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Dictionary

Dictionary - American Brain Tumor Association

HHIPAA Health Insurance

HHIPAA Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of1996 This act clarified and modified elements of theConsolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1986(COBRA). Among other provisions, HIPAA eliminates healthinsurance discrimination based on pre-existing conditions,incorporating instead a waiting period of 12 to 18 months.histology [hiss tol´ o ji] Microscopic anatomy. Cell characteristicsobserved under the microscope.HMO Health Maintenance Organization. A type of managed carehealth insurance that specifies the group of doctors, hospitalsand other healthcare providers who will provide yourhealthcare. You must get your care from providers that are partof the plan.homogeneous [ho mo gee´ nee us] Composed of identical celltypes.hormone A substance produced by a gland and released into thebloodstream. Hormones affect the function of distant organs inthe body. The pituitary is sometimes called the “master gland”because of the wide variety of hormones it produces andsecretes.hormone therapy Treatment by removing, blocking or addinghormones. Also called endocrine therapy.hospice A concept of care that provides medical, psychologicaland spiritual support to terminally ill patients and their lovedones. It stresses quality of life, including pain and symptomcontrol so the patient can remain as alert and comfortable aspossible. Hospice is available to persons who can no longerbenefit from curative treatment. Hospice is provided in avariety of settings, including the home, hospice centers,hospital and skilled nursing facilities.HRQL Health Related Quality of Life.human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) A germ cell tumormarker found in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood.human genome project [je´ nome] A massive undertaking,largely sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health(NIH), to map the complete set of genes on all thechromosomes found in the human body.Hhumoral immunity Immune protection provided by substancessuch as antibodies which circulate in the blood and lymph fluid.(Long ago, body fluids were called humors.) Humoralimmunity is distinct from the direct action of immune cells,which is called cellular immunity.HX, Hx History. That part of a healthcare professional’s recordsthat details your past illnesses, your family’s illnesses, yourobservations and concerns.hydrocephalus [hi dro sef´ ah lus] Hydro = water, cephalo =head. Excess water in the brain due to blockage, increasedproduction, or decreased absorption of cerebrospinal fluid.hyperfractionated radiation therapy More fractions of smallerthan-usualdaily doses without a change in overall treatmentduration. Used to deliver a larger total dosage. Radiationtherapy delivered two to three times a day.hyperfractionation [hi per frak shun a´ shun] An increasednumber of smaller dosage treatments of radiation therapy.hyperthermia [hi per ther´ me ah] The use of heat to kill tumorcells. Heat therapy.hypoglossal nerve [hi po glos´ al] 12th cranial nerve.hypophysis [hi pof´ ih sis] Another name for the pituitary gland.hypothalamus [hy po thal´ ah muss] The region of the brainthat forms part of the wall of the third ventricle and is the baseof the optic chiasm. In partnership with the pituitary gland, thehypothalamus is part of the endocrine system. It controls bodytemperature, hunger and thirst.hypotonic, hypotonicity [hi po ton´ ik • hi po toe nis´ ih tee]Diminished muscle tone; limp muscles.5657

HIhypoxia [hi pocks´ ee ah] Lack of oxygen.ibuprofen [eye boo pro´ fin] The generic name for a drug usedto control inflammation, relieve mild to moderate pain andreduce fever. Examples: Advil, Motrin, Pamprin, Amersol.ICD International Classification of Diseases.ICDO International Classification of Diseases for Oncology.ICP Intracranial pressure.ictal [ick´ tal] Refers to a seizure or a stroke.ICU Intensive Care Unit.IDE Investigational device exemption. An FDA designationrequired before a new medical device can undergo testing in aclinical trial.IDH-1 Abbreviation for isocitrate dehydrogenase – 1, a genewhich, when mutated, has novel enzyme activity consistent witha cancer-causing gene, or oncogene. It may contribute to theformation and malignant progression of gliomas, the mostcommon type of brain cancers.IF Interferon.IICP Increased intracranial pressure.IL-2 Interleukin-2. One of the several interleukins, IL-2 isa cytokine produced by T cells. It stimulates the growth andactivity of many immune cells that can destroy tumor cells.IL-2 occurs naturally in the body.imagery A technique in which people focus in their minds onpositive images.imaging [ih´ muh jing] Methods, such as scans or x-rays, thatproduce pictures of areas inside the body. “Imaging” waspreviously referred to as “scanning.”imaging procedures Methods, such a scans or x-rays, thatproduce pictures of areas inside the body.imatinib mesylate An anti-cancer drug that belongs to thefamily of drugs called protein kinase inhibitors. Its brand nameis Gleevec.immume enhancer gene Injected into the tumor, it producesan immune response against the tumor.immune response The activity of the immune system againstforeign substances (antigens). A cancer cell can also berecognized as a foreign substance.immune system The immune system is the body’s naturaldefense mechanism. It is composed of several different types ofwhite blood cells and the products of those cells. The immunesystem’s purpose is to attack and destroy harmful substances orobjects it identifies in the body.immunoassay A test using antibodies to identify and quantifysubstances. To accomplish this, the antibody is often linked to amarker such as a fluorescent molecule, a radioactive moleculeor an enzyme.immunocompetent Capable of developing an immuneresponse, having an effective immune system.immunocompromised Having a weakened or ineffectiveimmune system. May be due to disease or treatments.Also called immunodeficient.immunoglobulins Protein substances that function asantibodies.immunosuppression Reduction of the body’s immune response.immunotherapy Treatment that stimulates the body’s immunesystem to fight tumors. Also called biological responsemodifier (BRM) therapy.immunotoxin therapy An immunotoxin is created by linking apoison (toxin) or a radioactive substance to a monoclonalantibody.I5859

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