:(0(&8&4(:!:(1&::+4=!04:C&1:!$#(!C+(;!5#&:(+.4:!*.:+4=!*#FF/&:G\:)/L&/'%_)*$(3%&/%!#;'"%^%@#$$('?%MNBB]>:D+4=!5#&:(+.4:!+:!(;&!4#8$&1!.4&!8.:(!+8*.1(04(!step to understanding something fully... and nostudent should hesitate to ask.”Devon P., Student, Grade 11Guiding QuestionsWhat are opportunities inthe subject which spark*#+/$.#*9)'+%"-*"#(DWhat kinds of inquiryquestions will studentsexplore in the subject?How will they be involvedin inquiry?What are the purposes ofquestions in the subjectC$8385)#-)".0$*#"3&#$5)#-)pose hypotheses, toconduct an inquiry, toassess information, toquestion perspectives)?What are theopportunities in thesubject for students topose and pursue theirown questions?Questioning29


Practice and ResearchConnections: Adolescent LiteracyEncouraging Thinking through questions`;&4!:(#9&4(:!*.:&!(;&+1!.C4!5#&:(+.4:!049!01&!+42./2&9!+4!+45#+16!(;0(!(0*:!+4(.!(;&+1!:&4:&!.A!wonder and curiosity, they are more engaged in/&014+4=G!7;&!8.1&!/&014&1:!;02&!.**.1(#4+(+&:!(.!*.:&!9+AA&1&4(!D+49:!.A!5#&:(+.4:!A.1!0!201+&(6!.A!*#1*.:&:E!+4'/#9+4=!&?*/.10(+.4!049!1&X&'(+.4E!(;&!8.1&!X&?+$/&!(;&6!$&'.8&!+4!0!201+&(6!of learning situations. When adolescents are*.:+4=!5#&:(+.4:E!+(!;0:!(;&!*.(&4(+0/!(.!;&/*!(;&8!9&2&/.*!0!104=&!.A!(;+4D+4=!*1.'&::&:!0:!C&//!as greater sense of control and a higher sense of&A,'0'6!H`0/:;!e!"0((&:E!JKRRMGQuestioning means...! &?*/.1+4=E!C.49&1+4=!049!+42&:(+=0(+4=! 0:D+4=!5#&:(+.4:!(.!'/01+A6E!*1.$&E!&?(&49!(;+4D+4=E!and challenge ideas“When teachers use thesestrategies to ask probing5#&:(+.4:E!:(#9&4(:!=1.C!+4!(;&+1!thinking processes. At the sametime, teachers should share the1&0:.4:!A.1!(;&+1!5#&:(+.4:G\[&'"(+%^%[+(6?%MNNO! './/0$.10(+4=!C+(;!*&&1:!(.!*.:&!5#&:(+.4:!049!seek answers! #:+4=!9+AA&1&4(!(6*&:!.A!5#&:(+.4:!(.!8&&(!learning goals! :&/A)5#&:(+.4+4=!0:!0!8&04:!.A!:&/A)0::&::+4=! #49&1:(049+4=!;.C!5#&:(+.4+4=!:;0*&:!(;+4D+4=!and learning! :&&D+4=!9+2&1=&4(!*&1:*&'(+2&:30


Why teach it?`;&4!:(#9&4(:!*.:&!(;&+1!.C4!5#&:(+.4:E!(;&6!01&!8.1&!/+D&/6!(.!,49!1&/&204'&!049!8&04+4=E!;02&!(;&+1!+4(&1&:(:!;.4.#1&9E!'.44&'(!*1+.1!knowledge and experiences, and use their:D+//:!.A!1&X&'(+.4G!34!A0'(E!:(#9&4(:P!:&4:&!.A!0'09&8+'!:&/A)&A,'0'6!+4'1&0:&:!C;&4!(;&6!(;+4D!0$.#(!049!A108&!(;&+1!.C4!5#&:(+.4:!H`0/:;!e!"0((&:E!JKRRMG!7;+:!+:!+8*.1(04(!A.1!09./&:'&4(!/&014&1:!C;.!01&!9&2&/.*+4=!0!sense of autonomy and independence. The#:&!.A!5#&:(+.4+4=!;0:!(;&!*.(&4(+0/!(.!'.44&'(!C+(;!(;&+1!9&2&/.*8&4(0/!4&&9:!+4!099+(+.4!to deepening their learning. “When studentsD4.C!;.C!(.!0:D!(;&+1!.C4!5#&:(+.4:E!(;&6!(0D&!greater ownership of their learning, deepencomprehension, and make new connections049!9+:'.2&1+&:!.4!(;&+1!.C4\!HU.(;:(&+4!e!"04(040E!JKRRMG!C+(;!(;&+1!*&&1:G!!]g^[#0/+(6!5#&:(+.4+4=!0'(+20(&:!and sustains interactions and relationships betweenstudents and teachers, between students andcontent, and between teachers and the content inways that increase both student engagement and0';+&2&8&4(\!H`0/:;!e!"0((&:E!JKRRMG!The School Effectiveness Framework stresses the+8*.1(04'&!.A!0#(;&4(+'E!1&/&204(!049!8&04+4=A#/!:(#9&4(!+45#+16!HW+4+:(16!.A!@9#'0(+.4E!JKRKME!049!5#&:(+.4+4=!*/06:!0!/01=&!1./&!+4!+45#+16G!".8&!.A!(;&!&2+9&4'&!.#(/+4&9!+4!(;&!A108&C.1D!+4'/#9&:!opportunities for students to identify authentic*1.$/&8:!049!*.:&!:+=4+,'04(!5#&:(+.4:!A.1!+42&:(+=0(+.4!0'1.::!0//!'#11+'#/#8!01&0:E!049!(.!9&8.4:(10(&!'#1+.:+(6!049!0!*.:+(+2&!049!*1.9#'(+2&!9+:*.:+(+.4!(.!/&014+4=!HW+4+:(16!.A!@9#'0(+.4E!JKRKMG!>9./&:'&4(:!;02&!0!(&49&4'6!(.!5#&:(+.4E!049!(;&6!01&!.A(&4!8.(+20(&9!$6!(;&+1!5#&:(+.4:G!They sometimes need guidance to pose9+AA&1&4(!D+49:!.A!5#&:(+.4:!A.1!0!104=&!.A!*#1*.:&:E!A.1!&?08*/&E!(.!&?*/.1&!+9&0:E!:./2&!problems, create and monitor their thinking.^#&:(+.4:!&2.D&!049!&?*.:&!(;+4D+4=G!`;&4!:(#9&4(:!:;01&!(;&+1!5#&:(+.4:!+4!(;&!'/0::1..8E!(;&6!;&01!(;&!*&1:*&'(+2&:!049!C06:!.A!(;+4D+4=!.A!.(;&1:!HW'-.80:!e!>$10;08E!1&(1+&2&9!W01';!JKRJMG!34!099+(+.4E!C;&4!:(#9&4(:!01&!*.:+4=!049!*#1:#+4=!5#&:(+.4:!'.//0$.10(+2&/6E!they build a number of connections, includingWatch how the students in the class,'.)(0#=;(!$6!W01/&&!B0/'.4!049!N+//!N0F+4&(E!build understanding about different kinds of5#&:(+.4!*1.8*(:G7;&!2+9&.!+:!020+/0$/&!0(!CCCG&9#=0+4:G'0G31


How to teach itAs expert learners, teachers play important roles as&AA&'(+2&!5#&:(+.4&1:!A.1!0!201+&(6!.A!*#1*.:&:!049!as facilitators allowing opportunities for students to*.:&!(;&+1!.C4!5#&:(+.4:G!]7;1.#=;!(;&+1!5#&:(+.4:E!teachers model how students can come up with(;&+1!.C4!5#&:(+.4:G!`;&4!:(#9&4(:!/&014!(.!+9&4(+A6!5#&:(+.4:E!(.!+45#+1&E!(.!*1.$/&80(+F&E!(;&6!/&014!to think about their world differently and in depth”H`..9!e!N/04(.4E!JKKVMG!7;+:!+:!*01(+'#/01/6!(;&!'0:&!C;&4!:(#9&4(:!01&!0'(+2&/6!&4'.#10=&9!(.!+42&:(=0(&!5#&:(+.4:!C+(;!(;&!(&0';&1!A.1!C;+';!(;&6!9.!4.(!;02&!0!*&1'&+2&9!04:C&1!H`..9!e!N/04(.4E!JKKVMG!In order to do this, it is important that learners#49&1:(049!201+.#:!5#0/+(+&:!.A!5#&:(+.4:G!-.:(0!049!Kallick note that “Some students may be unawareof the functions, classes, syntax or intentions of5#&:(+.4:G!7;&6!806!4.(!1&0/+F&!(;0(!5#&:(+.4:!2016!in complexity, structure and purpose. They may*.:&!:+8*/&!5#&:(+.4:!+4(&49+4=!(.!9&1+2&!80?+80/!1&:#/(:\!H-.:(0!e!n0//+'DE!JKKKMG!"(#9&4(:!C;.!;02&!/+8+(&9!#49&1:(049+4=!.A!(;&!5#0/+(+&:!.A!5#&:(+.4:!806!0**1.0';!5#&:(+.4+4=!C+(;!0!4011.C!104=&!.A!strategies.!!!!!!'.=4+(+2&!:D+//:!.1!*1.'&::&:!1&5#+1&9E!A.1!! !!!!!!!&?08*/&E!N/..8P:!70?.4.86!+:!.4&!! ! !framework to distinguish the types of!!!!!!*1.'&::+4=!(;0(!806!$&!1&5#+1&9!!! ! !!!!!!!A.1!201+.#:!5#&:(+.4:!049!*1.8*(:!!!!!!(;&!'.44&'(+.4!$&(C&&4!0!:(#9&4(P:!! ! !background knowledge related to a!!!!!!5#&:(+.4E!049!C;&1&!(;&!:(#9&4(!8+=;(!!!!!!!=.!.1!9.!(.!,49!04!04:C&1!H:&&%G/(%% % %Approach to Questions at!!!!!!CCCG&9#=0+4:G'0MG7&0';&1:!0/:.!:&(!(;&!'.49+(+.4:!A.1!&AA&'(+2&!5#&:(+.4+4=!+4!(;&!'/0::1..8G!>4!+4'/#:+2&E!*.:+(+2&E!049!:(+8#/0(+4=!'/0::1..8!&42+1.48&4(!'.49#'+2&!(.!+45#+16!0//.C:!:(#9&4(:!(.!(0D&!1+:D:!+4!10+:+4=!(;&+1!.C4!5#&:(+.4:G!"&((+4=!4.18:!A.1!*.:+(+2&!'/0::1..8!+4(&10'(+.4:!C;&1&!5#&:(+.4:!01&!20/#&9!049!;&/*+4=!:(#9&4(:!9&2&/.*!&AA&'(+2&!'.//0$.10(+2&!:D+//:!&8*.C&1:!0//!:(#9&4(:!(.!*.:&!5#&:(+.4:!.A!personal importance and interest.7&0';&1:!'04!:;01*&4!:(#9&4(:P!5#&:(+.4+4=!$6!&?*/+'+(/6!(&0';+4=!:(#9&4(:!(;&!201+.#:!5#0/+(+&:!.A!5#&:(+.4!C;+';!&2.D&!9+AA&1&4(!D+49:!.A!(;+4D+4=S!!!!!!'/.:&9)!049!.*&4)&49&9!5#&:(+.4:E!049!(;&!! !kinds of information each type elicits!!!!!!&?*/+'+(!049!+8*/+'+(!(6*&:!.A!5#&:(+.4:!!!!!!'.42&1=&4(!049!9+2&1=&4(!(6*&:!.A!! ! !!!!!!!5#&:(+.4+4=E!049!C;&4!#:+4=!&0';!.A!! ! !!!!!!!(;.:&!(6*&:!.A!5#&:(+.4:!01&!$&4&,'+0/]^#&:(+.4+4=!+:!A#4908&4(0/!(.!&AA&'(+2&!(&0';+4=!049!learning. It is a critical skill that teachers must learnto do well and that students need to be taught.”EZD%AEIY@?%`)('$&*/&/4W%aE''(''9(/$%0*+%K(#+/&/4,%Video Series Viewing Guide, 201032


student questioning in the classroom7;&!^#&:(+.4!B.18#/0(+.4!7&';4+5#&E!9&2&/.*&9!$6!(;&!U+=;(!^#&:(+.4!34:(+(+(#&E!*1.2+9&:!0!C06!A.1!:(#9&4(:!(.!'1&0(&!(;&+1!.C4!5#&:(+.4:E!1&,4&!(;&8E!049!#:&!(;&8!:(10(&=+'0//6G!T4&!.A!(;&!=.0/:!.A!(;&!(&';4+5#&!+:!(.!:;+A(!(;&!1&:*.4:+$+/+(6!.A!(&0';&1:!=&4&10(+4=!(;&!5#&:(+.4:!(.!(;&!:(#9&4(:!=&4&10(+4=!(;&!5#&:(+.4:!+49+2+9#0//6!049!'.//0$.10(+2&/6GStep 1: -1&0(&!0!^#&:(+.4!B.'#:!(;0(!0'(:!0:!0!*1.8*(!049!*1.2+9&:!0!A.'#:!A.1!(;&!:(#9&4(!! !! ! ! +45#+16!049!(;+4D+4=GStep 2:!! "(#9&4(:!:D+4=!@AA&'(+2&!^#&:(+.4:\!P#-#8&$6%J)&;3&/4%@(+&('.Literacy GAINS. G/(%E--+*#8"%$*%`)('$&*/'. Edugains website:;((*ShhCCCG&9#=0+4:G'0h4&C:+(&h/+(&10'6Jh2+9&.'/+*/+$1016G;(8/T4(01+.!W+4+:(16!.A!@9#'0(+.4G!HJKRKMG!A+*2&/4%@)88(''W%E''(''9(/$?%Z1#;)#$&*/%#/3%D(-*+$&/4%&/%G/$#+&*%@8"**;'. Toronto: Author.T4(01+.!W+4+:(16!.A!@9#'0(+.4G!HJKRKMG!@8"**;%Z00(8$&1(/(''%[+#9(2*+LW%E%@)--*+$%0*+%@8"**;%I9-+*1(9(/$%#/3%@$)3(/$%@)88(''. Toronto: Author.U.(;:(&+4E!_G!e!"04(040E!OG!HJKRRMG!]7&0';+4=!"(#9&4(:!(.!>:D!7;&+1!TC4!^#&:(+.4:E\!:#+1#+3%Z3)8#$&*/%Y(2';($$(+G!I012019S!I012019!@9#'0(+.4!G!e!"0((&:E!NG!_G!HJKRRMG!H"&/L&/4%$"+*)4"%`)#;&$6%`)('$&*/&/4W%U((-(/&/4%@$)3(/$%EngagementG!7;.#:049!T0D:E!->S!-.1C+4G`..9E!nG!_GE!e!N/04(.4E!`G!@G!H@9:GMG!HJKKVMG%K&$(+#86%I/'$+)8$&*/%0*+%E3*;('8(/$'W%D('(#+8"\J#'(3%PracticeG!m&C!b.1DS!o#+/A.19!


Strategy refers to students purposefully:&/&'(+4=!049!#:+4=!(&';4+5#&:!049!*1.'&::&:!in order to construct and communicate meaningStudentsSet goals, establish criteria, create and followplans, make judgments and determine the&AA&'(+2&4&::!.A!(;&!*/04!i:&!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!*1.'&::&:!(.!'1&0(&E!:./2&!*1.$/&8:E!1&:&01';E!80D&!9&'+:+.4:E!1&2+:&!(;+4D+4=E!'.88#4+'0(&!+9&0:!049!1&X&'(!.4!/&014+4=!Apply comprehension strategies before,9#1+4=!049!0A(&1!1&09+4=E!/+:(&4+4=E!2+&C+4=!(.!9&2&/.*!#49&1:(049+4=!>**/6!D4.C/&9=&!.A!.1=04+F0(+.40/!*0((&14:E!(&?(!:(1#'(#1&:!049!A&0(#1&:!(.!402+=0(&!049!09204'&!#49&1:(049+4=!.A!(&?(>''&::!049!#:&!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!2.'0$#/016!to precisely communicate ideasi:&!0'(+2&!1&09+4=E!C1+(+4=E!2+&C+4=E!/+:(&4+4=E!:*&0D+4=!049!1&*1&:&4(+4=!(&';4+5#&:!(.!record, react and respond to ideasUse a writing process to generate, explore,9&2&/.*!049!1&,4&!C1+(+4=!A.1!*01(+'#/01!purposes, forms and audiences"&/&'(!049!#:&!0**1.*1+0(&!.1=04+F&1:!to gather, manage and communicateinformation and ideasTeachersModel the use of goals to create, follow andassess a planW.9&/!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!*1.'&::&:!049!&?*/0+4!;.C!(;&6!1&X&'(!(;+4D+4=!+4!(;&!:#$%&'(!01&0Co-construct anchor charts, performance wallsand collect a range of exemplars to support theliteracy demands in the subjectModel comprehension strategiesIdentify the literacy demands of the subject area


]n&6!2+:#0/:!01&!=10*;+'!.1=04+F&1:!(;0(!*1.2+9&!2+:#0/!1&*1&:&4(0(+.4:!.A!+8*.1(04(!HD&6M!+9&0:!+4!0!text, lesson, or unit. Examples include charts, Venn9+0=108:E!'/0::+,'0(+.4!(1&&:E!X.C!';01(:E!:(.16!80*:E!049!2+:#0/!1&*1&:&4(0(+.4:!.A!(+8&/+4&:G!7;&6!are essential tools for reducing the language barrierfor English language learners.”Many Roots, Many Voices, 2005Strategy “is your plan of how you will approachyour learning.”Matt P., Grade 11Guiding Questions“To understand, we can predict things... so we cansee what we already knew and what we now know.”Gaveshini S., Grade 10]?%A+#3(%BBE2&#),%-'$**$*)C$8385)*'"$.#"A')inquiry, mathematical processes,writing process) are importantto thinking in the subject area?How are these processes similarand/or different from processesin other subject areas?How are students supported in+*".3)*+>F$'#=*,$'"A')#$6#*)&./)vocabulary?Are there particularcomprehension strategiesC$8385);&4$)'-..$'#"-.*5)/%&:)conclusions) that students needto use in order to make meaningand communicate understandingin the subject area?How and when do studentsgather, organize, manage, andcommunicate information? Dothese take a particular form inthe subject area?Strategy35


Practice and ResearchConnections: Adolescent LiteracyBuilding STUDENTS’ STRATEGY FOR LEARNINGl#:(!0:!(&&4:!#:&!:(10(&=6!(.!*/06!0!2+9&.!=08&!(.!=&(!(.!(;&!4&?(!/&2&/E!.1!(.!(;+4D!0$.#(!049!&?&'#(&!0!*/06!in sports, students also need to use strategy forlearning. Strategy is most powerful when students910C!.4!0!C+9&!104=&!.A!(&';4+5#&:E!(../:!049!processes which allow them to be agile in a201+&(6!.A!/&014+4=!:+(#0(+.4:GSTRATEGY means...STRATEGYsetting goals, and creating, following and monitoring! */04:!#:+4=!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!*1.'&::&:!! #:+4=!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!*1.'&::&:applying comprehension strategies for! 1&09+4=h/+:(&4+4=h2+&C+4=!!]>9./&:'&4(:!9&:&12&!expert teachers who8.9&/!049!*1.2+9&!explicit instruction inreading comprehensionand study strategiesacross the curriculum.”I1(6%^%[&'"(+?%MNNg! 0''&::+4=!049!#:+4=!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!2.'0$#/016!and texts! #:+4=!0'(+2&!1&09+4=E!C1+(+4=E!2+&C+4=E!/+:(&4+4=E!! !! :*&0D+4=E!049!1&*1&:&4(+4=!(&';4+5#&:using a writing process! :&/&'(+4=!049!#:+4=!0**1.*1+0(&!.1=04+F&1:!049!! !technology to gather and manage ideas36


Why teach it?Strategy refers to students purposefully:&/&'(+4=!049!#:+4=!(&';4+5#&:!049!*1.'&::&:!in order to construct and communicate meaning.7;+:!8&04:!:(#9&4(:!#:&!0!201+&(6!.A!D4.C/&9=&!049!:D+//:!+4!.19&1!(.!/&014G!B.1!&?08*/&E!(;&6!need to create plans. They need to select and&20/#0(&!0!4#8$&1!.A!:.#1'&:!+4!201+.#:!A.18:!049!A1.8!0!201+&(6!.A!*&1:*&'(+2&:G!7;&6!4&&9!to read texts deeply, and their reading maycause them to shift their purpose, ideas, and*/04:G!7;&6!4&&9!(.!#:&!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!(&?(:!C;+';!806!'.4(0+4!*1+4(E!2+:#0/!049!=10*;+'0/!+4A.180(+.4G!`;&4!1&09+4=!+:!9+A,'#/(E!(;&6!4&&9!(.!,49!C06:!(.!;&/*!(;&8!#49&1:(049G!7;&6!4&&9!(.!:+A(!(;1.#=;!20:(!08.#4(:!.A!+4A.180(+.4!and make judgments about appropriateness049!20/+9+(6!.A!(;.:&!:.#1'&:G!7;&6!4&&9!(.!80D&!4.(&:E!:64(;&:+F&!+4A.180(+.4E!(0/D!0$.#(!work in progress, and articulate where theyare and where they need to go. They need tocommunicate their thinking in particular forms,A.1!:*&'+,'!*#1*.:&:!049!0#9+&4'&:E!*&1;0*:!by using technology. And on it goes.Although students enter the intermediategrades with many literacy skills, they still need(.!0'5#+1&!049!9&&*&4!(;.:&!:D+//:S!]0:!(&?(:!become increasingly complex, multimodal,049!4&'&::016!A.1!9+:'+*/+4&):*&'+,'!/&014+4=E!middle and high school students must adapt8.1&!09204'&9E!:*&'+,'!:(10(&=+&:!A.1!9&&*&1!#49&1:(049+4=!049!'.8*.:+4=\!H34(&140(+.40/!U&09+4=!>::.'+0(+.4E!JKRJMG!>:!W01D!-.4/&6!points out, “adolescents will need to master'.=4+(+2&!:(10(&=+&:!A.1!1&09+4=E!C1+(+4=E!049!thinking in complex situations where texts, skills,.1!1&5#+:+(&!D4.C/&9=&!01&!X#+9!049!4.(!0/C06:!'/&01/6!#49&1:(..9\!H-.4/&6E!JKKLMG!@AA&'(+2&!/&014&1:!]:(+'D!(.!0!(0:D!#4(+/!+(!+:!'.8*/&(&9G!7;&6!9.4P(!=+2&!#*!&0:+/6G!7;&6!01&!0$/&!(.!040/6F&!0!*1.$/&8E!(.!9&2&/.*!a system, structure, or strategy to attack a*1.$/&8G!7;&6!&8*/.6!0!104=&!049!;02&!0!1&*&1(.+1&!.A!0/(&140(+2&!:(10(&=+&:!A.1!*1.$/&8!:./2+4=G!7;&6!'.//&'(!&2+9&4'&!(.!+49+'0(&!(;&+1!*1.$/&8):./2+4=!:(10(&=6!+:!C.1D+4=E!049!+A!.4&!:(10(&=6!9.&:4P(!C.1DE!(;&6!D4.C!;.C!(.!back up and try another.”Costa & Kallick, 2010O+:(&4!(.!-;1+:!W0'_.40/9!8&(0'.=4+(+2&/6!(0/D!0$.#(!;+:!#:&!.A!:(10(&=+&:E!049!;.C!(;&6P2&!made a difference for his learning.7;&!2+9&.E!


How to teach itTeachers can deliberately use instructional strategiesso that students build their own strategy. Teachersuse instruction to “orchestrate learning for depthand exploration” and simulate processes and skillsin structured ways to explicitly show how learning049!(;+4D+4=!806!.''#1!H-.4/&6E!JKKLE!>/&?049&1!e!l&((.4E!JKKKMG!B.1!&?08*/&E!C;&4!(&0';&1:!#:&!a think aloud to demonstrate how they understand0!(&?(E!(;&6!&?*/+'+(/6!:;.C!/&014&1:!C;0(!d&?*&1(:P!do and why they do it. Teachers gradually releaseresponsibility to students so that their use ofthese skills and processes is transportable and(104:*01&4(E!049!$&'.8&:!*01(!.A!(;&!:(#9&4(:P!thinking to be independently and automatically0**/+&9!0'1.::!:#$%&'(!01&0:!H32&6!e!B+:;&1E!JKKfMG!!As teachers guide students toward independent*10'(+'&E!(;&6!:;.#/9!0/:.!+42+(&!/&014&1:!(.!80D&!';.+'&:!049!9&'+:+.4:G!B.1!&?08*/&E!(&0';&1:!806!8.9&/!(;&!#:&!.A!0!201+&(6!.A!=10*;+'!.1=04+F&1:!to demonstrate their purpose and structure. As:(#9&4(:!=0+4!'.4,9&4'&!#:+4=!201+.#:!.1=04+F&1:E!(;&6!:;.#/9!$&!:&/&'(+4=!=10*;+'!.1=04+F&1:!(;&8:&/2&:!(;0(!$&:(!,(!(;&!(0:D!049!(;&!(;+4D+4=!they are demonstrating, rather than the teacher*1&:'1+$+4=!0!:+4=/&!.1=04+F&1G!Another area in which teens need explicit instructionso they work toward independent practice is0**/6+4=!'.8*1&;&4:+.4!:D+//:!H&G=GE!*1&9+'(+4=E!80D+4=!'.44&'(+.4:E!2+:#0/+F+4=M!*#1*.:&A#//6!049!:(10(&=+'0//6!(.!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!(&?(:G!]>!';0//&4=&!+4!09./&:'&4(!/+(&10'6!+:!(;&!4#8$&1!049!201+&(6!.A!structures that underlie expository and informational(&?(G!7;&:&!01&!8#';!8.1&!201+&9!(;04!40110(+2&!structures, both across and within subjects. Thechallenges are compounded by less familiar content,9&4:&!+4A.180(+.4!049!#4A08+/+01!2.'0$#/016\!HU>m_!0:!5#.(&9!+4!O+(&10'6!o>3m"E!JKKLMG!"#$%&'(!(&0';&1:!4&&9!(.!8.2&!A1.8!=&4&10/+F&9!+4:(1#'(+.4!of comprehension skills to explicitly showing:(#9&4(:!;.C!(.!C.1D!C+(;!(&?(:!A.1!:*&'+,'!*#1*.:&:!C+(;+4!(;&+1!9+:'+*/+4&:G!B.1!&?08*/&E!0!:'+&4'&!teacher may explicitly demonstrate how predictingmay be used in a particular way in science.Across the disciplines, adolescent learners are alsoexpected to use a number of processes. Whether it$&!0!C1+(+4=!*1.'&::!.1!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!*1.'&::&:!H&G=GE!'1&0(+2&!*1.'&::!+4!(;&!>1(:ME!+(!+:!+8*.1(04(!to show students that these are not intended to beA.//.C&9!/.'D):(&*G!>(!201+.#:!:(0=&:!+4!0!*1.'&::E!(;&!/&014&1!806!4&&9!(.!1&2+:+(!'&1(0+4!:(0=&:!049h.1!1&X&'(!.4!(;&+1!*1.=1&::G!B#1(;&18.1&E!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!*1.'&::&:!1&*1&:&4(!C06:!+4!C;+';!experts in the disciplines build knowledge andunderstanding, and when “teachers apprenticestudents in the literacy practices of their disciplines,they make explicit the tacit reasoning processes,strategies, and discourse rules that shape:#''&::A#/!1&09&1:P!049!C1+(&1:P!C.1DGGG!.4&!:;.#/9!$&!'.4:(1#'(+4=!#49&1:(049+4=!10(;&1!(;04!*0::+2&/6!'0116+4=!.#(!*1&:'1+$&9!*1.'&9#1&:\!H"';.&4$0';!e!o1&&4/&0AE!JKKVMG!"(#9&4(:!0/:.!4&&9!.**.1(#4+(+&:!to articulate the kinds of decisions they make as theyengage in a process.“Good thinkers, after all, are more than peoplewho simply think well when they think. They alsothink at the right times with the right commitmentsk!(.!(1#(;!049!&2+9&4'&E!'1&0(+2+(6!049!*&1:*&'(+2&!taking, sound decisions, and apt solutions.”Ritchhart & Perkins, 200538


Strategy in the classroom>!4#8$&1!.A!:#$%&'(!01&0:!#:&!*01(+'#/01!*1.'&::&:!C;+';!:#**.1(!#49&1:(049+4=!+4!(;&!9+:'+*/+4&G!TA(&4!(;&:&!processes represent how experts in the subject area think. Some examples include the design process for(;&!*/044+4=!049!9&2&/.*8&4(!.A!*1.9#'(:!.1!:&12+'&:!+4!7&';4./.=+'0/!@9#'0(+.4E!(;&!:'+&4(+,'!+42&:(+=0(+.4!*1.'&::!A.1!+45#+16!049!1&:&01';!+4!"'+&4'&E!049!(;&!'1+(+'0/!040/6:+:!*1.'&::!A.1!1&:*.49+4=!(.E!'.44&'(+4=!C+(;!and appreciating art works in the Arts.7;&!A.//.C+4=!.#(/+4&:!0!C06!(&0';&1:!'04!:#**.1(!:(#9&4(:P!#:&!.A!0!*01(+'#/01!*1.'&::SModel the use of a process for an authentic task. During modeling, cue students to note what ishappening. Use a think aloud to make explicit the thinking of an expert.! 342+(&!:(#9&4(:!(.!9&'.4:(1#'(!(;&!8.9&/&9!*1.'&::GCo-construct an anchor chart representing the process.Guide students in applying the process for a task.! W.4+(.1!(;&!:(#9&4(:P!#:&!.A!(;&!*1.'&::E!049!*1.2+9&!A&&9$0'DG!3A!4&&9&9E!1&:*.49!(.!046!! ! !! 8+:'.4'&*(+.4:!049!*1.2+9&!1&:*.4:+2&!:#**.1(G! >:D!:(#9&4(:!(.!9.'#8&4(!(;&+1!#:&!.A!(;&!*1.'&::G!I02&!:(#9&4(:!2+:#0//6!1&*1&:&4(!(;&+1!(;+4D+4=!$6!! !! *.:(+4=!.4!(;&!04';.1!';01(!:(+'D+&!4.(&!1&X&'(+.4:!.4!(;&+1!#:&!.A!(;&!*1.'&::G!Continue to refer to the process throughout a unit or course. Use the anchor chart to remindstudents where they are in the process.! /&?049&1E!!W#/(+9+8&4:+.40/!e!_&2&/.*8&4(0/!::.'+0(+.4G!HJKRJMG!Adolescent Literacy!H3m"h"(#9&4(!"#''&::G!HJKKLMG!U&00(+(/$&#$(3%I/'$+)8$&*/%Z3)8#$*+,'%X#8L#4( [#8&;&$#$*+,'%A)&3(W%LiteracyG!;((*ShhCCCG&9#=0+4:G'0h1&:.#1'&:O37h_3A.1O+(&10'6h_3rB0'+/+(0(.1:o#+9&G*9A!W01F04.E!UGE!HJKRJMG!P;#''+**9%I/'$+)8$&*/%$"#$%!*+L', 2nd edition. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.T4(01+.!W+4+:(16!.A!@9#'0(+.4G!HJKKfMG!E%A)&3(%$*%Z00(8$&1(%K&$(+#86%I/'$+)8$&*/?%Cf*;>%f]. Toronto,: Author.T4(01+.!W+4+:(16!.A!@9#'0(+.4G!HJKKpMG!H"&/L%K&$(+#86%@)88(''W%H"(%D(-*+$%*0%$"(%Z7-(+$%X#/(;%*/%@$)3(/$'%#$%D&'L%&/%G/$#+&*> Toronto: Author.T4(01+.!W+4+:(16!.A!@9#'0(+.4G!HJKKpMG!H"&/L%K&$(+#86W%P+*''\8)++&8);#+%E--+*#8"('?%A+#3('%d\BM. Toronto: Author.`0/:;E!lG!e!"0((&:E!NG!HJKRRMG!H"&/L&/4%$"+*)4"%`)#;&$6%`)('$&*/&/4W%U((-(/&/4%@$)3(/$%Z/4#4(9(/$.7;.#:049!T0D:E!->S!-.1C+4G`..9E!nG!_GE!e!N/04(.4E!`G!@G!H@9:GMG!HJKKVMG!K&$(+#86%I/'$+)8$&*/%0*+%E3*;('8(/$'W%D('(#+8"\J#'(3%X+#8$&8(.m&C!b.1DS!o#+/A.19!


Voice and Identity 1&A&1:!(.!:(#9&4(:P!9&'+:+.4:E!';.+'&:!049!0'(+.4:!(;0(!092.'0(&!for their learning and make connections to their&?*&1+&4'&E!20/#&:E!'#/(#1&E!049!+4(&1&:(:StudentsU&'.=4+F&!(;&+1!1./&:!049!1&:*.4:+$+/+(+&:!+4!their own learningMake personal connections to text and taskduring reading, writing, speaking, listeningand representingValue their own knowledge and experience049!(;0(!.A!.(;&1:!$6!0'(+2&/6!'.4(1+$#(+4=!049!welcoming new ideas>92.'0(&!A.1!:&/A!049!.(;&1:!(.!09204'&!learningU&'.=4+F&!;.C!*&1:.40/!2+&C:!049!(;&!2+&C:!of others can affect thinkingSeek opportunities for purposeful selfexpressionto authentic audiences aboutmeaningful topics and issuesTeachers


]3!,49!+(!+:!&0:+&1!(.!/&014!(;+4=:!C;&4!I can relate it to my own life.”f&*;#%=>?%@$)3(/$?%A+#3(%O]3(!+:!+8*.1(04(!(;0(!0//!:(#9&4(:!;02&!.**.1(#4+(+&:!to share information about their languages, cultures,049!&?*&1+&4'&:G!34!(;+:!C06E!(;&6!'04!9&2&/.*!04!enriching awareness of both the differences andsimilarities among their cultures and languages, andall students can experience a sense of belonging.”Many Roots, Many Voices, 2005]O&014+4=!g+:[!8.1&!+4(&1&:(+4=!C;&4!6.#!'04!connect with your life outside of school.”Y&8L%@>?%@$)3(/$?%A+#3(%BBGuiding Questions]"(#9&4(!Z.+'&!+:!0$.#(!T4(01+.P:!:(#9&4(:!(0D+4=!control of their learning by becoming engaged.3(P:!0$.#(!'.44&'(+4=!C;0(P:!;0**&4+4=!+4!(;&!classroom to real-life experience out of school and=+2+4=!:(#9&4(:!C06:!(.!;&/*!0';+&2&!(;&+1!=.0/:G\!Z_)&$6%#/3%I/8;)'&1(%Z3)8#$&*/%&/%G/$#+&*%@8"**;'?%MNNQ]`;&4!3!;02&!(.!9.!04!0::+=48&4(!(;0(!1&/0(&:!(.!8&E!3!=&(!0!A#1(;&1!#49&1:(049+4=!.A!&2&16(;+4=!(.!9.!C+(;!the topic.”Joe K. Student, Grade 10]`;+/&!(;&!&?'/#:+.4!.A!+9&4(+(6!049!2.+'&!A1.8!classroom learning and school experiences can lead(.!:(#9&4(!9+:&4=0=&8&4(!049!$&;02+.#10/!+::#&:!H:#';!0:!9&,04'&E!:+/&4'&!049!*..1!0((&4904'&ME!*06+4=!0((&4(+.4!(.!(;&8!'04!$&!(104:A.180(+2&!A.1!students and teachers, A widening awareness of:(#9&4(:P!'0*0$+/+(+&:!'04!/&09!(.!4&C!&?'+(&8&4(!about teaching and enrich pedagogic practices.”D)33)8L%^%=8I/$6+(?%MNNd%G-:)/-$*)*#+/$.#*9)background knowledge andexperience enhance theirthinking in the subject?In what ways will studentsbe able to see their lives%$7$'#$/)".)#2$)%$&/".35)writing, representing,listening, and talkingopportunities used inthe subject area?What skills do studentsneed in order to advocatefor their learning?G-:)'&.)*#+/$.#*9)".#$%$*#*)and input be incorporatedinto the learning?voice and identity41


Practice and ResearchConnections: Adolescent LiteracyCONNECTING STUDENTS’ LIVES TO LEARNINGO&014+4=!(;0(!(0*:!+4(.!2.+'&!049!+9&4(+(6!.AA&1:!:(#9&4(:!0'(+2&!.**.1(#4+(+&:!(.!&?*1&::!(;&+1!.*+4+.4:!049!80D&!9&'+:+.4:!1&=019+4=!(;&+1!/&014+4=!HU.=&1:E!JKKqMG!`;&4!:(#9&4(:P!2.+'&:!049!+9&4(+(+&:!01&!+42+(&9!+4(.!(;&!'/0::1..8E!(;&6!01&!+42./2&9!+4!:&((+4=!/&014+4=!=.0/:E!*#1:#+4=!5#&:(+.4:!.A!1&/&204(!+4(&1&:(E!049!,49+4=!C06:!(.!&?*1&::!and explore who they are. In essence, the/&014+4=!+:!'.44&'(&9!(.!:(#9&4(:P!/+2&:!049!their worlds.VOICE AND IDENTITY MEANS...! 1&'.=4+F+4=!1./&:!049!1&:*.4:+$+/+(+&:!+4!/&014+4=making personal connections]"(#9&4(:P!&4=0=&8&4(!+4!/&014+4=!depends on studying topics that1&/0(&!(.!(;&+1!.C4!/+2&:G!"(#9&4(:!report feeling most engaged when(;&6!;&/*!9&,4&!(;&!'.4(&4(!(.!$&!:(#9+&9a!;02&!(+8&!(.!*#1:#&!01&0:!.A!8.:(!+4(&1&:(a!01&!&4'.#10=&9!(.!10+:&!5#&:(+.4:!049!2+&C!(.*+':!+4!4&C!C06:a!;02&!*0::+.40(&E!+42&4(+2&E!049!1&:*&'(A#/!(&0';&1:a!and sense that their study is openendedrather than predeterminedand predictable.”K(#3&/4%=#$"%@)88(''W%Mathematical Literacy Grades7–12, The Report of the ExpertPanel, 2004! 20/#+4=!*&1:.40/!D4.C/&9=&!049!&?*&1+&4'&!! 049!20/#+4=!(;0(!.A!.(;&1:contributing and welcoming new ideas! 1&'.=4+F+4=!*&1:.40/!$+0:&:!049!092.'0(+4=!for self and others! 1&'.=4+F+4=!;.C!*&1:.40/!2+&C:!049!2+&C:!of others affect thinkingseeking opportunities for purposeful self-expression! *.:+4=!5#&:(+.4:!.A!*&1:.40/!+4(&1&:(! 092.'0(+4=!A.1!';.+'&!+4!/&014+4=!.**.1(#4+(+&:42


Why access it?7&0';+4=!*10'(+'&:!(;0(!&4=0=&!2.+'&!049!+9&4(+(6!in the classroom can support students in taking04!0'(+2&!1./&!+4!(;&+1!/&014+4=G!`;&4!:(#9&4(:!:&&!(;&8:&/2&:!+4!(;&!/&014+4=E!(;&6!01&!8.1&!&4=0=&9!049!;02&!0!:(1.4=&1!:&4:&!.A!:&/AE!(;&6!;02&!=1&0(&1!#49&1:(049+4=!.A!(;&+1!:(1&4=(;:!049!4&&9:E!(;&6!;02&!0!=1&0(&1!:&4:&!.A!$&/.4=+4=E!049!(;&6!9&2&/.*!0!:&4:&!.A!1&:*&'(!049!:&/A)C.1(;!+4!(;&+1!0$+/+(+&:!HB+&/9+4=!e!U#99#'DE!JKKJMGWhile it is important not to treat adolescents as0!:+4=/&E!;.8.=&4.#:!=1.#*!HN/04(.4!e!`..9E!JKKVE!>/2&18044E!JKKVME!(;&1&!01&!:.8&!D&6!characteristics of adolescent learners. Theseinclude their need for sense of purpose and1&/&204'&!+4!C;0(!(;&6!9.G!7;&6!0/:.!;02&!0!tendency to think more about who they are and(.!0::#8&!+9&4(+(+&:!.(;&1!(;04!:(#9&4(G!B.1!&?08*/&E!(&&4:!806!(;+4D!0$.#(!(;&8:&/2&:!0:!musicians, athletes, and employees. So, students806!=102+(0(&!(.C019!/&014+4=!(;0(!(;&6!:&&!0:!$&+4=!1&/&204(!(.!(;&+1!/+2&:G!]`;0(!:(#9&4(:!9.!in school needs to feel important to them andthey need to feel important in doing the work.The feeling of importance is not merely a truismwhen it comes to adolescence. It is perhaps thecentral core of our work with them... It is a matterof creating and re-creating fresh and unrehearsed.**.1(#4+(+&:!(.!80D&!9+:'.2&1+&:!0$.#(!(&?(:E!about language, about the world, and about(;&8:&/2&:\!H>**/&804E!JKKQMG!7;&!1&/0(+.4:;+*!$&(C&&4!2.+'&!049!+9&4(+(6!049!/+(&10'6!+:!+4(&1'.44&'(&9G!T4!.4&!/&2&/E!:(#9&4(:P!0$+/+(+&:!(.!#:&!/+(&10'6!(.!(;+4DE!&?*1&::E!049!1&X&'(!are enhanced when students can draw on their*1+.1!D4.C/&9=&E!&?*&1+&4'&:E!20/#&:E!'#/(#1&!and interests. So when students can relate whatthey are learning to something that is important tothem, they tend to feel more competent and are/+D&/6!(.!(;+4D!8.1&!9&&*/6G!`;&4!:(#9&4(:!,49!1&/&204'&E!8&04+4=!049!+4(&1&:(E!049!C;&4!(;&6!:&&!(;&+1!+9&0:!20/#&9E!:(#9&4(:!=0+4!'.4,9&4'&!+4!(;&+1!(;+4D+4=!049!9&2&/.*!(;&+1!.C4!2.+'&!HT4(01+.!W+4+:(16!.A!@9#'0(+.4E!JKRRMGT4!04.(;&1!/&2&/E!:(#9&4(:!#:&!/+(&10'6!(.!]'.4(1+$#(&!(;&+1!2.+'&\!049!]&?*1&::!(;&+1!+9&4(+(6G\!Students need to use literacy skills, for example,(.!/+:(&4!(.!.(;&1:!H&G=GE!$6!A.'#:+4=E!80D+4=!'.44&'(+.4:!(.!*&1:.40/!(;+4D+4=ME!(0D&!+4!0!201+&(6!.A!*&1:*&'(+2&:!H&G=GE!$6!+9&4(+A6+4=!:+8+/01+(+&:!049!9+AA&1&4'&:!+4!*.+4(:!.A!2+&CME!049!(.!'.88#4+'0(&!(;&+1!+9&0:!H&G=GE!$6!'.4(1+$#(+4=!04!+9&0!+4!0!=1.#*MG“Students can and should participate, notonly in the construction of their own learning&42+1.48&4(:E!$#(!0:!1&:&01';!*01(4&1:!+4!&?08+4+4=!5#&:(+.4:!.A!/&014+4=!049!046(;+4=!else that happens in and around schools.”School Effectiveness Framework, 2010O+:(&4!(.!O#'6!`&:(!'.44&'(!:(#9&4(!2.+'&!049!(;+4D+4=G!7;+:!2+9&.E!*01(!.A!(;&!:&1+&:!O#'6!`&:(S!34:+=;(:!34(.!@AA&'(+2&!


How to access itN&4!O&2+4!:#==&:(:!(;0(!&9#'0(.1:!4&&9!(.!A.'#:!.4!what learners do, why they do it and allow learnersthe opportunities to shape their own learningHO&2+4E!JKKKMG!B.#490(+.40/!(.!0//.C+4=!:(#9&4(:!(.!:;0*&!(;&+1!learning is building classroom communities that are:0A&!049!'.//0$.10(+2&E!049!C;&1&!:(#9&4(:!A&&/!0$/&!(.!(0D&!+4(&//&'(#0/!1+:D:G!"(#9&4(:!'04!;02&!+4*#(!+4!how that classroom community is created. Modelinghow to self-assess needs and take on responsibilityA.1!/&014+4=!*1.2+9&:!:(#9&4(:!C+(;!04!&?*/+'+(!]*+'(#1&\!.A!;.C!(.!9.!(;+:!&AA&'(+2&/6!and appropriately.-1&0(+4=!+45#+1+&:!(;0(!;&/*!09./&:'&4(:!'.44&'(!their learning to personal and real world situations(0*:!+4(.!2.+'&!049!+9&4(+(6G!U&/&204'&!+:!+4'1&0:&9!C;&4!:(#9&4(:!'04!0**/6!C;0(!(;&6P2&!/&014&9!(.!personal decision-making, for example, makingchoices based on studying their ecological footprintor considering a purchase applying mathematical*1.'&::&:G!7;&:&!.**.1(#4+(+&:!;&+=;(&4!1&/&204'&!0:!C&//!0:!9&&*&4+4=!:(#9&4(:P!#49&1:(049+4=!.A!(;&!concepts and ideas under study.".8&!=#+9+4=!*1+4'+*/&:!A.1!0''&::+4=!2.+'&!049!identity include:1. Establish a classroom community wherestudents learn from each other!! HO&C+:!e!_&/!Z0//&E!JKKVMG! JG! @4:#1&!(;0(!0//!2.+'&:!01&!;&019!H&G=GE!#:+4=!! !!! (#14)049)(0/DE!(;+4D!(+8&E!'.//0$.10(+.4M!! !!! HU+2+&1&E!JKKLE!O6/&!e!I&49/&6E!JKRKMG! pG! 7&0';!:D+//:!A.1!0'(+2&!049!0''.#4(0$/&!! !!! './/0$.10(+.4!HU+(';;01(E!JKKJMG4. Connect curriculum to learning goals thatstudents and teachers jointly construct!! H"';.&4$0';!e!o1&&4/&0AE!JKKVMG5. Plan time for students to dialogue with!! *&&1:!(.!&?*/.1&E!1&X&'(E!5#&:(+.4!049!extend their ideas.342+(+4=!:(#9&4(:!(.!'.)'.4:(1#'(!:#''&::!'1+(&1+0!049!/&014+4=!=.0/:!*1.2+9&:!04.(;&1!C06!A.1!(;&8!(.!:;0*&!(;&+1!/&014+4=G!3(!=+2&:!09./&:'&4(:!0!sense of control, and it allows them to better assess(;&8:&/2&:!0:!/&014&1:!049!(.!:&&!(;&+1!'.44&'(+.4!to the learning. The Assessment for Learning!2+9&.!:&1+&:!]O&014+4=!o.0/:!049!"#''&::!-1+(&1+0\!H>@U!o>3m"E!JKRKM!*1.2+9&:!:#==&:(+.4:!.4!;.C!(.!include the input of students in determining andusing learning goals and success criteria.“Teachers should try to help students relate toacademic information through their experiences,=.0/:E!049!+4(&1&:(:G!"(#9&4(:!'04!,49!*&1:.40/!1&/&204'&!+4!0//!D+49:!.A!&2&4(:!+4!(;&!C.1/9!01.#49!them... making material authentically meaningful toeach learner is crucial.”Willis, 200744


Voice and identity in the classroomAccountable talk is talk by students and teacher that responds to and builds on what others in the classroom;02&!:0+9G!3(!+:!A.'#:&9E!8&04+4=A#/E!049!8#(#0//6!$&4&,'+0/!(.!(;&!:*&0D&1!049!/+:(&4&1G!]34!0!'/0::1..8!,//&9!C+(;!0''.#4(0$/&!(0/DE!:(#9&4(:GGG!&?(&49!#49&1:(049+4=:!$6!#:+4=!(;&!:(0(&8&4(:!(;&6!;02&!;&019!A1.8!(;&+1!'/0::80(&:!(.!A.18!4&C!+9&0:\!HB+:;&1E!B1&6!e!U.(;&4$&1=E!JKKLMG!!34!0''.#4(0$/&!(0/DE!$.(;!:*&0D&1!049!/+:(&4&1!#:&!:D+//:!H&G=GE!0:D!5#&:(+.4:!A.1!'/01+,'0(+.4E!1&*;10:&!+9&0:E!#:&!0**1.*1+0(&!$.96!/04=#0=&!049!&6&!'.4(0'(M!049!;02&!1&:*.4:+$+/+(+&:!H&G=GE!:;01&!.**.1(#4+(+&:!(.!:*&0DE!1&:*&'(A#//6!';0//&4=&!+9&0:E!'.8&!(.!'.4:&4:#:MG!N10+4:(.18!(;&:&!:D+//:!049!1&:*.4:+$+/+(+&:!C+(;!:(#9&4(:!and post them in the classroom.o&4&10(&!C+(;!:(#9&4(:!(;&!201+.#:!*#1*.:&:!049!*1.8*(:!A.1!0''.#4(0$/&!(0/DS! >:D!5#&:(+.4:!(.!'/01+A6!#49&1:(049+4=!H&G=GE!P#/%6*)%$(;;%9(%9*+(%#5*)$>>>.?%!*);3%6*)%'#6%$"#$%% %% #4#&/.?%P#/%6*)%4&1(%9(%#/%(7#9-;(%*0%2"#$%6*)%9(#/.M! o+2&!0!1&0:.4!(.!:#**.1(!04!+9&0!H&G=GE!H"&'%+(9&/3'%9(%*0>>>%5(8#)'(>>>?%I%$"&/L%$"&'%&'%$+)(%5(8#)'(>>>M! >:D!A.1!&2+9&4'&!C;&4!:.8&(;+4=!:.#49:!+40''#10(&!.1!20=#&!H&G=GE!I,9%/*$%')+(%#5*)$%$"#$>%P#/%6*)%% %% $(;;%9(%2"6%6*)%$"&/L%&$,'%$+)(.?%P#/%6*)%'"*2%9(%#%-;#8(%&/%$"(%$(7$%$"#$%')--*+$'%6*)+%&3(#.M! o+2&!&2+9&4'&!(.!:#**.1(!:(0(&8&4(:!H&G=GE!I$%'#6'%"(+(i%H1&09!0!*0::0=&!A1.8!0!(&?(!(;0(!+//#:(10(&:!the idea]>?%:(+(%&'%#/*$"(+%'*)+8(%$"#$%'#6'>>>%H1&09!A1.8!04.(;&1!:#**.1(+4=!:.#1'&!.A!+4A.180(+.4MM! i:&!+9&0:!A1.8!.(;&1:!(.!099!(.!6.#1!.C4!H&G=GE!I%#4+((%2&$"i%5(8#)'(%"&'S"(+%&3(#%+(9&/3'%9(%*0iME3#-$(3%0+*9%[&'"(+?%U>?%[+(6?%Y>?%^%D*$"(/5(+4?%P>%CMNNO]>%P*/$(/$\E+(#%P*/1(+'#$&*/'W%:*2%$*%X;#/%U&'8)''&*/\J#'(3%K(''*/'%0*+%U&1(+'(%K#/4)#4(%K(#+/(+'>%E;(7#/3+#?%fEW%E@PU>%ReferencesAER GAINS. K(#+/&/4%A*#;'%#/3%@)88(''%P+&$(+&#W%aE''(''9(/$%0*+%K(#+/&/4%f&3(*%@(+&(',?%E%+('*)+8(%$*%')--*+$%$"(%&9-;(9(/$#$&*/%*0%A+*2&/4%@)88(''W%E''(''9(/$?%Z1#;)#$&*/%#/3%D(-*+$&/4%&/%G/$#+&*%@8"**;'.@9#=0+4:!C&$:+(&S!;((*ShhCCCG&9#=0+4:G'0h4&C:+(&h0&1Jh0&12+9&.h5#&:(+.4+4=G;(8/N&&1:E!nGE!';+&2&8&4(!_+2+:+.4G!HJKRRMG!Discovering Voice. Toronto: Author.`+//+:E!lG!HJKKQMG!J+#&/\[+&(/3;6%@$+#$(4&('%0*+%$"(%I/8;)'&1(%P;#''+**9. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.`..9E!nG!_GE!e!N/04(.4E!`G!@G!H@9:GMG!HJKKVMG!K&$(+#86%I/'$+)8$&*/%0*+%E3*;('8(/$'W%D('(#+8"\J#'(3%X+#8$&8(.m&C!b.1DS!o#+/A.19!


how to use this guide7;+:!1&:.#1'&!+:!+4(&49&9!(.!$&!X&?+$/&!049!0//.C!A.1!0!4#8$&1!.A!&4(16!*.+4(:!049!'.44&'(+.4:!A.1!A0'+/+(0(+4=!*1.A&::+.40/!/&014+4=G!7;&!=#+9&!806!$&!#:&9!+4!201+.#:!'.4(&?(:E!:#';!0:S! './/0$.10(+2&!+45#+16! :';../!+8*1.2&8&4(!*/044+4=!coaching andpeer-to-peer collaboration.-.//0$.10(+2&!+45#+16E!04!&AA&'(+2&!8.9&/!A.1!%.$)&8$&99&9!*1.A&::+.40/!/&014+4=E!+:!0!*1.'&::!#:&9!$6!(&08:!.A!&9#'0(.1:!A.1!*1.A&::+.40/!/&014+4=!(.!+8*1.2&!:(#9&4(!0';+&2&8&4(!049!&4=0=&8&4(G!O&014+4=!.''#1:!9#1+4=!and between team meetings when educators share practice, examine student work and access opportunities(.!$#+/9!(;&+1!+4:(1#'(+.40/!:D+//:!049!D4.C/&9=&)$0:&G!7.!$&!04!&AA&'(+2&!%.$)&8$&99&9!/&014+4=!&?*&1+&4'&E!'.//0$.10(+2&!+45#+16!8#:(!$&!A0'+/+(0(&9E!0/+=4&9!C+(;!&?+:(+4=!=.0/:!049!+4+(+0(+2&:E!049!:#**.1(&9!$6!:';../!and system leaders.H+>F$'#=*,$'"A')I-11&>-%&#"0$)B.J+"%()K$&;)@9#'0(.1:E!C.1D+4=!+4!:#$%&'(!:*&'+,'!'.//0$.10(+2&!+45#+16!(&08:!049!;02+4=!+9&4(+,&9!0!/+(&10'6!049h.1!'#11+'#/#8!/&014+4=!=.0/E!806S!use the components and student indicators to identify literacylearning to support curriculum learning goals! '.4(&?(#0/+F&!(;&!:(#9&4(!+49+'0(.1:!A.1!0!:#$%&'(!01&0use the corresponding teacher practices as starting points for! */044+4=!+4:(1#'(+.4!049!A.1!*1.A&::+.40/!/&014+4=!049!+45#+16refer to the Practice and Research Connections and MinistryResources Related to the Components H>**&49+?!_M!(.!:#**.1(!professional learning.46Interdisciplinary Collaborative Inquiry Team@9#'0(.1:E!C.1D+4=!+4!(&08:!1&*1&:&4(+4=!8#/(+*/&!:#$%&'(!01&0:!049!;02+4=!+9&4(+,&9!0!/+(&10'6!/&014+4=!=.0/!$0:&9!.4!04!0::&::8&4(!049h.1!0!"';../!38*1.2&8&4(!


School and System Improvement Planning Teams@9#'0(.1:E!C.1D+4=!+4!(&08:!A.'#:+4=!.4!+8*1.2&8&4(!*/044+4=!H&G=GE!"';../!38*1.2&8&4(!';+&2&8&4(!HN3


plan$8385Subject-Specific Collaborative Inquiry TeamIdentify a literacy needSelect a learning focus thataddresses the student needL$#$%;".$)$/+'&#-%)1$&%.".3)C"8$85)what and how) required to addressthe area of student need$8385 $8385 $8385 $8385 $8385>!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!(&08!of science teachersacknowledges thatstudents need to9&2&/.*!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!2.'0$#/016!knowledge in order tounderstand sciencecontent. The teamconsiders howliteracy needs aredirectly or indirectlyrelated to curriculumexpectations049!+9&4(+,&:!04!&?*&'(0(+.4a!+G&GE!use appropriateterminology relatedto the explorationof matter, including,but not limited to:combustion, conductor,decomposition,Teachers assess:(#9&4(:Punderstanding of:#$%&'():*&'+,'2.'0$#/016!A.1!04upcoming unit byasking students toidentify unfamiliarwords in a sectionfrom a textbook.Teachers bringsamples of their:(#9&4(:P!C.1D!(.!(;&!professional learningteam and identify:*&'+,'!/+(&10'6!needs connectedto the curriculumlearning goal.Teachers determinethe literacy learningwhich will support thecurriculum learning=.0/H:MGTeachers use theAdolescent LiteracyGuide to identify thecomponents andstudent indicatorsrelated to the learning=.0/H:ME!A.1!&?08*/&SMetacognition"&&D!'/01+,'0(+.4!049support when barriersto learning areencountered.StrategyAccess and use:#$%&'():*&'+,'Teachers use theAdolescent LiteracyGuide to explorepossible teacherpractices whichaddress the literacylearning need:MetacognitionDemonstrate how toidentify any challengesand barriers tolearning, anddetermine possiblesolutions.Strategy(3)>4*1>H(#8"(+jI/_)&+6>-30on.ca/eng/teachers/curriculum.htmlThe chart shows an example of how the Adolescent Literacy Guide may be used$6!0!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!(&08!+42./2&9!+4!(;&!


act observe reflectImplement evidence basedstrategies and actionsMonitor student learningand educator learningExamine, analyze andevaluate results$8385 $8385 $8385Teachers implement the plan for classroom+4:(1#'(+.4!H&G=GE!#:+4=!'.)(&0';+4=MG7&0';&1:!0::&::!:(#9&4(:P!#:&!.A!appropriate terminology in talk andin writing on an ongoing basis.7&0';&1:!040/6F&!(;&!1&:#/(:!A1.8!0::&::8&4(:!(.!9&(&18+4&!:(#9&4(:P!=1.C(;!+4!1&/0(+.4!(.!/&014+4=!=.0/H:M!049!+45#+16!5#&:(+.4GcheckoutProfessional Learning Cycle resourceshttp://www.edugains.ca/newsite/di2/prolearningcycle.html7&0';&1:!#:&!8&(0'.=4+(+.4!(.!1&X&'(on their own practice.7&0';&1:!.$:&12&E!'.)0::&::!049!1&X&'(!.4student work.7&0';&1:!1&A&1!(.!(;&!/&014+4=!=.0/H:M!049:#''&::!'1+(&1+0!0:!(;&6!&?08+4&!&2+9&4'&!.Astudent learning.7&0';&1:!1&X&'(!.4!(;&+1!.C4!/&014+4=!049possible next steps.49


plan$8385Interdisciplinary Collaborative Inquiry TeamIdentify a literacy needSelect a learning focus thataddresses the student needL$#$%;".$)$/+'&#-%)1$&%.".3)C"8$85)what and how) required to addressthe area of student need$8385 $8385 $8385 $8385 $8385Interdisciplinary teamof teachers of grade9 applied coursesconsiders how theSIPSA literacy goald+8*1.2&!:(#9&4(:P!ability to understandimplicitly stated+4A.180(+.4P!'.44&'(:!to their subject areasand uses this as astarting point for their'.//0$.10(+2&!+45#+16Gcheckout"';../!38*1.2&8&4(Plans for Student>';+&2&8&4("@B!349+'0(.1:!"$$-WSS222>(3)>gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/[+#9(2*+Lj(/4;&'">-30Using a selectedassessment toolH&G=GE!3(!"06:E!3!"06E!>49!".!(&8*/0(&M!teachers assess their:(#9&4(:P!0$+/+(6!(.!understand implicitlystated information in asubject related text.Teachers bringsamples of their:(#9&4(:P!C.1D!(.!(;&!professional learning(&08!(.!040/6F&!90(0GcheckoutIt Says, I Say, AndSo in Think Literacy"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S+('*)+8('KIHSLearningMaterials/@)5V(8$@-(8&T8SThinkLiteracy/ThinkLitEnglish.pdfLiteracy AssessmentMatters learningmodule"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>ca/newsite/literacy2/literacyassessmentmatters.htmlN0:&9!.4!&2+9&4'&Eteachers determine theliteracy learning fortheir students.Teachers usethe AdolescentLiteracy Guideto identify thecomponents andstudent indicatorsrelated to the goal, forexample:Critical Literacy>40/6F&!;.C!/04=#0=&is used to exercisepower and/or maintain:(0(#:!5#.GQuestioning>:D!5#&:(+.4:!(;0(clarify, extend thinkingand challenge ideas toprobe more deeply intoan issue or topic.StrategyApply comprehensionstrategies before,during and afterreading, listening,2+&C+4=!(.!9&2&/.*understanding.Teachers usethe AdolescentLiteracy Guideto explore possibleteacher practices whichaddress the literacylearning need:Critical LiteracyExplicitly point out howlanguage is used and;.C!+(!+4X#&4'&:!(;&meaning of textsModel the use of'1+(+'0/!5#&:(+.4:!:#';as !"#$%&'%$"(%#)$"*+,'-)+-*'(.%!"*'(%-*&/$*0%1&(2%&'%-+('(/$(3.Who is advantaged by$"&'%$(7$.%!"*'(%1*&8(&'%9&''&/4.%:*2%3*('the graphicalrepresentation&/(3)>gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/&4=0=&!+4!(;&!'.//0$.10(+2&!C.1DGPJ@jP*;;#5*+#$&1(jH(#8"(+jI/_)&+6>-307;&!d';&'D.#(P!*1.2+9&:!/+4D:!(.!1&:.#1'&:!(;0(!01&!1&/&204(!A.1!this example.50


act observe reflectImplement evidence basedstrategies and actionsMonitor student learningand educator learningExamine, analyze andevaluate results$8385 $8385 $8385Teachers implement the plan for classroom+4:(1#'(+.4!H&G=GE!#:+4=!'.)(&0';+4=MGcheckoutGreater Essex County District"';../!N.019!2+9&.E!8#S/(2'&$(S3&MSprolearningcycle.html51


School Improvement Planning TeamData Analysis / Needs Assessment Smart Goals Targeted Evidence-BasedStrategies and Actions$8385 $8385 $8385"';../!38*1.2&8&4(!';+&2&8&4(!o#+9&!"$$-WSS+('*)+8('>8)++&8);)9>*+4S'(8+($#+&#$S5&-'#ST;('SJIX@EA)&3(>-30"';../!38*1.2&8&4(!


Professional Learning Monitoring Responsibility Evaluation$8385 $8385 $8385"';../!38*1.2&8&4(!8#S/(2'&$(Sdi2/prolearningcycle.htmlcheckout"@B!"';../!"&/A)>::&::8&4(!8#S+('*)+8('KIHSP*#8"&/40*+K&$(+#86AEIY@SK&$(+#86P*#8"&/4[+#9(2*+LjU(8MNBN>-3053


Coaches Working with TeachersAssess learner needsCollaboratively examine evidence and determinean area of need related to adolescent literacyCo-planCollaboratively identify content and instructionalfocus, and establish observation criteria$8385 $8385 $8385$83857;&!(&0';&1!,49:!(;0(!A&C!students engage in learning'.42&1:0(+.4:!+4!'/0::G7;&!(&0';&1!+42+(&:!(;&'.0';!(.!.$:&12&!(;&!'/0::G7;&!'.0';!0=1&&:!(;0(!2&16little talk which supportsthinking is happening in theclassroom.The teacher and the coach usethe Adolescent LiteracyGuide to explore theinformation on theadolescent learner.checkoutLiteracy GAINS CoachingB108&C.1D"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S+('*)+8('KIHSP*#8"&/40*+K&$(+#86AEIY@SK&$(+#86P*#8"&/4[+#9(2*+LjDec2010.pdfThe teacher and thecoach use theAdolescent LiteracyGuide to identify thecomponents and studentindicators related to the goalof increasing student talk tosupport student thinking, forexample,Questioning>:D!5#&:(+.4:!(;0(!'/01+A6Eextend thinking and challengeideas to probe more deeplyinto an issue or topic.Strategyi:&!0'(+2&!1&09+4=E!C1+(+4=E2+&C+4=E!/+:(&4+4=E!:*&0D+4=049!1&*1&:&4(+4=!(&';4+5#&:to record, react and respondto ideas.Voice & IdentityValue their own knowledgeand experience and that of.(;&1:!$6!0'(+2&/6!'.4(1+$#(+4=and welcoming new ideasTeacher and coach use the:(#9&4(!+49+'0(.1:!(.!9&2&/.*goals and success criteriarelated to the literacy need.The teacher and coach use theAdolescent Litearcy Guideto explore possibleteacher practices whichaddress the literacy learningneed:QuestioningModel and use open-ended5#&:(+.4:!(.!&4=0=&students with texts, ideasand issues.Use wait time and'.//0$.10(+2&!:(1#'(#1&:!(.allow students to think0$.#(!5#&:(+.4:!049formulate answers.StrategyScaffold reading, writing,/+:(&4+4=E!:*&0D+4=E!2+&C+4=tasks with explicit teaching.Voice & IdentityEncourage students to1&X&'(!.4!(;&+1!.C4*&1:.40/!2+&C:!049!(.!(0D&them into account in'.//0$.10(+2&!:+(#0(+.4:GThe teacher and coach co-planlessons incorporating theuse of wait time and'.//0$.10(+2&!:(1#'(#1&:!(.support talk and thinkingin the classroom whichwill support content.The teacher and coach use theReferences and MinistryResources Related to theComponents H>**&49+?!_M!+4the Adolescent LiteracyGuide to support theirco-planning.The teacher and coach use thestudent indicators as a:(01(+4=!*.+4(!(.!9&2&/.*.$:&120(+.4!'1+(&1+0GcheckoutCapacity Building Series,O&(P:!70/D!0$.#(!O+:(&4+4="$$-WSS222>(3)>4*1>*/>8#S(/4Sliteracynumeracy/&/'-&+(S+('(#+8"SH#;Lj#5*)$j;&'$(/&/4>-30The chart shows an example of how the Adolescent Literacy Guide may be usedby a teacher and a coach using a literacy coaching cycle.7;&!d&G=GP:!0(!&0';!*.+4(!+4!(;&!:(0=&!*1.2+9&!:*&'+,'!9&(0+/:!1&/0(&9!(.!0!/+(&10'6!4&&9!(;0(!(&0';&1:!'.4:+9&1!0:!(;&6!&4=0=&!+4!(;&!'.//0$.10(+2&!C.1DG7;&!d';&'D.#(P!*1.2+9&:!/+4D:!(.!1&:.#1'&:!(;0(!01&!1&/&204(!A.1!(;+:!&?08*/&G54


Co-teachCollaboratively teach, monitor andgather evidence of student learningCo-reflectCollaboratively share observations andanalyze results to determine next steps$8385 $8385The teacher and coachco-teach a lesson, monitorthe students using.$:&120(+.4!'1+(&1+0!049=0(;&1!&2+9&4'&!.A!student learning relatedto talk and thinking.The teacher and coach assessthe impact of wait time049!'.//0$.10(+2&structures on student talk.7&0';&1!049!'.0';!1&X&'(!.4!their own learning and possiblenext steps.checkoutLearning-focused-.42&1:0(+.4:!049!Shared Reading ino109&!RJ!I+:(.16!2+9&.!"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>ca/newsite/literacy2/videocliplibrary.htmlbuilding & developingrelationshipssupporting adult learning& professional growthThe coach strives tofoster genuine, trustingrelationships withcolleagues and students,guided by a sense ofmutual respect.assess learner needsCollaboratively examine evidenceand determine an area of needrelated to adolescent literacyco-planCollaboratively identifycontent and instructionalfocus, and establishobservation criteriaClassroom LearningThe coach is a guide,facilitator, and co-learnerwho supportscollaborative cultures toattain professionallearning goals.leadinginstructionalpracticeco-reflectCollaboratively shareobservations andanalyze results todetermine next stepsco-teachCollaboratively teach,monitor and gatherevidence of studentlearningconnecting withimprovementplanningThe coach draws on a repertoire ofinstruction and assessment practices tosupport adolescent literacy learning.The coach helps bridge individualprofessional learning goals with schooland board plans for improvement.55


Think0''&::E!8040=&E!'1&0(&!049!&20/#0(&!+4A.180(+.4!+4!.19&1!(.!(;+4D!+80=+40(+2&/6!049!'1+(+'0//6!(.!:./2&!*1.$/&8:!049!80D&!9&'+:+.4:E!+4'/#9+4=!(;.:&!1&/0(&9!(.!+::#&:!.A!A0+14&::E!&5#+(6!049!:.'+0/!%#:(+'&Express#:&!/04=#0=&!049!+80=&:!+4!1+';!049!201+&9!A.18:!(.!1&09E!C1+(&E!/+:(&4E!:*&0DE!2+&CE!1&*1&:&4(E!discuss and think critically about ideasCritical Literacy1&A&1:!(.!:(#9&4(:!'1+(+'0//6!040/6F+4=!049!&20/#0(+4=!(;&!8&04+4=!.A!(&?(!0:!+(!1&/0(&:!(.!+::#&:!.A!&5#+(6E!*.C&1E!049!:.'+0/!%#:(+'&!(.!inform a critical stance, response and/or actionMetacognition1&A&1:!(.!:(#9&4(:!(0D+4=!0'(+2&!'.4(1./!.2&1!their thinking processes so that they understand(;&8:&/2&:!0:!/&014&1:E!(;&6!#49&1:(049!0!=+2&4!(0:DE!049!(;&6!#49&1:(049!0!201+&(6!.A!:(10(&=+&:!049!;.C!(.!#:&!(;&8!+4!0!201+&(6!.A!:+(#0(+.4:Questioning1&A&1:!(.!:(#9&4(:P!'#1+.:+(6E!&?*/.10(+.4E!049!+45#+16!(.!&2.D&E!&?*.:&!049!&?(&49!(;&+1!(;+4D+4=!Students Students StudentsU&'.=4+F&!(;0(!(&?(:!01&!'1&0(&9!$6!0#(;.1:!C;.!;02&!'&1(0+4!*&1:*&'(+2&:!049!$+0:&:U&'.=4+F&!(;0(!*.+4(!.A!2+&C!+4X#&4'&:!;.C!a text is interpreted and understood_&(&18+4&!C;.:&!2.+'&:!01&!*1&:&4(!049!C;.:&!2.+'&:!01&!8+::+4=!A1.8!(;&!(&?(!@20/#0(&!:.#1'&:!A.1!$+0:E!1&/+0$+/+(6E!A0+14&::!049!20/+9+(6>40/6F&!;.C!/04=#0=&!+:!#:&9!(.!&?&1'+:&!*.C&1!049h.1!80+4(0+4!:(0(#:!5#.!Take a stance and engage in a response or action+4!(;&!+4(&1&:(!.A!&5#+(6E!A0+14&::!049!:.'+0/!%#:(+'&!i:&!(&';4./.=6!(.!:&&D!9+2&1=&4(!*&1:*&'(+2&:E!interact with authentic audiences, and express ideasIdentify their own understandings in relationto learning goals and success criteriai:&!&:(0$/+:;&9!:#''&::!'1+(&1+0!049!9&:'1+*(+2&!feedback to monitor learning and plan next stepsAre aware of their own actions and beliefs049!1&'.=4+F&!;.C!(;&+1!0((+(#9&:E!;0$+(:!049!9+:*.:+(+.4:!+4X#&4'&!(;&!&?(&4(!.A!(;&+1!/&014+4=Identify, communicate and act on their learning*1&A&1&4'&:!049!+49+2+9#0/!:(1&4=(;:>::&::!/&014+4=!:+(#0(+.4:!049!9&2&/.*!*/04:!.A!0'(+.4E!and select strategies and resources accordinglyU&X&'(!.4!(;&+1!/&014+4=!049!&4=0=&!+4!'.42&1:0(+.4:!(.!&?*/0+4E!5#&:(+.4!049!1&,4&!(;&+1!(;+4D+4="&&D!'/01+,'0(+.4!049!:#**.1(!C;&4!barriers to learning are encountered@?*/.1&E!C.49&1!049!+42&:(+=0(&!(.!:./2&!problems and build understanding>:D!5#&:(+.4:!(;0(!'/01+A6E!&?(&49!thinking and challenge ideas to probemore deeply into an issue or topic


M$7$'#0**/6!8&(0'.=4+(+2&!D4.C/&9=&!049!:D+//:E!9&2&/.*!:&/A)092.'0'6E!0!:&4:&!.A!:&/A)&A,'0'6!049!+4(&1&:(!+4!/+A&)/.4=!/&014+4=Strategyrefers to students purposefully selecting and#:+4=!(&';4+5#&:!049!*1.'&::&:!+4!.19&1!(.!construct and communicate meaningVoice & Identity1&A&1:!(.!:(#9&4(:P!9&'+:+.4:E!';.+'&:!049!0'(+.4:!(;0(!092.'0(&!A.1!(;&+1!/&014+4=!049!80D&!'.44&'(+.4:!(.!(;&+1!&?*&1+&4'&E!20/#&:E!'#/(#1&E!049!+4(&1&:(:StudentsSet goals, establish success criteria, createand follow plans, make judgments and9&(&18+4&!(;&!&AA&'(+2&4&::!.A!*/04:i:&!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!*1.'&::&:!(.!'1&0(&E!:./2&!*1.$/&8:E!1&:&01';E!80D&!9&'+:+.4:E!1&2+:&!(;+4D+4=E!'.88#4+'0(&!+9&0:!049!1&X&'(!.4!/&014+4=Apply comprehension strategies before,during and after reading, listening,2+&C+4=!(.!9&2&/.*!#49&1:(049+4=>**/6!D4.C/&9=&!.A!.1=04+F0(+.40/!*0((&14:E!(&?(!:(1#'(#1&:!049!A&0(#1&:!(.!402+=0(&!049!09204'&!#49&1:(049+4=!.A!(&?(>''&::!049!#:&!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!2.'0$#/016!to precisely communicate ideasi:&!0'(+2&!1&09+4=E!C1+(+4=E!2+&C+4=E!/+:(&4+4=E!:*&0D+4=!049!1&*1&:&4(+4=!(&';4+5#&:!(.!record, react and respond to ideasUse a writing process to generate, explore,9&2&/.*!049!1&,4&!C1+(+4=!A.1!*01(+'#/01!purposes, forms and audiences"&/&'(!049!#:&!0**1.*1+0(&!.1=04+F&1:!(.!=0(;&1E!manage and communicate information and ideasTeachersModel the use of goals to create,follow and assess a planW.9&/!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!*1.'&::&:!049!&?*/0+4!;.C!(;&6!1&X&'(!(;+4D+4=!+4!(;&!:#$%&'(!01&0Model comprehension strategiesI3(/$&06%$"(%;&$(+#86%3(9#/3'%*0%$"(%')5V(8$%#+(#


thinkmetacognitione x p r e s svoice &identitystrategyAdolescentLEARNERquestioningcriticalliteracyr e f l e c t58


Appendix A – School Effectiveness Framework Connections7;&!';01(!$&/.C!:;.C:!:08*/&!'.44&'(+.4:!$&(C&&4!"';../!@AA&'(+2&4&::!B108&C.1D!H"@BM!+49+'0(.1:!and the adolescent literacy components and student indicators. More explicit connections may be made by1&A&11+4=!(.!(;&!&2+9&4'&!C;+';!:#**.1(!&0';!.A!(;&!"@B!+49+'0(.1:GCritical Literacy SEF Indicator Metacognition SEF IndicatorU&'.=4+F&!(;0(!texts are created by0#(;.1:!C;.!;02&!'&1(0+4!*&1:*&'(+2&:!and biases2.2Processes and practices are designed(.!9&&*&4!'.4(&4(!D4.C/&9=&!049!1&,4&!instruction to support student learning049!0';+&2&8&4(GIdentify their ownunderstandings inrelation to learning goalsand success criteria1.1Students and teachers share a common understandingof the learning goals and related success criteria.U&'.=4+F&!(;0(!*.+4(!.A!2+&C!+4X#&4'&:!;.C!0!text is interpretedand understood4.3Teaching and learning incorporates 21st-&4(#16!'.4(&4(E!=/.$0/!*&1:*&'(+2&:E!learning skills, resources and technologies.Use establishedsuccess criteria and9&:'1+*(+2&!A&&9$0'D!to monitor learningand plan next steps1.2_#1+4=!/&014+4=E!:(#9&4(:!1&'&+2&!.4=.+4=E!9&:'1+*(+2&!A&&9$0'D!$0:&9!.4!(;&!:#''&::!criteria from the teacher and from peers.1.3Students are taught, and regularly use self-assessment skills(.!8.4+(.1!(;&+1!*1.=1&::!(.C019!0';+&2+4=!/&014+4=!=.0/:E!and to set their own learning goals within the context of theT4(01+.!'#11+'#/#8!049h.1!349+2+9#0/!@9#'0(+.4!!'/&01!&8*;0:+:!.4!;+=;!/&2&/:!.A!0';+&2&8&4(!+4!/+(&10'6!049!4#8&10'6!+:!&2+9&4(!(;1.#=;.#(!(;&!:';../GAssess learning:+(#0(+.4:!049!9&2&/.*!plans of action, andselect strategies andresources accordingly4.6U&:.#1'&:!A.1!:(#9&4(:!01&!1&/&204(E!'#11&4(E!0''&::+$/&!049!+4'/#:+2>ake a stance andengage in a responseor action in the interest.A!&5#+(6E!A0+14&::!and social justice4.3Teaching and learning incorporates 21st-&4(#16!'.4(&4(E!=/.$0/!*&1:*&'(+2&:E!learning skills, resources and technologies.U&X&'(!.4!(;&+1!learning and engage+4!'.42&1:0(+.4:!(.!&?*/0+4E!5#&:(+.4!049!1&,4&!(;&+1!(;+4D+4=4.3Teaching and learning incorporates 21st-&4(#16!'.4(&4(E!=/.$0/!*&1:*&'(+2&:E!/&014+4=!skills, resources and technologies.Use technology(.!:&&D!9+2&1=&4(!*&1:*&'(+2&:E!+4(&10'(!with authenticaudiences, andexpress ideas4.3Teaching and learning incorporates 21st-&4(#16!'.4(&4(E!=/.$0/!*&1:*&'(+2&:E!learning skills, resources and technologies."&&D!'/01+,'0(+.4!049!support when barriers tolearning are encountered1.5>!201+&(6!.A!20/+9!049!1&/+0$/&!0::&::8&4(!90(0!+:!used by students and teachers to continuouslymonitor learning, to inform instruction andassessment and to determine next steps.2.2Processes and practices are designed to deepen'.4(&4(!D4.C/&9=&!049!1&,4&!+4:(1#'(+.4!(.!:#**.1(!:(#9&4(!/&014+4=!049!0';+&2&8&4(G59


Questioning SEF Indicator Strategy SEF IndicatorExplore, wonder and+42&:(+=0(&!(.!:./2&!problems and buildunderstanding1.3Students are taught, and regularly useself-assessment skills to monitor their*1.=1&::!(.C019!0';+&2+4=!/&014+4=!=.0/:E!and to set their own learning goals within(;&!'.4(&?(!.A!(;&!T4(01+.!'#11+'#/#8!049h.1!349+2+9#0/!@9#'0(+.4!!'/&01!&8*;0:+:!.4!;+=;!/&2&/:!.A!0';+&2&8&4(!+4!/+(&10'6!049!4#8&10'6!+:!&2+9&4(!(;1.#=;.#(!(;&!:';../Gi:&!:&/A)5#&:(+.4+4=!to assess readinessand guide learning1.3Students are taught, and regularly useself-assessment skills to monitor their*1.=1&::!(.C019!0';+&2+4=!/&014+4=!=.0/:E!and to set their own learning goals within(;&!'.4(&?(!.A!(;&!T4(01+.!!'#11+'#/#8!049h.1!349+2+9#0/!@9#'0(+.4!


Voice & IdentitySEF IndicatorU&'.=4+F&!(;&+1!1./&:!and responsibilities intheir own learning1.1Students and teachers share a common understandingof the learning goals and related success criteria.1.3Students are taught, and regularly use self-assessment skills(.!8.4+(.1!(;&+1!*1.=1&::!(.C019!0';+&2+4=!/&014+4=!=.0/:E!and to set their own learning goals within the context of theT4(01+.!'#11+'#/#8!049h.1!349+2+9#0/!@9#'0(+.4!92.'0(&!A.1!:&/A!049!.(;&1:!(.!09204'&!/&014+4=2.5T1=04+F0(+.40/!:(1#'(#1&:!01&!'.;&1&4(E!X&?+$/&!and respond to the needs of students.1.2_#1+4=!/&014+4=E!:(#9&4(:!1&'&+2&!.4=.+4=E!9&:'1+*(+2&!A&&9$0'D!$0:&9!.4!(;&!:#''&::!criteria from the teacher and from peers.U&'.=4+F&!;.C!*&1:.40/!2+&C:!049!(;&!2+&C:!.A!others can affect thinking2.5T1=04+F0(+.40/!:(1#'(#1&:!01&!'.;&1&4(E!X&?+$/&!and respond to the needs of students.4.2>!'/&01!&8*;0:+:!.4!;+=;!/&2&/:!.A!0';+&2&8&4(!+4!/+(&10'6!049!4#8&10'6!+:!&2+9&4(!(;1.#=;.#(!(;&!:';../GSeek opportunities forpurposeful self-expression toauthentic audiences aboutmeaningful topics and issues4.4Learning is deepened through authentic,1&/&204(!049!8&04+4=A#/!:(#9&4(!+45#+16G>92.'0(&!A.1!';.+'&!+4!learning opportunities3.17;&!(&0';+4=!049!/&014+4=!&42+1.48&4(!+:!+4'/#:+2&!049!1&X&'(:!+49+2+9#0/!:(#9&4(!:(1&4=(;:E!needs and learning preferences.Set personal goals and exploreideas of personal interest1&/&204(!(.!(.*+':!.A!:(#963.2"';../!*1.=108:!+4'.1*.10(&!:(#9&4(:P!:(0(&9!*1+.1+(+&:!049!1&X&'(!(;&!9+2&1:+(6E!4&&9:!049!interests of the school population.4.4Learning is deepened through authentic,1&/&204(!049!8&04+4=A#/!:(#9&4(!+45#+16G5.1Programs, pathways and career planning meet thelearning needs and interests of all students.61


Appendix B – Curriculum ConnectionsLiteracy supports the learning of all curriculum expectations. The chart below shows the explicit connectionsbetween Grade 8 Science and Technology curriculum expectations and the components and studentindicators. This may be used as a template for examining links between literacy and the curriculumexpectations in other subjects or courses.Understanding Life – Systems CellsRG!0::&::!(;&!+8*0'(!.A!'&//!$+./.=6!.4!+49+2+9#0/:E!:.'+&(6E!049!(;&!&42+1.48&4(aJG!+42&:(+=0(&!A#4'(+.4:!049!*1.'&::&:!.A!*/04(!049!04+80/!'&//:a3. demonstrate an understanding of the basic structure and function of plant and animal cells and cell processes.H,$'"A')?6,$'#&#"-.* Potential Component Connection H,$'"A')?6,$'#&#"-.* Potential Component Connection1.1 assess the role of selectedtechnologies in enhancingour understanding of cellsand cellular processesQuestioning>:D!5#&:(+.4:!(;0(!'/01+A6E!&?(&49!thinking and challenge ideas to probemore deeply into an issue or topicJGf!#:&!0!201+&(6!.A!A.18:!H&G=GE!.10/E!C1+((&4E!=10*;+'E8#/(+8&9+0M!(.!'.88#4+'0(&!with different audiences andA.1!0!201+&(6!.A!*#1*.:&:StrategySelect and use appropriate.1=04+F&1:!(.!=0(;&1E!8040=&!049!communicate information and ideas1.2 assess the potential that ourunderstanding of cells and cell processes;0:!A.1!$.(;!$&4&,'+0/!049!;018A#/!&AA&'(:!.4!;#804!;&0/(;!049!(;&!&42+1.48&4(E!(0D+4=!9+AA&1&4(!*&1:*&'(+2&:!+4(.!0''.#4(!Critical Literacy@20/#0(&!:.#1'&:!A.1!$+0:E!1&/+0$+/+(6E!A0+14&::!049!20/+9+(6Voice & IdentityMake personal connections to textand task during reading, writing,speaking, listening and representing3.1 demonstrate an understandingof the postulatesof the cell theory2.1 follow established safetyprocedures for handlingapparatus and materials and usemicroscopes correctly and safely3.2 identify structures andorganelles in cells, including thenucleus, cell membrane, cell wall,';/.1.*/0:(:E!20'#./&E!8+(.';.491+0E!and cytoplasm, and explainthe basic functions of each2.2 use a microscope correctly and:0A&/6!(.!,49!049!.$:&12&!'.8*.4&4(:!of plant and animal cells and make0''#10(&!910C+4=:!.A!(;&+1!.$:&120(+.4:3.3 compare the structure andfunction of plant and animal cells2.3 prepare dry- and wet-mount:/+9&:!.A!0!201+&(6!.A!.$%&'(:!for use with a microscope3.4 explain the processes ofdiffusion and osmosis andtheir roles within a cellJGc!#:&!:'+&4(+,'!+45#+16hexperimentation skills(.!+42&:(+=0(&!(;&!*1.'&::&:!of osmosis and diffusionStrategyi:&!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!*1.'&::&:!(.!'1&0(&E!:./2&!*1.$/&8:E!1&:&01';E!80D&!9&'+:+.4:E!1&2+:&!(;+4D+4=E!'.88#4+'0(&!+9&0:!049!1&X&'(!.4!/&014+4=3.5 identify unicellularorganisms and multicellularorganisms, and compareways in which they meettheir basic needsQuestioning>:D!5#&:(+.4:!(;0(!'/01+A6E!&?(&49!thinking and challenge ideas to probemore deeply into an issue or topic2.5 use appropriate science049!(&';4./.=6!2.'0$#/016Eincluding organelle, diffusion,.:8.:+:E!'&//!(;&.16E!:&/&'(+2&!permeability, membrane, stage,and eyepiece, in oral andwritten communicationStrategyAccess and use subject-:*&'+,'!2.'0$#/016!(.!*1&'+:&/6!communicate ideaspGf!9&:'1+$&!(;&!.1=04+F0(+.4!.A!'&//:!into tissues, organs, and systems62


Understanding Structures and Mechanisms – Systems in ActionRG!0::&::!(;&!*&1:.40/E!:.'+0/E!049h.1!&42+1.48&4(0/!+8*0'(:!.A!0!:6:(&8E!049!&20/#0(&!!!!!!!!!+8*1.2&8&4(:!(.!0!:6:(&8!049h.1!0/(&140(+2&!C06:!.A!8&&(+4=!(;&!:08&!4&&9:aJG!+42&:(+=0(&!0!C.1D+4=!:6:(&8!049!(;&!C06:!+4!C;+';!'.8*.4&4(:!.A!(;&!:6:(&8!'.4(1+$#(&!(.!+(:!9&:+1&9!A#4'(+.4apG!9&8.4:(10(&!04!#49&1:(049+4=!.A!9+AA&1&4(!(6*&:!.A!:6:(&8:!049!(;&!A0'(.1:!(;0(!'.4(1+$#(&!(.!(;&+1!:0A&!049!&A,'+&4(!.*&10(+.4GH,$'"A')?6,$'#&#"-.* Potential Component Connection H,$'"A')?6,$'#&#"-.* Potential Component Connection1.1 assess the social, economic,049!&42+1.48&4(0/!+8*0'(:!of automating systemsQuestioning@?*/.1&E!C.49&1!049!+42&:(+=0(&!(.!:./2&!problems and build understandingpGR!+9&4(+A6!201+.#:!(6*&:!.A!:6:(&8:!RGJ!0::&::!(;&!+8*0'(!.4!+49+2+9#0/:E!:.'+&(6E!049!(;&!&42+1.48&4(!.A!0/(&140(+2&!C06:!.A!8&&(+4=!4&&9:!that are currently met by existingsystems, taking different points.A!2+&C!+4(.!'.4:+9&10(+.4Critical Literacy@20/#0(&!:.#1'&:!A.1!$+0:E!1&/+0$+/+(6E!A0+14&::!049!20/+9+(63.2 identify the purpose, inputs,049!.#(*#(:!.A!201+.#:!:6:(&8:!2.1 follow established safetyprocedures for working withapparatus, tools, materials,and electrical systemspGp!+9&4(+A6!(;&!201+.#:!*1.'&::&:!and components of a systemthat allow it to perform itsA#4'(+.4!&A,'+&4(/6!049!:0A&/6JGJ!+42&:(+=0(&!(;&!C.1D!9.4&!+4!0!201+&(6!.A!&2&16906!0'(+2+(+&:!049!1&'.19!(;&!,49+4=:!5#04(+(0(+2&/6:Strategyi:&!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!*1.'&::&:!(.!'1&0(&E!:./2&!*1.$/&8:E!1&:&01';E!80D&!9&'+:+.4:E!1&2+:&!(;+4D+4=E!'.88#4+'0(&!+9&0:!049!1&X&'(!.4!/&014+4=3.4 compare, using examples,(;&!:'+&4(+,'!9&,4+(+.4!C+(;!(;&!&2&16906!#:&!.A!(;&!(&18:!C.1DE!A.1'&E!&4&1=6E!049!&A,'+&4'6StrategySelect and use appropriate.1=04+F&1:!(.!=0(;&1E!8040=&!049!communicate information and ideasJGp!#:&!:'+&4(+,'!+45#+16h&?*&1+8&4(0(+.4!:D+//:!(.!+42&:(+=0(&!8&';04+'0/!09204(0=&!+4!0!201+&(6!of mechanisms and simplemachinesStrategyi:&!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!*1.'&::&:!(.!'1&0(&E!:./2&!*1.$/&8:E!1&:&01';E!80D&!9&'+:+.4:E!1&2+:&!(;+4D+4=E!'.88#4+'0(&!+9&0:!049!1&X&'(!.4!/&014+4=3.5 understand and use the formulaC.1D!s!A.1'&!t!9+:(04'&!H`!s!B!!t!9M!to establish the relationship betweenC.1DE!A.1'&E!049!9+:(04'&!8.2&9!parallel to the force in simple systemsJGc!#:&!(&';4./.=+'0/!*1.$/&8):./2+4=!:D+//:!(.!+42&:(+=0(&!0!:6:(&8!(;0(!performs a function or meets a needQuestioning@?*/.1&E!C.49&1!049!+42&:(+=0(&!(.!:./2&!problems and build understandingMetacognitionUse established success criteria049!9&:'1+*(+2&!A&&9$0'D!(.!8.4+(.1!learning and plan next steps3.6 calculate the mechanical09204(0=&!HW>!s!A.1'&!4&&9&9!C+(;.#(!0!:+8*/&!80';+4&!9+2+9&9!$6!A.1'&!4&&9&9!C+(;!0!:+8*/&!80';+4&M!.A!201+.#:!8&';04+'0/!:6:(&8:!JGq!+42&:(+=0(&!(;&!+4A.180(+.4!H&G=GE!.C4&1P:!804#0/!A.1!0!'01E!C&0(;&1!092+:.1+&:!A.1!0!1&=+.4E!*&:(!A.1&'0:(:hC014+4=:!A.1!0!'1.*h1&=+.4M!049!:#**.1(!H&G=GE!0!(&';4+'0/!:#**.1(!/+4&!A.1!'.8*#(&1:M!*1.2+9&9!(.!'.4:#8&1:hclients to ensure that a systemA#4'(+.4:!:0A&/6!049!&AA&'(+2&/6Strategy>**/6!D4.C/&9=&!.A!.1=04+F0(+.40/!*0((&14:E!(&?(!:(1#'(#1&:!049!A&0(#1&:!(.!402+=0(&!049!09204'&!#49&1:(049+4=!.A!(&?(!Questioning>:D!5#&:(+.4:!(;0(!'/01+A6E!&?(&49!thinking and challenge ideas to probemore deeply into an issue or topic3.7 explain ways in whichmechanical systems produceheat, and describe ways to make(;&:&!:6:(&8:!8.1&!&A,'+&4(!2.6 use appropriate science049!(&';4./.=6!2.'0$#/016E+4'/#9+4=!8&';04+'0/!09204(0=&E!+4*#(E!.#(*#(E!A1+'(+.4E!=102+(6E!A.1'&:E!049!&A,'+&4'6E!+4!.10/!and written communicationStrategy>''&::!049!#:&!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!2.'0$#/016!to precisely communicate ideas3.8 describe systems that;02&!+8*1.2&9!(;&!*1.9#'(+2+(6!.A!201+.#:!+49#:(1+&:!JGQ!#:&!0!201+&(6!.A!A.18:!H&G=GE!oral, written, graphic,8#/(+8&9+0M!(.!'.88#4+'0(&!with different audiences andA.1!0!201+&(6!.A!*#1*.:&:StrategySelect and use appropriate.1=04+F&1:!(.!=0(;&1E!8040=&!049!communicate information and ideas3.9 identify social factors that+4X#&4'&!(;&!&2./#(+.4of a systemQuestioning>:D!5#&:(+.4:!(;0(!'/01+A6E!extend thinking and challengeideas to probe more deeplyinto an issue or topic63


Understanding Matter and Energy – FluidsRG!040/6F&!;.C!(;&!*1.*&1(+&:!.A!X#+9:!01&!#:&9!+4!201+.#:!(&';4./.=+&:E!049!0::&::!!!!!(;&!+8*0'(!.A!(;&:&!!(&';4./.=+&:!.4!:.'+&(6!049!(;&!&42+1.48&4(aJG!+42&:(+=0(&!(;&!*1.*&1(+&:!.A!X#+9:apG!9&8.4:(10(&!04!!#49&1:(049+4=!.A!(;&!*1.*&1(+&:!049!#:&:!.A!X#+9:GH,$'"A')?6,$'#&#"-.* Potential Component Connection H,$'"A')?6,$'#&#"-.* Potential Component Connection1.1 assess the social, economic,049!&42+1.48&4(0/!+8*0'(:!.A!selected technologies that are$0:&9!.4!(;&!*1.*&1(+&:!.A!X#+9:Questioningi:&!(&';4./.=6!(.!*.:&!5#&:(+.4:!049!&?*/.1&!9+2&1=&4(!*&1:*&'(+2&:JGL!#:&!0!201+&(6!.A!A.18:!H&G=GE!.10/E!C1+((&4E!=10*;+'E8#/(+8&9+0M!(.!'.88#4+'0(&!with different audiences andA.1!0!201+&(6!.A!*#1*.:&:StrategySelect and use appropriate.1=04+F&1:!(.!=0(;&1E!8040=&!049!communicate information and ideasRGJ!0::&::!(;&!+8*0'(!.A!X#+9!:*+//:!.4!:.'+&(6!049!(;&!&42+1.48&4(E!including the cost of the cleanup049!(;&!&AA.1(!+42./2&9Critical Literacy@20/#0(&!:.#1'&:!A.1!$+0:E!1&/+0$+/+(6E!A0+14&::!049!20/+9+(6Questioningi:&!(&';4./.=6!(.!*.:&!5#&:(+.4:!049!&?*/.1&!9+2&1=&4(!*&1:*&'(+2&:3.1 demonstrate an understanding.A!2+:'.:+(6!049!'.8*01&!(;&!2+:'.:+(6!.A!201+.#:!/+5#+9:2.1 follow established safety practicesfor using apparatus, tools, and materials3.2 describe the relationship$&(C&&4!80::E!2./#8&E!049!density as a property of matterJGJ!9&(&18+4&!(;&!80::)(.)2./#8&!10(+.!.A!different amounts of the same substance3.3 explain the difference$&(C&&4!:./+9:E!/+5#+9:E!049!gases in terms of density, usingthe particle theory of matterJGp!+42&:(+=0(&!049!'.8*01&!(;&!9&4:+(6!.A!0!201+&(6!.A!/+5#+9:!Questioning>:D!5#&:(+.4:!(;0(!'/01+A6E!&?(&49!thinking and challenge ideas to probemore deeply into an issue or topic3.4 explain the difference between/+5#+9:!049!=0:&:!+4!(&18:!.A!(;&+1!compressibility and how theircompressibility affects theirusageJGc!+42&:(+=0(&!0**/+'0(+.4:!.A!(;&!*1+4'+*/&:!.A!X#+9!8&';04+':!Questioning@?*/.1&E!C.49&1!049!+42&:(+=0(&!(.!:./2&!problems and build understanding3.5 determine the buoyancy.A!04!.$%&'(E!=+2&4!+(:!9&4:+(6E!+4!0!201+&(6!.A!X#+9:!JGq!#:&!:'+&4(+,'!+45#+16hexperimentation skillsto identify factors that affect theX.C!10(&:!.A!201+.#:!X#+9:Strategyi:&!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!*1.'&::&:!(.!'1&0(&E!:./2&!*1.$/&8:E!1&:&01';E!80D&!9&'+:+.4:E!1&2+:&!(;+4D+4=E!'.88#4+'0(&!+9&0:!049!1&X&'(!.4!/&014+4=pGf!&?*/0+4!+4!5#0/+(0(+2&!(&18:!(;&!relationship between pressure,2./#8&E!049!(&8*&10(#1&!C;&4!0!/+5#+9!H&G=GE!C0(&1M!.1!0!=0:!H&G=GE!0+1M!+:compressed or heatedQuestioning>:D!5#&:(+.4:!(;0(!'/01+A6E!&?(&49!thinking and challenge ideas to probemore deeply into an issue or topicJGf!#:&!(&';4./.=+'0/!*1.$/&8):./2+4=!:D+//:!(.!9&:+=4E!$#+/9E!049!(&:(!9&2+'&:!that use pneumatic or hydraulic systems3.7 explain how forces are transferred+4!0//!9+1&'(+.4:!+4!X#+9:!H


Understanding Earth & Space Systems – Water SystemsRG!0::&::!(;&!+8*0'(!.A!;#804!0'(+2+(+&:!049!(&';4./.=+&:!.4!(;&!:#:(0+40$+/+(6!.A!C0(&1!1&:.#1'&:aJG!+42&:(+=0(&!A0'(.1:!(;0(!0AA&'(!/.'0/!C0(&1!5#0/+(6apG!9&8.4:(10(&!04!#49&1:(049+4=!.A!(;&!';010'(&1+:(+':!.A!(;&!&01(;P:!C0(&1!:6:(&8:!!!!!049!(;&!+4X#&4'&!.A!C0(&1!:6:(&8:!.4!0!:*&'+,'!1&=+.4GH,$'"A')?6,$'#&#"-.* Potential Component Connection H,$'"A')?6,$'#&#"-.* Potential Component ConnectionRGR!&20/#0(&!*&1:.40/!C0(&1!'.4:#8*(+.4E!compare it with personal waterconsumption in other countries, andpropose a plan of action to reducepersonal water consumption to helpaddress water sustainability issuesCritical LiteracyTake a stance and engage in aresponse or action in the interest of&5#+(6E!A0+14&::!049!:.'+0/!%#:(+'&!Questioning@?*/.1&E!C.49&1!049!+42&:(+=0(&!(.!:./2&!problems and build understanding2.6 use appropriate science049!(&';4./.=6!2.'0$#/016E!+4'/#9+4=!C0(&1!(0$/&E!05#+A&1Epolar ice-cap, and salinity, in oraland written communicationStrategyAccess and use subject-:*&'+,'!2.'0$#/016!(.!*1&'+:&/6!communicate ideasRGJ!0::&::!;.C!201+.#:!8&9+0!sources address issues relatedto the impact of human0'(+2+(+&:!.4!(;&!/.4=)(&18!sustainability of local, national, orinternational water systemsCritical LiteracyU&'.=4+F&!(;0(!(&?(:!01&!'1&0(&9!$6!0#(;.1:!C;.!;02&!'&1(0+4!*&1:*&'(+2&:!049!$+0:&:Questioningi:&!(&';4./.=6!(.!*.:&!5#&:(+.4:!049!&?*/.1&!9+2&1=&4(!*&1:*&'(+2&:JGQ!#:&!0!201+&(6!.A!A.18:!H&G=GE!.10/E!C1+((&4E!=10*;+'E8#/(+8&9+0M!(.!'.88#4+'0(&!with different audiences andA.1!0!201+&(6!.A!*#1*.:&:StrategySelect and use appropriate.1=04+F&1:!(.!=0(;&1E!8040=&!049!communicate information and ideas1.3 assess the impact on local and=/.$0/!C0(&1!:6:(&8:!.A!0!:'+&4(+,'!9+:'.2&16!.1!(&';4./.=+'0/!+44.20(+.4Questioning@?*/.1&E!C.49&1!049!+42&:(+=0(&!(.!:./2&!problems and build understandingpGR!+9&4(+A6!(;&!201+.#:!:(0(&:!.A!C0(&1!.4!(;&!&01(;P:!:#1A0'&E!(;&+1!9+:(1+$#(+.4E!1&/0(+2&!08.#4(:E!049!circulation, and the conditionsunder which they exist2.1 follow established safety proceduresfor the use of apparatus and chemicals3.2 demonstrate an understandingof the watershed as a fundamentalgeographic unit, and explain howit relates to water managementand planningJGJ!+42&:(+=0(&!;.C!8#4+'+*0/+(+&:!*1.'&::!C0(&1!H&G=GE!.$(0+4!+(E!(&:(!+(E!049!(1&0(!+(M!049!8040=&!C0(&1Questioning>:D!5#&:(+.4:!(;0(!'/01+A6E!&?(&49!thinking and challenge ideas to probemore deeply into an issue or topic3.3 explain how humanand natural factors causechanges in the water tableJGp!(&:(!C0(&1!:08*/&:!A.1!0!201+&(6!of chemical characteristicsQuestioning@?*/.1&E!C.49&1!049!+42&:(+=0(&!(.!:./2&!problems and build understandingMetacognitionUse established success criteria049!9&:'1+*(+2&!A&&9$0'D!(.!8.4+(.1!learning and plan next steps3.4 identify factors that affect(;&!:+F&!.A!=/0'+&1:!049!*./01!ice-caps, and describe theeffects of these changes onlocal and global water systemsJGc!#:&!:'+&4(+,'!+45#+16h1&:&01';!:D+//:!(.!+42&:(+=0(&!/.'0/!C0(&1!+::#&:"08*/&!=#+9+4=!5#&:(+.4:S!`;&1&!9.&:!6.#1!/.'0/!C0(&1!:#**/6!'.8&!A1.8j!I.C!8+=;(!6.#!049!6.#1!A08+/6!;02&!$&'.8&!0C01&!.A!(;&!+::#&j!Strategyi:&!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!*1.'&::&:!(.!'1&0(&E!:./2&!*1.$/&8:E!1&:&01';E!80D&!9&'+:+.4:E!1&2+:&!(;+4D+4=E!'.88#4+'0(&!+9&0:!049!1&X&'(!.4!/&014+4=Questioning>:D!5#&:(+.4:!(;0(!'/01+A6E!&?(&49!thinking and challenge ideas to probemore deeply into an issue or topic3.5 explain changes inatmospheric conditions caused bythe presence of bodies of water2.5 use technological problem-:./2+4=!:D+//:!(.!9&:+=4E!$#+/9E!and test a water system9&2+'&!(;0(!*&1A.18:!0!*10'(+'0/!function or meets a need65


Appendix C – Learning Skills and Work Habits ConnectionsO+(&10'6!:#**.1(:!:(#9&4(:!9&2&/.*+4=!&AA&'(+2&!/&014+4=!:D+//:!049!C.1D!;0$+(:G!7;+:!';01(!:;.C:!explicit connections between the student indicators and the sample criteria outlined for each of theLearning Skills in Growing Success.ResponsibilityPotential ComponentConnectionOrganizationPotential ComponentConnectionIndependent WorkPotential ComponentConnection"08*/&!$&;02+.#1:!The student"08*/&!$&;02+.#1:!The student"08*/&!$&;02+.#1:!The studentA#/,/:!1&:*.4:+$+/+(+&:!and commitmentswithin the learning&42+1.48&4(aVoice & IdentityU&'.=4+F&!(;&+1!1./&:!and responsibilities9&2+:&:!049!A.//.C:!a plan and processfor completingC.1D!049!(0:D:aMetacognitionAssess learning:+(#0(+.4:!049!9&2&/.*!plans of action, andselect strategies andresources accordinglyindependently monitors,0::&::&:E!049!1&2+:&:!plans to complete tasks049!8&&(!=.0/:aStrategySet goals, establish,create and followplans, make judgmentsand determine the&AA&'(+2&4&::!.A!(;&!*/04StrategySet goals, establishcriteria, create and followplans, make judgmentsand determine the&AA&'(+2&4&::!.A!(;&!*/04completes and submitsclass work, homework,and assignmentsaccording to agreed-#*.4!(+8&/+4&:aMetacognitionAssess learning:+(#0(+.4:!049!9&2&/.*!plans of action, andselect strategies andresources accordinglyestablishes prioritiesand manages timeto complete tasks049!0';+&2&!=.0/:aMetacognitionAssess learning:+(#0(+.4:!049!9&2&/.*!plans of action, andselect strategies andresources accordinglyuses class timeappropriately to'.8*/&(&!(0:D:aMetacognitionAssess learning:+(#0(+.4:!049!9&2&/.*!plans of action, andselect strategies andresources accordinglyStrategySet goals, establishcriteria, create and followplans, make judgmentsand determine the&AA&'(+2&4&::!.A!(;&!*/04StrategySet goals, establishcriteria, createand follow plans,make judgmentsand determine the&AA&'(+2&4&::!.A!(;&!*/04takes responsibilityfor and manages.C4!$&;02+.#1GVoice & IdentityU&'.=4+F&!(;&+1!1./&:!and responsibilities intheir own learning+9&4(+,&:E!=0(;&1:E!&20/#0(&:E!049!#:&:!information, technology,and resources tocomplete tasks.Critical LiteracyUse technology(.!:&&D!9+2&1=&4(!*&1:*&'(+2&:E!+4(&10'(!with authentic audiences,and express ideasfollows instructions with8+4+80/!:#*&12+:+.4GVoice & IdentityU&'.=4+F&!(;&+1!1./&:!and responsibilities intheir own learning66


CollaborationPotential ComponentConnectionInitiativePotential ComponentConnectionSelf-regulationPotential ComponentConnection"08*/&!$&;02+.#1:!The student"08*/&!$&;02+.#1:!The student"08*/&!$&;02+.#1:!The student0''&*(:!201+.#:!roles and an&5#+(0$/&!:;01&!.A!C.1D!+4!0!=1.#*aVoice & IdentityU&'.=4+F&!(;&+1!1./&:!and responsibilities intheir own learningStrategyi:&!0'(+2&!1&09+4=E!C1+(+4=E!2+&C+4=E!/+:(&4+4=E!speaking and representing(&';4+5#&:!(.!1&'.19E!1&0'(!and respond to ideaslooks for and actson new ideasand opportunitiesA.1!/&014+4=aVoice & IdentitySeek opportunities forpurposeful self-expression toauthentic audiences aboutmeaningful topics and issuesVoice & IdentitySet personal goalsand explore ideas of*&1:.40/!+4(&1&:(!1&/&204(!to topics of study:&(:!.C4!+49+2+9#0/!goals and monitorsprogress towards0';+&2+4=!(;&8aMetacognitionIdentify their ownunderstandings inrelation to learning goalsand success criteriaStrategySet goals, establishcriteria, create and followplans, make judgmentsand determine the&AA&'(+2&4&::!.A!(;&!*/041&:*.49:!*.:+(+2&/6!to the ideas,.*+4+.4:E!20/#&:E!and traditions.A!.(;&1:aVoice & IdentityValue their own knowledgeand experience and that of.(;&1:!$6!0'(+2&/6!'.4(1+$#(+4=!and welcoming new ideasVoice & IdentityU&'.=4+F&!;.C!*&1:.40/!2+&C:!049!(;&!2+&C:!.A!others can affect thinkingdemonstratesthe capacity for+44.20(+.4!049!a willingness(.!(0D&!1+:D:aQuestioningUse technology to pose5#&:(+.4:!049!&?*/.1&!9+2&1=&4(!*&1:*&'(+2&:Voice & IdentityValue their own knowledgeand experience and that of.(;&1:!$6!0'(+2&/6!'.4(1+$#(+4=!and welcoming new ideas:&&D:!'/01+,'0(+.4!or assistanceC;&4!4&&9&9aMetacognition"&&D!'/01+,'0(+.4!049!support when barriers tolearning are encounteredbuilds healthy peerto-peerrelationshipsthrough personaland media-assisted+4(&10'(+.4:aGVoice & Identity>92.'0(&!A.1!:&/A!049!.(;&1:!(.!09204'&!/&014+4=demonstratescuriosity and+4(&1&:(!+4!/&014+4=aQuestioningExplore, wonder and+42&:(+=0(&!(.!:./2&!*1.$/&8:!and build understandingVoice & IdentitySet personal goalsand explore ideas of*&1:.40/!+4(&1&:(!1&/&204(!to topics of studyassesses and1&X&'(:!'1+(+'0//6!on own strengths,4&&9:E!049!+4(&1&:(:aMetacognitionAssess learning situations049!9&2&/.*!*/04:!.A!0'(+.4E!and select strategies andresources accordinglyMetacgognitionIdentify, communicateand act on theirlearning preference and+49+2+9#0/!:(1&4=(;:works with others to1&:./2&!'.4X+'(:!049!build consensus to0';+&2&!=1.#*!=.0/:aVoice & IdentityValue their own knowledgeand experience and that of.(;&1:!$6!0'(+2&/6!'.4(1+$#(+4=!and welcoming new ideasapproachesnew tasks with a*.:+(+2&!0((+(#9&aMetacognitionAre aware of their ownactions and beliefs and1&'.=4+F&!;.C!(;&+1!attitudes, habits and9+:*.:+(+.4:!+4X#&4'&!(;&!extent of their learning+9&4(+,&:!/&014+4=!opportunities,choices, andstrategies to meetpersonal needs and0';+&2&!=.0/:aMetacognitionAssess learning situations049!9&2&/.*!*/04:!.A!0'(+.4E!and select strategies andresources accordinglyshares information,resources, andexpertise andpromotes critical(;+4D+4=!(.!:./2&!problems andmake decisions.StrategySelect and use appropriate.1=04+F&1:!(.!=0(;&1E!manage and communicateinformation and ideasQuestioning92.'0(&!A.1!:&/A!049!.(;&1:!(.!09204'&!/&014+4=*&1:&2&1&:!049!makes an effortwhen respondingto challenges.MetacognitionAre aware of their ownactions and beliefs and1&'.=4+F&!;.C!(;&+1!attitudes, habits and9+:*.:+(+.4:!+4X#&4'&!(;&!extent of their learning67


Appendix D – MINISTRY RESOURCES RELATED TO THE COMPONENTS7;&!';01(!$&/.C!*1.2+9&:!0!:08*/+4=!.A!W+4+:(16!*1+4(!049!2+9&.!1&:.#1'&:!C;+';!806!$&!#:&9!(.!illustrate the adolescent literacy components.Critical LiteracyResource Description FormatVideo PrintLinks to otherComponentsCapacity Building Series – Critical Literacy"$$-WSS222>(3)>4*1>*/>8#S(/4S;&$(+#86/)9(+#86S&/'-&+(S+('(#+8"SP+&$&8#;jK&$(+#86>-307;+:!8.4.=10*;!&8*;0:+F&:!(;0(!0//!(&?(!+:!'.4:(1#'(&9!A.1!0!*#1*.:&!049!(;0(!1&09+4=!+:!4.(!0!*0::+2&!0'(!$#(!04!interaction between the text and a reader who looks for8&04+4=E!0:D:!5#&:(+.4:!049!';0//&4=&:!0::#8*(+.4:G!!xStrategyDifferentiated Instruction – Teaching LearningExamples: Grade 7 Arts, Drama: Step IntoMy Shoes – Exploring Perspective34!(;+:!/&::.4!:(#9&4(:!&?08+4&!201+.#:!*.+4(:!.A!2+&C!(;1.#=;!91080(+'!&?*/.10(+.4GxStrategyVoice and Identity"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S+('*)+8('UISH(#8"&/4K(#+/&/4Z7#9-;('SE+$'SADdjEDH@jUDE=E%j@HZXIYHG=l@:GZ@ZmXKGDIYAXZD@XZPHIfZ@>-30Differentiated Instruction – Teaching/Learning Examples: Grade 10 English, Applied(ENG2P): Critical Literacy— Media Texts34!(;+:!/&::.4!:(#9&4(:!9+:'#::!049!&20/#0(&!media texts through a critical literacy lens.x"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S+('*)+8('UISTeachingLearningExamples/ Language%20-%20English%20Grades%207-10/ Folder%20Z/4jADBNjjP+&$&8#;nMNK&$(+#86>-30Differentiated Instruction – Teaching/Learning Examples:Grade 9 ExploringTechnologies (TIJ1O) or ExploringCommunications Technology (TGJ1O):Design Proposal – Technological Education34!(;+:!/&::.4!:(#9&4(:!040/6F&!0!*+&'&!.A!8&9+0!049!A.//.C!(;&!:(&*:!+4!(;&!9&:+=4!*1.'&::!(.!9&2&/.*!0!9&:+=4!*1.*.:0/!A.1!04!092&1(+:&8&4(Gx"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S+('*)+8('UISH(#8"&/4K(#+/&/4Z7#9-;('SH(8"Z3SADQjZmXKGDIYAHZP:YGKGAIZ'jHIoBGjHABN>-30The Literacy and Numeracy SecretariatWebcast Professional LearningSeries: Discovering Voice"$$-WSS+('*)+8('>8)++&8);)9>*+4Ssecretariat/discovering/7;+:!2+9&.!:&1+&:!+//#:(10(&:!04!+4(&=10(&9!+45#+16)$0:&9!:(#96!(;0(!;0:!:(#9&4(:!04:C&1!5#&:(+.4:!.A!C;.!;0:!2.+'&E!049!C;.!+:!801=+40/+F&9!049!C;6G!7;&6!0::#8&!0!'1+(+'0/!:(04'&!0:!(;&6!#:&!0!201+&(6!.A!:.#1'&:!&?08+4&!C;0(!2.+'&:!01&!8+::+4=!+4!;+:(.16E!/+(&10(#1&!049!:.'+&(6G!34'/#9&:!0!A0'+/+(0(.1P:!=#+9&Gx x Voice and IdentityMetacognitionStrategyQuestioningLiteracy GAINS: Reading Beneath,Behind and Beyond the Text"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S/(2'&$(S3&MS(/"#/8(9(/$'MNNOS3&(/"#/8(9(/$'3&;&$(+#868#+3'O7BB>"$9;7;+:!5#+'D!1&A&1&4'&!'.4(0+4:!+4A.180(+.4!0$.#(!(;&!*1+4'+*/&:E!$&4&,(:!049!:(10(&=+&:!.A!'1+(+'0/!/+(&10'6G!!xQuestioningStrategySnapshots of Effective Practice:Twenty-First Teaching and Learning:Allan Luke - Critical Literacy34!(;+:!2+9&.E!>//04!O#D&!9+:'#::&:!#:+4=!0//!(;&!A.18:!.A!(&?(!(;0(!&?+:(!+4!&2&16906!/+A&!(.!(&0';!'1+(+'0/!/+(&10'6GxVoice and Identity"$$-WSS+('*)+8('>8)++&8);)9>*+4Ssecretariat/snapshots/learners.html68


MetacognitionResource Description FormatVideo PrintLinks to otherComponentsAER GAINS: Planning Assessmentwith Instruction"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S/(2'&$(S#(+MS#(+1&3(*Splanningassessmentwithinstruction.html7;+:!2+9&.!:&1+&:!.#(/+4&:!;.C!(.!+4(&=10(&!0::&::8&4(!C+(;!+4:(1#'(+.4!(.!+8*1.2&!:(#9&4(!learning and to inform teacher instruction.xStrategyVoice and IdentityAER GAINS: Self-Assessment"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S/(2'&$(S#(+MSaervideo/selfassessment.html7;+:!2+9&.!:&1+&:!:;.C:!(;&!+8*0'(!.A!:&/A)0::&::8&4(!on student learning, and the critical role it plays inteaching students to learn how to learn independently.34'/#9&:!0!Z+&C&1P:!o#+9&Gx x Voice and IdentityAER GAINS: Descriptive Feedback"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S/(2'&$(S#(+MSaervideo/descriptivefeedback.html;+:!2+9&.!:&1+&:!:;.C:!(&0';&1:!*#1*.:&A#//6!*/044+4=!'1+(+'0/!*.+4(:!0(!C;+';!:(#9&4(:!1&'&+2&!9&:'1+*(+2&!A&&9$0'D!(.!;&/*!students to become increasingly more independent and moreable to monitor their own progress and determine next steps.x x StrategyVoice and IdentityCapacity Building Series:Student Self-Assessment"$$-WSS+('*)+8('>8)++&8);)9>*+4SKY@S8*#8"&/4ST;('S-30S@$)3(/$@(;0E''(''9(/$>-307;+:!8.4.=10*;!9&:'1+$&:!(;&!$&4&,(:E!*1.'&::!and practical application of self-assessment.xZ.+'&!e!39&4(+(6StrategyDifferentiated Instruction – Teaching/Learning Examples:GRADE 10 Introduction to ComputerStudies (ICS2O): AnimationProgramming – Computer StudiesThis lesson on animation creation includes appendiceswith personal learning preferences and goals as a focus.xVoice and Identity"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S+('*)+8('UISTeachingLearningExamples/ComputerStudies/ADBNjIYHDGHGPG=XkHZD@HkUIZ@jIP@MNEYI=EHGYXDGA>-30Differentiated Instruction – Teaching/Learning ExamplesGrade 8 Guidance and Career Education:Pathways— Goal Setting and Action PlanningThis lesson takes students through the process.A!'1&0(+4=!*&1:.40//6!1&/&204(!=.0/:GxStrategyVoice and Identity"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S+('*)+8('UISTeachingLearningExamples/Guidance%20&%20Career%20Education%20Grades%207-10/[*;3(+nMNA)&3jADOjA*#;nMN@($$&/4>-30Literacy GAINS: ExploringMetacognitive Habits of Mind"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S/(2'&$(S;&$(+#86MSadolescent/metacognition.html7;+:!2+9&.!:&1+&:!:;.C:!(&0';&1:!C.1D+4=!C+(;!:(#9&4(:!(.!9&2&/.*!:(10(&=+&:!049!8&(0'.=4+(+2&!(;+4D+4=!:D+//:G!It also includes Barrie Bennett speaking about the+8*.1(04'&!.A!:(#9&4(:!+4(&140/+F+4=!(;&+1!/&014+4=G!!xQuestioningStrategyVoice and IdentityLiteracy GAINS: Metacognition Lessons- English Grade 9 Applied ENG1P"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S/(2'&$(S;&$(+#86MS')5V(8$'-(8&T8S4+Q9($#8*4/&$&*/>"$9;7;+:!:&1+&:!.A!/&::.4:!*1.2+9&:!0!C06!(.!&?*/+'+(/6!teach metacognition. It includes assessment tools,5#&:(+.4!*1.8*(:!049!1&/0(&9!:(#9&4(!80(&1+0/:GxStrategyLiteracy GAINS: Promoting MeaningfulStudent Involvement – Listening toWhat Students Have to Say7;+:!2+9&.!A&0(#1&:!0!:(#9&4(!(0/D+4=!0$.#(!;.C!;&!learns best and the strategies that he uses.xVoice and IdentityStrategy"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S/(2'&$(Sliteracy2/supportsboyliteracy.html69


QuestioningResource Description FormatVideo PrintLinks to otherComponentsAER GAINS: Questioning"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S/(2'&$(S#(+MSaervideo/questioning.html7;+:!2+9&.!:&1+&:!*1.2+9&:!1&:&01';!049!*10'(+'&!1&/0(&9!(.!5#&:(+.4+4=E!049!+(:!+8*.1(04(!connection to assessment for learning.xZ.+'&!e!39&4(+(6Capacity Building Series: GettingStarted with Student Inquiry"$$-WSS222>(3)>4*1>*/>8#S(/4S;&$(+#86/)9(+#86S&/'-&+(S+('(#+8"SPJ@j@$)3(/$I/_)&+6>-307;+:!8.4.=10*;!.#(/+4&:!04!+45#+16!*1.'&::!C;+';!&40$/&:!teachers to create learning opportunities for students to*.:&!5#&:(+.4:E!80D&!:&4:&!.A!+4A.180(+.4E!049!$#+/9!.4!40(#10/!'#1+.:+(6!0:!(;&6!9&2&/.*!;+=;&1).19&1!(;+4D+4=!:D+//:G!xVoice and IdentityCritical LiteracyDifferentiated Instruction – Teaching/Learning Examples:Grade 7 Science and Technology:Go ECO! Ecosystems34!(;+:!/&::.4E!:(#9&4(:!#:&!5#&:(+.4+4=!(.!research an ecosystem of their choice.x"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S+('*)+8('UISTeachingLearningExamples/Science%20&%20H(8"/*;*46nMNA+#3('nMNd^OS[*;3(+nMNSci-Tech%20GR7%20EcoSystem.pdfLiteracy GAINS: One Approach to Questions"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S/(2'&$(Sliteracy2/videocliplibrary.html34!(;+:!2+9&.E!W+';0&/!I019(!.#(/+4&:!0!:(10(&=6!A.1!:(#9&4(:!(.!#49&1:(049!5#&:(+.4:GxStrategyMath GAINS: Big Ideas andProportional Reasoning, K-12"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S+('*)+8('SLearningMaterials/ContinuumConnection/J&4I3(#'`)('$&*/&/4jX+*-*+$&*/#;D(#'*/&/4>-307;+:!'.4(&4()$0:&9!*0'D0=&!:#**.1(:!:(#9&4(:P!/&014+4=E!+4'/#9+4=!5#&:(+.4:!(.!9&2&/.*!*1.,'+&4'6!connected to the mathematical processes.xStrategyMath GAINS: TIPS – Posing Powerful Questions"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S/(2'&$(S9#$"MS$&-'j--_>"$9;7;&:&!/&::.4:!A.'#:!.4!&AA&'(+2&!5#&:(+.4+4=E!#:+4=!$.(;!(;&!TIPS template and the Posing Powerful Questions template.xSnapshots of Effective Practice:Collaborative Learning"$$-WSS+('*)+8('>8)++&8);)9>*+4Ssecretariat/snapshots/learners.html7;+:!2+9&.!:;.C:!:(#9&4(:!+4!0!/&014+4=!(&08!0:D!*1.$+4=!5#&:(+.4:!.A!.4&!04.(;&1!(.!9&&*&4!their understanding of the topic of study.xCritical Literacy70


StrategyResource Description FormatVideo PrintLinks to otherComponents!"#"$%&'()*%+,%-.(/01%023((40&52(Talk About Listening"$$-WSS222>(3)>4*1>*/>8#S(/4S;&$(+#86/)9(+#86S&/'-&+(S+('(#+8"SH#;Lj#5*)$j;&'$(/&/4>-30This monograph explains that good talkers and listenersare more likely to become good readers and writers andencourages teachers to create a listening classroomC;+/&!#(+/+F+4=!201+.#:!:(10(&=+&:!A.1!/+:(&4+4=GxMetacognitionQuestioningVoice and IdentityCapacity Building Series: Writing to Learn"$$-WSS222>(3)>4*1>*/>8#S(/4S;&$(+#86/)9(+#86S&/'-&+(S+('(#+8"SPJ@j!+&$&/4$*K(#+/>-307;+:!8.4.=10*;!.#(/+4&:!*10'(+'0/!0'(+2+(+&:!(&0';&1:!can implement to enable students to deepen andextend their understanding of subject material.xMetacognitionCapacity Building Series – A World of Words"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S+('*)+8('ZKKSMonographs/AWorldofWords.pdf7;+:!8.4.=10*;!&?*/.1&:!2.'0$#/016!9&2&/.*8&4(!strategies for English Language Learners.xDifferentiated Instruction:Mathematics - Centennial S. S."$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S/(2'&$(S3&MSsecondarydvdvideo.html34!(;+:!2+9&.E!:(#9&4(:!#:&!:(10(&=6E!5#&:(+.4+4=!049!(;+4D+4=!2.'0$#/016!(.!9&&*&4!understanding of mathematical concepts.xVoice and IdentityQuestioningDifferentiated Instruction: Science– Bishop Macdonell34!(;+:!2+9&.E!:(#9&4(:!C.1D!'.//0$.10(+2&/6!(.!/&014!:#$%&'():*&'+,'!2.'0$#/016!+4!0!:'+&4'&!'/0::1..8G!!!xVoice and Identity"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S/(2'&$(S3&MSsecondarydvdvideo.htmlDifferentiated Instruction – Teaching/Learning Examples: Grade 9 English,Applied (ENG1P): Reading Graphic TextThis lesson on reading graphic texts describes:&2&10/!'.8*1&;&4:+.4!:(10(&=+&:!A.1!:(#9&4(!#:&GxMetacognition"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S+('*)+8('UISTeachingLearningExamples/Language%20-%20English%20Grades%207-10/Folder%20Z/4jADQjA+#-"&8nMNH(7$>-30Differentiated Instruction – Teaching/LearningExamples: Grade 10 Mathematics, Applied(MFM2P): Introduction to Solving Linear Systems34!(;+:!/&::.4!:(#9&4(:!0::&::!(;&!&AA&'(+2&4&::!.A!0!*1.$/&8!:./2+4=!:(10(&=6!#:&9!049!*1.*.:&!0/(&140(+2&!:(10(&=+&:Gx"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S+('*)+8('UISTeachingLearningExamples/Mathematics%20A+#3('nMNd\BNS[*;3(+nMN=#$"jADBNjK&/(#+nMN@6'$(9'>-30Literacy GAINS: Assessment Matters - WorkingTogether in Response to our Students"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S/(2'&$(S;&$(+#86MSliteracyassessmentmatters.html7;+:!8.9#/&!A&0(#1&:!0!'.//0$.10(+2&!*1.A&::+.40/!learning cycle on literacy learning and how1&09+4=!0::&::8&4(!*1.8*(:!1&:*.4:+2&!+4:(1#'(+.4G!34'/#9&:!0!A0'+/+(0(.1P:!=#+9&G34!(;+:!2+9&.E!0!'.0';!049!(&0';&1!'.)(&0';!0!/&::.4!C;+';!A.'#:&:!.4!:#8801+F+4=!and notetaking in a science class.x x MetacognitionLiteracy GAINS: Summarizing andNotetaking in Secondary Sciencehttp://www.edugains.ca/newsite/literacy2/coachingforliteracy.html34!(;+:!2+9&.E!0!'.0';!049!(&0';&1!'.)(&0';!0!/&::.4!C;+';!A.'#:&:!.4!:#8801+F+4=!and notetaking in a science class.xMetacognition71


H#%&#$3()C'-.#9/NResource Description FormatVideo PrintLinks to otherComponentsMath GAINS: DifferentiatedInstruction Math Cards"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S/(2'&$(S9#$"MS3&>"$9;7;+:!:&1+&:!.A!'019:!*1.2+9&!:#==&:(+.4:!A.1!:(#9&4(:!to demonstrate their understanding of the math*1.'&::&:!#:+4=!0!201+&(6!.A!:(10(&=+&:!049!(../:GxMath GAINS: TIPS4RM Mathematical Processes"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S+('*)+8('SK(#+/&/4=#$(+&#;'SMathProcesses/MathProcessessPackage.pdfThis resource suggests strategies for students and*1.2+9&:!*.::+$/&!+4:(1#'(+.40/!:(10(&=+&:E!0/.4=!C+(;!:08*/&!5#&:(+.4:!049!A&&9$0'DE!(.!:#**.1(!9&2&/.*8&4(!.A!09./&:'&4(:P!80(;&80(+'0/!*1.$/&8):./2+4=!:D+//:GxMetacognitionQuestioningWhat Works? Research Into PracticeSeries - Improving Student WritingThis monograph focuses on using feedback as a(&0';+4=!(../!(.!:#**.1(!:(#9&4(:P!C1+(+4=!9&2&/.*8&4(GxVoice and Identity"$$-WSS222>(3)>4*1>*/>8#S(/4S;&$(+#86/)9(+#86S&/'-&+(S+('(#+8"S!!jI9-+*1&/4j@$)3(/$j!+&$&/4>-30Voice and IdentityResource Description FormatVideo PrintLinks to otherComponentsDifferentiated Instruction – Teaching/LearningExamples: Grade 9 Learning Strategies(GLS1O, GLE1O): Community involvementInvestigation— Guidance and Career Education34!(;+:!/&::.4!:(#9&4(:!&?*/.1&!'.88#4+(6!+42./2&8&4(!.**.1(#4+(+&:!(.!#49&1:(049!;.C!+49+2+9#0/!/&014+4=!'04!$&!enhanced through community-based learning experiences.x"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S+('*)+8('UISTeachingLearningExamples/Guidance%20&%20Career%20Education%20Grades%207-10/[*;3(+nMNA)&3jADQjP*99jI/1*;1(9(/$>-30Differentiated Instruction – Teaching/Learning Examples: GRADE 10 Introductionto Computer Studies (ICS2O): AnimationProgramming – Computer StudiesThis lesson on animation creation includes appendiceswith personal learning preferences and goals as a focus.xMetacognition"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S+('*)+8('UISTeachingLearningExamples/ComputerStudies/ADBNjIYHDGHGPG=XkHZD@HkUIZ@jIP@MNEYI=EHGYXDGA>-30Differentiated Instruction – Teaching/Learning Examples: Grade 8 Guidanceand Career Education: Pathways—Goal Setting and Action Planning34!(;+:!/&::.4E!:(#9&4(:!'1&0(&!*&1:.40//6!1&/&204(!=.0/:G x StrategyMetacognition"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S+('*)+8('UISTeachingLearningExamples/Guidance%20&%20Career%20Education%20Grades%207-10/[*;3(+nMNA)&3jADOjA*#;nMN@($$&/4>-3072


O-"'$)&./)B/$.#"#()C'-.#9/NResource Description FormatVideo PrintLinks to otherComponentsELL GAINS: Dr. Jim Cummins - OISE"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S/(2'&$(Sell2/webcasts.html34!(;+:!2+9&.E!l+8!-#88+4:!9&:'1+$&:!(;&!connections between language and literacy,particularly for English Language Learners.xFinancial Literacy in The Arts– Grade 9 and 10 Music"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S/(2'&$(ST/#/8&#;K&$(+#86S'(8*/3#+6>"$9;34!(;+:!2+9&.!:&1+&:E!:(#9&4(:!9+:'#::!(;&!A0'(.1:!(;0(!would need to be considered when making a purchase,co-construct criteria for the purchase and discuss how(;&:&!:D+//:!806!0**/6!(.!.(;&1!*#1';0:&:!+4!(;&+1!/+2&:GxxFinancial Literacy in Grade 9 Geography"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S/(2'&$(ST/#/8&#;K&$(+#86S'(8*/3#+6>"$9;34!(;+:!2+9&.!:&1+&:E!:(#9&4(:!80D&!*&1:.40/!connections as they consider the global, economic,&42+1.48&4(0/E!049!:.'+0/!+8*/+'0(+.4:!.A!+42&:(8&4(:!049!1&X&'(!.4!(;&+1!*&1:.40/!/&014+4=GxMetacognitionFinancial Literacy in Grade 11 & 12Canadian and World Studies"$$-WSS222>(3)4#&/'>8#S/(2'&$(ST/#/8&#;K&$(+#86S'(8*/3#+6>"$9;34!(;+:!2+9&.E!:(#9&4(:!*/04!0!(1+*!A.1!(;&8:&/2&:!C;+/&!'.4:+9&1+4=!0//!*.::+$/&!'.4:(10+4(:!049!,404'+0/!+8*/+'0(+.4:G!34'/#9&:!0!A0'+/+(0(.1P:!=#+9&Gx x StrategyThe Literacy and Numeracy SecretariatWebcast Professional Learning Series:Discovering Voice - Developing Student Voice7;+:!:&1+&:!.A!2+9&.!:&=8&4(:!&?*/.1&:!:(#9&4(!2.+'&!$6!+//#:(10(+4=!&AA&'(+2&!*10'(+'&!A.1!whole group and small group sharing.xCritical LiteracyQuestioning"$$-WSS+('*)+8('>8)++&8);)9>*+4S'(8+($#+&#$Sdiscovering/developing.shtmlThe link below leads to other resourcesrelated to this segment."$$-WSS+('*)+8('>8)++&8);)9>*+4Ssecretariat/discovering/Snapshots of Effective Practice: LucyWest – Insights into Effective Practice"$$-WSS+('*)+8('>8)++&8);)9>*+4Ssecretariat/snapshots/lucy.html34!(;&!2+9&.!:&=8&4(E Student Voice, Lucy West outlines;.C!(&0';&1:!'04!A.:(&1!:(#9&4(!2.+'&!$6!&4'.#10=+4=!(;&8!(.!01(+'#/0(&!(;&+1!1&0:.4+4=!049!$6!20/#+4=!(;&+1!ideas in the classroom. In additional segments, she alsoexplains how to create a culture of classroom discourse,and describes the barriers to classroom talk.xMetacognitionQuestioning73


ReferencesCritical LiteracyN#1D&E!lG!HJKKRMG!I;;)9&/#$&/4%H(7$'. Portsmouth, NH:Heinemann.B+:;&1E!_G!e!B1&6E!mG!HJKKLMG!I9-+*1&/4%E3*;('8(/$%K&$(+#86W%Content Strategies at Work. Columbus: Pearson/MerrillPrentice-Hall.I+4';804E!nG!e!";&1+904)7;.80:E!IG!H@9:GMG!HJKKLMG!J('$%X+#8$&8('%&/%E3*;('8(/$%K&$(+#86%I/'$+)8$&*/G!m&C!b.1DS!o#+/A.19!Press.312+4E!lGE!W&/(F&1E!lGE!W+'D/&1E!WGE!G!HJKKcMG!]I&/*+4=!>9./&:'&4(!U&09&1:!through Explicit Strategy Instruction” Adolescent LiteracyResearch and PracticeG!m&C!b.1DS!o#+/A.19!


QuestioningAER GAINS. `)('$&*/&/4W%aE''(''9(/$%0*+%K(#+/&/4%f&3(*%@(+&(',?%E%+('*)+8(%$*%')--*+$%$"(%&9-;(9(/$#$&*/%*0%A+*2&/4%@)88(''W%E''(''9(/$?%Z1#;)#$&*/%#/3%D(-*+$&/4%&/%G/$#+&*%Schools. Edugains website: http://www.edugains.ca/newsite/0&1Jh0&12+9&.h5#&:(+.4+4=G;(8/-;+4E!-G!HJKKcMG!]^#&:(+.4+4=!"(#9&4(:!+4!`06:!(;0(!Encourage Thinking,” Teaching ScienceG!qK!HcME!Rf)JRG-.:(0E!>G!e!n0//+'DE!NG!HJKKKMG!Describing the 16:#5&$'%*0%=&/3G!U&(1+&2&9!W01';!JKRJG!;((*ShhCCCG+4:(+(#(&A.1;0$+(:.A8+49G'.8h1&:.#1'&:h*9AhRfITWG*9AI0((+&E!lG!HJKKVMG!f&'&5;(%K(#+/&/4W%E%@6/$"('&'%*0%G1(+%ONN%Meta-Analyses Relating to AchievementG!m&C!b.1DS!U.#(/&9=&GB+:;&1E!_G!e!B1&6E!mG!HJKKLMG!I9-+*1&/4%E3*;('8(/$%K&$(+#86W%Content Strategies at Work. Columbus: Pearson/MerrillPrentice-HallO+(&10'6!049!m#8&10'6!"&'1&(01+0(G!HJKRRMG!]>:D+4=!@AA&'(+2&!Questions” P#-#8&$6%J)&;3&/4%@(+&('.Literacy GAINS. G/(%E--+*#8"%$*%`)('$&*/'. Edugainswebsite: http://www.edugains.ca/newsite/literacy2/2+9&.'/+*/+$1016G;(8/T4(01+.!W+4+:(16!.A!@9#'0(+.4G!HJKRKMG!A+*2&/4%@)88(''W%E''(''9(/$?%Z1#;)#$&*/%#/3%D(-*+$&/4%&/%G/$#+&*%@8"**;'.Toronto: Author.T4(01+.!W+4+:(16!.A!@9#'0(+.4G!HJKRKMG!School Effectiveness[+#9(2*+LW%E%@)--*+$%0*+%@8"**;%I9-+*1(9(/$%#/3%@$)3(/$%Success. Toronto: Author.U.(;:(&+4E!_G!e!"04(040E!OG!HJKRRMG!]7&0';+4=!"(#9&4(:!(.!>:D!7;&+1!TC4!^#&:(+.4:E\!:#+1#+3%Z3)8#$&*/%Y(2';($$(+.I012019S!I012019!@9#'0(+.4!G!e!"0((&:E!NG!_G!HJKRRMG!Thinking through Quality`)('$&*/&/4W%U((-(/&/4%@$)3(/$%Z/4#4(9(/$. ThousandT0D:E!->S!-.1C+4G`..9E!nG!_GE!e!N/04(.4E!`G!@G!H@9:GMG!HJKKVMG LiteracyI/'$+)8$&*/%0*+%E3*;('8(/$'W%D('(#+8"\J#'(3%X+#8$&8(. Newb.1DS!o#+/A.19!/&?049&1E!!W#/(+9+8&4:+.40/!e!_&2&/.*8&4(0/!9204'+4=!>9./&:'&4(!O+(&10'6G!HJKRKMG!H&9(%$*%E8$W%E/%E4(/3#%0*+%E31#/8&/4%E3*;('8(/$%K&$(+#86.m&C!b.1DS!-014&=+&!-.1*.10(+.4!.A!m&C!b.1DG-.:(0E!>G!e!n0//+'DE!NG!HJKKKMG!Describing the 16:#5&$'%*0%=&/3G!U&(1+&2&9!W01';!JKRJG!;((*ShhCCCG+4:(+(#(&A.1;0$+(:.A8+49G'.8h1&:.#1'&:h*9AhRfITWG*9A!I0((+&E!lG!HJKRJMG!f&'&5;(%K(#+/&/4%0*+%H(#8"(+'W%=#7&9&R&/4%I9-#8$%*/%K(#+/&/4G!m&C!b.1DS!U.#(/&9=&!B+:;&1E!_G!e!B1&6E!mG!HJKKLMG!I9-+*1&/4%E3*;('8(/$%K&$(+#86W%Content Strategies at Work. Columbus: Pearson/MerrillPrentice-Hall34(&140(+.40/!U&09+4=!>::.'+0(+.4G!HJKRJMG!Adolescent LiteracyH


VOICE AND IDENTITYAER GAINS. K(#+/&/4%A*#;'%#/3%@)88(''%P+&$(+&#W%aE''(''9(/$%0*+%K(#+/&/4%f&3(*%@(+&(',?%E%+('*)+8(%$*%')--*+$%$"(%&9-;(9(/$#$&*/%*0%A+*2&/4%@)88(''W%E''(''9(/$?%Z1#;)#$&*/%#/3%D(-*+$&/4%&/%G/$#+&*%@8"**;'. Edugains website: http://www.edugains.ca/4&C:+(&h0&1Jh0&12+9&.h5#&:(+.4+4=G;(8/N&&1:E!nGE!


Additional ReferencesB+:;&1G!_G!e!B1&6E!mG!HJKKLMG!J($$(+%K(#+/&/4%H"+*)4"%Structured Teaching. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.o1&=.16E!oG!IG!e!n#F8+';E!OG!HJKKqMG Differentiated LiteracyStrategies for Student Growth and Achievement in Grades7-12.!7;.#:049!T0D:E!->S!-.1C+4!::.'+0(+.4!A.1!"#*&12+:+.4!049!-#11+'#/#8!_&2&/.*8&4(!H>*1+/!JKKqMG!Educational LeadershipG!d7;&!>9./&:'&4(!O&014&1PG!fJ!HQMG!>/&?0491+0E!Z>S!>"-_G!>::.'+0(+.4!A.1!"#*&12+:+.4!049!-#11+'#/#8!_&2&/.*8&4(!HB&$1#016!JKRRMG!Educational LeadershipG!d7&0';+4=!"'1&&40=&1:PG!fq!HqMG!>/&?0491+0E!Z>S!>"-_G!I#8&E!nG!HJKKQMG!@$#+$%!"(+(%H"(6%E+(W%U&00(+(/$&#$&/4%Success with the Young Adolescent. Toronto: Pearson.I#8&E!nG!HJKRKMG!H)/(3%G)$W%Z/4#4&/4%$"(%MB'$%P(/$)+6%Learner. Toronto: Pearson.34(&140(+.40/!U&09+4=!>::.'+0(+.4G!HJKRJMG!Adolescent Literacy.H#(;.1GI06&:!l0'.$:E!IG!HJKRKMG!-#11+'#/#8!JRS!Essential Educationfor a Changing World. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.T4(01+.!W+4+:(16!.A!-;+/91&4!049!b.#(;!"&12+'&:G!HJKRJMG@$(--&/4%@$*/('W%E%D('*)+8(%*/%l*)$"%U(1(;*-9(/$>%http://www.laidlawfdn.org/ontario-ministry-children-and-6.#(;):&12+'&:)1&/&0:&:):(&**+4=):(.4&:)1&:.#1'&)6.#(;)9&2&/.*8&4(!7;.#:049!T0D:E!->S!-.1C+4GT4(01+.!W+4+:(16!.A!@9#'0(+.4G!HJKKpMG!H"&/L%K&$(+#86%@)88(''W%H"(%D(-*+$%*0%$"(%Z7-(+$%X#/(;%*/%@$)3(/$'%#$%D&'L%&/%G/$#+&*.^#&&4P:!

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