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CAREER GUIDE - GateWay Community College

Career Guide to the Safety Profession, Third Edition©2007 by the American Society of Safety Engineers Foundation and the Board ofCertfied Safety ProfessionalsISBN 978-1-885581-50-1Printed in the United StatesThis publication is funded by the American Society of Safety EngineersFoundation and the Board of Certified Safety Professionals.For additional copies, contact:American Society of Safety Engineers Foundation1800 E. Oakton StreetDes Plaines, IL 60018Phone: 847-699-2929; Fax: 847-296-3769; Email: assefoundation@asse.orgOrBoard of Certified Safety Professionals208 Burwash AvenueSavoy, IL 61874Phone: 217-359-9263; Fax: 217-359-0055; Email:

Career Guideto theSafetyProfessionAmerican Society of Safety Engineers FoundationDes Plaines, IllinoisBoard of Certified Safety ProfessionalsSavoy, Illinois

ContentsPageForeword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vPreface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viiIntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1What is the Safety Profession? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3What Safety Professionals Do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Where Safety Professionals Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Employment Outlook for Safety Professionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Should I Become a Safety Professional? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15How to Become a Safety Professional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Areas Where Safety Professionals Can Specialize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Profiles of Safety Professionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45Publishers of the Career Guide to the Safety Profession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51iii

ForewordThe Career Guide to the Safety Professionis a great resource for those who want tomake a real difference in safety in the U.S.and around the World. The guide providesan excellent overview of the challengingcareers available to safety professionals aswell as profiling some successful safetyprofessionals now employed who are makingimportant contributions in both the public andprivate sectors.In addition, the guide gives critical informationneeded in selecting the right undergraduateand graduate academic programs that meetthe individual needs for entering a career insafety as well as continuous professionalgrowth.Safety and health professionals are the criticallink to assuring worker health and safety.Every workplace can benefit from the valuedknowledge and experience safetyprofessionals bring to an organization. Safetyprofessionals not only help identify andreduce workplace hazards, they help reducecosts and optimize the contributions of allworking men and women for the organization.As a former Administrator for theOccupational Safety and HealthAdministration (OSHA), I can assure youOSHA values safety professionals andrecognizes they are a critical element inachieving the Agency’s mission. The Agencyhas partnered with ASSE and others to delivermore effective information and tools to safetyprofessionals so that greater safety and healthperformance can be realized around thecountry. OSHA also continues to improveits enforcement and standard-setting strategyand a key component of that effort isincreasing the number of safety professionalson staff that are experienced and holdprofessional certifications.The pain and suffering caused by thousandsof workplace injuries and diseases each yearis clearly unacceptable and with over 7.5million workplaces in this country and over111 million workers, workplace injuries anddisease still burden the nation with billions ofdollars in workers’ compensation and medicalcosts, less than optimal productivity and lostgrowth opportunities. Combined with newtechnologies and global economic pressures,the challenges of assuring worker safety andhealth will continue to increase—creating agreater demand for highly trained, highlyskilled and highly motivated safetyprofessionals.This guide is an essential tool for studentsentering the safety field and practicingprofessionals looking for new opportunitiesand professional growth.John L. Henshaw, CIH, ROHFormer Assistant Secretary of Labor forOccupational Safety and HealthU.S. Department of Laborv

PrefaceAs we begin the twenty-first century, thesafety profession requires highly educated,competent and motivated practitioners. It isestimated that employment opportunities forsafety professionals will continue to beabundant in the next decade. Today’s safetyprofessional serves as a valued member ofmanagement, engineering and business teams,often as a leader for projects, initiatives andprograms.Job satisfaction in the profession remains high.Safety professionals are challenged andrewarded with broad responsibilities that playan essential role in managing hazards,implementing controls and helping companiesmaintain their profitability. In the 2006National Safety Survey conducted byOccupational Hazards magazine, 70% ofsafety professionals found their jobs to behighly satisfying—a fact most attribute tomaking a positive difference in people’s lives.Safety professionals take pride in knowingthey work to prevent injuries and illnesses totheir fellow employees and help them toreturn safely to their families each day.To meet future challenges, safetyprofessionals need a strong academicbackground. To maintain their competency,they must continue their professionaldevelopment throughout their careers.Business, technology and legal changesdemand that safety professionals stay abreastof the impacts on professional practice. Theclear lines that once separated various safetydisciplines in the past have faded as moresafety professionals also assume health andenvironmental responsibilities in business,industry and governmental agencies. Safetyprofessionals with a broad undergraduatebackground in science, engineering, business,health, education, law, government, andpsychology are well prepared to function intoday’s employment environment.Achieving a rewarding and successful careerin safety is strongly related to education andcertification. In a 2004 Board of CertifiedSafety Professionals salary survey ofCertified Safety Professionals ® , 22% of thoseholding the Certified Safety Professional(CSP ® ) certification earned over $100,000per year. The average pay was about $84,245per year with 53% of the respondents havingadvanced degrees. An ASSE CompensationStudy conducted in 2003 revealed that thoseholding the CSP credential earn about $17,000more per year than their non-certified peers.The Career Guide to the Safety Professioncontains a wealth of information about careeroptions available in the safety profession andthe educational preparation typically required.We hope that this vital information guidesyour steps as you consider a rewarding careeras a safety professional.Jeffrey L. Robinson, CSP, P.E.President, Board of Certified Safety Professionals 1Kennith D. Brock, CSPChair, American Society of Safety EngineersFoundation 1®“Certified Safety Professional” and “CSP” arecertification marks awarded to the Board of CertifiedSafety Professionals by the U.S. Patent and TrademarkOffice.1See Page 49 for profiles of BCSP and the ASSEFoundation (established by and in partnership with ASSE).vii


What is the Safety Profession?The primary focus for the safety professionis prevention of harm to people, property andthe environment. Safety professionals applyprinciples drawn from such disciplines asengineering, education, psychology,physiology, enforcement, hygiene, health,physics, and management. They useappropriate methods and techniques of lossprevention and loss control. “Safety science”is a twenty-first century term for everythingthat goes into the prevention of accidents,illnesses, fires, explosions and other eventswhich harm people, property and theenvironment.The U.S. has a lot to gain by reducing thenumber of these preventable events. TheNational Safety Council estimated that in theU.S., accidents alone cost our nation over$574.8 billion in 2004. Fire-related lossesaccounted for $9.8 billion of that total.Illness caused by exposing people to harmfulbiological, physical and chemical agentsproduce great losses each year and accurateestimates of their impact are hard to make.In addition, pollution of all kinds causesdamage to all forms of life. This generatesskyrocketing cleanup costs and threatens thefuture habitability of our planet.The term “safety science” may sound new,but many sources of safety scienceknowledge are hundreds of years old. All ofthe following are knowledge areas of safetyscience:• Chemistry and biology provideknowledge about hazardous substances.• Physics tells people about electricity,heat, radiation and other forms of energythat must be controlled to ensure safe use.• Ergonomics helps people understand theperformance limits of humans and helpsthem design tasks, machines, workstations and facilities which improveperformance and safety.• Environmental sciences providesknowledge about pollution sources andtheir control, waste disposal, impactstudies, environmental alteration (heat,light, irrigation, erosion, etc.), and ecology.• Psychology helps people understandhuman behaviors that can lead to or avoidaccidents.• Physiology, biomechanics and medicinehelp people understand the mechanismsof injury and illness and how to preventthem.• Engineering, business management,economics, and even sociology andgeology give people the knowledgenecessary to improve safety in oursociety and contribute to productivity andprofitability.The things that can cause or contribute toaccidents, illnesses, fire and explosions, andsimilar undesired events are called “hazards.”Safety science gives people the ability toidentify, evaluate, and control or preventthese hazards. Safety science providesmanagement methods for setting policy andsecuring funds to operate safety activities ina company.3

Hazard control activities go on every daythroughout the world. From the careful designand operation of nuclear power generatingstations to the elimination of lead-based paintsin homes, the efforts to reduce threats topublic safety go on nonstop. The applicationof safety science principles occurs in manyplaces: in the workplace, in all modes oftransportation, in laboratories, schools, andhospitals, at construction sites, on oil drillingrigs at sea, in underground mines, in thebusiest cities, in the space program, on farms,and anywhere else where people may beexposed to hazards.hazard controls, communicating safety andhealth information, measuring theeffectiveness of controls, and performingfollow-up evaluations to measure continuingimprovement in programs.Safety science helps people understand howsomething can act as a hazard. People mustknow how and when the hazard can produceharm and the best ways to eliminate or reducethe danger. If a hazard cannot be eliminated,we must know how to minimize exposuresto the hazard. This costs money and requiresassistance from designers, owners andmanagers. Safety professionals must knowthe most cost-effective ways to reduce therisk and how to advise employees, owners,and managers. By applying safety science,all of these activities can be effectivelycarried out. Without safety science, safetyprofessionals rely on guesswork, mythologyand superstition.Safety professionals are the specialists in thefight to control hazards. To be calledprofessionals, they must acquire the essentialknowledge of safety science througheducation and experience so that others canrely on their judgments and recommendations.Top safety professionalsdemonstrate their competence throughprofessional certification examinations.Regardless of the industry, safetyprofessionals help to achieve safety in theworkplace by identifying and analyzinghazards which potentially create injury andillness problems, developing and applying4

What Safety Professionals DoWherever people run the risk of personalinjury or illness, they are likely to find safetyprofessionals at work. Safety professionalsare people who use a wide variety ofmanagement, engineering and scientificskills to prevent human suffering and relatedlosses. Their specific roles and activities varywidely, depending on their education,experience and the types of organizations forwhom they work.Safety professionals who have earneddoctoral degrees are often found at thecollege and university level, teaching anddoing research, public service and consulting.Most safety professionals, however, havebachelor’s or master’s degrees. Theseprofessionals may be found working forinsurance companies, in a variety of industries,for state and federal agencies like theOccupational Safety and HealthAdministration (OSHA), and in hospitals,schools and nonprofit organizations.An American national standard sets forthcommon and reasonable parameters of theprofessional safety position. This can befound in the ANSI/ASSE Z590.2-2003Criteria for Establishing the Scope andFunctions of the Professional SafetyPosition publication ( professionals’ precise roles andresponsibilities depend on the companies ororganizations for whom they work. Differentindustries have different hazards and requireunique safety expertise. However, most safetyprofessionals do at least several of thefollowing:• Hazard Recognition: identifyingconditions or actions that may causeinjury, illness or property damage.• Inspections/Audits: assessing safety andhealth risks associated with equipment,materials, processes, facilities orabilities.• Fire Protection: reducing fire hazards byinspection, layout of facilities andprocesses, and design of fire detectionand suppression systems.• Regulatory Compliance: ensuring thatmandatory safety and health standardsare satisfied.• Health Hazard Control: controllinghazards such as noise, chemicalexposures, radiation, or biologicalhazards that can create harm.• Ergonomics: improving the workplacebased on an understanding of humanphysiological and psychologicalcharacteristics, abilities and limitations.• Hazardous Materials Management:ensuring that dangerous chemicals andother products are procured, stored, anddisposed of in ways that prevent fires,exposure to or harm from thesesubstances.• Environmental Protection: controllinghazards that can lead to undesirablereleases of harmful materials into the air,water or soil.• Training: providing employees andmanagers with the knowledge and skillsnecessary to recognize hazards andperform their jobs safely and effectively.5

• Accident and Incident Investigations:determining the facts related to anaccident or incident based on witnessinterviews, site inspections and collectionof other evidence.• Advising Management: helpingmanagers establish safety objectives,plan programs to achieve thoseobjectives and integrate safety into theculture of an organization.• Record Keeping: maintaining safety andhealth information to meet governmentrequirements, as well as to provide datafor problem solving and decisionmaking.• Evaluating: judging the effectiveness ofexisting safety and health relatedprograms and activities.• Emergency Response: organizing,training and coordinating skilledemployees with regard to auditory andvisual communications pertaining toemergencies such as fires, accidents orother disasters.• Managing Safety Programs: planning,organizing, budgeting, and trackingcompletion and effectiveness of activitiesintended to achieve safety objectives inan organization or to implementadministrative or technical controls thatwill eliminate or reduce hazards.• Product Safety: assessing the probabilitythat exposure to a product during anystage of its lifecycle will lead to anunacceptable impact on human health orthe environment and determining theappropriate auditory and visual hazardwarnings.• Security: identifying and implementingdesign features and procedures to protectfacilities and businesses from threats thatintroduce hazards.they will find safety professionals dedicatedto preventing human suffering and relatedlosses.Successful safety professionals are effectivecommunicators with strong “people skills.”Most people in this professioncharacteristically possess the desire to helpand work with others. The safety professionalfaces new challenges almost daily. Thesatisfaction of knowing that people have beenprotected because harmful accidents andother incidents have been prevented is justone of the many rewards associated withprofessional safety practice or “what safetyprofessionals do.”No matter where people work, travel, live orplay, conditions exist that can result inpersonal injury or illness. And wherever thepossibility of personal injury or illness exists,6

Where Safety Professionals WorkSince safety professionals provide technicalassistance in identifying, evaluating andcontrolling hazards, safety professionalswork virtually anywhere where people mightbe exposed to hazards. There are positionsfor safety professionals in every part of theUnited States and in other countries.No matter what a company’s business is, itsemployees can encounter some type ofhazard, either at work, getting to and fromwork or at home or play. Even working at acomputer terminal can be hazardous,producing long-term injuries to the hand andwrist, back or other parts of the body.Whether a company does manufacturing,mining, transportation, agriculture,chemicals, fuels production, construction, orprovides services, it will always face hazardsin some or all of its operations. It is likelythat the company would employ or contractwith one or more safety professionals.It is common for companies to employ safetyprofessionals at particular work sites. Atcorporate offices, safety professionals cancoordinate the hazard control activities awayfrom the work sites. Some college graduatesin safety begin their careers as safetyassociates, coordinators or assistantmanagers at small plants or company worksites. After a period of training and successfulperformance, the graduates may advance toSafety Manager at a small plant. Later, theymay advance to similar positions at largerfacilities.In recent years, safety professionals areworking more and more in diverse and nontraditionalworksites as many job opportunitieshave expanded to government, construction,transportation, service industries andconsulting practices, among others. Suchemployment requires safety professionals totravel to different worksites to provide supportto their internal and external clients.Many companies have combined safety,industrial hygiene, environmental affairs, fireprotection and ergonomics into a singlefunction. A safety professional may advanceby overseeing the work of all areas in thedepartment.International projects are on the rise and thenumber of companies operating outside theUnited States continues to increase. Safetyprofessionals must now adapt to multilanguagecontexts.Many safety professionals aspire to becomea Corporate Safety Manager/Director/VicePresident with responsibilities for leading andmanaging the safety function at theorganization’s corporate or divisionheadquarters. There they have broaderresponsibilities and may have to travel oftento visit various work sites. Other safetyprofessionals prefer to remain at one worksite where their responsibilities can be just aschallenging, but where travel is light.7

Figure 1. Industries in which Safety Professionals Work.Based on a 2000 BCSP Salary Study.Table 1. Safety Professionals withinManufacturing and Production Industries(19%)Industry PercentApparel and other finished fabric products

Table 5. Safety Professionals withinTransportation Industries (2%)IndustryPercentAir 38Local, suburban and urban passenger 5Motor freight transportation and warehousing 14Railroad 33Water 10Total 100Figure 1 shows where safety professionalsare employed in general. Tables 1 through 5provide more details about employment forsafety professionals.A growing number of safety professionalswho have performed very well in their safetypositions are being promoted to otherresponsible positions which extend beyondsafety. For example, they might be placed incharge of a department, unit or the entireoperation at a site. Since safety is an importantpart of all successful operations, safetyprofessionals are being recognized as peoplewho can effectively contribute to otheractivities within the organization.Some safety professionals work for consultingfirms that are hired by organizations to providespecialized hazard control services, such astraining of workers and engineers. Hazardcontrol services might be provided on a onetimebasis, or they might be performed on aregular basis. For example, NASA and otherfederal government agencies frequentlycontract with consulting firms for many oftheir engineering and other technicalfunctions, including safety work. Theconsultants have offices on site and workside-by-side with federal employees on along-term basis. Many large corporations arenow using contractors in the same way. Whilesome safety consultants provide their servicesto different clients all over the country, otherswork mainly in one city, state or area.A safety professional may work in a largeconsulting firm with dozens of otherconsultants. However, many consultants workalone and are often self-employed on shorttermassignments in their particular specialty.Safety consulting work covers a widespectrum of hazard control activities. Someconsultants specialize in evaluating andcontrolling only specific types of hazards. Forexample, safety consultants working asindustrial hygienists concentrate on healthhazards such as vapor, noise, radiation, toxicdusts, gases, or other physical agents. Othersafety consultants might specialize inconstruction hazards, or hazards of boilers,cranes, aircraft or chemical plants. A safetyprofessional who gains a high degree ofexpertise with specific types of hazards, eitherthrough education or experience (and usuallyboth) can have a satisfying and rewardingcareer as a safety consultant. Those involvedin consulting work also need to be able tomanage the day-to-day aspects of operatinga private business.Many safety consultants with professionalskills or expertise in a specific area provideexpert witness and litigation support.Insurance companies often provide consultingservices to the policy holders they insure.These safety professionals are known as losscontrol representatives. They work for aninsurance company and visit the facilities ofinsured policy holders to assist them withhazard recognition, evaluation and control.Many safety professionals begin their careersas loss control representatives.Because of the tragic losses caused byuncontrolled hazards, federal, state and localgovernment have created laws or regulationsregarding how and when hazards are to becontrolled. To enforce these laws andregulations, government agencies employ9

safety professionals as inspectors andaccident investigators. They visit sites whereuncontrolled hazards are thought to exist.These government-employed safetyprofessionals usually work in one area of thecountry or within a state. They may also needto visit sites in that area, either on a regularor occasional basis. They provide theinformation needed to determine ifgovernment laws, regulations or standardshave been met. From their recommendations,changes can be made to achieve bettercontrol of any hazard found to exist.10

Employment Outlook forSafety ProfessionalsThe employment outlook for safetyprofessionals is bright. Depending on theireducation, communication skills, experienceand professional certifications, safetyprofessionals can expect to have a rewardingcareer far into the future. Specialists will beneeded as advancements in technology,regulations and public expectations increase.With a bachelor’s or master’s degree,graduates can expect to find rewardingemployment in business settings or in thepublic sector. They may also find a careerwith federal, state and local safety agencies.Some have responsibility for emergencyresponse planning and management.Individuals may find employment in researchlaboratories and at colleges and universities,although some of these positions may requiredoctoral degrees.The safety profession includes many new jobclassifications. For example, the field ofergonomics (fitting the job to the person) hasgrown as injury rates have climbed in meatprocessing, manufacturing and at computerworkstations. Also, there is an increasedemphasis on highway and construction safety.All of these areas offer good employmentopportunities.Insurance and worker’s compensation costshave escalated over the last two decades andhave become economic concerns for manyemployers. This has led to a growingemphasis on safety for companies and moreemployment opportunities for safetyprofessionals.Responsible companies, concerned public andspecial interest groups have increasedprotection for our environment. Thetechniques and principles involved inachieving this are similar to those used inaccident prevention. Safety professionals areoften assigned responsibilities forenvironmental affairs. This increases the needfor safety professionals in organizations withenvironmental hazards.There is increased coverage in the print andbroadcast media about hazardous wastespills, accidents, and other events thatproduce losses which could have beenavoided through preventive measures and bybetter management. The adverse publicitycreates opportunities for people trained todevelop management systems that preventlosses. For some time, the careeropportunities for innovative safetyprofessionals have grown faster than thenumber of trained and qualified individualsavailable.The need for safety professionals hascontinued to grow in spite of a shrinking U.S.manufacturing base. While many non-U.S.countries have safety standards less stringentthan those found in the United States,responsible companies require their foreignplants to safeguard all employees. Manydeveloping countries are also raising—andforeign countries are changing—their safety,health and environmental standards. In manycases, international standards now protectworkers everywhere and U.S.-based safetyprofessionals oversee safety at facilitiesoutside the U.S.11

Employment in the field of safety hascontinued to grow over the years. This growthhas continued, even in bad economic times.There is no reason to believe that the needfor more safety professionals will diminish inthe near future. There is a need to replacethose retiring from practice.SalariesSalaries range from lows of about $30,000for safety inspectors to highs of $150,000 forhighly qualified individuals in demandingpositions.The top people in the safety profession oftenearn salaries comparable to top people in law,medicine, engineering and accounting. Thepositions of those leading loss preventionefforts for large corporations or thosemanaging or owning consulting firms oftenprovide compensation well into six figures.The Board of Certified Safety Professionalsregularly monitors salaries of those safetyprofessionals holding the Certified SafetyProfessional (CSP) designation. Summarydata and details by gender, degree type andlevel, age, industry, state and other factorsare available from BCSP.Professional societies, such as ASSE, theNational Safety Council (NSC) and theAmerican Industrial Hygiene Association(AIHA), conduct periodic salary studies andpublish the results. Contact theseorganizations to request a copy of their mostrecent salary surveys.According to Safety+Health‘s 2005 SalarySurvey, 78% of survey respondents earn morethan $50,000 per year. Of those with five toten years of safety experience, 48% madebetween $50,000 and $79,999 per year. 36%of safety professionals with over 20 years ofexperience are making more than $100,000a year.Opportunities for AdvancementA person’s ambition, level of education,experience, skills and certifications all affectcareer paths in safety. As with otherprofessions, when people perform well overa period of time, they become candidates forpositions of greater responsibility. More andmore safety professionals have broadeducation, experience and professionalcredentials and are well qualified to moveinto different parts of business organizations.Also, experienced safety professionalsusually have little trouble moving from oneorganization to another.Some people may seek advanced degrees.Over one third of safety professionals todayhave advanced degrees in some field. Thosewith a doctoral degree may find a teachingcareer to their liking or find opportunities inresearch on specific safety issues as technicaladvisors. The National Institute forOccupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) hascontinuing needs for research on many kindsof workplace hazards.Safety professionals may also attendprofessional schools and go into law practiceor administration. Safety careers afford anindividual experience that is far broader thanmany others. Safety professionals can, andoften do, get involved in many aspects of abusiness.Opportunities for Minorities and OtherGroupsMinority safety practitioners have beenamong the ranks of safety professionals sincethe 1800s, yet their participation was not wellrecognized until recently. Early examplesinclude Alice Hamilton, MD, who began herresearch into toxic substances and workplacediseases at the turn of the century. Garret A.Morgan and Andrew J. Beard are early12

examples of African-Americans whoseengineering designs and patents significantlyenhanced the safety and health of Americans.Beard, in the late 1800s, invented theautomatic linking coupler, which improved avery hazardous job performed by railroad yardworkers. Morgan invented the gas mask usedin the early 1900s in underground mines. Healso patented the electric traffic signal.As the safety profession began to gaincredibility in the 1970s, there were very fewwomen in the profession. Today, it isestimated from recent studies that about 15%to 20% of those entering the safety professionare women.Updates on Job OpportunitiesOne annual reference that projects jobopportunities in many fields, including safety,is the Occupational Outlook Handbook,published by the Bureau of Labor Statisticsof the U.S. government. The listing ofoccupations includes safety engineers, safetyinspectors, safety and health practitioners, andsafety specialists and technicians.The number of women, minorities and peoplewith disabilities who are entering the safetyprofession is growing. Some evidence of thisgrowth can be found in recent studies ofminorities graduating with undergraduatedegrees in the allied fields of industrialengineering and public health. It is estimatedthat in the future, about one fourth to one thirdof all degreed entry-level safety professionalswill be from a minority population of theUnited States.Careers in safety are available and open tomen and women of every racial and ethnicbackground. Having a physical disability isnot a barrier to success in the safetyprofession. There is a trend toward diversityin the work place.Under the Americans with Disabilities Act(ADA), employers must provide access toemployment for those with disabilities. Notonly is the safety profession open to thosewith disabilities, many safety professionalsneed to evaluate and control hazards whichmay impact those with disabilities.13

Should I Become aSafety Professional?When choosing a future profession, as astudent, what should I look for? Probably allof the following considerations are important:a profession that is respected, one that isassociated with important work, one that givesyou a feeling of accomplishment, and one thatprovides growth and the potential to advancein responsibility. You should also seek aprofession where compensation reflects skillsand accomplishments. A desirable professionprovides stable employment, variety in thedaily routine, while keeping interest high andstress low. These are characteristics of anideal profession. While no profession is idealfor everyone, the safety profession scoresvery high on nearly all of these factors.You may wonder if you have what it takes tobe a successful safety professional. Here aresome important things to consider. Are youmotivated by a desire to help others? Doyou believe that it is important to serve yourneighbors and the community? Do you placea high value on health and the quality of life?Such motivation would help you be asuccessful safety professional, and at thesame time, provide a great sense ofsatisfaction in a job well done.Successful safety professionals must developgood skills in working with people andcommunicating with them. Many of theseskills are gained during college and aftera degree is completed. As a safetyprofessional, you work with practicallyeveryone in an organization. You should feelcomfortable in talking and working withpeople of all ages and backgrounds.Safety science is challenging, and the collegecourse work can be difficult, but interesting.You will do quite well if you have good studyhabits and are willing to work hard. A collegedegree is essential for most safety professionalpositions. The more safety science coursesyou complete, the better prepared you willbe for a safety career. Safety professionalsmust understand many technical concepts, soif you like science and mathematics, you willprobably find safety science interesting.You may be one of those students who arenot especially outstanding in any one particularacademic area, but you are an excellentorganizer. You may enjoy planning andcarrying out activities of all sorts, and whenone event is completed, you are off to startplanning the next one. These are interests andskills that can help you become a successfulmanager in an organization. Managers set upprograms to achieve agreed-upon objectivesand draw together other parts of theorganization to work on carrying them out.Many safety professionals hold positions asmanagers, so planning and organization skillsare very important.You may be absolutely certain about thecareer you want to pursue. You may not besure even after you graduate from college.Being uncertain about a career is normal. Itis quite common to change majors afterstarting college.While you may view the safety profession asbeing rather specialized, an undergraduatesafety curriculum is actually rather broad.15

Many colleges have a program that exposesyou to a broad range of courses and fields ofstudy. Such a program can help you find thoseactivities and ideas that interest you the most.Undergraduate safety curriculums require arelatively wide assortment of courses. Thisprovides a reasonably good preparation forentering business or industry in any functionalarea.You will complete business courses as wellas mathematics and science courses if youare a student in safety science. You will alsotake courses in communications and in theuse of computers. These are subjects thatwill have a high value, even if you should laterdecide to switch majors.production management are common amongthose making mid-career changes. Universitycourses offered in the evening, on weekends,and online enable adult learners to pursuemasters degrees in safety. This road toprofessionalism provides opportunities to bothbroaden and deepen skills demanded by themarketplace. It also provides an effectivepath for those entering the field from othercareer areas.Most safety science curriculums offerinternship possibilities so that you can workin a safety-related position before yougraduate. Internships also create opportunitiesto strengthen a resume, to be morecompetitive for positions, and to demonstrateyour capabilities to potential employers.An internship is the ultimate test that you canuse to answer the question, “Should I becomea safety professional?”ASSE publishes guidelines for academicsafety internship programs. The ASSEstandard covers scope/purpose/application/exceptions, definitions, general requirements,development of evaluation criteria, internshipcompensation and legal implications, andprogram evaluation. Employers should referto the “Guidelines for a Safety InternshipProgram in Industry” article by Lon H.Ferguson in the April 1998 issue ofProfessional Safety.Many safety professionals gravitate to theprofession from other departments or fields.Moves into safety from human resources,engineering, quality control, nursing, and16

How to Become aSafety ProfessionalThis section details the stages of educationand training necessary to become a safetyprofessional and how to continue practicingto accelerate the rate of success after enteringthe field.The Board of Certified Safety Professionalsoffers a Career Paths in Safety brochurethat addresses the education, experience,typical job roles, and recommendedcertification options at various levels (e.g.,basic, technician/technologist, andprofessional) of a safety career. This brochureis located online at or may be requested from BCSP.High School PreparationAny young person considering a career as asafety professional should take collegepreparation courses while in high school.Since the safety professional position isinterdisciplinary, it is important to have abroad background in science andmathematics, and to develop goodcommunication skills. Safety professionalsneed knowledge in biology, chemistry andphysics. They often use problem-solvingskills to identify, analyze, and controlhazards, and frequently work withengineering specialists.Here are some good ways to learn about thesafety profession:• Talk to safety professionals about theirwork.• Visit safety professionals at their placesof work and see what the job is all about.• Read about safety problems, accidentsor disasters in newspapers andmagazines and consider how theseevents could have been prevented.• Do a science project on workplace safetyor health, consumer product safety,traffic safety, fire protection, safety signs/equipment, or some similar subject.• Visit industrial plants on field trips andask questions about safety programs.In selecting an academic program, one shouldconsider whether the college or universityholds institutional accreditation from anaccreditation body recognized by the Councilfor Higher Education Accreditation( or the U.S. Department ofEducation ( In addition, specific degreeprograms may hold accreditation as a safetydegree from a commission of theAccreditation Board for Engineering andTechnology or ABET (, and the institutions that offer them,should be chosen carefully. There aredegrees from colleges and universities thatdo not hold accreditation from a bodyrecognized by the U.S. Department ofEducation or CHEA. There are alsounrecognized degrees from institutionsidentified as diploma mills (or similarunacceptable institutions) by the U.S.government or any U.S. state government.Diploma mills are considered unethical in thesafety profession. The following URLs maybe helpful as individuals research degrees,17

colleges, and universities:,,, and are a number of colleges that offerdegrees in safety and related specialties.Students may visit the American Society ofSafety Engineers web site to search theCollege and University Directory, Safetyand Related Degree Programs( Itlists colleges that offer degrees in safety andrelated fields and tells which safety programsare accredited by a commission of ABET.The Board of Certified Safety Professionalsoffers the BCSP Database of Safety andRelated Academic Programs in the UnitedStates ( online.Individuals can look up academic programsby field, program level, or state. Thedatabase assists those preparing for oradvancing in the safety profession to locateacademic programs at accredited U.S.colleges and universities.Directories of college and universityprograms that are found in bookstores maynot list safety degree programs, but mayprovide other valuable information about aschool. Today, most schools offer detailsabout their campus, programs, and courseson their web sites. Information about costs,facilities, entrance requirements and otherdetails can help students select a school.Students can write to or email the schoolsand safety degree programs that interestthem. The schools will provide additionalinformation about their requirements,programs and faculty.Students can talk to their guidance counselors,teachers and others who have been to collegefor advice in selecting one. They can helpstudents decide whether a community college(two-year programs leading to an associatedegree) or a college or university (four-yearprograms leading to a bachelor’s degree) isright for them.Community and TechnicalCollegesA number of community and junior collegesoffer an associate degree in safety or a relatedfield (such as fire protection). Peoplegraduating from these programs are hired forlimited positions in safety. They may helpmanufacturers, construction companies orother industries meet OSHA’s hazard controlstandards.For some people, two-year degree programsare a good choice. They allow individuals tostart working in a field at an earlier stage ofeducation. They provide a way for many tobegin a career change. There is usually amore flexible class schedule for those whowork while going to school. Many workersattain an associate degree on a part-time basisand their employer may even pay for theirstudies. Community and technical collegesusually cost less than four-year colleges anduniversities. However, a two-year degree maynot allow advancement to the morechallenging positions in this field.If students transfer to a four-year safetyprogram, they may not get full credit forassociate degree courses. Students shouldcheck with the four-year programs they mightwant to attend later. These programs advisestudents what courses they require and howmuch credit they allow. Also, they can advisestudents about standards they use inaccepting transfer students from two-yearprograms.18

Four-Year Colleges andUniversitiesA number of four-year colleges anduniversities offer undergraduate degrees insafety. According to a BCSP Salary Surveyconducted in 2000, over 90% of those CSPsin the safety profession have earned at leasta bachelor’s degree. About 30% of thoseentering the field have a bachelor’s degreein safety, while many move into safety fromother disciplines (engineering, business,physical sciences, etc.) and later pursue safetystudies.A bachelor’s degree in safety provides a solidfoundation for work as a safety professional.A major in safety typically includespreparatory courses and professional coursesoutside of the major. To prepare for the safetyprofessional courses, college students arenormally required to take courses inmathematics through beginning calculus,statistics, chemistry with laboratory work,physics with laboratory work, humanphysiology or biology, and introductorycourses in business management, engineeringmechanics and processes, speech,composition and psychology. Students insafety must also acquire good computer skills,including the ability to use the Internet andimportant business and safety softwarepackages.Most preparatory courses are taken duringfreshmen and sophomore years. Professionalcourses are usually taken during junior andsenior years, along with some electives.Professional safety courses include safetyand health program management, design ofengineering hazard controls, industrialhygiene and toxicology, fire protection,ergonomics, environmental safety and health,system safety, accident/incident investigation,product safety, construction safety,educational and training methods, assessmentof safety performance, and behavioralaspects of safety. Students may also elect totake specialty courses beyond the requiredcourses.Most safety degree programs offerexperiential education courses. These coursesprovide opportunities for students to workwith safety professionals in companies or inpositions that offer developmentalexperience. These internship programsusually involve academic credit and mayinclude pay from the company ororganization with whom the student works.Students seeking to enter safety degreeprograms should carefully review severalschools, their program offerings, entrancerequirements and the financial assistanceprovided. Some programs have enrollmentcaps and are quite selective in the numbersof students accepted.Graduate Study in SafetyScienceAbout 40% of today’s safety professionalshave advanced degrees. Some of those withan advanced degree in safety graduated witha bachelor’s degree in a non-safety field.They may use a master’s degree in safety toprepare for and enter the safety profession.Some who get their safety preparation at thebachelor’s level also pursue graduate studyin safety or a safety-related specialty, suchas industrial hygiene, environmental science,public health or ergonomics. Some worktoward advanced degrees in related fields,such as business and engineering, that willenhance their career opportunities.Several master’s degree programs in safetyare accredited by the Applied SciencesAccreditation Commission of ABET or19

another of its commissions. Typically, studentsentering these programs must have completedcertain undergraduate safety courses, or theywill be required to complete someundergraduate courses to adequately preparethemselves for advanced courses in safety.Graduate programs can offer different safetyspecialties besides advanced preparation insafety science. These specialties may be inmanagement, engineering and technology,environmental health, fire protection,ergonomics, industrial hygiene, or other areasof safety science.A few schools offer doctoral studies in safetyscience or related subjects such as industrialhygiene, public health, fire protectionengineering, environmental health orenvironmental studies. Most safety positionsdo not require a doctoral degree. However,teaching positions at universities and colleges,research positions, and some high-leveladvisory positions for large employers andgovernment agencies may require a doctoraldegree. Doctoral programs, including thosein safety, are not accredited because eachstudent has a customized program. Schoolsare free to develop their own specializationsand degree requirements, but most involvesome training in research methods andteaching theory.Financial assistance at the graduate levelvaries considerably by program. In someprograms, nearly all graduate students haveteaching or research assistantships withtuition and fee waivers included. Someprograms offer scholarships or tuition and feewaiver assistance. Some have work-studyprograms, or have links with governmentagencies or companies that allow students towork and attend school at the same time.Certificate ProgramsCertification programs are a relatively newkind of academic program. A student mustcomplete a sequence of courses defined bythe school. Upon finishing, the studentreceives a certificate of completion. Theseare not academic degrees. They focus onhelping people get started in or convert to aparticular field of study. There areundergraduate certificate programs that aretypically shorter and involve less than therequirements for an associate degree. Thereare also graduate certificate programs thathelp someone with a degree in one field ofstudy to learn the basics of another field ofstudy without committing to all requirementsfor a master’s degree. During the last severalyears, several schools have started to offercertificate programs.Online Courses and DegreesWith the growth of the Internet, more andmore schools are offering their academiccourses and complete programs online. Thenumber available continues to rise. Thisdelivery method allows students who mustcontinue to work or who do not have a suitableacademic safety program nearby to completepreparation for work as a safety professional.By checking with a school, one can find outif courses and programs or degrees areavailable online.Licensing and CertificationBecause the work of safety professionals hasa direct impact on public safety and health,government organizations, employers andthose awarding contracts are concerned thatsafety professionals be fully qualified andcompetent to do their jobs. Safetyprofessionals may therefore need other20

credentials in addition to their educationaldegree. These credentials might includelicenses, registration and professionalcertification. To date, no state requires safetyprofessionals to be licensed in order topractice. However, some states require fireprotection engineers to be registered.The safety profession has established its ownprofessional certification program to providesome means for assessing professionalcompetency. The Board of Certified SafetyProfessionals, established in 1969, setscompetency standards for professional safetypractice, evaluates candidates’ qualifications,tests their knowledge through examinationsand offers the Certified Safety Professional ®(CSP ® ) certification to those who meet allrequirements.It is preferred that applicants meet the modelacademic requirement (a bachelor’s degreein safety from an ABET-accredited program)and pass a two-level examination to receivethe CSP credential. Candidates must have atleast an associate’s degree in safety or abachelor’s degree in any field. In addition,candidates not meeting the model educationrequirement must have more than theminimum of four years of professional safetyexperience.The first examination (Safety Fundamentals)toward the CSP certification is designed totest basic knowledge appropriate toprofessional safety practice. Studentsgraduating from accredited four-year safetydegree programs are permitted to take thisexamination during their last semester. Certainprogram graduates are granted a waiver ofthis examination and receive the GraduateSafety Practitioner (GSP) designation. Thesecond examination (ComprehensivePractice) focuses on applications of typicalprofessional practice.Those holding the CSP certification must berecertified every five years, either throughre-examination or by meeting standards forcontinuing education and professionalpractice. These standards encourage thesafety professional to be active in theprofession and to maintain the necessaryprofessional skills to practice effectively.Today, professional certification through theCSP credential has become important tosafety professionals. A majority of employersprefer or require applicants for safetypositions to hold the CSP certification,particularly for mid-career or senior positions.An ASSE Compensation Study conducted in2003 shows that those holding the CSP earnabout $17,000 more per year than their noncertifiedpeers.More and more government laws, regulationsand standards include the CSP certification.Contracts involving construction and otherservices often include requirements thatcontractors employ safety professionals withthe CSP certification. While there are manytitles and designations in safety, industrialhygiene, environmental practice andergonomics in the United States only a feware accredited by national organizationswhich set standards for voluntary, peercertifications. The CSP credential isaccredited under national and internationalorganizations including those of the NationalCommission for Certifying Agencies(NCCA), the Council of Engineering andScientific Speciality Boards (CESB), and ISO/IEC 17024. Many employers andgovernment agencies rely on theseaccreditations as a standard for employmentand contracts.The Occupational Health and SafetyTechnologist (OHST) and ConstructionHealth and Safety Technician (CHST) are21

experience-based certifications which canserve as stepping stones to the CSP credential(see more information about thesecertifications on page 50 or SocietiesA good way to stay current in safety is tobelong to a professional society. Suchorganizations have journals, conferences,symposiums and continuing educationcourses, while some may have local chapters.Some societies, such as the American Societyof Safety Engineers, have student sectionsat schools offering safety degrees. Thesesections have activities to help students learnabout the safety profession. Some activitiesin local chapters create opportunities to meetpracticing safety professionals. Thesecontacts often lead to internships andpermanent jobs. At a minimum, thesecontacts offer insight into current practice orthe ability to visit safety professionals in theirjob settings.22

Areas Where SafetyProfessionals Can SpecializeSafety professionals work in many differentindustries, job settings and specialties. Thesummaries below give examples for manyof them.Occupational SafetyMany safety professionals work inmanufacturing and production operations tohelp ensure that working conditions and workmethods are safe and healthful foremployees. Nearly every large plant orindustrial facility employs at least one fulltimesafety professional. Once safetyprofessionals recognize hazards, theyevaluate them, develop recommendations forcontrolling them and advise members of themanagement team. They also must be ableto advise management about the best meansfor complying with regulations.Occupational safety professionals mustobserve work activities and identify hazardsin a wide variety of operations, such as lifting,working in high places, handling chemicals,operating machinery, storing explosives,excavating and repairing or maintainingequipment. They try to formulate plans andprograms to prevent these hazards fromhappening. Occupational safety professionalsmust know health, safety and fire protectionregulations which apply to any operations.Occupational safety professionals preserveand protect human and facility resources inthe workplace and security is a key issue anda growing concern. The occupational safetyprofessional may be called upon to establishsecurity guidelines and take precautions toprotect property and workers.They must prepare recommendations andadvise managers about the best means forcomplying with standards, reducing hazardsand making production activities safer.Occupational safety professionals need to begood communicators, since they often interactwith employees, supervisors and managerswhen checking for hazards or working onoptions to control them. They often enlistemployee participation in these activities.Frequently, they seek to persuade managersand employees to change operations orprocedures and to spend money to makepeople safer.In addition, to be effective, the occupationalsafety professional must be a part of themanagement team which improvesproductivity at the facility.Industrial HygieneIndustrial hygienists specialize in workers’exposure to chemical and physical hazardscreated by industrial processes. For example,they might evaluate exposure to airborne leadcreated by a battery manufacturing process,or they might measure the exposure to noiseproduced by a ripsaw in a furnituremanufacturing shop.Most safety professionals have someresponsibilities in their practice for industrialhygiene that may not make them a specialist.23

An industrial hygienist is trained to recognizehealth hazards, to evaluate their extent andto control them if an overexposure exists. Anindustrial hygienist evaluates hazards bystudying the process, measuring the exposureand comparing samples to acceptableexposure levels.The control of overexposure might involvechanging the process to eliminate the hazard,substituting a less hazardous material,isolating the process or the worker,ventilating the process, or providing personalprotection (for example, gloves andrespirators) to the worker.Industrial hygienists generally have anundergraduate degree in engineering or thephysical, chemical, biological or safetysciences. Most industrial hygienists have amaster’s degree in industrial hygiene. Theymost often work for industries, governmentagencies and environmental consulting firms.A few industrial hygienists work in academicsettings as teachers and researchers. Workingin this setting generally requires a doctoraldegree.Industrial hygienists do not generally needto be licensed to pursue their profession.However, most industrial hygiene specialistshold the Certified Industrial Hygiene (CIH)certification. This requires at least five yearsof relevant experience before the successfulcompletion of two examinations. CIHs mustmaintain their certification (e.g., recertifyevery five years) by attending professionalmeetings, further education or other similarprofessional development activities.Environmental SafetyProtecting the environment in the U.S. is amassive effort being conducted on severalfronts. Businesses of all sorts are trying toeither eliminate the release of materials thatcan harm the public or damage theenvironment, or recover and recycle excessmaterials for environmental conservation.Another effort is being made all acrossAmerica to clean up waste sites where toxicsubstances were spilled or have been dumpedin the past. These efforts require the controlof environmental safety and health hazards.Environmental safety work requires extensiveknowledge of OSHA standards, othergovernment or client safety regulations, andan understanding of hazards and controls(that is, construction, ergonomics, fireprotection, occupational safety, industrialhygiene and environmental health). Inaddition, environmental safety requires aworking knowledge of environmental lawsand regulations, such as the ComprehensiveEnvironmental Response Compensation andLiability Act (CERCLA), the ResourceConservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), theToxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) andothers. Environmental safety professionalscan gain this knowledge from undergraduateor graduate studies, extensive on-siteexperience, or a combination of both.There are three general areas where theenvironmental safety professional can pursuecareer opportunities:• Industrial/Government Sector: Peoplecan serve as environmental safetyprofessionals for a specific facility ororganization involved with OSHA,Department of Transportation (DOT),and Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) compliance, and state health andsafety and environmental regulations.Additional duties may includeoverseeing the health and safety of onsitecontractors.• Consulting: People can work for designengineering firms and perform health andsafety functions for their government orindustrial projects. They can sell healthand safety services to outside clients,24

including the private and public sector.Additional health and safetyresponsibilities may involve overseeingthe health and safety of contractors whenan engineering firm is providingconstruction management or engineeringservices to a client.• Contracting: This role involves beingemployed by and providing in-househealth and safety services to remediationcontractors who actually clean uphazardous waste sites. Working in thisarena requires an extensive constructionbackground, since it involves hazardouswaste activities coupled with heavyconstruction work.In all three situations, it is desirable for theenvironmental safety professional to pursueprofessional certifications, specifically theCertified Industrial Hygienist (CIH) and theCertified Safety Professional (CSP). Manygovernment and private sector remediationprojects require that the person administeringthe health and safety program be certified asa CIH or a CSP. Consulting firms also valuecertifications because it makes the individual,and hence the firm, more attractive whenselling services.It is desirable to have these certifications inany situation where an organization isoverseeing contractors and the projectspecifications require contractors to havecertified personnel. Although not alwaysrequired, it adds credibility if the primarycontractor also employs certified personnel.Environmental safety specialists needcomprehensive knowledge of safety,industrial hygiene and environmental areas.With this wide range of knowledge, they canpursue a career in other health and safetyspecialties.Fire Protection EngineeringFire protection engineering is one of manyinteresting and challenging professionalsafety specialty areas. These safetyspecialists use the basic tools of engineeringand science to help protect people, propertyand operations from fire and explosions.Employers and personnel recruitersconsistently report good job opportunities withcompetitive starting salaries for fire protectionengineers.Fire protection engineers can be called on toprovide a broad range of services. Someperform fire safety evaluations of buildingsand industrial complexes to determine therisk of fire losses and how best to preventthem. Others design systems thatautomatically detect and suppress fires andexplosions, as well as fire alarm, smokecontrol, emergency lighting, communicationand exit systems. Fire protection engineersperform research on materials and consumerproducts, or do computer modeling of fireand smoke behavior. Others investigate firesor explosions that have occurred, preparetechnical reports or provide expert courtroomtestimony in legal cases.Fire protection engineers work at the nervecenters of large corporations. They overseethe design and operational fire safety ofcomplex manufacturing facilities in multinationalbusiness networks. They also workfor insurance companies, surveying majorfacilities and performing research, testing andanalysis.Fire protection engineers can be found at alllevels of government, including civilian andmilitary agencies, local fire departments,building code departments and state firemarshal offices. They work for architecturaland engineering firms and specialtyconsulting groups. Interesting jobs are25

available in trade associations, testinglaboratories and at colleges and universities.Thanks to the extensive fire research done inrecent decades, fire protection engineeringis making the transition from being basedonly on practical experience to an excitingengineering discipline that incorporates stateof-the-artscience and computer capabilities.A few universities offer fire protection or fireprotection engineering degree programs atthe bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral levels.To obtain information on fire protectioncareers, students may contact the Society ofFire Protection Engineers. (See Resources,page 45.)ErgonomicsErgonomics is the science of fitting the jobto the person. Most safety professionals mustdeal with ergonomics in general safetypractice. Ergonomics can be a specialty aswell. Ergonomists (also called human factorsengineers) specialize in the relationshipsbetween people and their work. They designthe work environment (such as facilities,machines, furniture, equipment, workstations,tools and work methods) to matchjob demands with workers’ capabilities,limitations and expectations. A fundamentalprinciple of ergonomics is to designequipment and jobs to prevent errors,accidents, injuries or harm.Ergonomists work on a wide variety of safetyand health hazards. Many ergonomists dealwith the physical aspects of work, such as:• Designing lifting tasks to reduce the riskof back injuries.• Designing machines and equipment toreduce the force, frequency and flexionof repeated tasks that eventually injurejoints, muscles and nerves. An exampleis designing machine guards that protectworkers while still allowing smooth,efficient motion.• Designing chairs that promotecomfortable and healthy work postures.• Designing work-rest schedules onphysically demanding jobs to preventexcessive fatigue.Ergonomists who specialize in solving theseproblems usually have a strong backgroundin engineering, with additional course workin physiology, anatomy and biomechanics.Other ergonomists focus on thepsychological and mental aspects of worksuch as:• Designing effective warning labels topromote the safe operation of machinesand tools.• Designing displays (gauges, dials,alarms, etc.) and controls (buttons,knobs, steering wheels, etc.) for vehiclesand other complex machines to reducethe chance of operator error andaccidents.• Designing training aids (instructionbooks, videos, simulators, etc.) to teachworkers the proper and safe way toperform their jobs.These ergonomists usually have a strongbackground in psychology with additionaltraining in engineering or design.Most ergonomists have at least a master’sdegree, since there are few undergraduateprograms in ergonomics. Typically,ergonomists have undergraduate degrees inengineering or psychology before pursuingspecialization in ergonomics at the graduatelevel. However, students with undergraduatetraining in safety sciences can also beconsidered for graduate training inergonomics.Career opportunities exist in industry(product design, work process and methodsdesign), government (OSHA complianceofficers), insurance companies (loss control26

epresentatives), private consulting andacademic settings (research and teaching).System SafetySystem safety specialists typically work withmajor new technological programs.Aerospace, military, medical, scientificallyadvanced projects and high-tech industrieshave relied on the system safety specialist todevelop concepts, designs and products thathave a high reliability of operation and lowlevel of risk.Have you ever marveled at the complexityof the space shuttle? Have you read aboutthe complexity of software that manages thecontrols in today’s aircraft and guides a planesafely through the skies? Have you everthought about the management of materialsflowing through chemical plants and therange of temperatures, pressures andchemical steps they experience whileachieving the desired material? Each of thesedevices and processes works due to a highdegree of reliability. In each case, systemsafety specialists reviewed the concept,design and construction of these magnificentmachines and processes to ensure that theywork correctly every time, without harm tousers, operators or the equipment itself.System safety is an analytical field, born ofa high-tech need to develop quality productsthat have a minimum potential for failure.The system safety specialist reviews thedesign concept to identify the hazardsassociated with a human or machine failure.During design, the specialist (sometimesreferred to as a system safety engineer)prescribes modifications to the design, oridentifies the need to install redundant orbackup systems to ensure reliability duringoperation. During testing, system safetyspecialists observe tests-in-progress or testresults to see firsthand how a systeminterfaces with its environment. In recentyears, this specialist has also been called onto ensure that safe decommissioning ofoutmoded systems occurs. Today they alsoanalyze software for potential faults whichcan cause harm to people or the systems.Some specialize in analyzing electricalcircuits and electrical systems and equipmentfor harmful events. Some work mainly withmechanical equipment and powered systems.Others work with chemical process plants toensure that failures do not cause fire,explosions or releases of hazardous materialsinto the community.The system safety specialist uses a varietyof tools to identify possible system faults orother hazards that may lead to the failure ofa product during its use. These traditionalanalytical tools consist of preliminary hazardanalyses (PHA), failure mode and effectsanalyses (FMEA) and fault tree analysis(FTA). Newer tools, such as hazard andoperability studies (HAZOPS), have beendeveloped to meet the demands of newapplications such as chemical processes andindustrial manufacturing methods.If you enjoy asking “who, what, when, where,why, how, and if,” you may have an aptitudefor system safety work.You will also need a technical backgroundthat is either general or involves special areasof knowledge, such as mechanicalequipment, electrical equipment andelectronics, computer hardware and software,chemical processes, management methodsand procedures, maintenance, etc. Systemsafety specialists combine knowledge of thesystems and knowledge of analyticalmethods with hazard recognition, evaluationand control knowledge.27

The system safety specialist will be in demandin the foreseeable future to protect employeesand the public, the environment and theorganization’s investment in equipment,processes and facilities. This specialist willhave opportunities to advance throughtechnical or management career ladders.Risk ManagementOrganizations of all kinds must minimize theadverse effects of accidental losses at themost reasonable cost. To do this, they rely onthe knowledge and services of risk managers.Virtually all large organizations, and manysmaller ones, maintain a risk managementdepartment to reduce the likelihood and sizeof losses (known as risk control) and to payfor those losses that cannot be prevented (alsoknown as risk finance). Risk management isan integral part of modern organizationalmanagement. By protecting a companyagainst loss, the risk manager helps it to boostits operating efficiency and meet its strategicgoals.Risk managers are employed by industrial,service, non-profit and public sectororganizations. For example, they serveairlines, banks, chemical and othermanufacturers, government agencies,municipalities, retailers, hospitals, schooldistricts and universities.As organizations differ, so do the types ofrisks and losses they may encounter. Forexample, in addition to protecting people,physical premises, and inventory, a retailstore risk manager seeks to minimizeshoplifting and vandalism. A factory usinghazardous equipment or substances isconcerned with employee safety and health.It may issue protective clothing andequipment and provide specialized trainingto employees.The basic skills required of the risk managerinclude communications, analysis andproblem solving, management andleadership. First and foremost, risk managersmust be good communicators. They must becapable of coordinating and interacting withother departments. The position requiresregular contact with such departments asauditing, engineering, finance, humanresources, legal, research and development,safety and security.Risk management also involves working withexternal sources, such as attorneys, brokers,consultants, insurance agents, insurers andother service providers. In addition tounderstanding these varied specialties, therisk manager must master the complexitiesof the organization’s own operations.A sound knowledge of insurancefundamentals and risk financing mechanismsis also essential. The risk manager must knowwhich potential losses can be retainedthrough some form of self-insurance andwhich risks need to be insured, for how muchand with which vendor. They recognizewhether claims are being handled properlyor not, and if appropriate insurance coverageis available.The risk manager must also thoroughly grasploss control issues such as employee health,worker and product safety, propertysafeguards, security, fire prevention andenvironmental protection. The risk managermust be able to manage time and peopleskillfully by setting goals, planningstrategies, delegating tasks and forecastingand measuring results.For a career in risk management, a bachelor’sdegree with a broad business background isrecommended. A major in risk managementor insurance is highly desirable. Many28

additional fields of study are also appropriate,including safety and health, accounting,economics, engineering, finance, law,management and political science. In addition,many firms require candidates to have amaster’s degree in business administration(MBA) and to earn an Associate in RiskManagement (ARM) or other insurance orrisk designation.Risk managers work for corporations, serviceproviders, government administrations andnumerous other public and privateorganizations. Some risk managers joininsurance companies, insurance brokeragefirms or consulting firms that provide riskmanagement services to clients. The structureof risk management departments varies withthe nature and size of the organization.Loss Control, Loss Prevention,and Risk ControlLoss control, loss prevention, and risk controlare terms primarily used in the insuranceindustry. Insurance companies sellingworkers’ compensation, property, auto,liability, and other forms of business insuranceemploy safety professionals to conduct riskassessments to support underwriting(business selection and pricing process) andhelp their clients prevent incidents andaccidents that lead to insurance claims.Each insurance company develops its ownprocess of risk assessment and safetyconsulting services around the kinds ofbusinesses that it insures. Insurance companysafety representatives provide these servicesto policyholders based on the terms andconditions of the insurance contract andservice agreement. The emphasis of thisservice is the prevention of injuries andillnesses to workers and the public, preventingcompany vehicle crashes, and avoidingproperty losses. This reduces costs,benefiting both the policyholder and theinsurance company. Consulting strategiestypically include identifying and evaluatinghazardous exposures, developing plans tocontrol them, and providing follow-upservices to assist the customer withsuccessful implementation.To identify accident exposures, loss controlrepresentatives analyze accidents or incidenttrends, and conduct work site riskassessments to identify potential hazardexposures. Their knowledge, research, andvast database of injury trends across a widevariety of industries and operations helpidentify potential loss exposures where theexposures may not be evident. The losscontrol representative then evaluates theexposures and develops recommendations toeliminate or reduce them. Once theserecommendations are implemented, the losscontrol representative follows up to evaluateeffectiveness and to determine if morechanges might be needed to further reducethe exposure.Loss control representatives engage in a widearray of consulting activities, such as trainingemployees at all levels on safety, providingindustrial hygiene services, developing andevaluating safety programs, investigatingincidents, and providing technical advice onergonomics, construction safety, productsafety, environmental safety, fleet safety, andfire protection. Some loss controlrepresentatives specialize in these areas.Another responsibility of insurance safetyrepresentatives is to assist the insurancecompany’s underwriting department inevaluating the risk and level of control of thepolicyholders’ operations for specific typesof insurance coverage. This responsibilityallows the insurance company to select, price,and provide the appropriate coverages for thebusiness. This involves a continual evaluation29

of the policyholder’s accident rates andexposures, as well as their efforts to reducethe problems identified.Because clients may be involved in a widerange of business activities, loss controlrepresentatives become familiar with manydifferent types of businesses and theirassociated hazards. The opportunity tospecialize in a variety of safety activities, aswell as to obtain experience in several typesof industries, makes loss control a veryrewarding career for safety professionals.Chemical Process SafetyMany of the modern materials and essentialproducts we take for granted everyday aremade possible by the chemical industry. Fuels,food ingredients, pharmaceuticals, textiles,paper products, plastics and industrialchemicals are some chemical industryproducts. Each chemical product involves avery different chemical process, which is oneof the reasons why the chemical industry isvery dynamic. Each process has its ownstarting materials, processing equipment andoperating temperatures and pressures—because of this, each process has a uniqueset of hazards.While manufacturing chemical products, it isthe responsibility of the chemicalmanufacturer to maintain a safe workingenvironment for employees and a safeenvironment for the people and communitiessurrounding their plants. The chemicalprocess safety professional plays a key rolein this responsibility.Chemical process safety involves analyzingchemical processes to identify the potentialfor accidents. It also involves planning for thecontrol of unexpected releases and reactionsto avoid catastrophic losses. This is done sothat chemical companies can act to preventthese accidents, and so that nearbycommunities can respond appropriately toincidents. And if they should happen, thecompanies and emergency responseorganizations are better prepared to handlethe consequences. Contingency planning alsohelps companies recover quickly and continuea reliable supply of vital products to themarketplace.This discipline can be broken into four generalareas: assessment, technical support, trainingand management. It is the job of chemicalprocess safety professionals to assess achemical process in order to identify potentialhazards. They also provide technical supportto those who design new processes, and thosewho operate existing processes, so that theycan be aware of process hazards and takesteps to prevent chemical accidents fromoccurring. Chemical process safety alsoinvolves training employees who work withthe processes on how to recognize chemicalhazards, and prevent or respond to accidents.These safety professionals may also becomeinvolved in process safety management. Thismeans that they coordinate a company’ssafety efforts and work with other managersto help chemical process safety become moreefficient and effective.Chemical process safety is still a fairly newfield. Its modern version began in the early1970s. It gained momentum in 1984 after achemical process disaster in Bhopal, Indiaresulted in the death of thousands of citizens.Because this profession is so new,practitioners entering the field still have anopportunity to truly impact and shape thefuture of the discipline. Much progress hasbeen made within the last few years, butmuch more progress will occur in the nearfuture. Students entering the field now canbe a part of this development.30

Chemical process safety benefits industry bypreventing the types of accidents thatotherwise make the headlines and damagethe environment, destroy chemicalprocessing plants, and cause serious injuriesto employees. Chemical process safetybenefits society by reducing the possibilityof hazardous chemical releases uponcommunities or the environment. It also helpsthe chemical industry to find ways to safelymanufacture the products that are in demandby modern society.In summary, chemical process safety is a goodcareer area to consider because it providesmany benefits to industry and to society andoffers many job opportunities, both technicaland managerial. It also will be rewarding tothe person who chooses to enter this safetyrelatedspecialty.Construction SafetyConstruction sites are as different from oneanother as are people. They vary in size fromsmall road repair jobs and buildingrenovations to the construction of hugeskyscrapers, enormous bridges and massivepower plants. But, they have at least one thingin common: large pieces of equipment, tonsof structural materials and dangerous heightswhich create safety and health hazards thatcan take a life in the blink of an eye. Theyalso require the presence of constructionworkers, whose health and well-being dependon the effectiveness of hazard controlprograms designed by construction safetyprofessionals.Construction safety professionals recognizeand control a wide variety of safety, healthand fire hazards in unique and ever-changingwork environments. The need forconstruction safety professionals continuesto expand since construction is one of themost hazardous industries.A construction safety practitioner could beemployed by a medium to large constructioncompany, a contractor trade organization, anorganized labor group, a government agency,an insurance company, an engineering firmor a consulting firm.An undergraduate degree in safety combinedwith general construction managementcourses or construction experience will helpindividuals begin a career in this specialty.Working for a large construction companywill generally require periodic relocation orfrequent travel to project sites. Many largeconstruction companies also operate outsidethe U.S. With the expansion of the globalconstruction market, the need for constructionsafety professionals at sites outside the U.S.will increase.Eight-hour days are normal for safetyprofessionals employed in the constructionindustry. But weather conditions,performance and completion deadlinesfrequently dictate extended work hours.A large construction workplace is typicallysupervised by a management/engineeringcompany that employs a general contractor(GC) to erect, renovate or demolish astructure. The GC then employs andschedules the necessary specialty contractors,such as excavation, steel erection, masonry,mechanicals, roofing, carpentry, painters andothers, to perform specified tasks. Largeprojects could have ten or more subcontractorsworking at one site at the sametime.Because construction site organizations vary,a construction safety professional mustpossess the ability to communicateeffectively within an organization having avariety of management styles and a diversework force.31

Construction methods, equipment, workingconditions and materials continually changeon a construction site. Through weekly ormonthly work planning sessions andcontinuous monitoring of job sites and workgroups, safety professionals can identifyhazards early and ensure that controls forthem are in place as each kind of work begins.If you enjoy fast-paced activities, constantdaily challenges outdoors, hands-on workingconditions, and minimal time working at adesk, you are likely to enjoy working inconstruction safety. If you can workeffectively with a variety of tradespeople, youwill appreciate the financial and personalrewards associated with good hard work andwill do well as a safety professional in theconstruction industry.Institutional SafetyManagementA career in institutional safety can present avariety of exciting and rewarding challenges.Institutional safety typically encompasseshazard control in organizations such ashospitals, correctional facilities (prisons andjails), research facilities or schools at alllevels.Hospitals, correctional facilities anduniversities are typically large employers andare often part of large organizations. Thispresents the trained safety professional withthe opportunity for career enhancement andgrowth.Hospitals and nursing homes face a widerange of government and industryregulations. For example, the JointCommission on Accreditation of HealthcareOrganizations has numerous self-regulatingstandards, including safety standards, for theindustry. National fire and building codesfor hospitals and nursing homes have manysafety provisions and become law whenadopted by federal, state and localgovernment. In addition, OSHA and EPAregulations affect this industry, as well.The hospital safety professional also has theunique opportunity to work with people fromdiverse backgrounds and interests. A hospitalprovides a wide array of experience, fromthe surgeon who is concerned about exposingemployees to an infectious plume duringlaser surgery and the nursing supervisorattempting to prevent back injuries whilehandling patients, to the laboratory techniciansseeking to control the emission of chemicalsused in preparing tissue samples. The hospitalsafety professional must constantly assess theenvironment, seeking methods to minimizehazards that could result in injury or loss.Colleges and universities have safetyprofessionals who help protect students,faculty and staff from harm during laboratoryclasses and research projects. They managerisks for maintenance, food service and officeemployees. They handle the disposal ofchemicals and other hazardous materialsused in laboratory work or in maintenanceof building and grounds. They deal withcampus traffic safety and other risks.One of the major concerns for theinstitutional safety professional is fireprevention and suppression. Whether it’s ahospital, where many of the patients areunable to walk, a university dormitory, or acorrectional facility, where the inmates’safety has to be balanced against the needfor confinement, the safety professional mustcontinually assess the environment, and lookfor ways to prevent fires.Many institutions maintain state-of-the-artfire detection and suppression systems, whichthe safety professional will help to design andmaintain. Employees must also be highlytrained in procedures for suppressing fires,32

and recovering from them, all the whileminimizing any possible disruptions toservice.Institutional safety professionals must havea true generalist’s background, with trainingin occupational safety, fire safety, industrialhygiene, chemical safety, radiation safety andergonomics. Employers are looking forcandidates who have attained a minimum ofa bachelor’s in safety. Employers are alsoincreasingly seeking Certified SafetyProfessionals (CSPs).The long-term outlook for professionalsspecializing in institutional safety lookspromising. With the onset of managed careand competition in health care, hospitaladministrators are realizing that to succeed,they must manage extremely efficientoperations. Safety has been integrated as akey management strategy aimed at reducinglosses and claims. As a result, the safetyprofessional has been teamed with other keyhospital administrators whose function is tomanage risk. Safety professionals are alsomoving into management roles incorrectional facilities and universities asthese organizations seek to control their risksmore effectively.Transportation SafetySafety professionals play an important rolein the safety of all forms of transportation:railroads, auto, trucking, aviation, maritimeshipping and oil and gas pipelines. Thereare safety professionals working forcompanies and government agenciesassociated with each transportation mode.Some work with designers of vehicles,highways and the transportation systemsthemselves. A degree in civil or mechanicalengineering is most useful in this role. Afew work in research and studies of accidentsand injuries related to transportation.Some of the federal agencies involved intransportation safety include: NationalHighway Traffic Safety Administration(auto), Federal Highway Administration(highways and trucking), Federal AviationAdministrations (aviation), Federal RailroadAdministration (rail systems), U.S. CoastGuard (maritime) and Research and SpecialPrograms Administration (pipelines). Theseand other agencies are part of the U.S.Department of Transportation (DOT). Aseparate agency, the National TransportationSafety Board (NTSB) investigates majortransportation accidents and makesrecommendations for preventingtransportation accidents. NTSB safetyspecialists have advanced training in accidentinvestigation.The majority of safety professionals involvedin transportation safety work for privatecompanies, such as airlines, railroads, largetrucking firms or oil and gas pipelinecompanies.Safety Research & RiskAssessmentAs with any discipline, the body ofknowledge that guides the science andpractice of safety continues to grow. Muchof what is regarded as good theory andpractice was discovered by practitionersthrough trial and error, or was simplyborrowed from related disciplines. Relyingon these traditional methods is changing,because more people are entering theprofession with formal academic training.Undergraduate and graduate educations areexposing professionals to the subtleties ofresearch questions and methodology. Thisheightened awareness, in turn, produces ademand for better research-based knowledgeas these educated professionals go about theirduties. The demand for more sophisticated33

esearch is being met by several differentgroups of researchers.Much research is performed by governmentagencies such as the National Institute forOccupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) orthe Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).These agencies, as well as otherorganizations, also fund research projects thatare carried out at universities and privateresearch organizations. For example, theAmerican Society of Safety EngineersFoundation is one professional organizationthat sponsors safety research projects. Largecompanies often fund research which benefitstheir own safety functions, products orservices.Actual research topics can fall into severalbroad areas. Much research is performed intechnical areas, such as the design andreliability of safety equipment, ergonomicsor fire safety. Other research promotes theunderstanding of management theory andpractices applied to safety. A third area ofresearch is in the decision sciences, wherequestions involving risk assessment andpolicy analysis techniques are explored.Another area of study involves how wellhazard controls work.Those interested in pursuing a career in safetyresearch will need a strong academicbackground (master’s or doctorate degree)combined with practical experience in safety.Research specialists usually work forgovernment agencies with a researchresponsibility, at large universities or incompany sponsored laboratories. There arealso a few industry sponsored laboratories,such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL),Factory Mutual (FM), the Insurance Institutefor Highway Safety and the Liberty MutualInsurance Research Center.34

Profiles of Safety ProfessionalsThis section contains career summaries ofselected individuals in the safety profession.The profiles provide a cross section of careeroptions and illustrate advancementopportunities. The profiles represent threegroups: early career level (people in their firstdecade of practice), mid-career level (10 to15 years of practice), and senior career level(20 or more years of practice). Some alsorepresent specialty practice areas discussedin the previous section.EARLY CAREER LEVELJustin B. WalkerJustin Walker learned about the safetyprofession through a friend in the safetyprogram at West Virginia University. Afterearning a bachelor’s in business at WVU,Mr. Walker pursued a master’s degree insafety management. After graduating, Mr.Walker was hired by The Hartford FinancialServices Group—one of the largestinvestment and insurance companies in theU.S. He finds that getting to meet peopleand to help them make their workplaces saferand more efficient to be most rewarding inhis current position.During his academic training, Mr. Walker wasinvolved in WVU’s ASSE student chapterand served as Vice President. Upongraduation, he earned the Graduate SafetyPractitioner (GSP) designation from theBoard of Certified Safety Professionals(BCSP).Degrees:• BS, Business Management, 2003, WestVirginia University• MS, Safety Management, 2006, WestVirginia UniversityTime in Safety Profession:One and a half monthsCurrent Position:Loss Control Trainee, The HartfordMemberships:American Society of Safety EngineersCertifications:Certified Hazard Control Manager(CHCM)Marcia Ann KraemerMarcia Kraemer found out about safetythrough the management positions she heldin the past. She had experience with safetyissues and found them to be a better fit andmore interesting than business. Herinternships through Murray State Universitygave Ms. Kraemer her start in safety. Herinternships helped reinforce her bookknowledge and this knowledge then translatedinto the workplace.While at Murray State, Ms. Kraemer wasactive in ASSE and AIHA. Upon graduation,she earned the Graduate Safety Practitioner(GSP) designation.35

Ms. Kraemer gives credit to her MurrayState degree for her career success thus far.She finds that getting to use and apply whatshe learned in school to be greatly rewarding.Degrees:BS, Occupational Safety and Health,2006, Murray State UniversityTime in Safety Profession:Two yearsCurrent Position:ES&H Specialist, Washington GroupInternationalMemberships:American Society of Safety EngineersCertifications:Pursuing the Certified SafetyProfessional certificationJoseph T. WhiteJoseph White discovered safety whilethumbing through the undergraduateprograms catalog at Marshall University andthrough word of mouth from friends andfamily in the industry. He got started in safetyafter being enrolled in an Introduction toSafety class as a freshman.While pursuing a safety technology degree,Mr. White was involved with the ASSEstudent chapter at Marshall University. Healso became an intern at a local safetyconsulting firm working part-time during theschool year assisting a safety director at amajor scrap metal recycling facility. The firmhired Mr. White full-time during the summerswhere he worked on everything fromworkers’ compensation audits to industrialoutages at a steel mill to large constructionprojects.Upon graduation, Mr. White became theSafety Director at the scrap metal recyclingfacility he worked at while interning, butquickly obtained a position as a SafetyEngineer with AK Steel.Mr. White feels that the ability tocommunicate with people has been his keyto success. He believes safety professionalsmust be able to deliver the importance ofsafety to all levels of management and to theworkers in the field. They must feelresponsible for their safety and others to trulyfoster a safe working environment. Knowingthat something he does or says could keepsomeone from being injured or becoming illfrom a workplace exposure is the mostrewarding part of safety for Mr. White.Perseverance is essential to being a safetyprofessional. Mr. White believes that safetyprofessionals must always do what’s right forthe safety of others—even though it mightnot be the most popular decision.Degrees:BS, Safety Technology, 2006, MarshallUniversityTime in Safety Profession:Two years (while in college)Four months (since graduation)Current Position:Safety Engineer, AK Steel CorporationMemberships:American Society of Safety EngineersCertifications:• OSHA 30-Hour Construction and 10-Hour General Industry Certified• CSX Roadway Worker ProtectionCertification• Red Cross Adult, Infant and Child CPR• Red Cross Community First Aid andSafety CertificationsCourtney YoungbloodWhile in the Pre-Physical Therapy programat Oakland University, Courtney Youngbloodlearned about how mold and asbestos was36

tested for through a friend’s internship.Curious about what kind of majorencompassed this kind of work, sheresearched further and changed her majorto Industrial Health and Safety. One yearlater, the program name changed toOccupational Safety and Health.During her academic training at Oakland, Ms.Youngblood was president of the studentsection of ASSE and was exposed tonumerous speakers and possibilities in thesafety profession through student sectionconferences. Upon graduation, she earnedthe Graduate Safety Practitioner (GSP)designation.Ms. Youngblood interned at Toyota TechnicalCenter where she conducted ergonomicassessments, developed and conductedmonthly safety trainings, conducted buildinginspections, and documented issue progress.She was then hired by Washington GroupInternational (WGI) as a construction safetyintern.After graduating, Ms. Youngblood was hiredfull-time by WGI and supports their sites inthe Industrial Process division, mainlyautomotive. She conducts audits and is aresource to project managers on the sites.Ms. Youngblood helped update the company’ssafety talk booklet. She also implemented aSafety Team, improving communicationbetween management and the craft, at theDuPont Mt. Clemens site. Here sheconducted more detailed audits and wasinvolved with abatement. This site was ableto reach two years without a recordable injuryand was recognized for two safety awardswithin the company.Ms. Youngblood credits her internships andthe supervisors who were patient and willingto guide her toward becoming a safetyprofessional with her career success. Shealso values the opportunity to have instructorsat Oakland who also worked in the field. Shebelieves that you can never go wrong withthe attitude of continuous improvement. Themost rewarding part of her job is helpingemployees go home to their family in onepiece.Degrees:BS, Occupational Safety and Health,2006, Oakland UniversityTime in Safety Profession:Two and a half yearsCurrent Position:Environmental Safety & HealthSpecialist I (Safety Supervisor),Washington Group InternationalMemberships:American Industrial Hygiene AssociationCertifications:• Safety Trained Supervisor (STS)• Currently pursuing the ConstructionHealth and Safety Technician (CHST)MID-CAREER LEVELR. Brent LawrenceBrent Lawrence started with the NationalInstitute of Occupational Safety and Health(NIOSH) as a junior in high school in the Hi-Step program earning a stipend of $2.50 perhour. He stayed with NIOSH while pursuinghis undergraduate degree through a workstudy and as a summer hire. Aftergraduating, Mr. Lawrence took a job atNIOSH with a private contractor and movedinto an Engineering Technician position. Mr.Lawrence was encouraged to look into safetyby his current Branch Chief and pursued agraduate level education in the field with thesupport of NIOSH.Mr. Lawrence feels that the support andencouragement from his employers, coworkers,and family and friends has allowedhim to obtain the success he has experienced.37

The feeling of helping people and knowingthat he makes a difference in someone’s life,in a professional safety position, is especiallyfulfilling.If he had to offer advice to someone in thesafety profession, Mr. Lawrence would sayto pay close attention to detail and not tooverlook anything. No detail is too small.What seems like minutia can turn intosomething much bigger in the end.Degrees:• BS, Journalism, 1993, West VirginiaUniversity• MS, Safety Management, 2006, WestVirginia UniversityTime in Safety Profession:Nine yearsCurrent Position:Engineering Technician, LaboratoryResearch Branch, Division ofRespiratory Disease Studies, NationalInstitute of Occupational Safety andHealthCertifications:Pursuing the Certified SafetyProfessional certificationJessica BohanJessica Bohan found out about safety througha sibling. Her older sister is a CertifiedIndustrial Hygienist. Ms. Bohan found hersister’s career to be exciting—she wasalways helping people and held a good job inprivate industry.Even though Ms. Bohan was not armed witha safety degree, she became more involvedwith safety through her work. She beganher career in environmental health and safetyfor the local public health department. Here,she designed septic systems, inspected publicpools, investigated foodbourne complaints,and childcare facilities. She also inspectedmigrant labor camps for compliance withOSHA regulations.She found she could make a positivedifference in people’s lives working in theagriculture industry. She began researchingregulations for the different industries andtook every safety class she could. She alsoattended safety and health professionalconferences and meetings and networkedwith others in safety.Ms. Bohan also worked for the State ofFlorida Division of Safety in the Public SectorEnforcement Program. She currently worksas a consultant with the OSHA ConsultationProgram—a fun and challenging job.Ms. Bohan believes that communication skillsare the key to success in safety. Being agood listener is very important. Many timesyou have to motivate people to want toincrease their safety performance. Beingable to understand where they are comingfrom and to connect with them is essential toenhancing the safety and health efforts of acompany and the employees. Also,presenting safety and health deficiencies ina positive, challenging way is imperative.She also feels that continuous learning is anabsolute must. Never stop challengingyourself to learn more, because the safetyand health field is constantly changing. Ms.Bohan recommends taking formal classes,attending seminars, reading safety articlesand publications, and meeting with othersafety and health professionals—excellentsources of information.One of the greatest benefits of Ms. Bohan’sjob is working with a variety of businesseswith unique products and processes and tosee them experience success in safety andhealth (e.g., better injury data or cost savingsdue to reduced workers’ compensation costs).The biggest reward has been testimonials38

from employees whose lives have beenpositively impacted or saved by the changesmade in safety and health to make theirworkplace safer.Degrees:BS, Social Science (Geology Minor),1993, Florida State UniversityTime in Safety Profession:10 yearsCurrent Position:Safety and Health Compliance Specialist,University of South Florida, OSHAConsultation ProgramMemberships:• American Society of Safety Engineers• National Association for Women inConstructionCertifications:• Certified Safety Professional• Certified Utility Safety Administrator• Occupational Health and SafetyTechnologistHenry Lane IIIHenry Lane currently serves on the FireDepartment’s Occupational Safety, Healthand Wellness Team in Arlington, Virginia. Hehas always had an interest in firefighter safetyand a desire to do more with safety in thefire service. His success stems from notgiving up and pursuing his own goals toreduce injuries and fatalities. Mr. Lanecontinually takes proactive steps to improvesafety. His advice to others? Strive to makea difference.Degrees:• BS, Fire Administration, 2000, Universityof Maryland• MS, Safety Management, West VirginiaUniversityTime in Safety Profession:10 yearsCurrent Position:Firefighter/Paramedic, Arlington VirginiaFire DepartmentCertifications:Pursuing the Certified SafetyProfessional certificationSENIOR CAREER LEVELThomas RyanThomas Ryan became interested in safetyafter witnessing an on-the-job fatality. Mr.Ryan started getting involved in safety as anironworker in construction. At this time, healso served as union steward, recordingsecretary, and Executive Board member ofIronworkers Local 496. As a union steward,he represented worker rights.His first professional job was with the MaineLabor Group on Health—the safety andhealth advocacy group for the Maine AFL-CIO.A passion to prevent worker injury and deathhas been the key to Mr. Ryan’s success as asafety professional. Seeing graduatessucceed is the most rewarding part of hiscurrent position at Central Maine CommunityCollege.Degrees:• BA, History, 1974, Siena College• MBA, 1988, Thomas College• MS, Work Environment Policy, 1995,University of Massachusetts LowellTime in Safety Profession:17 yearsCurrent Position:Department Chair, Occupational Health& Safety, Central Maine CommunityCollegeMemberships:American Society of Safety Engineers39

Certifications:• Certified Safety Professional• Construction Health and SafetyTechnician• Occupational Health and SafetyTechnologist• Safety Trained SupervisorLarry JonesLarry Jones discovered safety through afriend who was a Certified SafetyProfessional. He started in safety, puttinghis systems engineering skills to work, at ajob supporting NASA. Mr. Jones wasindoctrinated into safety through jobassignments and training in system safetyaspects. He was recognized by the NASAManned Flight Awareness Team with theSilver Snoopy Award for his hard work anddedication to safety. Mr. Jones continuallyadvanced his work skills, got involved inprofessional organizations, and progressed tomanagement safety roles. Today, hemanages safety, reliability, quality, andmanufacturing efforts for a large corporation.Dedication to the safety profession andinvolvement in safety activities have alwaysbeen the keys to his success. For example,he volunteers on the Board of CertifiedSafety Professionals Board of Directors andserved as BCSP President in 2006. Theresults of a job well done, while making lifesafer for customers, is extremely enriching.His advice to others considering safety as acareer field? Focus on others and notyourself.Degrees:BS, Industrial Engineering, 1969,Tennessee Technological UniversityTime in Safety Profession:18 yearsCurrent Position:Specialty Engineering DepartmentManager, Dynetics, Inc.Memberships:System Safety Society(President from July 1, 2005 through June30, 2007)Certifications:Certified Safety ProfessionalMichael W. PittsMichael Pitts discovered safety through hiscollege studies in management/HR theoryand through previous employers andindividuals already in the profession. Heworked in safety at a power generation utilityduring his summers at Clemson Universityand began full-time as a Safety Assistantupon graduation. Mr. Pitts was promoted toa Safety & Health Consultant position andthen accepted a transfer into CorporateTraining—providing EHS training deliveryand consulting to the entire company anddomestic and international customers.After obtaining his master’s degree and theCSP certification, Mr. Pitts started work atanother company as a Corporate SafetyCoordinator. This position soon expandedand he became Safety & Technical TrainingManager with responsibilities for corporateleadership for safety and training at threecompanies.Mr. Pitts credits education, certification, adedication to the profession, qualityprofessional development, involvement/interactions with peer networks, flexibilityand ability to adapt to change, personality,and a willingness to learn to his careersuccess. He is rewarded through his workknowing that he has the daily opportunity tolead/influence individuals and organizations.This ensures actions are taken and processesare implemented to eliminate the potential for40

incidents involving personnel and property asmuch as possible.Degrees:• BS, Management, Safety & Health,1988, Clemson University• Masters in Human ResourceDevelopment, 1999, Clemson UniversityTime in Safety Profession:18 yearsCurrent Position:Manager, Safety & Technical Training,Oglethorpe Power CorporationMemberships:• American Society of Safety Engineers• National Safety Council (UtilitiesDivision)Certifications:• Certified Safety Professional• Certified Utility Safety AdministratorJan Simon ClarkJan Simon Clark can recall an interest insafety as early as high school. As a reporterfor her school newspaper, she wrote severalinvestigative articles on fire safety issues.Ms. Simon Clark originally sought out achemistry degree, but changed her major tochemical engineering and landed at TexasA&M. Here, after two semesters of classwork and one semester as a co-op chemicalengineer with a major chemical company, shedecided to pursue a degree that would allowmore interaction with people. She stumbledacross safety when researching variousengineering curriculums. Upon talking to twomajor professors in the Safety EngineeringDepartment, Ms. Simon Clark realized safetywas her calling—a mixture of chemistry,engineering, and interaction with people.During Ms. Simon Clark’s career as a safetyprofessional, she has worked for an oil/gascompany, a chemical company, as aconsultant, and for a pipeline company. Shehas had the opportunity to work in the oil field,both onshore and offshore, to work inside achemical plant and refineries, to conductindustrial hygiene monitoring at fiberglass pipemanufacturing facilities, to serve as theEvidence Coordinator for a major multiplefatality incident investigation, to serve as theon-site Health & Safety Officer at anenvironmental remediation site (removingcontaminated soil from a housing projectwithout relocating residents), and to go toGuantanamo Bay Naval Air Station.In addition to honing her professional safetyand health skills, Ms. Simon Clark has beenable to develop project management skills andlearned how to “sell” safety to topmanagement.Ms. Simon Clark has been heavily involvedwith professional societies (AIHA andASSE), serving as various officers.Diversity, working for varied employees andgaining experience in a wide range ofindustries and operations, and having severalmentors have been the keys to Ms. SimonClark’s success as a safety professional.Throughout her career, ensuring thatemployees leave the work site every day inthe same condition as they arrived, from botha health and safety standpoint, has been aguiding principle for this safety professional.Ms. Simon Clark offers the following adviceto those considering a career in the safetyprofession: gain as much experience aspossible in diverse workplaces or situationsearly in your career, become certified inwhichever aspect of safety and health youpursue, and give back to your professionthrough active involvement in professionalsocieties. It’s also important to supportscholarships for students pursuing safety andhealth degrees.41

Degrees:• BS, Safety Engineering, 1985, TexasA&M University• MS, Industrial Hygiene, 1989, TexasA&M UniversityTime in Safety Profession:21 yearsCurrent Position:Risk Specialist, Chevron Pipe LineCompanyMemberships:• American Industrial Hygiene Association• American Society of Safety EngineersCertifications:• Certified Industrial Hygienist• Certified Safety ProfessionalSam GualardoSam Gualardo was introduced to safety byhis father (who was responsible for safety inhis own job). He got started in the fieldthrough an internship at Bethlehem SteelCorporation.Before taking on the consultant and instructorroles he holds today, Mr. Gualardo was a losscontrol representative in the insuranceindustry, a safety specialist, corporate safetyengineer, and safety manager in foodmanufacturing, and a manager and directorof safety and health in the electric and gasutility field.Mr. Gualardo served on the AmericanSociety of Safety Engineers Board ofDirectors for nine years and held all electedoffices at local, regional, and national levels,ultimately serving as National President. Heis currently a Board of Certified SafetyProfessionals Director.Mr. Gualardo has a passion for achievingexcellence fueled by the desire to preventneedless injuries, illnesses and deaths ofworkers. Helping others attain success hasbeen the most rewarding part of his currentwork.Degrees:• BS, Safety Sciences, Indiana Universityof Pennsylvania• MA, Labor/Industrial Relations, SaintFrancis UniversityTime in Safety Profession:26 yearsCurrent Positions:• Consultant• Instructor, Indiana University ofPennsylvaniaCertifications:Certified Safety ProfessionalRick CallorRick Callor got his start in safety as a MineRescue Instructor at a junior college in Utahunder a Mine Safety and HealthAdministration (MSHA) grant. He initiallyfound out about the safety profession throughMSHA.Since that first job, Mr. Callor has been asafety supervisor and a trainer and safetysupervisor for coal companies. He wasSafety Manager at Kaiser Coal in Utah—the largest and oldest underground coal minein the U.S. at the time. Mr. Callor was alsoa Manager of Safety and Health and thenpromoted to Manager of Health, Safety andHuman Resources at a small gas utilitycompany.He was recruited by Morrison Knudsen(MK) Corporation and worked on severalprojects, including removal of the plutoniumprocess lines and materials at Rocky Flats inDenver. While at MK, now WashingtonGroup International, Mr. Callor made his wayfrom Safety Manager to Health and SafetyManager to Corporate Safety TrainingDirector. He also traveled the country to42

train other employees in construction safetyand OSHA regulations.Mr. Callor firmly believes that hard work,obtaining a degree, and achieving certificationwere keys to his success in safety. Hebelieves that education and certification gohand in hand.His employment has allowed Mr. Callor totravel the world, work in war zones and trainemployees in several different countries. Ithas been rewarding for him to meet peopleall over the world.Degrees:AAS, 1995, Trinidad State Junior CollegeTime in Safety Profession:29 yearsCurrent Position:Corporate Safety Training Director,Washington Group InternationalMemberships:• American Institute of Mining Engineers• American Society of Safety EngineersCertifications:• Certified Safety Professional• Safety Trained SupervisorAdrian HertogAdrian Hertog worked for BurlingtonNorthern Santa Fe Railway since beginninghis career in safety. He discovered safetythrough a transfer into BNSF’s OperationsStaff Division and officially got started insafety as a staff assistant in the Safety andRules Division. Since that time, Mr. Hertoghas held various corporate and field positionswith BNSF.Mr. Hertog has been actively involved withthe American Society of Safety Engineersat the local and national level and currentlypresides as President of the Council onCertification of Health, Environmental andSafety Technologists.Ask Mr. Hertog what has been key to hisown success and he will say that developingand implementing safety processes resultingin reduced accidents and injuries andimproving compliance with operating andsafety rules and procedures that yieldedsubstantial cost savings.Knowing that the time and effortcommitment benefits workers by returningthem home safely to loved ones is the mostgratifying part of his safety career.If asked for advice, Mr. Hertog says that youwill achieve the level of safety youdemonstrate you want. If you have a genuineand sincere interest in worker safety, thenthe safety profession is where you need tobe.Degrees:AA, 1963, University of MinnesotaTime in Safety Profession:30 yearsCurrent Position:Retired from Burlington Northern SantaFe RailroadMemberships:American Society of Safety EngineersCertifications:• Certified Safety Professional• Occupational Health and SafetyTechnologistMark M. BrauerMark Brauer found out about safety whenhe almost blew up a high school classroomwhile following procedures on an ElectricalShop project. He vowed to never be in sucha situation again.43

Nine years later, while in the United StatesAir Force, Dr. Brauer caught a design flawin the B-58 Hustler Voice Warning System(VWS) and designed an engineering solutionwhich was implemented across the entirefleet. For this, he was given the NorthropCorporate Management ImprovementMedal. This led to a promotion andresponsibility for the design of GroundSupport Equipment (GSE) and shelter systemdesign safety. Dr. Brauer was againpromoted, to Division Safety Engineer thistime, and was in charge of safety for the 18pieces of GSE on President Carter’s aircraft.His next government service assignmentinvolved the safety of the U.S. Army SerialBullet Rifle. Dr. Brauer solved a “fallback”problem on the self-propelled howitzer witha design safety correction. He also inventedthe Synthesized Target System (STS) safetysystem that eliminated significant losses indown-range accidents.Dr. Brauer went on to become a Lockheedstaff scientist. Here he was in charge ofmany design safety issues across a broadrange of military/space systems. He changedoperational procedures and was responsiblefor life support and escape on the USAF/NASA National AeroSpace Plane. Dr.Brauer redeveloped the crew cabin tofacilitate safe escape and extraction of anycrew from the launch pad through space—never achieved before. For this, he receivedUSAF and NASA commendations.Dr. Brauer has recently authored safetychapters in the U.S. Government HEB-1guidelines document and has numeroussystems at various stages of commercial,medical, and military development.He credits life-saving design creativity, ethics,management tenacity, and corporate supportfor his success and finds working with themost creative, ethical, and intelligentengineers to be extremely rewarding.Degrees:• BS, University of Southern California• MS, University of Dallas• Ph.D., Texas A&M UniversityTime in Safety Profession:45 yearsCurrent Positions:Director of Safety, Amencie ConsultantsCertifications:• Certified Safety Professional• Professional Registered Engineer(Texas)Next, Dr. Brauer was appointed to TexasA&M-Kingsville as Associate Professor ofIndustrial Engineering. At TAMU-K he wasassigned to chair the College of Engineering’sEthics Committee, he invented the SafetyCube (a new, third dimension for humansafety in safety analyses), and he taught thecollege’s first safety engineering class.44

ResourcesThose seeking more information about thesafety profession and the nature of work doneby safety professionals may obtain additionalhelp from the sources below.OrganizationsAmerican Conference of GovernmentalIndustrial Hygienistswww.acgih.org1330 Kemper Meadow Drive, Suite 600Cincinnati, OH 45250513-742-2020For over 60 years, ACGIH has been a specialorganization for special people. From aninitially limited membership base to the allencompassingcategories of today, ACGIHhas grown and expanded without losing sightof its original goal: “To encourage theinterchange of experience among industrialhygiene workers and to collect and makeaccessible such information and data as mightbe of aid to them in the proper fulfillment oftheir duties.”ACGIH is noted for its publication ofallowable exposure standards for chemicaland physical agents and for establishingmethods for measuring environments forcontaminants of various kinds.American Industrial Hygiene Associationwww.aiha.org2700 Prosperity Avenue, Suite 250Fairfax, VA 22031703-849-8888AIHA is the essential source for informationon occupational and environmental healthand safety issues. Founded in 1939, AIHA isan organization of more than 11,500professional members dedicated to theanticipation, recognition, evaluation, andcontrol of environmental factors arising inor from the workplace that may result ininjury, illness, impairment, or affect the wellbeingof workers and members of thecommunity.American Society of Safety Engineerswww.asse.org1800 East Oakton StreetDes Plaines, IL 60018-2187847-699-2929Fred J. Fortman, LL.M., CAEExecutive DirectorFounded in 1911, the non-profit AmericanSociety of Safety Engineers (ASSE) is theoldest and largest professional safetyorganization. Based in Des Plaines, Illinois,ASSE has 30,000 occupational safety, healthand environmental (SH&E) members whomanage, supervise, research and consult onsafety, health, transportation andenvironmental issues in all industries,government, labor and education. ASSE is aglobal organization that works to advance thetechnical, scientific, managerial and ethicalknowledge and skills of occupational SH&Eprofessionals, and is committed to protectingpeople, property and the environment. Withineight U.S. regions, ASSE has 151 chapters,30 sections and 61 student sections. There45

are members in 64 countries, including SaudiArabia, Kuwait, the United Kingdom,Ecuador and Egypt. Chapters offer localizedmembership services, issue advocacy,networking and professional developmentopportunities through seminars, conferences,meetings, websites and newsletters. ASSEprovides such services as education, publicaffairs, government affairs, and involvementin national and international safety standardsdevelopment, technical publications, andtimely communications on safetyadvancements worldwide. SH&Eprofessionals help prevent workplace injuriesand illnesses, create safer work and leisureenvironments, and develop safer products.American Society of Safety East Oakton StreetDes Plaines, IL 60018-2187847-699-2929For more information, see the Publishers ofthe Career Guide to the Safety Professionchapter.Board of Certified Safety Professionalswww.bcsp.org208 Burwash AvenueSavoy, IL 61874217-359-9263Roger L. Brauer, Ph.D., CSP, PEExecutive DirectorFor more information, see the Publishers ofthe Career Guide to the Safety Professionchapter.National Fire Protection Associationwww.nfpa.org1 Batterymarch ParkQuincy, MA 02169-7471617-770-3000The mission of the international nonprofitNFPA is to reduce the worldwide burden offire and other hazards on the quality of lifeby providing and advocating consensus codesand standards, research, training, andeducation. NFPA membership totals morethan 79,000 individuals from around the worldand more than 80 national trade andprofessional organizations.Established in 1896, NFPA serves as theworld's leading advocate of fire preventionand is an authoritative source on public safety.In fact, NFPA's 300 codes and standardsinfluence every building, process, service,design, and installation in the U.S., as well asmany of those used in other countries.NFPA's focus on true consensus has helpedthe association's code-development processearn accreditation from the AmericanNational Standards Institute (ANSI).National Safety Councilwww.nsc.org1121 Spring Lake DriveItasca, IL 60143-3201630-285-1121Founded in 1913, the National Safety Councilhas served as the premier source of safetyand health information in the United States.The Council started in the workplace—infactories, warehouses, construction sites—making businesses aware of ways to preventunintentional injuries on the job. Subsequently,its efforts were expanded to include highway,community and recreation safety. Its missionnow encompasses all major causes ofpreventable injuries and deaths, includingoccupational and environmental health andgeneral wellness. Along with its nationalresponsibilities, the Council carries out itsmission on the community level through anetwork of more than 60 local Chapters. TheCouncil and its Chapters are committed topromoting safety and health in all walks oflife, 24 hours a day.46

Occupational Safety & HealthAdministrationwww.osha.gov200 Constitution Avenue, NWWashington, DC 20210800-321-OSHA (6742)President Richard M. Nixon signed theOccuaptional Safety and Health Act in 1970.One of the three agencies established by thisAct in 1971was the Occupational Safety &Health Administration within the LaborDepartment. OSHA's mission is to assurethe safety and health of America's workersby setting and enforcing standards; providingtraining, outreach, and education; establishingpartnerships; and encouraging continualimprovement in workplace safety and health.Society of Fire Protection Engineerswww.sfpe.org7315 Wisconsin AvenueSuite 1225WBethesda, MD 20814301-718-2910The Society of Fire Protection Engineers wasestablished in 1950 and incorporated as anindependent organization in 1971. It is theprofessional society representing thosepracticing in the field of fire protectionengineering. The Society has approximately4,100 members in the United States andabroad, and 51 regional chapters, 10 of whichare outside the U.S.System Safety Societywww.system-safety.orgP.O. Box 70Unionville, VA 22567-0070540-854-8630The System Safety Society was organized in1962 and incorporated in 1973 as an entitythat promotes education and enhancement ofthe system safety discipline. System safetyis an engineering and management disciplinethat emphasizes preventing accidents ratherthan reacting to them. In general, it does soby identifying, evaluating, analyzing, andcontrolling hazards throughout the life cycleof a system. The discipline is an outgrowthof the aerospace industry and was firstapplied to missile systems and the ApolloProgram to land a man on the moon.Currently, system safety practitioners arecontributing to safety in industry, government,and academia throughout the world.The Society’s objectives are to:• Advance the System Safety state-of-theart.• Contribute to an understanding of SystemSafety and its applications.• Disseminate newly developedknowledge about System Safety.• Further professional development.• Improve public perception of hazards andthe System Safety discipline.• Improve communications between theSystem Safety discipline and otherprofessional groups.• Establish standards for the System Safetydiscipline.• Assist federal, state, and localgovernment bodies concerned withsafety.• Establish standards for System Safetyeducational programs.The System Safety Society publishes theJournal of the System Safety Society andtexts, including the System Safety AnalysisHandbook. It also honors its membersannually for achievements and provides a vastnetworking opportunity for members tosolve problems and identify job opportunities.The Society is a worldwide organization withmembers from more than 20 countriesoutside the U.S. Each year the Societysponsors an International System SafetyConference and exhibition, which is attendedby hundreds of safety professionals.47

OthersThere are other organizations with membersinvolved in varying degrees of hazardrecognition, evaluation and control.• American Board of Health Physics(ABHP)• American Chemical Society (ACS)• American Institute of ChemicalEngineers (AICH)• American Society of MechanicalEngineers (ASME)• Board of Certification in ProfessionalErgonomics (BCPE)• Human Factors and ErgonomicsSociety (HFES)• Institute of Hazardous MaterialsManagement (IHMM)• Institute of Industrial Engineers (IIE)• Institute of Professional EnvironmentalPractice (IPEP)• Risk and Insurance ManagementSociety (RIMS)www.rims.orgHonor SocietiesRho Sigma KappaThis honor society was established to:• Honor and recognize those students whodistinguish themselves throughachievement and exemplary character.• Foster scholarship and promote studentleadership.• Contribute to the advancement ofprofessionalism in safety.Rho Sigma Kappa may be established at fouryearuniversities that offer safety-relatedbachelor’s degrees. The society chapter is astudent-run organization that gives studentsthe opportunity to gain important organizationaland leadership experience. Each societychapter must establish its own annualobjectives, but all society activities mustsupport the academic program and must seekto serve the student majors in safety.Rho Sigma Kappa selects graduate studentsand safety professionals practicing in thediscipline to be members. However, most ofthose inducted into this honorary organizationare undergraduate students. Normally,students can become eligible for selectionduring their junior year, but there is a minimumnumber of credit hours (of safety courses)that must be completed and a minimum gradepoint average (GPA) in safety courses inorder to qualify for consideration. The overallGPA requirement for candidacy is usually setso that less than 20% of all students in thesafety-related major at a given institution willbe eligible for selection in any given term.For more information, contact:President, Rho Sigma Kappac/o Safety Sciences DepartmentIndiana University of PennsylvaniaIndiana, PA 15705412-357-3018Salamander Honor SocietyThe Salamander Honor Society is an honorsociety for fire protection engineering. Moreinformation about this society can be obtainedby contacting:Society of Fire Protection Engineers7315 Wisconsin AvenueSuite 1225WBethesda, MD 20814301-718-291048

Publishers of the Career Guideto the Safety ProfessionAmerican Society of Safety EngineersFoundationRecognizing growth in the profession, as wellas a need for more comprehensive services,the ASSE Board of Directors chartered theASSE Foundation in 1990.The ASSE Foundation, a 501 (c) (3) charitableorganization, generates funding and providesresources for scholarship, applied research,academic accreditation, and related academicinitiatives in order to advance the safety,health, and environmental profession.Funding comes from ASSE, its chapters andregions, individual members and corporations.For more information, visit ofCertified Safety ProfessionalsAdvancing the Safety, Health andEnvironmental Professional Since 1969The Board of Certified Safety Professionals(BCSP) is a not-for-profit organizationestablished in 1969 and devoted solely tosetting standards for safety professionals andevaluating individuals against those standards.It grew out of a study by the AmericanSociety of Safety Engineers. BCSP is not amembership organization. BCSP setsacademic standards and experiencestandards, examinations which test knowledgeof professional safety practice, and standardswhich require individuals to keep current withprofessional practice. Individuals who meetinitial and continuing requirements may usethe certification titles awarded by BCSP.Participation in BCSP certifications isvoluntary.The Certified Safety Professional ® (CSP ® )is BCSP’s main certification. Candidateswho meet some requirements toward the CSPcertification receive the title Associate SafetyProfessional (ASP), which can be held for alimited period of time. An applicant for theCSP certification must have an acceptabledegree (the minimum is an associate degreein safety or a bachelor’s degree in any field).An applicant must also present at least fouryears of professional safety experience andpass two examinations: Safety Fundamentalsand Comprehensive Practice. Those holdingthe CSP certification must recertify every fiveyears through continuing education, retakingthe Comprehensive Practice examination orother professional development activities.Currently, about 10,000 individuals hold theCSP certification and about 5,000 are in theprocess of achieving it. The CSP certificationis nationally accredited by the NationalCommission for Certifying Agencies (NCCA)and the Council of Engineering and ScientificSpecialty Boards (CESB). Both organizationsset national standards for peer certifications.The CSP certification is internationallyaccredited through ISO/IEC 17024administered by the American NationalStandards Institute (ANSI). It is recognized49

y many employers and federal, state andlocal government agencies in job positions andqualifications for certain safety functions andin contracts.BCSP is independent of, but sponsored bythe following societies and organizations:• American Industrial Hygiene Association• American Society of Safety Engineers• Institute of Industrial Engineers• National Safety Council• Society of Fire Protection Engineers• System Safety SocietyBCSP operates jointly with the AmericanBoard of Industrial Hygiene to offercertifications for safety and healthtechnologists, technicians, supervisors andworkers through CCHEST, the Council onCertification of Health, Environmental andSafety Technologists ( organization currently offers thefollowing certifications:• Occupational Health and SafetyTechnologist ® (OHST)• Construction Health and SafetyTechnician ® (CHST)• Safety Trained Supervisor (STS)For more information about BCSP and theCSP certification, visit

ContributorsThe American Society of Safety Engineers Foundation, together with the Board of CertifiedSafety Professionals, is honored to dedicate the Career Guide to the Safety Profession toRobert E. McClay, CSP. Professor McClay is a past director and president of the Board ofCertified Safety Professionals and a past chairman of ASSE’s Technical Publications AdvisoryCommittee. While chairman, he initiated and developed, with others, the First Edition of theCareer Guide, which was published jointly by the ASSE Foundation and the Board of CertifiedSafety Professionals in 1997. Mr. McClay has served as a faculty member both at IndianaUniversity of Pennsylvania (IUP) and East Carolina University. Hi is currently EmeritusProfessor of Safety Sciences at IUP. He is a private Safety Consultant and an ASSE Fellow.He has served as an ASSE Area Director and on ASSE’s Council on Professional Development,as well as other academic and educational entities of the Society.The individuals listed below contributed to the development or update of the Career Guide tothe Safety Profession. Their assistance is greatly appreciated.Paul S. AdamsMark W. BeckJohn (Jack) Beno*Kathleen S. BradyRoger L. BrauerThomas BresnahanDan B. BrockmanLisa M. BrosseauDennis BuckMichael BurdittThomas F. CecichDonald J. EckenfelderNewton EllisLon Harrison FergusonMark FriendMary GoransonRichard J. HornfeckKarl JacobsonW. Monroe KeyserlingJames P. Kohn*David A. LuchtAlbert MimsHeather MurphyW. M. O’BrienPatrick T. RaganRobert SemonisckLinda M. TappJanice L. ThomasAnthony VeltriClifford WatsonJerome W. Witherill* DeceasedSpecial thanks is also extended to many individuals who submitted profile information abouttheir careers. Unfortunately, limited space in this publication permitted using only a few.51


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