Remote stations in Brazil for final 2005 proposalLatitude Longitude Altitude (m)-18.13935, -50.77201 710 REM-20M-20.35991, -46.65508 860 REM-21M-24.79163, -52.65140 360 REM-22M-18.17297, -40.82735 190 REM-25M-23.18333, -46.55833 805 REM-26 = Itapetinga radiotelescope-24.72075, -48.94957 200 REM-27-30.42180, -52.62881 300 REM-28Morphology and main characteristicsIntroductionAll the Brazilian remote stations, except REM-26 = Itapetinga have been placed in lowpopulation density regions and in sites protected by mountains or hills. It is our experiencefrom measurements performed at Itapetinga and in other sites during the 2004 campaignthat the radio interference is considerably lower in such protected sites. Although thepopulation density is low at the proposed sites, and not expected to grow during the nextdecades, a pleasant city and an airport could be found at a maximum distance of about 80km in each case. In all the cases the climatic conditions are comfortable, with no extremetemperatures and no strong winds. The Itapetinga site was introduced in the list since a 13.7m radiotelescope operates there since 1972; it would be a zero cost station, already having
electricity, optical fiber connection, etc (the fiber connection is not yet installed, but it willbe installed anyway in near future). However, although it is radio-protected by a municipallaw, the proximity of São Paulo turns it a relatively poor site. An alternative site isdescribed in the discussion of individual sites. Climate, and optical fiber net questions arediscussed later.At all the sites the soil is constituted by red or yellow earth,argillaceous and sandy, like the soil illustrated on the left; itis convenient for supporting constructions.For each site discussed in next section we present apopulation density map of the region, The color code is asindicated below; the numbers are in population/km 2 . The datais taken from IBGE (Instituto Nacional de Geografia eEstatística)Presentation of individual Brazilian remote sites1- REM-20The position -18.13935, -50.77201 is in the rural zone of Rio Verde in the South of GoiásState, at about 42 km from that city, and situated inside a group of flat hills that looks likean old crater, which can be easily seen in satellite images. The altitude at the proposedposition is 707 m, but all around the altitude is about 850m, providing a natural protection.Rio Verde is a rich city (http://www.rioverdegoias.com.br); it has agriculture as its mainactivity (soybeans, beans, corn, cotton, cattle), The population is 130 000 inhabitants, 91%in the city and 9% in the rural zone. There is a university with about 3000 students; thereare American, Russian and Dutch communities. It is situated 220 km from Goiânia, thecapital of Goiás State. There is an airport, with daily flights to São Paulo and to Goiânia.Electric Power: Rio Verde is deserved by two companies, Celg and Furnas.Celg substation: 02 transformers 25 M.V.A. (138/69,0KV), 02 transformers 25 M.V.A.(13,8/13,8.0KV), 01 transformer 10 M.V.A. (13,8/34,5KV), 07 circuits feeding 13,8KVFurnas substation: 01 group of transformers of 100 M.V.A, 10 transmission lines (6 of
230.000 volts e 4 of 138.000 volts). The presence of the Furnas is important since itsoptical fiber net could be used.Radio emission: Rio Verde has 4 radio emitter stations (3 FM and 1 AM), 2 TV emitterstations and 1 cable TV net.Left: a view of Rio VerdeBelow: Roads around REM-20 (indicatedby a red star). Full color, pink or green,are asphalted roads; double-lined greenones are non-paved; frontiers betweenmunicipalities are grey lines.
Above: Google Earth view of the proposed site in the Rio Verde region (REM-20)Below: the population density map around REM-20
2- REM-21At -20.35991, -46.65508, there is an ideal protected location in a valley between twoparallel chains of mountains .The altitude in the valley is 860m , the chain to the north isabout 1330 m and the one to the South is 1210 m. It is the National Park Serra daCanastra, in Minas gerais State (http://www.serracanastra.com.br), close to the frontierwith São Paulo State. About 160 km from Ribeirão Preto, an important city (population 800000) with a campus of the University of São Paulo, connected to the main researchdedicatedoptical fiber net of São Paulo State. The village nearest to the site São Roque deMinas (population 6000) at the entrance of the Park, and a larger city is Passos (population110 000), at 50 km, on the road from Belo Horizonte to Ribeirão Preto. The dominanteconomical activity at Passos are agro-industry (sugar, ferment, chicken), and factories ofshoes and clothes (see eg. http://www2.dcc.ufmg.br/~jmarcos/passos/ index.html). There isa Minas Gerais State university at Passos. There are tracks passing very close to theproposed remote station position. Many different possibilities exist close to the first chosenposition. Another one could be at coordinates -20.29577, -46.7315 where the valley is flat.The mountains on the SW do not reach higher than 10 o above the horizon. There is anairport at Passos, but not deserved by regular flights, it can be used by air-taxis.Electric Power: Passos is at only about 30 km from one of the major power plants of thecountry, Furnas, 1200 MW, and from CEMIG’s power plants. The city and rural zone aredeserved by CEMIG. There are about 2000 connections in the rural zone of Passos. Theelectric power company Furnas, which covers a large area in Brazil, has its own fiber net,which could be used; the distance from the site to the Furnas optical fiber net is about 50km.Radio emitters : 2 AM radios, 5 FM radios, 1 TV emitter stationA view of Passos (MG)
The Serra das Canastras park (above), visited by the French naturalist Auguste de SaintHilaire, (1779-1853) who found there 7000 different species of plants.The valley betweenthe two chains ofmountains at Serrada Canastra
Roads around Passos (center of the map). There is a trail crossing the valley chosen as the site; theentrance of the National Park is through São Roque de Minas (at the north of the map) or throughDelfinópolis. At the left border of the map one can see Franca, a 320 000 population city in SãoPaulo StateBelow: The population density map around REM-21. On can see that the population density is verylow to the NE of Passos.
REM-22At -24.791630 -52.6514, about 80 km from Cascavel, Paraná State. The altitude of the siteis 360m, surrounded by hills of about 450m altitude. It is in a vast region without anyindustrial or important agricultural activities, due to the large amount of hills, at 26 km SEof Campina da Lagoa. The chosen site is close to Altamira de Paraná, a population 7000,recent village (created in 1982). Cascavel, the nearest city (www.cascavel.pr.gov.br) has apopulation 262 000, 7% of which in the rural zone. It has its own airport, and is not farfrom the international airport at Iguaçu (150 km), and from the Furnas electric power maintransmission lines connecting Iguaçu to São Paulo.Above: Roads around Altamira de Paraná. The red star indicates the position of the remote SKAsite.Left: A view of Altamira doParaná
The GoogleEarth image ofREM-22 nearAltamira doParanáElectric Power . Cascavel is deserved by COPEL (companhia Energética do Paraná); thereare 3 substations (Cascavel, Pinheiros, Olímpico) with a total transformation capacity of164 MVA (mega-volt amperes). The high voltage lines are 13.8/34.5 KV. Cascavel is onlyabout 150 km from the Itaipú power plant (18 000 MW).Radio transmitters: at Cascavel, 8 TV emitters or re-transmitters; radio: 2 AM/FM , 1AM, 2 FMThe population densityaround REM-22, to theeast of Cascavel
REM-25At -18.17297 -40.82735, altitude 190 m in the valley, surrounded by mountains about 300m almost all around. Close to the frontier between Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais and Bahiastates, at 20 km from the city Montanha and not far (90 km) from Nanuque in MG state(41600 population, airport). Montanha is a relatively recent city (founded in 1963), withpopulation 17500. The area of the municipality is about 1000 km 2 and the populationdensity of the municipality is 16 inhab/ km². There are German descendants who maintainthe folklore. In the south of this region, one can find interesting formations similar to sugarloafs. The capital of the State, Vitoria (population 1 500 000, half the population of ESState), is at about 250 km to the South; the nearest beach at about 120 km (Itaunas,splendid), and another city is Nova Venecia (population 120 000) at 80 km.Top left, granitic peaks similar to sugarloafs. On the top right, folklore ofGerman origin at Montanha.On the left, a view of a valley of theregion, similar to the one that waschosen for the remote station.
Below, the road map of the region around Montanha (the map only shows the ES State)The region around REM-25 on a larger scale (nowincluding Minas Geraisand Bahia States).
The Google Earth view of REM-25, close to Montanha (ES). The frontier with Minas Gerais State isindicates as a white line.On the right, thepopulationdensity aroundREM-25
REM-26This site is where the Itapetinga radiotelescope is installed, at -23.18333 -46.55833,altitude 805 m. It is only about 10 km from Atibaia (population 120 000) and 60 km fromSão Paulo (population about 15 million). Although it is a region of large populationdensity, it was included here because it would be a zero cost site. Already protected againstradio-interference by a 24 years old municipal law, it will offer optical fiber connection,power and all facilities without any expenses for the SKA project. Presently, theobservatory is not yet connected to the research optical fiber net of São Paulo State, but thiswill be provided anyway in future.In the Google Earth image of the Itapetinga radiotelescope region, one can see the cityAtibaia, and the road “Fernão Dias” which connects São Paulo to Belo Horizonte.Atibaia is a city which is still growing. It does not have any strong industrial activity, but itattracts people willing to have a secondary residence or week-end house close to São Paulo.If in about one decade the radio-interference level becomes unacceptable, an alternative“zero cost” remote station could be installed close to the site of the optical observatory“Pico dos Dias” operated by LNA (Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica) at Brazópolis,Minas Gerais State, at less than 200 km to the North-East of Atibaia. It is a place whereaccess, power, optical fiber connections, dormitories, etc, are already available.
Above, the Google Earth image of the region around the Pico dos Dias Observatory, an alternativesite for REM-26.The population density map below contains both the region around the Itapetinga radiotelescope(close to the point where BR381 crosses the road Jacareí-Campinas) and the REM-26 alternativesite close to Itajubá.
REM-27At -24.72075 -48.94957, the site is near to the frontier between Paraná and São Paulostates, in a region with very little economical activity and little probability of economicalgrowth. The altitude is 200 in the valley, which is open towards South-West, andsurrounded by mountains with 500-700 m. Antenna(s) could be placed sufficiently highwith respect to the river to avoid floods. There is an asphalted road at about 4 km. Thenearest village is Adrianopolis (population 7000), at about 10 km. The position is at 35 kmfrom Apiaí (SP), population 23 500, and 100 km from Curitiba (PR), population 1 580 000.The population density around Adrianopolis is only 5 /km 2 , and is decreasing with time,due to migration towards larger cities.The above map of the region around REM-27 only shows the Paraná State; Adrianópolis, thenearest village, at the frontier between PR and SP, is on the side of the Ribeira river.The map on the leftshows a more extendedregion, including citiesof SP State, like Apiaíand Registro.
On the Google Earth image of REM-27 below one can see the river Ribeira at the top.Below, the population density around RM-27. One can see that at a distance of only 100 km fromCuritiba there are regions of low population density.
REM-28At -30.42180 -52.62881, there is an almost circular valley oriented towards SW, withaltitude 300m in the bottom, surrounded by hills of 400m altitude. Detailed studies havebeing made by a group of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (at Porto Alegre),using satellite ASTER (60 x 60 km2) images with a resolution of 30 m , and a numericalmodel in order to obtain a description of the relief . The best site is at about 5 km fromEncruzilhada do Sul, a municipality with 24 000 population, population density 7inhabitants/km 2 . It is about 150 km from Porto Alegre (population 3 300 000).On the left a view of the entrance of Encruzilhada do Sul, with its German traditions. On the right,Rio Pardo, at 70 km to the North of the site.On the right, anASTER satelliteimage of theproposed site (rightside square).
The road map of the REM-28 site near Encruzilhada do Sul. Very close to the site (less than 500m) there is a non-paved road.At about 70 km to the North of Encruzilhada do Sul, is Rio Pardo (population 38 000).One can see from the population density maps that the population decreases quicklytowards the South.PopulationdensityaroundREM-28
Below, the Google Earth image of the site REM-28 close to Encruzilhada do Sul.