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©UNICEFJUNE 2015IRAQHUMANITARIANNEEDS OVERVIEW 2015 0


ContentsGeographic Overview .......................................................................................................................... 2Principle Humanitarian Needs ............................................................................................................ 3Impact of the Crisis ............................................................................................................................. 3Detailed Breakdown of People in Need .............................................................................................. 6Severity of Needs ................................................................................................................................ 7Potential Escalation of Needs ............................................................................................................. 9Onwards: Needs by Cluster ............................................................................................................... 10Annex: Assessments overview .......................................................................................................... 221


GEOGRAPHIC OVERVIEW2


PRINCIPLE HUMANITARIAN NEEDSKEY CHARACTERISTIC ONE: GRAVE VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIANLAW CONTINUE, INCLUDING THE BRUTALISATION OF WOMEN AND GIRLS7.9 million people are in need of protection assistance. Of immediate and overarching concern is theprotection of all civilians from the impact of profound levels of violence, in an environment wherewomen and girls are at risk of sexual violence and enslavement; where children are being used as suicidebombers and human shields, among many other violations. Those who have fled areas held by the IslamicState of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) face new protection needs, including those prompted by socialfragmentation and discrimination.KEY CHARACTERISTIC TWO: ESSENTIAL AND LIFE-SAVING SERVICES ARE INSUFFICIENT AND OVERSTRETCHED,INCLUDING CRITICAL HEALTH AND WATER SERVICES, RAISING THE RISK OF A PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCYAccess to essential health services is an immediate need for 6.7 million people, while 4.1 million peopleare in critical need of water and access to sanitation. Health capacities are severely overburdened anddisrupted, with numerous breakages reported to the cold-chain supply system. Compromised water andsanitation services have triggered a high risk of disease. Already, Iraq has one of the highest tuberculosisrates in the region, and measles cases have been reported in all 18 governorates. With the onset ofsummer, providing sufficient water and access to sanitation services will become increasingly urgent.KEY CHARACTERISTIC THREE: THE CRISIS HAS IMMISERATED ENTIRE COMMUNITIES AND FOOD INSECURITYHAS INCREASED DRAMATICALLY.Food insecurity has increased dramatically and 4.4 million people now require food assistance.Prolonged mass displacement is draining the resources of the displaced and their hosts, increasing pricesand unemployment and pushing down wages, all against the backdrop of an economy on the brink. Foodproduction and supply disruption, coupled with localised rising demands have caused sharp price hikes.With private resources dwindling, basic needs are not being met and families are forced into impossibledecisions. Exploitation, trafficking and criminal activities are already increasing.KEY CHARACTERISTIC FOUR: A GENERATIONOF CHILDREN ARE AT ENORMOUS RISKIraq cannot afford to lose a generation of children and young people. Poor nutritional status,inadequate health care, and an education sector stretched to breaking point all affect the children caughtup in this crisis. Those traumatised by violence, destruction and the cumulative destitution of theirfamilies need urgent support to mitigate against the risk of potentially fuelling violence for decades tocome, and to provide a foundation for future social stability.IMPACT OF THE CRISISOver 8.2 million people in Iraq require immediate humanitarian support as a direct consequence ofviolence and conflict linked to the take-over of Iraqi territory by the Islamic State in Iraq and theLevant (ISIL) and the counter-insurgency operation launched by the Government and its allied forces.The humanitarian crisis in Iraq has been one of the most rapidly unfolding in the world. Since January2014, 2.9 million people have fled their homes in three mass waves of displacement, and multiple smallerones. During the first major wave in early 2014, more than 350,000 civilians fled; the majority from3


Falluja and Ramadi. Just a few months later, 500,000 people escaped from ISIL-impacted areas, includingIraq’s second largest city, Mosul. Within weeks, another 800,000 were displaced from areas under attackby ISIL, including Sinjar. Tens of thousands of refugees fled the intense fighting and destruction in Kobanein Syria, seeking safety in Iraq. New displacement has continued during 2015; in April, 130,000 peoplefled Ramadi when ISIL attempted to take-over the city. In May, tens of thousands more were displacedwithin hours after the city fell. Displaced families have found safety in villages, towns and citiesthroughout the country, welcomed generously by communities and supported by the Iraqi Governmentand the Kurdistan Regional Government.The humanitarian crisis in Iraq is a protection crisis. The ISIL insurgency is one of the most brutal in theworld. Populations have been subjected to mass executions, systematic rape and horrendous acts ofviolence, including executions and torture. Children have been used as suicide bombers and humanshields, sold at markets, killed by crucifixion and buried alive. Women and girls have been enslaved andsubjected to grotesque sexual violence. The survivors of gender and sexual-based violence are sufferingtrauma and depression, and suicides have risen sharply, particularly among women and girls. Civilianswho have remained in ISIL areas have been targeted, at risk of reprisal and retribution by combatants asthey retake territory from ISIL.The crisis is pervasive, impacting virtually all aspects of Iraq’s economy and society, and threateningthe major efforts underway to build national reconciliation and protect the country’s impressivedevelopment gains. Displaced persons are currently living in more than 3000 locations throughout thecountry; more than 90 per cent are living outside of camps, hosted by communities who have done theirbest to protect and provide for them. The cost of this generosity has been high. Health providers arestruggling to deliver basic support in areas with high concentrations of displaced. Water and sanitationsystems are in disrepair, increasing the risk of major public health emergencies, particularly in thesummer period when temperatures soar to unbearable levels. Overcrowding is a major problem incountless communities. Already, Iraq has one of the highest tuberculosis rates in the region and measleshave been reported in all 18 Governorates.Destitution is widespread, impacting displaced families and host communities alike. Production andsupply shortages and localized increases in demand have forced up the cost of basic commodities,including food. At least 4.4 million people are now food insecure. Families across the country, mostparticularly in the KR-I where the population has increased by 30 per cent, have been unable to coverbasic needs and are relying on negative strategies to cope. Child marriages are increasing, used as astrategy by families to protect young girls from sexual violence and deprivation. Key agricultural areasincluding large parts of Iraq’s cereal belt remain under ISIL control raising the possibility of widespreadshortages in the months ahead. Tensions between host communities and displaced families are rising, asresources dwindle and displaced are seen to be benefitting disproportionately. Half of all displaced needurgent shelter support; 700,000 are surviving in unfinished and abandoned buildings, makeshift collectivecentres and spontaneous settlements. Ensuring families are equipped to survive the winter becomescritical from November onwards; failure to do so will almost certainly result in further loss of life.Children have been traumatised by violence and destitution. Almost 3 million school-aged children andadolescents affected by the conflict do not have access to basic standard education. Within camps, only45 percent of children are attending school; only 30 percent are outside of camps. Schools in hostcommunities are struggling to deal with teacher-shortages and the destruction, damage, and occupationof schools. Children are the hardest-hit victims of the conflict, exposed to abuse, suffering frominadequate health care and education and at-risk of poor nutrition. Already community leaders are4


worried that disaffected youth, with few positive options, will fuel tensions and violence for decades tocome.Families are eager to return to their homes and communities but cannot do so without support.Families which have decided to return find their communities destroyed. Infrastructure and property arewrecked and markets abandoned. Families returning to their neighbourhoods are at extreme risk,vulnerable to deliberately booby-trapped buildings and IED contaminated roads. Almost all newlyaccessible areas require extensive and specialised assistance, including mine and IED-clearance, beforethey will be safe for returns. Although beyond the remit of humanitarian operations in Iraq, thedifficulties of reconciliation and reconstruction cannot be under-estimated. In most communities, thesewill be fraught, decades-long processes.The Government has provided mass relief in the form of cash grants, health support, educationsupport, shelter and food, but is faced, for the first time in decades, with a massive fiscal gap resultingfrom the slump in oil prices and the high costs of the ISIL counterinsurgency. The situation is so grave andunexpected, the Government is being forced into pre-sales of Iraqi oil reserves. The Kurdistan RegionalGovernment (KR-G) is equally hard-hit, struggling to cope with denied and delayed oil transfers. Hostingclose to one million displaced persons and refugees, the KR-G has been forced to cut-back on publicservices, delay salaries and halt development and investment projects.5


DETAILED BREAKDOWN OF PEOPLE IN NEED6


SEVERITY OF NEEDSHumanitarian needs are represented by a ‘severity of needs’ index based on the following set of proxyindicators:1) The geographic spread and number of people internally displaced by the crisis since January2014.2) A composite indicator representing ‘severity of health needs’ that combines: immunisationcoverage, including for measles and polio, current prevalence of measles cases, and availabilityof primary health facilities.3) A composite indicator representing ‘severity of food needs’, that combines individual foodconsumption data and the geographic spread and number of people in need of food assistance.4) A weighted indicator for locations under the control of armed groups, newly accessible areas,and areas under Government control.Proxy indicators have been used to represent the ‘impact of conflict’. Some governorates may appeardisproportionately severe due to a lack of basic services that may be part of chronic structural problemsrather than the current conflict.7


Referring to individual “cluster severity needs”, the relevant thematic area within clusters were dividedinto categories with associated indicators. Weighting was applied to each indicator based on theirrelative importance and a cumulative score generated by adding the weighted values. This scoring wascarried out at the district level, thereby indicating comparison of needs across geographic locations.8


POTENTIAL ESCALATION OF NEEDSHumanitarian needs are projected to rise sharply and unpredictably in the second half of 2015.Partners estimate that of the millions of people likely to be impacted by fighting along both the Anbarand Mosul corridors, 1.7 million people will require first-line emergency assistance, including one millionwho will need life-saving support through the rapid response mechanism. A contingency plan has beendeveloped that includes information on stocks and envisions pre-positioning of core pipelines andadvance siting of reception centres in areas where people are expected to flee. A special sub-plan forMosul city and its environs is also being worked on, ready for activation in the advent of a rapid offensive.Given the expected scope and possible timing of the Mosul operation, this sub-plan is being costedseparately.9


ONWARDS: NEEDS BY CLUSTERProtectionThe protection of civilians from violence and grave violations of both human rights and internationalhumanitarian law is an immediate and overarching concern in the Iraq crisis. Iraq’s protection crisis ischaracterised by targeted attacks on civilians, restricted access to basic services, sexual and gender-basedviolence and grave violations of child rights. Improving and advocating for the protection of civilians inthis conflict must therefore underpin all humanitarian efforts.Ongoing military operations, insecurity, and widespread rights violations have forced entirecommunities to flee their homes; not all find safe haven. An estimated 2.9 million people have beennewly displaced, including many families who have been displaced many times. IDPs are progressivelydepleting financial resources, weakening safety nets and coping mechanisms. Many are forced to shelterin unfinished or abandoned buildings, public facilities or in the open. All displaced are in need ofregistration and documentation, housing and land, property, mine risk education, essential social servicesand access to justice. These services are also required by host and other conflict and displacementaffected communities. Access to registration, verification, and the timely renewal of documentationremain critical for refugees. They serve to provide assistance and increasingly develop community-basedprotection networks for the most vulnerable refugees, ensuring that needs for information andengagement, especially for women and those living outside of camps, are met.In some areas, restrictions on freedom of movement and/or discriminatory policies and practices arepreventing the movement of those fleeing violence to safer areas, and there are reports of forcedreturns. Since the end of 2014, both spontaneous and forced returns are occurring in Ninewa, Diyala,Anbar and Salah al Din. Returns typically occur after the Government regains control of an area, or due topush factors in areas of displacement such as limited and/or discriminatory access to services orrestrictions to freedom of movement.There are serious protection concerns for civilians who remain in areas under armed group control. It isestimated that over 5 million civilians live in ISIL controlled areas where humanitarian access is notpossible or at best severely restricted.The lack of access to basic services especially in besieged areas creates further vulnerabilities. In Anbarand Salah al Din governorates, civilians living in besieged areas have little or no access to life-savingservices.Those able to return to their homes face critical protection risks, including the widespread presence ofmilitias, breakdown of law and order and increased criminal activity, the targeting of persons of a specificethnic or sectarian background, damage and destruction of property and basic infrastructure, loss ofhousing and related documentation, and Explosive Remnants of War (ERW) contamination. Basic andessential services often do not exist and where they do, the presence of militias can obstruct access.Women and children, even after returning home, continue to be at risk of sexual violence, abuse andexploitation, while men are at risk of being killed, abducted and detained due to perceived affiliation toparties to the conflict.IEDs, landmines and ERWs impose a devastating human toll not only in terms of the loss of life and limb,but their presence blocks the delivery of assistance, prevents children from going to school and robspeople of their livelihoods, hampering economic and social development and post-conflictreconstruction.10


As a result of the conflict, women and girls are exposed to sexual violence and exploitation, forcedmarriage, trafficking, abduction, killing, and other gross rights violations, particularly in areas controlledby ISIL and other armed groups. Current evidence indicates the targeting of women and girls fromreligious and ethnic minorities in particular. The conflict has also exacerbated pre-existing sexual andgender-based violence concerns such as domestic violence, forced marriage and child marriage. Womenand girls also face limitations on their freedom of movement, access to services, livelihood opportunities,housing, land and property rights issues, access to justice, as well as exclusion from the decision makingprocesses in public and domestic life.Children are exposed to risks of death or injury, abduction, forced recruitment into armed groups,sexual and physical violence, separation from caregivers, and the death of family members. Childrenare also suffering intense psychological distress from witnessing or directly being subjected to violence,interrupted schooling, and stresses linked to shifting of roles and responsibilities and the breakdown ofcommunity-based support mechanisms. Children with disabilities face additional risks and barrierslinked to discrimination. These experiences have a significant negative impact on a child’s developmentand resilience. Failure to protect children and adolescents will have dire consequences to buildingsustainable peace for generations to come.Men, particularly those belonging to a specific ethnic or sectarian group, face restrictions on movementand in their ability to access safety, services and livelihoods. They are at risk of being arbitrarily arrestedand detained, being denied fair legal processes, and being kidnapped and killed.There is concern that international human rights and humanitarian law violations are of an increasinglyethnic and sectarian nature. Civilians of all ethnic and religious backgrounds suffered from violenceperpetrated by many armed groups, but ISIL in particular has employed brutal tactics against minorities.This violence has extended not only to communities such as Yezidis, Christians and Turkmen in the north,but also Shiites and Sunnis. The absence of sustainable solutions and reconciliation initiatives risks afurther hardening tensions and divisions within and between communities.Food SecurityAn estimated 4.4 million people across Iraq now require food security assistance. Both the availabilityof and access to food and agricultural inputs has been negatively affected by the conflict, as haveagricultural livelihoods. Overall, food consumption data 1 show that food insecurity appears to haveincreased across all governorates compared to the 2007 baseline study. In a recent assessment, over 49per cent of surveyed IDPs have stated food assistance as their top priority requirement 2 . People internallydisplaced by the crisis are experiencing the highest levels of food insecurity, and data from Baghdad,Diyala and Kirkuk indicates that over 75 per cent of IDPs have experienced food insecurity, albeit tovarying degrees: 71 per cent reported concern over running out of food, 41 per cent have had to skip ameal and 11 per cent reported being unable to eat for an entire day.Dependence on external assistance has increased sharply. In Baghdad, Diyala and Kirkuk governorates,IDP expenditure per capita on food amounts to a daily average of 37,000 Iraqi Dinars. At 843 Dinars per1000 kilocalories 3 , IDPs can acquire only an estimated 1470 kilocalories per person daily from their ownresources – they are dependent on other sources, including host communities and humanitarianagencies, to fill that gap. An analysis on consumption frequency also shows strong reliance on external1 WFP mVAM 20152 REACH, Feb. 20153 Estimated national average extracted from 2012 IHSES data.11


sources. For example, IDPs on average attain some 2.5 days’ worth of staples through external sourceseach week. Most refugees living in camp settings rely on humanitarian assistance as their primary sourceof food.The data associates longer displacement duration with increased negative, irreversible copingstrategies. While those displaced during the second half of 2014 are more acutely food insecure thanthose displaced during the first, the data associates longer displacement duration with increasednegative, irreversible coping strategies that decrease human capital and physical assets and reduceresilience to future shocks – thereby contributing to greater food insecurity and poverty in the long term(see table below). Moreover, results of a recent vulnerability assessment indicate that in general, IDPsboth outside and in camps more frequently consume food of lower quality (such as pulses, oil, butter,condiments and eggs) than non IDPs. As evidenced through the findings of the MSNA, refugeehouseholds are resorting to spending their savings, relying on credit, selling household assets, andreducing food intake in order to cope with a lack of food or money to buy food.Coping Strategy 1st half of 2014 2nd half of 2014Withdrew children from school 21% 13%Sold productive assets or means of transport 15% 11%Sold last female animals 10% 5%Communities hosting displaced populations face increased strain on already limited resources. Almost19 per cent of the population lives under the national poverty line – this peak at 80 per cent in thepoorest districts. With further displacement, the already significant levels of food insecurity,unemployment, and poverty among the IDPs and host communities are expected to increase.Populations in areas under armed group control have seen their food production and access to marketsseverely restricted. A large part of the cereal production belt is now directly under control of armedgroups, impacting access to agricultural inputs, cereal harvest and post-harvesting activities in keyproduction areas. Several post-harvest infrastructures (e.g. silos) have been plundered and damaged,forcing farmers to stock their grains in the open, exposed to weather. Furthermore, road closures areseverely disturbing supply lines, thereby raising food prices (particularly in Anbar, Kirkuk, Salah al Din andNinewa governorates 4 ) and creating shortages of fresh produce (particularly fresh fruit, meat, eggs anddairy) in local markets – in turn affecting dietary diversity. Where farmers are able to produce food, lackof access to markets leaves them with surplus in their fields and lost income. In particular, farmers arefacing serious difficulties in marketing their cereal production as the current market price is much lowerthan the former Government subsidised price. This is putting the smallest and more vulnerable farmersout of business. For example, annual wheat production in Ninewa was estimated at 655,000 tons for lastseason, but after the last harvest only about 179,000 tons had been marketed. 5When people are able to return home they find themselves in a position of extreme vulnerability. Withthe liberation of new areas in Ninewa, Kirkuk and Diyala, many of those displaced wish to return as soonas security is perceived sufficient. This is true in particular of the most vulnerable IDPs experiencing4 WFP mVAM 20155 FAO 201412


difficulty in receiving regular assistance. However, livelihoods in return areas are not functioning,infrastructure is destroyed or looted, markets have been abandoned, and unexploded ordinance and IEDsput thousands of lives at risk and further hinder livelihoods restoration.The breakdown of national welfare structures is compounding food security risks for alreadyvulnerable populations. The food security of more than 4 million low income people who rely on Iraq’sPublic Distribution System (PDS) is at risk. This includes individuals who have not been displaced, but relyon the PDS for more than 50 per cent of their energy intake. Although PDS is slowly resuming, itscoverage is still scattered and the assistance delivered is often insufficient. Implementation of newregulations is allowing IDPs to access their PDS rations in their current location has been very limited,leaving millions without access to their food entitlements.Female-headed households tend to be more food insecure with significantly poorer dietary intake thanmale headed households. According to WFP/FAO rapid food security assessments, it is estimated that onaverage female headed households spend only half of what male-headed households spend on food, andare able to acquire, on average, only 769 kilocalories per person daily from their own resources. Femaleheaded households acquire the remainder of their food through other sources such as the hostcommunities and humanitarian agencies. In KR-I, some 12 per cent of households are headed by women.Other groups particularly vulnerable to food insecurity are the elderly, the disabled, and certain ethnicand religious groups. Elderly people and the disabled whose livelihoods depend on labour intensiveactivities such as agricultural cultivation are especially impacted. In households surveyed in Diyala andKirkuk 6 governorates, 26 and 24 per cent respectively had at least one disabled family member. Certainethnic and religious minority groups are rendered vulnerable by the current conflict and some, such asthe Christian and Yezidi communities, are largely located in the most difficult to access areas under ISILcontrol, where food insecurity is the most severe, such as Ninewa governorate.The crisis will continue to affect overall food production in Iraq, as agricultural activity in keyproductive areas is impacted by lack of agricultural inputs, price fluctuations, reduced water supply,and insecurity. The cost of agricultural and livestock inputs subsidised by the GoI before the crisis, hasincurred the highest amount of expenditure by households in the last six months, pushing many into debtas a result. Insufficient water supply and the deterioration of infrastructure quality, which causessignificant water loss, has been highlighted by farmers in Diyala as major obstacles to agricultural andlivestock activity during focus group discussions in March. In Ninewa governorate, about 50 per cent ofland suitable for cultivation is irrigable, and the rest is rain-fed, of which around half may be farmed everyyear depending on rainfall and fallowing patterns. Livestock herders have been impacted by insecurity,and in some cases this has forced them to abandon or sell livestock. Moreover, disrupted vaccination andveterinary services increase the risk of livestock disease outbreaks.HealthAn estimated 6.7 million people – close to 20 per cent of the population – are in need of essentialhealth care services. Up to 53 per cent of these people are estimated to be women and an estimated 18per cent are children under the age of five. Political instability and expanding conflict have not onlydisrupted the optimal delivery of health care services, but have also increased the overall need foremergency medical services, including reproductive health and referral services, along with emergencycasualty management and delivery of Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS). The situation6 WFP/FAORapid Food Security and Livelihoods Assessment in March 201513


has deteriorated drastically since 2014, as insufficient funding reduced the capacity of humanitarianpartners to deliver life-saving health care services to affected people.Health service capacities in areas hosting internally displaced people are heavily overburdened byrapidly rising demands. New waves of IDPs in addition to those already displaced, along with the almost250,000 Syrian refugees are a key driver of need for this sector, as existing health services in hostcommunities are overburdened. In addition to the overall inadequacy of health services for the expandedpopulation, vulnerable populations face various barriers, including financial, security and ethnic affiliationto accessing basic healthcare services. Some governorates with increasing numbers of IDPs such asKirkuk, do not have the capacity to expand the provision of essential health care support to match ananticipated increase in needs due to new waves of IDPs as a consequence of on-going military operationsin the northern governorates of Salah al-Din and Kirkuk. This is compounded by the livelihood situation ofIDPs and host communities, in which lack of income as a social determinant of health already exposesmany to higher risks of disease. Funding uncertainty faced by partners as well as the Governmentsignificantly impacts the level and quality of health care services in Iraq.Areas under the control of armed groups and all areas affected directly by the conflict have seen healthservices severely disrupted, with facilities damaged and staff displaced. In these areas, access tospecialised and essential life-saving services is limited, including neonatal care, with many healthcareproviders displaced from conflict areas, including Anbar, Ninewa, Salah al-Din and Diyala. Moreover,health facilities have been damaged, and there is a widespread lack of essential medicines and medicalsupplies.In some conflict-affected areas particularly Anbar, Salah al-Din, Kirkuk, Diyala and NinewaGovernorates, the cold chain system has broken down completely, interrupting the supply of essentialmedicines, nutritional supplementation and immunisation services. While a major portion of medicalsupplies and medicines are procured and distributed by the GoI, health cluster partners will ensure thatgaps in the supply chain of essential medicines are identified and filled by ensuring the availability ofpriority life-saving essential medicines and medical supplies in priority health facilities.Compromised water and sanitation services combined with interrupted immunisation programmeshave created a high risk of disease. This has the potential to increase the risk of acute watery diarrhoea(cholera), bloody diarrhoea, typhoid and acute jaundice syndrome. In the past year 1,317 measles caseswere reported in 15 governorates. Measles have now been reported in all 18 governorates. Over 1,300were reported last year, and with 398 confirmed and 282 pending lab confirmations so far in 2015 thereare concerns over a potential outbreak. Similarly, there remains risk of a re-emergence of polio.Women and children are disproportionately affected by a severe reduction in health services. Pregnantand lactating women continue to face compromised access to reproductive health and referral services,to antenatal care and post-natal care and safe birthing practices. This exposes the pregnant women to ahigh risk of pregnancy related morbidity and mortality. With only 13 per cent of family planning needsmet and less than 50 per cent coverage for regular antenatal care, the risk of pregnancy relatedcomplications among Iraqi women, particularly among IDPs and host communities is high where anestimated 104,000 IDP women are pregnant. This is evidenced by high infant mortality (37/1000 livebirths with the highest of 47/1000 in Anbar), high maternal mortality (67/100,000 live births), and lowimmunisation coverage (69 per cent coverage for measles). The nationally recorded statistic forcaesareans among women of reproductive age is 22.2 per cent 7 . There is evidence of almost a doubling in7 MICS, 201114


elective caesareans in IDP settings 8 . Given that approximately 13.2 per cent of Iraqi women arepregnant 9 , the estimated number of IDP women who will undergo caesareans in 2015 is between 22,880and 46,800 pregnant women.Water, Sanitation and HygieneAn estimated 7.1 million people across Iraq (around 20 per cent of the national population), currentlyneed WASH assistance. This represents a huge increase from the 2014 estimate of 5 million affectedpeople, and is mainly driven by an escalation in armed conflict and new displacement in central andsouthern Iraq and the Kurdistan Region. With the majority of IDPs and refugees living in localcommunities, public WASH services are under stress and there is urgent need to improve, operate andmaintain public water, sewerage, and solid waste collection and disposal systems in camps as well as innon-camp settings. Water is needed for drinking, domestic use in settlements and within core servicefacilities. In all contexts, water quality must be assured. Other key needs are adequate coverage ofappropriate and sustainable sanitation facilities and services, and equitable access to hygiene items andservices, including the promotion of good hygiene practice.Of these, an estimated 4.11 million are in critical need of sustained access to safe, adequate,appropriate WASH assistance. Almost 75 per cent are women and children under 18, and almost 5 percent are elderly. This includes over 223,000 IDPs currently living in camps, over 565,000 IDPS livingoutside camps in critical conditions, over 1.16 million conflict affected individuals in areas controlled byarmed groups, over 1.3 million people affected in host communities and over 870,000 returnees andpeople in newly accessible areas 10 . The most critically affected are currently located in Anbar, Baghdad,Dahuk, Diyala, Kirkuk, Ninewa, Salah al-Din and Sulaymaniyah governorates.Needs remain overwhelming in non-camp situations where over 90 per cent of IDPs live, many indifficult to reach pockets of vulnerability and neglect. People in off-camp situations rely on unsafe orcostly water 11 supplies, and require urgent access to sustainable and safe sources such as municipalwater systems. Emergency interventions (life-saving assistance and/or service restoration) also need tobe reinforced and/or scaled up in areas with increased population flows (new, secondary, continuousdisplacements in conflict affected areas) and returnees, particularly in north and north-centregovernorates.In camp settings, the operation and maintenance of critical services must be sustained and in manycases expanded. Standards need upgrading and construction must urgently be completed to fill in gaps,meet standards and cater for new influxes 12 . Although camps are predominantly in the Kurdistan RegionIraq (KR-I), there is a potential increase in the south-centre region.8 WHO, Health Situation in Syria and WHO response, 20129 I-WISH, 201210 Actual numbers for WASH criticality: 4.11 million people in urgent need of WASH, 223,138 currently living in camp situations, 565,430 ofthe 721,176 living outside camps in a critical situation, 868,994 returnees and people in currently accessible areas, 1,318,986 peoplehosting IDPs under poverty level and in critical WASH situations currently reachable and 1,208,298 million people in AOG controlled areas(Source: OCHA population estimations and DTM as of March 2015). The extreme criticality is based on the access to basic WASH servicesas follows: For IDPs, when available, information from REACH and FAO/WFP data percentage of IDPs with no access to a sustainable watersource, sanitation facilities and sanitation services, and hygiene items, when no data available the whole population living in critical shelterconditions was considered. Host communities, Returnees, and newly accessible, host and non-host difficult to reach: (criticality was basedon overall access to WASH services as reported in MICS4 (Iraq 2011). The calculation was done with the access of the entire populationfigure for Iraq, and the overall number was taken if the overall of the individuals fell under the total number of people with no access toimproved water source of water, for the water component, sanitation facilities for sanitation, and hand washing facilities and soap forhygiene. The maximum number for water, sanitation or hygiene per governorate was considered for our target.11 People living in collective centres, unfinished/abandoned buildings, informal settlements relying on Bottled water, tankering, illegalconnections, open wells12 CCCM estimates a possibility of hosting up to 335,000 in camps by the end of the year, OCHA projects around 400,000.15


Populations fleeing conflict in armed group controlled areas and those entering into newly accessibleareas require rapid and immediate lifesaving water services and access to basic sanitation facilities 13 .Many are highly mobile, existing in smaller groupings and scattered across dispersed host communitiesand camps, making rapid delivery of immediately required life saving water services extremelychallenging.In return areas, where service provision is unstable and the infrastructure has sustained massivedamage, water systems will require urgent restoration, rehabilitation, and/or alternative energy supplyuntil electricity is restored. While willingness to return is strong, 14 continued fear of insecurity, sectarianviolence and widespread destruction in return areas means that displaced populations in KR-I will likelycontinue to require WASH support in the medium term.Access to, and operation and maintenance of sanitation facilities are crucial for all settings, particularlyfor the newly displaced and returning populations. Government capacity to provide essential WASHservices and infrastructure is severely curtailed. In KR-I, partners have highlighted critical gaps inwastewater treatment and sewerage infrastructure 15 . While there is a continued need to provide in - andoff-camp access to bathing and latrine facilities within required standards and affording privacy forwomen and children 16 , the more significant need is their sustainable operation and maintenance. Mostcritical areas are management of solid waste, desludging and treatment of waste water. This is costly anddifficult due to lack of physical facilities prior to the crisis and limited local government capacities to cope.Risk of disease due to poor sanitation is a major concern, in a context where cholera is endemic. Withdeteriorated access to WASH items like soap and laundry detergent, some families are unable to continuegood hygiene practice, despite good hygiene knowledge. Reinforcing good hygiene practices is essentialto reducing the risk of water borne diseases, which are increasingly reported 17 . Cholera outbreaks havebeen documented in 2007, 2008 and 2012. In AOG controlled areas, absence of reliable water access,water quality assurance and sanitation services greatly increases the potential for outbreaks ofwaterborne diseases 18 .Women and children are at particular risk of disease, violence and loss of dignity in a context ofinadequate, inappropriate, unsafe, and non-segregated sanitation facilities, as well as lack of hygiene andsanitary items. Recent assessments and safety audits 19 highlight consistent concerns relating to women’sand girl’s safe and dignified access to WASH. These issues must be urgently addressed in camps,collective centres and schools.Increased pressure on water supplies has drastically reduced available sources, impacting cost,quantity, and quality 20 in an already drought-prone environment. With significant risks of furtherdisplacement (through evictions, financial exhaustion and tension with host communities), additionalWASH support may be required. 21 Moreover, the onset of summer with increased demand for water willcontribute towards additional strain on available WASH services.13 As seen in the rapid assessments that WASH partners conducted in towns in these areas14 87% of population surveyed indicate they plan to return to place of origin according to February 2015 DTM15 United Nations-Iraq UNDAF Fund Joint Programme, 2012,World Bank ESIA of the Syrian and ISIS crisis on KRI, 201416 Specific concern include fixing and installing locks, lights, privacy screens in facilities in existing camps to ensure safety, privacy forwomen and girls (GBV Safety Audit, Erbil, 2014)17 WHO, increased of skin diseases from week 39, 2014 to week 11, 2015.18 Source: Health Cluster March 2015.19 Gender Assessment Bersive 1, Dohuk (Care, 2015); SGV safety audits by SGBV WG (IDP camps in Erbil, 2014)20 United Nations-Iraq UNDAF Fund Joint Programme, 2012,World Bank ESIA of the Syrian and ISIS crisis on KRI, 201421 Shelter NFI Sub-National Cluster for Centre and South Iraq, Needs and Response Analysis at the end of 2014DRAFT 2 (11 January 2015)16


Shelter and Non-Food ItemsSome 1.18 million people are in need of shelter assistance. While 1.55 million people required sheltersupport since January 2014, 22 the humanitarian response has since alleviated the situation, but left a gapof 1.18 million people still in need. Shelter needs are concentrated in non-camp settings in central andsouthern Iraq, where over 70 per cent of IDPs are located due to pre-existing social support networks,ethno-sectarian factors, and cheaper rents. Recent displacements in Anbar, Kerbala and Salah al-Dingovernorates show a higher percentage of women and children in need of shelter assistance, howeverdemographics vary across Iraq 23 .Shelter needs are highly fluid in terms of type, severity and geographic spread as displacementpatterns and coping mechanisms shift. The first major wave of displacement in 2014 was concentratedin Anbar and central Iraq. In the second half of 2014, displacement and sheltering patterns shiftedtowards the KR-I, with many IDPs living in sub-standard shelters such as informal settlements orunfinished buildings within a relatively concentrated area. Continued instability caused furtherdisplacement within and towards central Iraq, with highest rates of IDPs located in Anbar, Kirkuk,Ninewa, Baghdad, Najaf and Kerbala governorates. Hosting and rental shelter solutions are the mostcommon in these locations, although there are high numbers of IDPs in informal settlements, unfinishedand public buildings. An increasing number of refugees living outside of camps are now living in substandardshelters. Their needs include advocacy for continued refugee residency in host communities,and shelter upgrades.More than 700,000 people are staying in critical shelter arrangements and many are likely to be forcedinto critical arrangements in the near future. 24 With very limited or no financial resources, people havebeen forced to seek shelter in Iraq’s many unfinished and abandoned buildings, public buildings(including schools or mosques 25 ), or in informal sub-standard settlements. Many of these arrangementsare acutely unstable, and the risk of eviction is rising. An estimated 423,000 people living in rentedaccommodation are likely to be forced into such critical shelter arrangements in the near future as theirresources diminish. 26 A further estimated 371,000 people are likely to require shelter support in the nearfuture as resources of their host families are stretched beyond capacity. Given the protracted nature ofthe crisis, the capacity of the host families or charitable institutions to support IDPs is reaching breakingpoint thereby increasing the likelihood of secondary displacement into more critical shelter conditions, ornegative coping mechanisms. This is especially a concern for vulnerable households, including, but notlimited to, female-headed households.Sub-standard shelters do not protect from the climatic extremes in Iraq, which reach sub-zerotemperatures in the winter, and over 50 degrees Celsius in the summer. Exposure to these extremeswithout adequate shelter provision can pose extreme health risks. Children and the elderly are morevulnerable to negative health impacts resulting from exposure to the elements in sub-standard shelters.22 From 2014 to 2015, there was an 11% increase in shelter assistance needs, and a 4% increase for non-food item needs;both increases are due to depletion of financial resources, host community fatigue, and a continued increase indisplacement.23Demographic data has been extrapolated from available population data: 2014_Dataset fromhttp://www.indexmundi.com/iraq/age_structure.html.24 In order of severity: informal settlements, unfinished/abandoned buildings, public/school buildings andreligious buildings.25 Including 1,000s of husseiniyas (prayer halls) used during pilgrimages.26 IDPs whose income has more than halved, based on the WFP/FAO Food Security and Livelihood Assessmentdata for Baghdad.17


Living in unfinished buildings with open floors or among construction debris carries risks of injury anddeath, especially for children. Almost half of the IDPs in collective centres surveyed in centre and southIraq are under 18 years old; 9 per cent are female-headed households and 5 per cent are child-headedhouseholds. Children are disproportionality negatively impacted by sub-standard shelter conditions.Women and girls are at risk of sexual harassment, abuse and violence, due to absence of safe shelterspaces and adequate hygiene facilities. Privacy is an issue especially in overcrowded conditions incollective centres, where sleeping spaces are often poorly partitioned. In centre and south Iraq, forexample, 85 per cent of collective centres surveyed to date have dividers, but the vast majority of theseare fabric, while only 17 per cent are solid wall dividers. 27 Women and girls are limited in their hygienepractises due to inadequate WASH facilities, and lack of privacy. Severe overcrowding and insecurity oftenure affect IDPs in all shelter types thereby raising serious protection concerns for women and girls.Continued conflict and ethno-sectarian divisions heavily impact host community’s acceptance of IDPs,their ability to access shelter options, and the ability of the humanitarian community to implementsustainable shelter interventions. Shelter solutions are challenging to implement due to new waves ofdisplacement, evictions and other events causing secondary waves of displacement.Some 657,000 people remain in need of support through essential household goods. This is out of anoriginal 1.6 million people, as partners have already delivered goods to approximately 1 million people.As the climate in Iraq includes low winter temperatures, near or below freezing (especially at higherelevations), and heat during the summer often reaching in excess of 40 degrees Celsius, these extremetemperatures require warm clothes, energy for heating, and reinforced shelters during the winter. Insummer basic materials are needed to create shade and protection from disease vectors, especially forchildren and the elderly. Most IDPs have few household possessions and are unable to replace essentialitems due to disrupted livelihoods. On the move, newly arrived, or in displacement sites with little or noincome, vulnerable IDPs need blankets, plastic sheets and kitchen sets. Returnees to conflict areas, whereinfrastructure, homes and property have been extensively damaged, will also require non-food itemsupport to re-establish their homes. New refugee caseloads are expected to arrive with very few personalpossessions, in dire need of essential domestic items to meet their most basic needs, including blankets,water jerry cans and kitchen sets.Camp Coordination and Camp ManagementOnce inhabiting camps, IDP families require the provision of essential services according to minimumstandards along with protection considerations, and there is a need for overall camp maintenance andcommunity engagement. The CCCM cluster led camp management capacity assessment undertaken inMarch 2015 highlighted that throughout the 16 camps surveyed, the provision of basic services variessignificantly, that aid is not being monitored and many IDP families are not being enrolled to receiveassistance in an equitable manner. The issues in existing camps vary from inconsistent trash collection inShariya Camp (Dahuk governorate) to the 2000 IDPs who share 18 toilets in Yahyawa Camp in Kirkukgovernorate. The assessment highlighted that camp management authorities do not have sufficientunderstanding of international standards and there is a consistent lack of engagement with communitiesliving in camps. Additionally, there is limited protection monitoring in certain camps, and little to noprotection services provided in camps in the south and centre of Iraq. Overcrowding was another keyissue highlighted by the assessment, in camps and in non-camp settlements.27 Data from Phase 3 of the CCCM/REACH rapid site assessment, available on sites.google.com/site/cccmsiteassessment.18


Nationally-led camp management structures are urgently required in southern and central Iraq, wheremore than 70 per cent of internal displacement is concentrated. The reasons for this are diverse andinclude social support structures, ethno-sectarian similarity and lower living costs. There are currentlynine functional camps in the centre and south, and another six in the construction stages, with a totalplanned capacity to host 112,300 individuals. Access to IDPs living in camps throughout central andsouthern regions is limited compared with the KR-I given security concerns.EducationAn estimated 2.96 28 million school-aged children and adolescents 29 affected by the conflict in Iraq areunable to access quality education opportunities. Among primary school aged children, a recent UNICEFstudy 30 suggests that 8 per cent are not entering primary education at all. Of the children enrolled atprimary level, only 66 per cent are able to complete their primary education at the right age. According tothe study 31 , the percentage of school children out of school ranges from 3 to 30 per cent in governoratessuch as Baghdad, Basra, Ninewa and Salah al-Din indicating higher rates. The study further elaboratesthat the out of school rate is as much as 10 times higher for the poorest children and 4 times higher atlower secondary school age. Children and adolescents across the education spectrum from earlychildhood development to secondary education and beyond have been severely affected. They lackpsychosocial support, a protective environment where life and cognitive skills are developed, and areturn to a state of normality after exposure to trauma.Of the 811,548 internally displaced children (419,621 girls and 391,927 boys) aged 6 to 17 years, 68 percent (over 500,000) have lost a year of learning. While all children and adolescents in camps should beable to access a safe learning environment, space for education facilities is limited. Of the 78,447 childrenaged between 6 to 17 years old in camps across Iraq, enrolment stands at 45 per cent. There are over17,971 children aged 4 to 5 years old in camps who require early childhood education and support. Some30 per cent of the 766,604 internally displaced children (415,319 girls and 351,285 boys) aged 6 to 17outside of camps do not have access to educational activities. Reasons include the overstretched publiceducation systems, lack of adequate resources, distance to school, different curricula, language barriersand insecurity. Availability of education space and attendance rates vary significantly acrossgovernorates, as respective caseloads differ. For example, the enrolment of displaced children at noncampeducation facilities in Anbar and Baghdad stands at 18 and 12 per cent, while Erbil and Sulaymaniahave enrolment rates of over 70 per cent in formal schools. While the Ministry of Education has generallywelcomed Syrian children into their education systems, the profound strain on already overstretchedresources means significant needs in terms of access and quality remain, and there are still disparitiesbetween camp and non-camp settings for refugees, especially when considering school age childrenbetween 6–17 years.There are 895,424 children (460,987 girls and 434,437 boys) aged 4 to 17 living in host communitiesdirectly affected by the conflict. The education sector, with school capacity shortages and a lack ofqualified teachers (even before the crisis), has been stretched to breaking point. The KR-I, which hosts 40per cent of the total IDP population, is particularly impacted. Apart from host capacities beingoverwhelmed by demand, physical access is restricted by approximately 50,000 IDPs sheltering in schoolsacross Iraq, with the highest proportion in Anbar and Salah Al-Din. KR-I saw a delayed start to the 201428 The 2.96 million include school age children from the following categories: the current IDPs, host communities, refugees, other highlyvulnerable populations under IS.29 The school age children should read as children and adolescents between ages 4 to 17.30 2015 UNICEF, MENA Out of School Children Initiative Fact sheets31 ibid19


school year as over 800 schools were used to shelter IDPs. In Dahuk governorate the current school yeardid not begin until 1 December 2014.Of the 58,327 school-aged Syrian refugee children aged 6 to 17 only 52 per cent are currently enrolledin education. Around 62 per cent of children living in camps are enrolled in education compared with 43per cent of children living with host communities who are enrolled. Opportunities for refugees are limitedto basic education, with only a few resources available for secondary or higher education despite highdemand, particularly for secondary education.861,742 children (443,646 girls and 418,096 boys) aged 4 to 17 reside in areas affected by conflict underISIL control. The conflict has seen armed groups occupy, damage, and destroy schools and universities.An estimated 130 schools are currently occupied in Anbar. Even once vacated, these schools cannot beused for learning until grounds are cleared of unexploded ordinances and the buildings and facilities arerepaired. Mosul University, the second largest research and educational institute in Iraq, has been closed,libraries looted, and thousands of students and faculty members forced to evacuate. In areas under ISILcontrol, science, art, music, history and literature have been eliminated from the curriculum and anoverall oppression of educational freedom pervades.As areas of the country are regained from ISIL control, children who have been learning under arestricted curriculum will need to relearn and teachers may need to be retrained. In addition,displacement is expected to continue and will likely affect an estimated 500,000 school-aged children andadolescents. This will further overburden the education system and influence children who are already atrisk to drop out.Out of school, idle and disengaged adolescent boys and girls are more likely to engage in child labour,support or join armed groups and turn to negative coping behaviours. The situation for girls is furthercompounded by early marriage, thereby curtailing their chance for education. Lack of access to educationincreases the risk of political and social manipulation and aggravates social inequalities. With risingpoverty rates, a bulging youth population, coupled with high unemployment and huge gender disparities,Iraq cannot afford to lose a generation of children and young people through denial of their fundamentalright to education.Social Cohesion and Sustainable LivelihoodsUnless livelihood opportunities are made available to Iraqis displaced by the current crisis they willremain dependent on humanitarian assistance. As humanitarian funding for Iraq declines thevulnerability of 2,024,000 IDPs without a regular income increases. While many receive ad-hoc paymentsfor casual work, the percentage of IDPs families with no income at all is consistently high. In Baghdadgovernorate, the proportion of IDP families with no source of income ranges from 25 to 28 per centacross districts; in Rania district (Sulaymaniyah governorate) 30 per cent of IDP families are withoutincome and particularly at risk. Preliminary indications are that the governorates of Salah al Din andNinewa are in an even worse condition, with the only two districts for which there is data, Tilkaif andSamarra, showing 31 per cent and 26 per cent of IDP families without income respectively. Althoughachievements have been made in supporting Syrian refugees build marketable skills, the ability of therefugee population to find sustainable job opportunity is still severely limited, and it is vital to equiprefugees and vulnerable local populations with the skills that the markets demand.Tensions between different ethno-political-religious groups are at risk of escalating into discriminationor violence. The risk of social tension increases as does the protracted nature of the crisis. This is seenwith restrictions on the employment of skilled IDPs by NGOs, another is the recent access restriction20


applied by the KRG to Sunni Muslim IDPs from Dabaga. The risk is highest when poverty and lack oflivelihoods of the host community overlay complex historical grievances. With 74 per cent of IDPs living inhost community settings, the competition for jobs alongside steep rises in prices exacerbates tensions. InDahuk prices rose by 6.4% between June and December 2014 alone, and are likely to be a key trigger oftension.Comparative data shows that diminishing livelihood opportunities is affecting IDPs much more thanrefugees in KR-I. In Erbil, for example, 31 per cent of men between the ages of 18-59 living incommunities hosting IDPs are regularly employed, as are 32 per cent of refugees. However a mere 5 percent of internally displaced men in this age range have found regular employment.The lack of livelihood opportunities is affecting women much more than men in all governorates. Thereis no disaggregated employment data for female IDPs but based on the percentage of host community(9%) and refugee women (7%) in the same age group in Erbil it is safe to assume that the rate ofemployment for IDP women will be even lower. Lack of opportunities for women and cultural obstaclesto female employment is coupled with an increasing number of extremely vulnerable female headedhouseholds (10% of IDP families). More than half of the female heads of house-holds are between 34-54years of age, where cultural, legal and security issues make this group one of the most disadvantagedwhen it comes to access to income and security. Only 2% of these earn a regular income and 6% areengaged in odd jobs, forcing them into negative coping mechanism, including sexual exploitation.Women who have found work opportunities both inside and outside camps benefit from the psychosocialsupport as much as protection and economic security that employment brings.Syrian RefugeesThe registered refugee population in Iraq stands at 250,000 people, with more than 97 per cent of thispopulation living in the KR-I. 65 per cent of this population are women and children, in many cases athigh protection risk. 22 per cent are young males who are out of school and mostly without work. By late2014 and early 2015, a continuous flow of 150 to 200 persons arrived weekly through the Peshkhabourand Ibrahim Khalil borders. The entry points have been intermittently open since early March 2015. Mostof the new arrivals settle initially outside of existing camps. 38 per cent of the Syrian refugee populationcurrently reside in ten camps in KR-I. The remaining 62 per cent reside in non-camp areas within the hostcommunity.Despite the favourable protection environment for the majority of Syrian refugees in KR-I, someserious protection issues related to the access of persons to safety and basic human rights still persist.Since October 2014, approximately 45,000 new arrivals from Syria, the majority arriving via Turkey,crossed the border into the Dahuk Governorate, with nearly 15,000 subsequently registered in the KR-I in2015. Many refugees are becoming increasingly more vulnerable, with many becoming impoverished,relying on assistance (including food), living in sub-standard shelter in camps and out of camp areas andwith many refugee children out of school. Limited services are available for disabled children (with theabsence of specialized medical care a concern). Youth programming and access to education are gapsthat need to be addressed across camps and non-camp areas in an effort to reduce negative copingmechanisms such as child marriage and child labour.21


ANNEX: ASSESSMENTS OVERVIEW22


Title Admin 1 Admin 2 Clusters/Sectors Location Other locationCCCM Cluster - Collective SitesAssessment in KR-I and disputedterritories of Ninewa and Diyala -Camp Coordination /October- November 2014DahukManagement - CCCM DahukSHELTER and CCCM CLUSTERRAPID ASSESSMENT, IRAQINTERNAL DISPLACEMENT CRISIS:Assessment ReportCCCM Cluster - Collective SitesAssessment in KR-I and disputedterritories of Ninewa and Diyala -October- November 2014SHELTER and CCCM CLUSTERRAPID ASSESSMENT, IRAQINTERNAL DISPLACEMENT CRISIS:Assessment ReportCCCM Cluster - Collective SitesAssessment in KR-I and disputedterritories of Ninewa and Diyala -October- November 2014SHELTER and CCCM CLUSTERRAPID ASSESSMENT, IRAQINTERNAL DISPLACEMENT CRISIS:Assessment ReportRapid Assessment of Informal IDPSettlements - Kirkuk and MosulDahukDiyalaDiyalaErbilErbilKirkukCamp Coordination /Management - CCCMCamp Coordination /Management - CCCMCamp Coordination /Management - CCCMCamp Coordination /Management - CCCMCamp Coordination /Management - CCCMDahukDiyalaDiyalaErbilErbilNinewa Plains, DahukGovernorate, ErbilGovernorate,SulaymaniyahGovernorate,Northern DiyalaGovernorateNinewa Plains, DahukGovernorate, ErbilGovernorate,SulaymaniyahGovernorate,Northern DiyalaGovernorateNinewa Plains, DahukGovernorate, ErbilGovernorate,SulaymaniyahGovernorate,Northern DiyalaGovernorateLeadingOrganizationsInternationalOrganization forMigration, REACHInitiativeREACH InitiativeInternationalOrganization forMigration, REACHInitiativeREACH InitiativeInternationalOrganization forMigration, REACHInitiativeREACH InitiativeCamp Coordination /Management - CCCM Kirkuk REACH InitiativeParticipatingOrganizationsUnited Nations HighCommissioner forRefugeesUnited Nations HighCommissioner forRefugeesUnited Nations HighCommissioner forRefugeesUnited Nations HighCommissioner forRefugeesUnited Nations HighCommissioner forRefugeesUnited Nations HighCommissioner forRefugeesDanish RefugeeCouncil, InternationalOrganization forMigration, Red CrossFrance, UnitedNations Children'sFund, United NationsHigh Commissionerfor RefugeesCollectionMethodKeyInformantInterview,ObservationFieldInterviewKeyInformantInterview,ObservationFieldInterviewKeyInformantInterview,ObservationFieldInterviewPopulationTypesDisplacedpopulationConflictaffectedpopulationDisplacedpopulationConflictaffectedpopulationDisplacedpopulationConflictaffectedpopulationAll affectedpopulation23


Rapid Assessment of Informal IDPSettlements - Kirkuk and Mosul Ninewa MosulCCCM Cluster - Collective SitesAssessment in KR-I and disputedterritories of Ninewa and Diyala -October- November 2014NinewaSHELTER and CCCM CLUSTERRAPID ASSESSMENT, IRAQINTERNAL DISPLACEMENT CRISIS:Assessment ReportCCCM Cluster - Collective SitesAssessment in KR-I and disputedterritories of Ninewa and Diyala -October- November 2014SHELTER and CCCM CLUSTERRAPID ASSESSMENT, IRAQINTERNAL DISPLACEMENT CRISIS:Assessment ReportNinewaSulaymaniyahSulaymaniyahCamp Coordination /Management - CCCM Mosul REACH InitiativeInternationalOrganization forCamp Coordination /Migration, REACHManagement - CCCM NinewaInitiativeCamp Coordination /Management - CCCMCamp Coordination /Management - CCCMCamp Coordination /Management - CCCMNinewaSulaymaniyahSulaymaniyahRapid Resilience Assessment ofFarmers in Northern Iraq Dahuk Food Security DahukMarket Assessment Dahuk Food Security DahukRapid Food Security Assessmentfor Diyala Diyala Food Security DiyalaRapid Resilience Assessment ofFarmers in Northern Iraq Erbil Food Security ErbilNinewa Plains, DahukGovernorate, ErbilGovernorate,SulaymaniyahGovernorate,Northern DiyalaNinewa Plains, DahukGovernorate, ErbilGovernorate,SulaymaniyahGovernorate,Northern DiyalaGovernorateDahuk, Erbil, Ninewa,Salah al-DinErbil, Dahuk,SulaymaniyahDahuk, Erbil, Ninewa,Salah al-DinREACH InitiativeInternationalOrganization forMigration, REACHInitiativeREACH InitiativeFood andAgricultureOrganization ofthe United NationsWorld FoodProgrammeFood andAgricultureOrganization ofthe United NationsFood andAgricultureOrganization ofthe United NationsDanish RefugeeCouncil, InternationalOrganization forMigration, Red CrossFrance, UnitedNations Children'sFund, United NationsHigh Commissionerfor RefugeesUnited Nations HighCommissioner forRefugeesUnited Nations HighCommissioner forRefugeesUnited Nations HighCommissioner forRefugeesUnited Nations HighCommissioner forRefugeesIslamic ReliefWorldwideIslamic ReliefWorldwideKeyInformantInterview,ObservationFieldInterviewKeyInformantInterview,ObservationFieldInterviewAll affectedpopulationDisplacedpopulationConflictaffectedpopulationDisplacedpopulationConflictaffectedpopulationAll affectedpopulationAll affectedpopulationAll affectedpopulationAll affectedpopulation24


Market Assessment Erbil Food Security ErbilRapid Food Security for Anbar Iraq Food Security IraqFood Security Assessment Report Iraq Food Security IraqRapid Resilience Assessment ofFarmers in Northern Iraq Ninewa Food Security NinewaRapid Assessment of AgriculturalLivelihoods Ninewa Tilkaef Food Security TilkaefRapid Resilience Assessment ofFarmers in Northern IraqSalah al-DinFood SecuritySalah al-DinErbil, Dahuk,SulaymaniyahDahuk, Erbil, Ninewa,Salah al-DinDahuk, Erbil, Ninewa,Salah al-DinWorld FoodProgrammeFood andAgricultureOrganization ofthe United NationsREACH Initiative,United NationsHighCommissioner forRefugeesFood andAgricultureOrganization ofthe United NationsFood andAgricultureOrganization ofthe United NationsFood andAgricultureOrganization ofthe United NationsIslamic ReliefWorldwideIslamic ReliefWorldwideAction againstHungerIslamic ReliefWorldwideKeyInformantInterview,Focus groupdiscussionAll affectedpopulationAll affectedpopulationConflictaffectedpopulationAll affectedpopulationConflictaffectedpopulationAll affectedpopulationMarket AssessmentSulaymaniyahIRAQ IDP Interagency RapidCommunity Assessment - Al MahdSchool Baghdad KarkhIRAQ IDP INTER-SECTORAL RAPIDASSESSMENT CommunityAssessment Ninewa TilkaefSocio economic profile of peopleaffected by the Syria crisis inNorthern Iraq: Food security andlivelihoods needs assessment innon-camps settingsDahukFood SecuritySulaymaniyahErbil, Dahuk,SulaymaniyahFood Security,Shelter/NFI Al Karkh Doura/Al-MahdiaFood Security,Shelter/NFI, Multi-Sector, ProtectionCluster Tilkaef Al QoshFood Security, SocialCohesion andSustainableLivelihoodsDahukDahuk, Erbil andSulaymaniyahWorld FoodProgrammeInternationalRescueCommittee, UnitedNations HighCommissioner forRefugeesInternationalRescueCommittee, UnitedNations HighCommissioner forRefugeesSave The ChildrenKeyInformantInterviewKeyInformantInterviewStructuredInterview,Focus groupdiscussionAll affectedpopulationIDPsReturneesAll affectedpopulation25


Socio economic profile of peopleaffected by the Syria crisis inNorthern Iraq: Food security andlivelihoods needs assessment innon-camps settingsSocio economic profile of peopleaffected by the Syria crisis inNorthern Iraq: Food security andlivelihoods needs assessment innon-camps settingsErbilSulaymaniyahFood Security, SocialCohesion andSustainableLivelihoodsFood Security, SocialCohesion andSustainableLivelihoodsErbilSulaymaniyahAccess Mapping for Under 5 Anbar Health Cluster AnbarDahuk, Erbil andSulaymaniyahDahuk, Erbil andSulaymaniyahSave The ChildrenSave The ChildrenDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFund, WorldHealthOrganizationStructuredInterview,Focus groupdiscussionStructuredInterview,Focus groupdiscussionAll affectedpopulationAll affectedpopulationChildrenAccess mapping for U5 Anbar Health Cluster AnbarAssessment of cold chain system,capacity and needs Anbar Health Cluster AnbarRapid Nutrition Assessment of U5age children Anbar Health Cluster AnbarNinewa, Salah al-Din,Diyala, Kirkuk, Anbarand other districtaffected by IDP influxNinewa, Salah al-Din,Diyala, Kirkuk, Anbarand other districtaffected by IDP influxNinewa, Salah al-Din,Diyala, Kirkuk, Anbarand other districtaffected by IDP influxDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFund, WorldHealthOrganizationDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFundDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFundChildrenAll affectedpopulationChildrenReproductive Health Assessment Dahuk Health Cluster DahukUnited NationsPopulation FundAll affectedpopulation26


Nutritional anthropometric andmortality survey among InternallyDisplaced Populations in Dahukprovince Dahuk Health Cluster DahukAccess Mapping for Under 5 Diyala Health Cluster DiyalaAccess mapping for U5 Diyala Health Cluster DiyalaAssessment of cold chain system,capacity and needs Diyala Health Cluster DiyalaRapid Nutrition Assessment of U5age children Diyala Health Cluster DiyalaReproductive Health Assessment Erbil Health Cluster ErbilNutrition Anthropometric andMortality Survey among InternallyDisplaced Populations in Erbil andSulaymaniyah Governorates –Kurdistan Region of Iraq Erbil Health Cluster ErbilRapid Health Assessment Iraq Health Cluster IraqNinewa, Salah al-Din,Diyala, Kirkuk, Anbarand other districtaffected by IDP influxNinewa, Salah al-Din,Diyala, Kirkuk, Anbarand other districtaffected by IDP influxNinewa, Salah al-Din,Diyala, Kirkuk, Anbarand other districtaffected by IDP influxDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraqDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFund, WorldHealthOrganizationDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFund, WorldHealthOrganizationDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFundDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFundUnited NationsPopulation FundDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraqWorld HealthOrganizationUnited NationsChildren's FundUnited NationsChildren's FundStructuredInterview,Observation,Baselinedata analysisChildrenChildrenChildrenAll affectedpopulationChildrenAll affectedpopulationChildrenunder 5;IDPsAll affectedpopulation27


Assessment of CurrentImmunization Coverage Iraq Health Cluster IraqAssessment of currentImmunization coverage Iraq Health Cluster IraqNew-born care services Iraq Health Cluster IraqAccess Mapping for Under 5 Kirkuk Health Cluster KirkukAccess mapping for U5 Kirkuk Health Cluster KirkukNinewa, Salah al-Din,Diyala, Kirkuk, Anbarand other districtaffected by IDP influxDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFundDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFundDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFundDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFund, WorldHealthOrganizationDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFund, WorldHealthOrganizationOtherAll affectedpopulationChildrenAll affectedpopulationChildrenChildrenAssessment of cold chain system,capacity and needs Kirkuk Health Cluster KirkukNinewa, Salah al-Din,Diyala, Kirkuk, Anbarand other districtaffected by IDP influxDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFundAll affectedpopulation28


Rapid Nutrition Assessment of U5age children Kirkuk Health Cluster KirkukAccess Mapping for Under 5 Ninewa Health Cluster NinewaAccess mapping for U5 Ninewa Health Cluster NinewaAssessment of cold chain system,capacity and needs Ninewa Health Cluster NinewaRapid Nutrition Assessment of U5age children Ninewa Health Cluster NinewaAccess mapping for U5Salah al-DinHealth ClusterSalah al-DinNinewa, Salah al-Din,Diyala, Kirkuk, Anbarand other districtaffected by IDP influxNinewa, Salah al-Din,Diyala, Kirkuk, Anbarand other districtaffected by IDP influxNinewa, Salah al-Din,Diyala, Kirkuk, Anbarand other districtaffected by IDP influxNinewa, Salah al-Din,Diyala, Kirkuk, Anbarand other districtaffected by IDP influxNinewa, Salah al-Din,Diyala, Kirkuk, Anbarand other districtaffected by IDP influxDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFundDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFund, WorldHealthOrganizationDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFund, WorldHealthOrganizationDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFundDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFundDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFund, WorldHealthOrganizationChildrenChildrenChildrenAll affectedpopulationChildrenChildren29


Assessment of cold chain system,capacity and needsRapid Nutrition Assessment of U5age childrenAccess Mapping for Under 5Nutrition Anthropometric andMortality Survey among InternallyDisplaced Populations in Erbil andSulaymaniyah Governorates –Kurdistan Region of IraqSalah al-DinSalah al-DinHealth ClusterHealth ClusterSalah al-DinSalah al-DinSalah al-Din Health Cluster Salah al-DinSulaymaniyah Health Cluster SulaymaniyahNinewa, Salah al-Din,Diyala, Kirkuk, Anbarand other districtaffected by IDP influxNinewa, Salah al-Din,Diyala, Kirkuk, Anbarand other districtaffected by IDP influxDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFundDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFundDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraq, UnitedNations Children'sFund, WorldHealthOrganizationDepartment ofHealth -Government ofIraqUnited NationsChildren's FundStructuredInterview,Observation,Baselinedata analysisAll affectedpopulationChildrenChildrenChildrenunder 5;IDPsLogistics Assessment-StorageCapacity Dahuk Logistics DahukWorld FoodProgrammeAll affectedpopulationLogistics Assessment-Storage andTransport Erbil Logistics ErbilWorld FoodProgrammeAll affectedpopulationLogistics Capacity Assessment Iraq Logistics IraqWorld FoodProgrammeAll affectedpopulationRapid Assessment for Markets Dahuk Multi-Sector DahukWorld VisionInternationalAll affectedpopulationRapid Assessment of IDP profile,Food Security , NFI and ShelterNeeds Dahuk Multi-Sector DahukWVI Syria Crisis Response –Kurdish Region, Iraq Basic RapidAssessment Report Dahuk Multi-Sector DahukAction againstHunger, MissionEastWorld VisionInternationalStructuredInterviewAll affectedpopulationRefugee, IDPsRapid Assessment for Markets Erbil Multi-Sector ErbilWorld VisionInternationalAll affectedpopulation30


Inter-agency Community KIassessment Iraq Multi-Sector IraqRapid Needs Assessment: Situationof children, youth and adults withdisabilities, within and aroundDomiz, Northern Iraq Dahuk Sumel Protection Cluster SumelRapid Needs Assessment- Situationof Children, Youth and Adults withDisabilities within and aroundDomiz, Northern Iraq Dahuk Protection Cluster Dahuk DomizNorwegianRefugee CouncilHandicapInternational,United NationsChildren's FundHandicapInternational,United NationsChildren's FundKeyInformantInterviewAll affectedpopulationChildrenAll affectedpopulationChild Protection Assessment ofIDPs in Ainkawa, Erbil Erbil Ankawah Protection Cluster AinkawaAinkawa, Erbil, IraqiKurdistanAgency forTechnicalCooperation andDevelopmentKeyInformantInterviewIDPsChild Protection Assessment ofIDPs in Ainkawa, Erbil Erbil Erbil Protection Cluster AinkawaAinkawa, Erbil, IraqiKurdistanAgency forTechnicalCooperation andDevelopmentKeyInformantInterviewIDPsChild Protection Assessment ofIDPs in Ainkawa, Erbil Erbil Protection Cluster ErbilRapid Assessment of ChildProtection Needs of InternallyDisplace Persons in Ainkawa, ErbilKurdistan Region of Iraq. Erbil Protection Cluster ErbilSyrian Refugees Living withDisabilities in Northern Iraq Iraq Protection Cluster IraqAinkawa, Erbil, IraqiKurdistanAgency forTechnicalCooperation andDevelopmentAgency forTechnicalCooperation andDevelopmentREACH Initiative,United NationsHighCommissioner forRefugeesKeyInformantInterviewIDPsChildrenConflictaffectedpopulationMonitoring of Key Entry Points intothe KRI Iraq Protection Cluster IraqKey Entry Points intothe KRIREACH InitiativeUnited Nations HighCommissioner forRefugeesStructuredInterview,ObservationConflictaffectedpopulationChild Protection Assessment ofIDPs in Ainkawa, ErbilIraqiKurdistanProtection ClusterIraqiKurdistanAinkawa, Erbil, IraqiKurdistanAgency forTechnicalCooperation andDevelopmentKeyInformantInterviewIDPs31


Multi-Cluster/Sector InitialAssessment ReportMulti-Cluster/Sector InitialAssessment ReportErbilNinewaWinterization Assessment Erbil Shelter/NFI ErbilProtection Cluster,Water SanitationHygiene, FoodSecurity, Shelter/NFI,Health Cluster Erbil Save The ChildrenProtection Cluster,Water SanitationHygiene, FoodSecurity, Shelter/NFI,Health Cluster Ninewa Save The ChildrenNorwegianRefugee CouncilStructuredInterviewAll affectedpopulationAll affectedpopulationConflictaffectedpopulationWinterization needs assessment Iraq Shelter/NFI IraqAgency forTechnicalCooperation andDevelopment,NorwegianRefugee CouncilStructuredInterviewAll affectedpopulationEntry Point Monitoring ofInternally Displaced Persons inNorthern Iraq: July - August 2014 Iraq Shelter/NFI IraqREACH Initiative,United NationsHighCommissioner forRefugeesREACH Initiative,United Nations HighCommissioner forRefugeesFieldInterviewDisplacedpopulationRapid Market Assessment-Kirkuk,Daquq, Heet Anbar HeetSocial Cohesion andSustainableLivelihoods Heet Kirkuk, Daquq, Heet Mercy CorpsStructuredInterviewAll affectedpopulationRapid Livelihoods and AgriculturalLabor Markets Assessment fromImplementation of Cash for WorkProgramsDahukSocial Cohesion andSustainableLivelihoodsDahukFood andAgricultureOrganization ofthe United NationsAll affectedpopulationRapid Livelihoods and AgriculturalLabor Market Assessment forImplementation of Cash for WorkProgramDahukSocial Cohesion andSustainableLivelihoodsDahukFood andAgricultureOrganization ofthe United NationsAll affectedpopulation32


Youth Labor Market &Entrepreneurship Opportunities inthe KRG AssessmentDahukSocial Cohesion andSustainableLivelihoods Dahuk Iraq, Sulaymaniyah Save The ChildrenKeyInformantInterview,Focus groupdiscussionRefugeesRapid Livelihoods and AgriculturalLabor Markets Assessment fromImplementation of Cash for WorkProgramsDiyalaSocial Cohesion andSustainableLivelihoodsDiyalaFood andAgricultureOrganization ofthe United NationsAll affectedpopulationRapid Livelihoods and AgriculturalLabor Market Assessment forImplementation of Cash for WorkProgramDiyalaSocial Cohesion andSustainableLivelihoodsDiyalaFood andAgricultureOrganization ofthe United NationsAll affectedpopulationEmergency Market Mapping andAnalysisErbilSocial Cohesion andSustainableLivelihoodsErbilDanish RefugeeCouncil, UnitedNationsDevelopmentProgrammeCamppopulationRapid Market Assessment-Kirkuk,Daquq, Heet Kirkuk DaquqSocial Cohesion andSustainableLivelihoods Daquq Kirkuk, Daquq, Heet Mercy CorpsStructuredInterviewAll affectedpopulationRapid Market Assessment-Kirkuk,Daquq, HeetKirkukSocial Cohesion andSustainableLivelihoods Kirkuk Kirkuk, Daquq, Heet Mercy CorpsStructuredInterviewAll affectedpopulationRapid Livelihoods and AgriculturalLabor Markets Assessment fromImplementation of Cash for WorkProgramsNinewaSocial Cohesion andSustainableLivelihoodsNinewaFood andAgricultureOrganization ofthe United NationsAll affectedpopulationRapid Livelihoods and AgriculturalLabor Market Assessment forImplementation of Cash for WorkProgramNinewaSocial Cohesion andSustainableLivelihoodsNinewaFood andAgricultureOrganization ofthe United NationsAll affectedpopulation33


Youth Labor Market &Entrepreneurship Opportunities inthe KRG AssessmentMarket Survey for EssentialHygiene ItemsRapid Needs Assessment Report –Ankawah District, ErbilGovernorate, IraqRapid Needs Assessment Report –Ankawah District, ErbilGovernorate, IraqSulaymaniyahDahukErbilErbilRapid Needs Assessment in Batelsub-district of Sumel District,Dahuk Governorate Dahuk SumelTearfund UK Iraq Response – RAMMarket Assessment Report: Semeland Dahuk Markets in DahukGovernorate, Kurdistan Region ofIraq (KRI)DahukSocial Cohesion andSustainableLivelihoodsWater SanitationHygieneSulaymaniyah Iraq, Sulaymaniyah Save The ChildrenThis assessment wasundertaken in Dahuk Norwegiangovernorate and Refugee Council,surrounding areas in United NationsDahuk Northern Kurdistan. Children's FundKeyInformantInterview,Focus groupdiscussionFocus groupdiscussionWater SanitationHygiene Ankawah Ankawah, Erbil, Iraq Triangle G.H. IDPsRefugeesWater SanitationHygiene Erbil Ankawah, Erbil, Iraq Triangle G.H. IDPsKeyInformantInterview,Focus groupWater Sanitationdiscussion, All affectedHygiene, Shelter/NFI Sumel Batel sub-district TearfundObservation populationWater SanitationHygiene, Shelter/NFI Dahuk Tearfund OtherOther34

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