Advanced Imaging ConferenceNovember 2004
Road Map A look are where have we been What we are up to Some speculation about the future
Past milestonesYear/Model # Pixels Area cents/pixel $/mm 2 1989 ST-4 31,480 7mm 2 2.8 127 1992 ST-6 90,750 58mm 2 3.3 52 1994 ST-7/8 1,500,000 127mm 2 0.4 50 1999 ST-10 3,200,000 149mm 2 0.23 50 2001 ST-2000 2,000,000 105mm 2 0.17 33 2004 STL-11000 11,000,000 890mm 2 0.08 10
1989: ST-4 2004: STL-11000TC-211192 x 1652.6 x2.6 mmKAF-110004008 x 267236 x 25 mm130X thearea of 1stST-4340X thenumber ofpixels10X the price
M51 – ST-4
M51 – ST-5
M51 – ST-6
M51 – ST-7
M51 – ST-8
M51 – ST-10XE
M51 – STL-6303E
Where Do We Go From Here? SizeCCDCamera Price FunctionsHardwareSoftwareAccessoriesIntegration ResolutionPixel SizeNumber of PixelsBetter Guiding / AO / ? SensitivityDark CurrentRead NoiseQuantum Efficiency
Size, Price and Functions
New ST-402ME• KAF-0402ME CCD(Same as ST-7XMEI)• Internal Filter Wheel• USB 2.0• 12VDC Operation• Twice the CCD size ofthe ST-237, higher QE,lower dark current andread noise• Lower list price withthe filter wheel than the237 with filter wheel
New Fastar Camera Concept2 and 4 Megapixel Models
Smaller Footprint, Centered CCD,Dual Self-Guiding, Water Cooling
Resolution and Sensitivity
Large Format AO
Large Format AO
Large Format AO
Film grain / pixel size10 u~0.1 mmSilver Halide Crystals KAF-3200 Pixels 6.8 u KAF-5101C Pixels 6.8 uSame Image Scale
9 micron pixel• KAF Series CCD• 2 Phase device• “E” Series replaced one ofthe polysilicone gates withIndium Tin Oxide (ITO)• ITO is more transparent,increase effective QE ofthe device
Microlens• Next improvement insensitivity was the use ofmicrolenses to direct morelight to the moretransparent ITO gate.• This is the structure of theST-7XME, ST-8XME,ST-10XME• Microlenses are also usedon all the KAI interlineCCDs, ST-2000, STL-4020STL-11000• Microlense technology iseffective on pixels up toabout 9u – not larger pixels
Microlens and ITO gate (“ME”) CCD
KAF-3200E vs ME QE
KAF-3200ME vsThinned, Back Illuminated CCD
KAF-3200ME vs MarconiDark Current
Double ITO gates for large pixel KAF CCDs ?Kodak has developed anew process using ITOfor both gates in their 2phase devices (KAFCCD) to increase QE.Both gates made of moretransparent Indium TinOxide to increaseeffective QE.
DITO gates in KAK-1301E• KAF-1301E 16u pixel• Test bed for DITO• Not yet available
Double ITO increase in QEwith KAF-1301E
New KAI-2020M with lower read noisefewer bright pixels and lower dark current~13e-~7.6e-
KAI-2020M Average Dark Current~0.13e-~0.18e-~0.06e-
KAI-2020M Top 1% Dark Current
KAI-2020M: 10X reduction in “bright pixels”
KAI-2020M: 20min dark frameswith and w/o bright pixels
KAI-2020M Tests 4.5nm H-a, HAP130 F/6, 20 min.Dark subtractNo dark subtract
New CCDs from KodakThe trend is to interline CCDs and high densityfull frame multi-mega mega pixel color CCDs for photographyadding improvements to their existing full frame mono CCDsif there is a demand from larger customersKAF-10010CE10 Meg Full FrameColor CCD for Leica3916 x 2674 at 6.8u29 x 19 mm (3:2)About same size as 63034X Area of ST-10KAF-8300CE8.3 Meg Full FrameColor CCD3448 x 2574 at 5.4u19.7 x 15 mm (4:3)2X Area of ST-10
A low cost integrated system
TDI Telescope ConceptSmallAutomaticWeatherproofEasy to UseAffordableTDI Imaging
TDI ImagingTDI = Time Delay IntegrationAlso known as Drift ScanTelescope is pointed ahead of the targetand drive is stoppedAs the image drifts across the CCD, thecharge is shifted from pixel to pixel atthe same rate as the image is drifting.Integration time is equal to the time ittakes to transit the CCDNo periodic errorNo guidingLarge FOV with small CCDInexpensive mounts
4.5” f/4 dob, ST-402ME, 3 min unguided
TDI Image of NA Nebula and Pelican8” f/4ST-7UnguidedNo dark11 stripes27 min ea42 megs
ST-7 7 TDI of NGC7000Reduced to 18.75% of original size
TDI image: M65, M66Single TDI Exposuretaken withKAF-0402E CCDExposure: 67 sec.Scope: C-8 at F/4.8Image size: 765 x 874Processing: No darkframe, log scaled withCCDOPS
Its not all just pretty pictures!Tonny Vanmunster used a Celestron C-14 telescope and an ST-7XME CCDcamera to detect the TrES-1 transit.
SpectrographsNew DSS-7 7 Spectrograph SGS Spectrograph• Low Cost• Self-Guiding• Sensitive• High Resolution• Easy to Use• Easy to Use• Scientific Instrument• Scientific Instrument
Red shift of galaxy NGC7603 measuredwith DSS-7 7 using an 8” SCT
Type II supernova measuredwith DSS-7 7 using an 8” SCT
Some Recent Images
Mars - Roland Christen
Solar Prominence - Stefan Seip
Orion Deep Field - Robert Gendler
Horsehead - Adam Block
Rho Ophiuchus - Loke Tan
M106 - Russell Croman
Omega Centauri - Peter Ward
IC-443 - Johannes Schedler
NGC253 - Volker Wendel / Bernd Flach-Wilken
Helix Nebula - Volker Wendel / Bernd Flach-Wilken
NGC3628 Volker Wendel / Bernd Flach-Wilken
Iris Nebula - Jim Misti / Robert Gendler
Ring Nebula - Tony Hallas
Merope - Robert Gendler
Ten Cool Things You Never KnewYou Could Do With CCDOPS Dual CCD View Planet Master Single Axis MountDynamics Track and Accumulatewith Single Shot ColorCameras Filter Routines Specific toSingle Shot Color Images Easy Processing of SingleShot Color Images Easy RGB ColorProcessing Save Images in FITSFormat by Default Remove Image Gradients Calculate Field of View
1. Dual CCD ViewThe Dual CCD View commandfrom the Camera menu allows youto image with both Imaging andTracking CCDs simultaneously.This is handy for framing theobject of interest in the ImagingCCD while positioning the GuideStar on the Tracking CCD.The screen capture at left showsthe Dual CCD View image withthe Tracking CCD above theImaging CCD. While the relativepositions of the two images arecorrect there can be amagnification difference betweenthem owing to the relative pixelsizes of the two CCDs.
2. Planet MasterThe Planet Master command in the Camera menu is the best thing since sliced bread for capturing images ofPlanets! Planet Master takes a sequence of images and grades each one with a Figure of Merit (FOM) relatedto the sharpness of the image. It then retains the image with the highest Figure of Merit.The screen capture above shows what Planet Master looks like. The left half of the image shows the centralportion of the current image in the sequence and the right half shows the central portion of the sharpest image.The Planet Master dialog to the right shows the FOM for both halves.When you exit the command the image reverts to the full frame sharpest image. With Planet Master you alsohave the option of using a Grab Threshold where all images in the sequence above a specified FOM are savedto disk. This makes it very easy to capture a sequences of sharp images.
3. Single Axis Mount DynamicsThe Single Axis Mount Dynamics command in the Track menu allows you to measure the performance ofyour mount by measuring the position of a star after moving the mount forwards and backwards several timesusing the Relays. This will show you if your mount has backlash or takes uneven steps which can be invaluablefor solving tracking problems.To use the command orient your camera such that the long axis of the CCD is aligned with RA moves thenfocus and center an isolated, relatively bright star on the CCD (either CCD will work). Next invoke the SingleAxis Mount Dynamics command and enter the Exposure time, duration of each relay move, total number ofmoves and then select which relays to activate.While the command is acquiring data you'll be shown the dialog below. The data plot shows the telescope'sactual position (vertical axis) vs. the relay commanded position (horizontal axis). The Green data is when thetelescope is moving out and the Red data is for the telescope moving back.
3. Single Axis Mount DynamicsFor an absolutely perfect mount with perfect seeing you wouldsee the Green and Red data superimposed upon each otherwith the plot angling up (or down). A typical mount's resultsare shown in Figure 1,Seeing: As seen in Figure 1, seeing causes the individual datapoints to deviate by a small amount from a straight line up ordown as the seeing moves the star position.Backlash: Causes the lines to assume an S-Shape with avertical separation between the Read and Green data as thetelescope doesn't move for the first few moves after the turnaround as shown in Figure 2:Periodic Error: This tends to look like a sine wavesuperimposed on the otherwise linear data.Jumpy Mount or Stiction: Causes discontinuities in the dataas the mount moves much more than it should. This can bedifficult to distinguish from seeing but will tend to cause amore jagged data plot.Figure 1Figure 2
4. Track & AccumulateSingle Shot Color CamerasYou didn’t used to be able to do this and many people don’trealize that now you can use SBIG patented Track andAccumulate with Single Shot Color (SSC) cameras like theST-2000XCM. CCDOps has been updated to recognize SSCcameras and Track and Accumulate will then make sure it coalignsimages correctly, taking into account the Bayer Colorfilter Matrix applied to these cameras. Nothing could beeasier.
5. Filter Routines Specific to Single Shot Color ImagesThe raw images (monochrome, prior to conversion to color) fromSingle Shot Color cameras like the ST-2000XCM require specialhandling when it comes to filtering the images so that you don't cominglethe color data in the filtering process. CCDOps has enhancedfiltering routines in the Smooth, Sharpen, Column/Row Repair, KillWarm Pixels and Remove Cool Pixels commands from the Filter submenuof the Utility menu.As shown in the dialog below, these commands allow you to check aSingle Shot Color Image checkbox that applies those enhancements toSingle Shot Color images.
6. Easy Processing of Single Shot Color ImagesSingle Shot Color (SSC) cameras like the ST-2000XCM produce raw images that CCDOpsdisplays as monochrome until they are color processed. The Color Process command in theSingle Shot Color sub-menu of the Utility menu convents these raw images into color asshown in the dialog below. Color processing of SSC images is easy. Start by clicking theDefaults button and selecting RGB for the Method. Tweak the image as described below:Color BalanceMinor color corrections are achieved by the ColorBalance Sliders at the top of the dialog. To makethe image more Red (or less Cyan) move the topslider towards Red then hit the Process button. Ifthere's a star or an area of the image you know isWhite you can White Balance on it by positioningthe Crosshair over that area then right-click themouse and select Set White Balance.Brightness and ContrastUse the Brightness and Contrast sliders to adjustthe image and then hit the Process button to see theresults.
6. Easy Processing of Single Shot Color ImagesEnhancementsImages of galaxies tend to have a lot of dynamic range and you may find it difficultto reveal the faint details in the arms without causing the core to saturate. Tryselecting the DDP method and hit the Process button. DDP compresses the dynamicrange of the image. This may not look natural on all images but don't be afraid to tryit. An example is shown below.RGB ProcessedDDP Processed
7. Easy RGB Color ProcessingProcessing RGB images involves the following steps:1. Co-aligning the images2. Normalizing the Sky Background3. Setting the White BalanceCCDOps makes this relatively easy. Here's a step-by-step procedure for quick andeasy RGB Processing:1. Co-align the images - Open the Red, Green and Blue images and then open theCrosshairs.Visually identify a common star or feature in the images to serve as analignment reference. Starting with the Red image, position the Crosshair on thereference position, using the peak pixel brightness on a star for example, thenright-click the mouse. Select the Set RGB Red Position item to mark the referenceposition. Do the same in the Green and Blue images, selecting the Set RGB GreenPosition and Set RGB Blue Position respectively. This tells CCDOps how it willco-align the images
7. Easy RGB Color Processing2. Normalize the Sky Background - Normalizing the Sky Background meansmaking sure it comes out a neutral grey in the final image, not having a subtlecolor tint. Bring the Red image to the foreground and then position theCrosshair on an area of the image that represents the Sky Background, free ofany stars or faint nebulosity. Right-click the mouse and select the Set RGBBlack Level. This tells CCDOps how to normalize the sky background.3. Set the White Balance - Again, bring the Red image to the foreground andthen position the Crosshair over a star or area of the image that you feelrepresents the White Balance. If you get it wrong it's easy to adjust so don'tworry about it. Once the Crosshair is positioned, right-click and select the SetRGB White Level. This tells CCDOps two things: how to set the colorbalance and how to set the contrast of the RGB image such that the star youidentified comes out white (neutral color) and just saturates in the RGB image.
7. Easy RGB Color ProcessingNow that the hard work is done you can close theRed, Green and Blue images and then invoke theRGB Combine command in the Utility menu.You'll be shown the dialog at right. If theAdvanced Setting section is not visible, click thegreen triangle to reveal it. To finish the colorprocessing do the following:4. Identify the images - Click the Set Namebutton to the right of the Red and navigatethrough your folders on your hard drive to findthe Red image. Double-click the Red Image orselect it and hit Open.If you used CCDOps to acquire the images they will be named XXXX.r, XXXX.gand XXXX.b and at this point CCDOps will fill in the names of the Green and Blueimages for you. If not then click the Set Name button to the right of the Green andBlue and identify those images.
7. Easy RGB Color Processing5. Initial RGB image - Click the “Do It” button tosee the results of merging the Red, Green and Blueimages into a single RGB image.6. Tweak the parameters – [a] Co-alignment -Modify the Horizontal and Vertical adjustmentsedit fields to the right of each image to tweak theco-alignment. The easiest way to do this is to lookat the outer fringes of stars my zooming in on theRGB image. If the stars have a Red tint to the rightthen you would reduce the Red Horizontal item by1. After each adjustment hit the “Do It” button tosee the results. [b] Color Balance – Raise or lowerthe Factors column to adjust the Color Balance. For example, to make the imageredder, raise the Red factor. Hit the Do It button to see the results. [c] Brightness andContrast - Raise or lower Grey Level item to adjust the Brightness and raise or lowerthe Contrast Boost item to adjust the image contrast. Hit the Do It button to see theresults.
8. Save Images in FITS Format by DefaultCCDOps allows you to saveimages in many formats includingthe high quality 16-bit SBIGCompressed, SBIGUncompressed and FITS formats.Using the Preferences commandin the Edit menu you can setCCDOps to save images in theFITS format (or others) by default.This is shown in the PreferencesDialog at right.
9. Remove Image GradientImage Gradients in wide field images due to varying skybrightness can drive you crazy! Especially when youreally want to push the contrast to reveal dim nebulosity.CCDOps makes it easy to remove them using theRemove Image Gradients command in the Pixel Utilitiessub-menu of the Utility menu.After invoking the command the Crosshairs open up andyou are shown the dialog at right.Using the Crosshairs, select three points in the image that represent the Sky Background levelin three of the four corners of the image. After positioning and sizing the Crosshair to onlyinclude Sky Background right-click the mouse and select Point 1, 2 or 3 or click the Set buttonin the dialog. With the three points set, optionally click the Norm Bkgnd checkbox and enter aBackground value. Doing this makes the Sky Background match the entered value (in ADUs)which can make it easier to patch together a Mosaic of Images. Finally click the RemoveGradient button to process the image.
9. Remove Image GradientThe screen capture below shows what can be done on a typical image. The image on the leftis from an ST-7 with a Wide Angle lens showing quite a bit of image gradient from top tobottom. The image on the right is after applying the Remove Image Gradient command.Both images are displayed with the same Back and Range settings in the Contrast Dialog.
10. Calculate Field of ViewEver wonder what the Field of View (FOV) ofyour SBIG camera is on your telescope? Wonderno longer. Use the FOV Calculator command inthe Misc menu. Select the type of SBIG camerayou're using and enter your telescope's Apertureand F/Ratio then click the Calculate button.The Pixel Size and CCD's Field of View arecalculated and displayed as shown at right.
Contact SBIGweb: http://www.sbig.come-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org: (805) 571-72447244fax: (805) 571-11471147