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Dictionary - American Brain Tumor Association

IKionizing radiation

IKionizing radiation [eye´ on ize ing • ray dee a´ shun]The radiation used in medicine that creates ions by knockingelectrons out of atoms. Ions penetrate and interfere with livingtissue, causing tumor cells to die as they attempt to reproduce.ipsilateral [ip sah lat´ur al] Affecting the same side.IRB Institutional Review Board. A healthcare facility committeeof scientists, doctors, clergy and consumers charged withprotecting patients who take part in clinical trials. They mustapprove all protocols at their facility. IRBs check to see thatstudies are well-designed, do not involve undue risks, andinclude safeguards for patients.irradiation [ih ray dee a´ shun] Treatment by ionizing radiation,such as x-rays, or radioactive sources such as radioactive iodineseeds. Also called radiation therapy.isotope An unstable element that releases radiation as it breaksdown. It can be used in imaging tests or as a treatment forcancer. Also called a radioisotope.Karnofsky Performance Scale [car noff´ ski] A score from 0 to100 that expresses a person’s ability to function and performnormal daily activities. 100 indicates completely normalfunctioning for that individual. Commonly abbreviated KPS.karyotyping [care´ ee oh type ing] A technique for generating a“list” or profile or the genetic contents of a given piece oftissue; chromosome characteristics.ketogenic [key toe jen´ ik] A diet based on a very high intake offat which causes a chemical imbalance. Sometimes used totreat epilepsy in children, especially when seizure medicationsare not effective.killer cells A type of white blood cell that destroys cancer cellsby recognizing them as a foreign invader and then producingchemical substances that bind to and kill them. They arecommonly known as “natural” killers because they attackwithout first having to recognize specific antigens.labeling index The speed at which cells reproduce.LAK cells Lymphokine activated killer cells are transformed inthe laboratory from lymphocytes. They attack tumor cells.LAKs are “super charged” natural killer cells created byexposing natural killer (NK) cells to IL-2 (interleukin 2).laser [lay´ zur] Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission ofRadiation. A tool used in addition to or in place of a scalpel.It creates intense heat and power when focused at close range,destroying cells by vaporizing them. Lasers are frequently usedwith stereotactic localization to direct their beams. They areused in microsurgery, photodynamic therapy and for a varietyof diagnostic purposes.laser-capture microdissection A new technique for examiningtumor tissue. It allows specific cells to be removed from asample of tissue for detailed study. Abbreviated LCM.lateral On the side, as the lateral ventricles are located on boththe right and left sides of the brain.lateral ventricles [ven´ tri kls] The two fluid-filled cavitieslocated in the cerebral hemispheres.LCSW Licensed Clinical Social Worker.LENT Late effects on normal tissue. Long-term side-effects oftreatment, especially radiation therapy.leptomeningeal cancer Cancer cells in cerebrospinal fluidwhich flows throughout the subarachnoid space, the areabetween the pia mater and arachnoid layers of the meninges.Also called leptomeningeal metastasis.leptomeningeal cyst [lep´ toe meh nin jee´ al • sist]An enlarged, fluid-filled area of the subarachnoid space —the space between the arachnoid and pia mater layers of themeninges. Can occur in both adults and children. Also calledan arachnoid cyst.L6465

Lleptomeninges The arachnoid and pia mater layers of themeninges.lesion [lee´ zhun] An area of abnormal tissue due to disease orinjury.lethargy [leth´ ar gee] Sluggishness, drowsiness, indifference.leukocytes [lou´ ko sitez] White blood cells, includingeosinophils, basophils, mast cells, neutrophils, lymphocytesand monocytes, etc.leukoencephalopathy [loo koe n seff ah lopp´ ah thee]An adverse effect on the white matter of the brain. Can be dueto infection, drugs, radiation, or disease. Symptoms range frommild to severe.Li-Fraumeni syndrome A rare, inherited predisposition tomultiple cancers including brain tumors. It is caused by analteration in the p53 suppressor gene. Abbreviated LFSsyndrome.limbic system The part of the brain involved with behavior,emotion, and the sense of smell. With the hypothalamus, itcontrols hunger, thirst, and biological rhythms.Linac Radiosurgery An adapted linear accelerator that deliversa single, high-energy beam, computer-shaped to the tumor.linear accelerator An electrical device that creates ionizingradiation in the form of x-rays (photons) The higher the voltageof the device, the more penetrating are the x-rays produced.lipoma A rare, benign tumor composed of fat tissue.lobe One of four sections of the cerebral hemispheres.lobectomy [low bek´ toe mee] The surgical removal of one lobeof the brain.local In the area of the tumor; confined to one specific area.Also referred to as localized.local therapy A treatment directed only to the tumor andperhaps a small area beyond it.loss of 1p 19q The combined loss of genetic material onchromosomes 1p and 19q is strongly associated with favorableoutcome in patients with certain types of oligodendroglialtumors (oligodendrogliomas).low-frequency electromagnetic fields Low energy fields,called EMFs, emitted by power lines and household appliances.lower toxicity drugs A generation of chemotherapy drugs withmilder side-effects.LPN Licensed Practical Nurse.LRRFS Local/Regional Recurrence-Free Survival.LSW Licensed Social Worker.lumbar [lum´ bar] The area of the spine between the ribs andthe pelvis (the waist and lower back).lumbar puncture Needle penetration into the subarachnoidspace of the lumbar spine. Used to withdraw a sample of spinalfluid for examination or to to inject a dye into the spine prior toa myelogram. Also called spinal tap.lymph [limf] A transparent, slightly yellow fluid that carrieslymphocytes, bathes body tissues and drains into the lymphaticvessels.lymph nodes [limf] Small bean-shaped organs of the immunesystem, distributed widely throughout the body and linked bylymphatic vessels. Clusters of lymph nodes are found in theunderarms (axilla), groin, neck, chest and abdomen. Also calledlymph glands, although they are not actually glands.lymphatic system [lim fat´ ik] The tissues and organs thatproduce, store and carry white blood cells that fight infectionsand other diseases.L6667

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Saturday October 20 2007