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Dictionary

Dictionary - American Brain Tumor Association

MNmyelin [my´ eh lin]

MNmyelin [my´ eh lin] The fatty substance that covers andprotects nerves.myelogram [my´ eh low gram] An x-ray study of the spine usinga special dye.myelosuppression [my´ eh low sue presh´ un] A decline orabsence of blood cell production.myoclonic seizure [my o klon´ ick] A type of generalizedseizure that causes single or multiple muscle twitches, jerksor spasms.myxopapillary ependymoma [mix o pap´ ih lair ee • ep en dihmoe´ ma] A low grade ependymoma more commonly found inthe spine than the brain.NAACCR North American Association of Central CancerRegistries. An organization of the thirty-four population-basedcancer registries in North America.NABTC North American Brain Tumor Coalition, a network ofcharitable organizations advocating for the public healthinterests of brain tumor patients.NABTC North American Brain Tumor Consortium, was an NCIfunded clinical cooperative group organized to evaluate newtreatments for adult brain tumor patients. NABTC mergedwith NABTT to create ABTC — the Adult Brain TumorConsortium.NABTT New Approaches to Brain Tumor Therapy, was an NCIfunded clinical cooperative group organized to evaluate newtreatments for adult brain tumor patients. NABTT mergedwith NABTC to create ABTC — the Adult Brain TumorConsortium.nanometer [na´ noh mee ter] A unit of measurement in themetric system. One nanometer is one-billionth of a meter.Nnanoparticle [na´ noh par´ tih kul] A particle that is smaller than100 nanometers (one-billionth of a meter). In medicine,nanoparticles can be used to carry antibodies, drugs, imagingagents, or other substances to certain parts of the body.Nanoparticles are being studied in the detection, diagnosis,and treatment of cancer.nanotechnology [na´ noh tek nah´ luh jee] The field of researchthat deals with the engineering and creation of things frommaterials that are less than 100 nanometers (one-billionth of ameter) in size, especially single atoms or molecules.Nanotechnology is being studied in the detection, diagnosis,and treatment of cancer.natural killer cell A type of white blood cell that destroys cancercells by recognizing them as foreign invaders and thenproduces chemical substances that bind to and kill them. Theyare known as “natural” killers because they attack without firsthaving to recognize specific antigens. Abbreviated NK cell.NCCN National Comprehensive Cancer Network. An alliance ofseveral US cancer centers. They develop oncology practiceguidelines as one of their programs.NCCTG North Central Cancer Treatment Group, an NCIfunded clinical cooperative group organized to evaluate newtreatments for adult cancer patients.NCI National Cancer Institute, one of the institutes of theNational Institutes of Health of the US Department of Healthand Human Services.NCNSC National CNS Tumor Consortium, an NCI fundedclinical cooperative group organized to evaluate new treatmentsfor adult brain tumor patients.NCOG Northern California Oncology Group, an NCI fundedclinical cooperative group organized to evaluate new treatmentsfor adult cancer patients.NCQA National Committee for Quality Assurance.7677

NNDA New Drug Application. The application a pharmaceuticalcompany files with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)to obtain approval for marketing a drug.necrosis [neh kro´ sis] Dead cells.NED No evidence of disease.needle biopsy A biopsy performed by making an incision in theskin and then drilling a small hole into the skull. A narrow,hollow needle is inserted through the hole and into the tumorthen a small amount of tumor is drawn up into the needle.neoadjuvant therapy [nee o ad´ ju vant] Treatment givenbefore the primary treatment to reduce the size of the tumor orto improve the effectiveness of the primary treatment.neoplasia [nee´ o play zha] Abnormal and uncontrolled cellgrowth.neoplasm [nee´ o plazm] A tumor, either benign or malignant.nerve, cranial See cranial nerves.nervous system The entire integrated system of nerve tissue inthe body: the brain, brain stem, spinal cord, nerves and ganglia.neuroblastoma, cerebral [nur o blas toe´ ma] The intracranialneuroblastoma is a malignant, rapid growing tumor. Eighty-fivepercent of cerebral neuroblastomas occur in children.Some call it a PNET (primitive neuroectodermal tumor).Neuroblastoma more commonly occurs outside the centralnervous system.neurocytoma, central [nur o sigh toe´ ma] This is a low gradetumor that typically occurs in a lateral ventricle in the region ofthe foramen of Monro and occasionally extends into the thirdventricle.neuroectoderm [nur o eck´ toe durm] The region of the embryothat eventually develops into the nervous system.neuroepithelial [nur´ o ep ih thee´ lee al] The layer in theembryo which develops into the nervous system.Nneurofibromatosis [nur´ o fi bro ma toe´ sis] Neurofibromatosisrefers to two different genetic diseases. Neurofibromatosis typeI, called NF1 or von Recklinghausen’s Disease, is the morecommon of the two disorders. It causes tumors calledneurofibromas to form on nerves throughout the body and skindiscolorations called café-au-lait spots. Optic gliomas areassociated with NF1. Neurofibromatosis type II, called NF2,causes tumors to form in the central nervous system,particularly bilateral acoustic neuromas (tumors of the 8thcranial nerve). Meningiomas, ependymomas and tumors ofother cranial nerves may also develop. NF2 may be inherited orarise independently.neuroglia [nur´ o glee´ ah] Supportive tissue of the brain,includes astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells andmicroglia. Unlike neurons, neuroglial cells do not conductelectrical impulses and can reproduce. The largest percentageof brain tumors arise from neuroglia. Also called glia.neurologist A physician trained in the diagnosis and treatmentof diseases and disorders of the nervous system.neuron [nur´ on] A nerve cell body and its processes(dendrites and axon). It conducts electrical signals.neuro-navigational system Pre-operative MRI information, fedinto a specialized computer system, that allows the surgeon toview 3-D images in the operating room during surgery.neuro-oncologist A physician who specializes in treatingpatients with brain tumors, and/or the consequences of cancerupon the nervous system. The physician is often a trainedneurologist, oncologist or neurosurgeon.neuropathologist A pathologist who establishes the diagnosis indiseases of the nervous system by careful microscopicexamination of the tissue.7879

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