Multiculturaland Diversityissues inAssessmentJaneen Miller M.ed,NCC, LPC-I
Instrument Bias• Internal Structure (ACA COE, E.8.)– Pay attention to the norming groupinstrument reliability is tested on– Diversity of norming population should bediscussed in test manual and consideredwhen choosing an instrument for each client• Instrument and Criterion Relationship– Instrument may be highly related toperformance for one group and a lowrelationship for another(Whiston, 2009)
Recommendations forCounselors• Clearly understand client’s diverse background and thepurpose of the testing or assessment• Review and understand technical (norming, reliability,validity) information to determine if instrument isappropriate for diverse individuals.• Appropriate administration and scoring of instrumentshould be according to manual• Interpretation and application of assessment resultsshould be appropriate for client– Multicultural assessment competence• The ability to consider and the committedintention of considering cultural data to formulateaccurate, comprehensive and impartial caseconceptualizations(Whiston, 2009)
Assessing Diverseindividuals• Consider:– Culture– Cognitive impairments– Motor Impairments• Individual who became quadriplegic would find itdifficult to complete block test– Linguistic background• Bilingual• Deaf• Other issues in language development– Visual impairment(Whiston, 2009)
Issues that affectassessment with diversepopulations• Quest for the Golden Label– Labels vs. operational measurement• Three Musketeers– All for one and one for All (not true for measures)• Horizontal Research– Nondevelopmental research on non-traditionalgroups• Bias is Bias– Sampling problems• I’m okay, you’re not– Training of assessment specialists without a focus ondiversity issues(Sedlacek, 1994)
Multicultural CompetenciesI. Counselor Awareness of OwnCultural Values and BiasesII. Counselor Awareness of Client’sWorldviewIII. Culturally AppropriateIntervention and Strategies(AMCD, 1996)
Multicultural Competencies• Attitudes and Beliefs– Provides information about the attitudesand beliefs of a culturally competentcounselor• Knowledge– Provides information about the knowledgeculturally skilled counselors possess• Skills– Provides information about the skillsculturally competent counselors implementin daily counseling(AMCD, 1996)
Questions• In thinking about your final project, arethere any ethical, legal or multiculturalissues you considered or should haveconsidered in choosing/administeringyour assessment?• What’s the Scenario?
ReferencesAmerican Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code ofethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.Arredondo, P., Toporek, M. S., Brown, S., Jones, J., Locke,D. C., Sanchez, J. and Stadler, H. (1996).Operationalization of the Multicultural CounselingCompetencies. Association Multicultural CounselingDevelopment (AMCD): Alexandria, VA.Sedlacek, W. E. (1994). Issues in advancing diversitythrough assessment. Journal of Counseling andDevelopment, 72, 549-553.Whiston, S. C. (2009). Principles and applications ofassessment in counseling (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA:Brooks/Cole Cenage Learning.