University of Birmingham

Leadership Theory - CCEAM 2012

University of BirminghamEffectiveness of School Leadership and ManagementDevelopment in CameroonFrederick Ebot AshuEdD in Leaders and Leadership in EducationCCEAM CONFERENCE 2012

Leadership TheoryFrom ‘Great Man’ to ‘Distribution’ LeadershipGreat Man TheoriesThe Great man theory was based on the belief that leaders are exceptional people, born with innate qualities, destined to lead.Trait TheoriesLeadership trait theory, from the 1900s to the 1950s considered leaders as individuals endowed with certain personality traitswhich constituted their abilities to lead.Behavioural TheoriesSituational LeadershipContingency TheoryThese theories concentrate on what leaders actually do rather than on their qualities.Leaders' abilities, from the 50s to late 60s, researchers then began to examine the influence of the situation on leaders' skills andbehaviours and that lead to the concept of “situational leadership”.“Contingency model” examining the connection between personal traits, situational variables, and leader effectiveness variables.Transactional TheoryTransactional approach which emphasises the importance of the relationship between leader and followers, focusing on themutual benefits derived from a form of ‘contract’.Transformational TheoryDistributed LeadershipLeadership studies of the 1970s and 1980s once again focused on the individual characteristics of leaders which influence theireffectiveness and the success of their organizational performance.Since the 1980s the model promoted by the National Professional Qualification for Headship, emphasises the role of theindividual leader and organisation’s performance (Harris and Spillane, 2008).Source: Adapted from Bolden et al (2003) and Tchombe (1997).

School Leadership and Management Development ProgramsAkoulouze et al (1999)Rhodes et al (2009)Singh (2009)Bush and Jackson (2002)Lumby et al (2008)

France„EcoleSuperieure desPersonnels d‟Encadrement‟(ESPEMEN) orHigher School forManagerial Staffin Education.Slavikova et al (2003)

Bush and Jackson (2002)Rhodes et al (2009)Bush (2008)Lumby et al (2008)Britain


Leadership Development Framework for Aspiring Head TeachersAkoulouze et al. (1999)Tchombe (1997)Tchombe (1998)

Lead CameroonImprove• Gender Inequality;• Early Learning outcomes/ Qualityof Education;• Access to Education;• Inclusive Education/Governanceof the Education System.Ms. Youssouf Hadidja Alim, Minister of Basic Education inCameroon , Global partnership for Education, Copenhagen,Denmark, November 8, 2011

Methodological Approach of the DesignMultiple Case Studies Design(Earley et al, 2002; Rhodes et al, 2009)Qualitative Mix (Johnson et al, 2007)Document AnalysisBolden et al, 2003;Yu, 2007EvaluationEarley et al, 2002;Bush and Jackson, 2002;Akoulouze et al, 1999SurveyRhodes et al, 2009Singh, 2009

Research Methods of the DesignLiterature and DocumentAnalysisBolden et al, 2003; Yu, 2007Interviews and DocumentsAkoulouze et al, 1999;Earley et al, 2002; Rhodes et al,2009Leadership and ManagementDevelopment Questionnaire(LMDQ)Rhodes et al, 2009; Singh, 2009Description of Effective school Leadershipand Management Development ProgramsDeveloping a National LeadershipDevelopment Framework for AspiringSchool Leaders in CameroonFig outlines the fundamental researchdesign against which decisions aboutthe research tools and data collectionmethods must be arrived at

Sample-InterviewProvince/City School Aspiring Head Head Teacher TotalTarget Actual Target Actual Target ActualSouth West ProvinceLimbeBueaCentral ProvinceYaoundeSchool A 1 0 1 2 2 2School B 1 0 1 1 2 1School C 1 0 1 2 2 2School D 1 1 1 1 2 2School E 1 1 1 0 2 1School F 1 1 1 1 2 2School G 1 2 1 2 2 4School H 1 1 1 1 2 2School I 1 1 1 1 2 2School J 1 1 1 1 2 2Interviews (N=25): throughsemi-structured interviewsacross a purposive sample(11 aspiring heads and 14head teachers) from 13 casestudies schools and bydocuments from theCameroon Ministry of BasicEducationNorth West ProvinceBamendaSchool K 1 0 1 2 2 2School L 1 1 1 1 2 2School M 1 1 1 0 2 1

LMDQ ReturnsJob Role Gender Age Experience in Role Type of SchoolMale Female Under 30yrs- 45yrs+ Under 5 Yrs- 15yrs + State Private Faith30yrs 45 yrs 5 yrs 15 yrsAspiring 48% 52% 28% 58% 14% 36% 56% 8% 37% 47% 16%Heads (69) (74) (40) (83) (20) (52) (80) (11) (53) (67) (23)LMDQ (n=190):random nationalsample of 143aspiring headteachers (75%)and 47 headteachers (25%).Head 49% 51% 15% 55% 30% 34% 53% 13% 49% 45% 6%Teachers (23) (24) (7) (26) (14) (16) (25) (6) (23) (21) (3)

School Leadership and Management Development Programs: An Evaluative MultipleCase StudiesCameroon

The New Nature of School Leadership

Engaging Transformational Leadership

Engaging Distribution Leadership

School Leadership and ManagementPreparatory ProgramsUnits of Studies Aspiring Heads Mean Mean scoresRespondents Scores InterpretationsHuman Resources Management 143 4.7 Strongly AgreeImproving Learning 143 4.7 Strongly AgreeImproving Teaching 143 4.6 Strongly AgreeHealth and Safety in School 143 4.5 Strongly AgreeResearch in Education 143 4.5 Strongly AgreeLearning and Assessment 143 4.5 Strongly AgreeAccountability 143 4.4 AgreeQuality Management in Education 143 4.4 AgreeLearning Development 143 4.3 AgreeICT Management 143 4.3 AgreeUnits of Studies Head teacher Mean Mean scoresRespondents Scores InterpretationsImproving Learning 47 4.6 Strongly AgreeLearning and Assessment 47 4.6 Strongly AgreeLearning Development 47 4.5 Strongly AgreeImproving Teaching 47 4.5 Strongly AgreeLeadership in Organisation 47 4.4 AgreeResearch in Education 47 4.4 AgreeHealth and Safety in Schools 47 4.3 AgreeAccountability 47 4.3 AgreeQuality Management in Education 47 4.3 AgreeHistory of Education in Cameroon 47 4.2 AgreeCurriculum andPedagogicLeadershipOrganisationalLeadership

School Leadership and ManagementPreparatory ProgramsUnits of Studies Male Mean Mean ScoresRespondents Scores InterpretationsImproving Learning 92 4.7 Strongly AgreeImproving Teaching 92 4.6 Strongly AgreeLearning and Assessment 92 4.5 Strongly AgreeHealth and Safety in Schools 92 4.5 Strongly AgreeResearch in Education 92 4.4 AgreeAccountability 92 4.4 AgreeQuality Management in Education 92 4.4 AgreeStrategic Planning 92 4.3 AgreeLeadership in Organisation 92 4.3 AgreeLearning Development 92 4.3 AgreeCurriculum andPedagogicLeadershipAge,Experiencein Role andType ofSchool.Units of Studies Female Mean Mean ScoresScoreRespondents s InterpretationsManaging Interpersonal Relationships 98 4.7 Strongly AgreeSelf-Development of Leader 98 4.7 Strongly AgreeImproving Learning 98 4.6 Strongly AgreeImproving Teaching 98 4.5 Strongly AgreeLearning and Assessment 98 4.5 Strongly AgreeResearch inEducation 98 4.5 Strongly AgreeLearningDevelopment 98 4.4 AgreeHealth and Safety in Schools 98 4.3 AgreeAccountability 98 4.3 AgreeQuality Management in Education 98 4.3 AgreeOrganisationalLeadership

School Leadership and Management Preparatory Program

Aspiring Heads and Head TeachersShift from Management to LeadershipThe New Aspiring Head TeacherManagement and Leadership RolesAdministrative RolesThe Present The FuturePlanning Setting DirectionOrganisingInspiring and CoachingAccountability ChangeFeedback InspirationObjectives OutcomesAreas of ResponsibilitiesPersonal LeadershipEmotional Intelligence LeadershipOrganisational LeadershipCurriculum and Pedagogic LeadershipEncouraging a Developmental Leadership CultureCommunity LeadershipEducational System Leadership

Leadership FactorsRelated to SchoolEffectiveness1.0 School LeadersCharacteristics1.1 Personal Leadership1.2 Emotional Intelligence Leadership1.3 Organisational Leadership1.4 Curriculum and PedagogicLeadership1.5 Encouraging a DevelopmentLeadership Culture1.6 Community Leadership1.7 Educational System LeadershipChildrenCharacteristics3.0 Learning Environment3.1 High Expectations of Schools and theEducational System3.2 Positive School Leaders withKnowledge, Expertise and positiveBehaviours3.3 Leadership Culture3.4 National Curriculum and AssessmentFramework-Leagues Tables3.5 Degree of Evaluation and Monitoring ofPupils Progress Reinforcement3.6 Rewards and Incentives Management2.0 Developmental Programs2.1 In-Service Training2.2 Management Skills2.3 Leadership Orientations2.4 On-the-Job Experience2.5 Good Learning Environment4.0 Teaching and Learning Process4.1 Quality of School Curriculum in termsof Content Covered, and FormalStructure,4.2 Variety in Teaching and LearningStrategies4.3 Consensus, Cooperative Planning ofTeaching,4.4 Parents Support and Involvement4.5 Learners-Centred Approach4.6 Assessment and Feedback5.0 Pupils OutcomesSchool and Contextual Factors5.1 Improve Learning outcomes and the Quality ofEducation5.2 Promote Positive Behaviours and InclusiveEducation5.3 Improve Access and Attendance5.4 Improve Equality5.5 Improve Governance and Educational System5.6 Economic Success6.0 Head Teacher Outcomes6.1 Job Satisfaction6.2 Commitment6.3 Development of Capacities

ReferencesAkoulouze, R., Ongbwa, L., Salla, C., Ndjie, J., Kenne, E., Coadou, J., Ngoube, M., Soucat, I., Itoe, M., Mongue, D., Molinier, M., Martin, C., Tchakou, J., Tondji, M., Morand, M., Eppoh, A.,Mouaze, R., Hayatou, O., Kamga, S., Husson, G., Noa, P., Edjang, C., Martin, J. (1999) A Guide for Primary School Head Teachers. (Republic of Cameroon: Ministry of National Education,CEPER S.A). Bolden, R., Gosling, J., Marturano, A., Dennison, P. (2003) A Review of Leadership Theory and Competency Frameworks. Edited Version of a Report for Chase Consulting and theManagement Standards Centre.( Exeter: University of Exeter, Centre for Leadership Studies). Bolden, R. (ed.) (2007) Trends and Perspectives in Management and Leadership Development. LSW Research Report, Centre for Leadership Studies, University of Exeter. URL:[]. (Accessed June, 2010). Brungardt, C. (1996) “The Making of Leaders: A review of the research in Leadership Development and Education”. Journal of Leadership Studies. Vol. 3 (3) 81-95.Bush, T. (2008) “From Management to Leadership. Semantic or Meaningful Change?”. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. (London: Sage). Bush, T. and Jackson, D. (2002) “A Preparation for School Leadership: International Perspectives” Education Management and Administration. Vol. 30 (4) 417-429.Dering, A., Brundrett, M., Slavikova, L., Karabec, S., Murden, B. and Nicolaidou M. (2005) Educational Leadership Development in Finland. (The Netherlands and France: An InitialComparative Report).Earley, P., Evans, J., Collarbone, P., Gold, A. and Halpin, D. (2002) Establishing the Current State of School Leadership In England. (Institute of Education, University of London).Johnson, R.B., Onwuegbuzie, A.J. and Turner, L.A. (2007) ‘Towards a Definition of Mixed Methods Research’, Journal of Mixed Methods Research, vol. 1(2) 112–133.Kincheloe, J. L. &Berry, K. S. (2004) Rigour and complexity in educational research: Conceptualizing the Bricolage. (McGraw-Hill International).Lumby, J., Crow, G., Pashiardis, P. (2008) International Handbook on the Preparation And Development Of School Leaders. (New York: Routledge).Rhodes, C., Brundrett, M., Nevill, A. (2009) “Just the Ticket? The National Professional Qualification and the Transition to Headship in the East Midlands of England“,Educational Review. Vol. 61 (4) 449–468.Slavikova, L., Karabec, S., Murden, B., Nicolaidou, M., and Dering, A. (2003) Head Teacher-Leader and Manager: A comparative Study of Professional LeadershipQualifications in the European Education Sector. (Prague: British Council).Singh, G. (2009) The National Professional Qualification For Headship (NPQH) Programme For Secondary School Headteachers In Malaysia: An Evaluative Case Study.EdD Dissertation. (Birmingham: University of Birmingham).Singh, G. (2009) The National Professional Qualification For Headship (NPQH) Programme For Secondary School Headteachers In Malaysia: An Evaluative Case Study.EdD Dissertation. (Birmingham: University of Birmingham).Tchombe, T. (1997) Structural Reforms in Education in Cameroon. [online]. Available from:[Accessed December 2010].Tchombe, T. (1998) progressive transformative teacher education in Cameroon. . [online]. Availablefrom: [Accessed December 2010].

QuestionsGET IN TOUCHFrederick EbotAshuEdD Leaders and Leadership in EducationUniversity of BirminghamTel: + 44 (0) 121 2497755Mobile: +44 (0) 7720431026Email: ebotashu@caassuk.orgTwitter:!/EbotAshuBlog:

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