Minority Presence in the Health Professions

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Minority Presence in the Health Professions

Minority Presence in the HealthProfessions:How to Increase Access forUnderrepresented StudentsKoyah Rivera, B.A.Pre-College Outreach CoordinatorNorth Carolina Health Careers Access ProgramThe University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill1


Defining Minority…huh?• What is a Minority?• How do we define them?-Historically?-Underrepresented in particular healthfield?-“Of Color”• How are students slipping through thecracks?


North CarolinaHealth Careers Access Program(NC-HCAP)The University of North Carolina at Chapel HillSince 1971, developing a diverse health care workforceonestudent at a time4


History of NC-HCAP• Established in 1971 by Dr.Cecil G. Sheps• (US Congresswoman EvaClayton, Founding Director)• Institutionalized in 1973• Program Office at UNC-Chapel HillEva Clayton5


NC-HCAP MissionTo increase the number ofunderrepresented minorities oreconomically/educationallydisadvantaged students who aretrained, educated and employedin the health professions.6


The Problem and Challenges• National and StateDemographic Changes• Lack of of population-topractitionerparity in thehealth sciences forunderrepresented minoritiesand/or economically andeducationally disadvantagedyouth7


U.S. Census 2000: North CarolinaSource: Census Bureau; USA TODAY research and analysis by Anthony DeBarros,Cheryl Phillips and Paul Overberg; USA TODAY graphics by Juan Thomassie8


U.S. Census 2000: North CarolinaSource: Census Bureau; USA TODAY research and analysis by Anthony DeBarros,Cheryl Phillips and Paul Overberg; USA TODAY graphics by Juan Thomassie9


The Population Reference Bureau Forecast by 2080• The face of America is changing. It’sbecoming more colorful.• Current predictions suggest that between1990 and 2030, the following populations willincrease in the following ways:• White-American population will grow by 25%• African-American population will increase by68%• Native American population will increase by79%• Hispanic Population will increase by 187%10


Healthy People 2010Two Central Goals1. Increase quality and years of healthy life2. Eliminate health disparitiesSource: Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health,USDHHS, 2000.11


Healthy People 2010Objective 1-8In the health professions,allied and associated healthprofession fields, and thenursing field, increase theproportion of all degreesawarded to members ofunderrepresented racial andethnic groups.12


U.S. Census 2000: North CarolinaSource: Census Bureau; USA TODAY research and analysis by Anthony DeBarros,Cheryl Phillips and Paul Overberg; USA TODAY graphics by Juan Thomassie13


DATAlines –Dentists in North CarolinaAfricanAmerican6.8%Native American0.4%Hispanic/Latino0.1%White/OtherAfrican AmericanNative AmericanHispanic/LatinoWhite/Other92.6%Source: DATAline ’03, Vol. 11, No. 214


DATAlines -RNs in North CarolinaAfricanAmerican8.9%Native American0.6%Hispanic/Latino0.6%White/OtherAfrican AmericanNative AmericanHispanic/LatinoWhite/Other89.4%Source: DATAline ’03, Vol. 11, No. 1115


A Closer Look atNC Health Care ProfessionalsAccording to DATAline’ 03:• 50 of NC’s 100 counties were withoutdentists of color• 59 of NC’s 100 counties were withoutpharmacists of color• 69 of NC’s 100 counties were withoutphysical therapists of color• 94 out of NC’s 100 counties werewithout optometrists of color16


Current Statistics for UnderrepresentedMinorities in Medicine• Allied Health-Currentpracticing A.H.P.: 10% (Diversity in AlliedHealth Careers Website)• Allopathic Medicine-Enrollment in US MedicalSchools: 14.1%: (AAMC Facts and Figures,2006)• ChiropracticMedicine-CurrentPracticing: 1-3%:• (Journal of Chiropractic Education, 2006)• Dental Medicine-Currentpracticing D.D.S: 14%(Journal of DentalEducation, 2004)• Nursing-Enrollment in USNursing Schools: 15%-Current Practicing BSN orhigher: 7.4%(American Association of Colleges of Nursing,2008)• Optometry-Enrollment inUS Colleges of Optometry:7.7%-Current Practicing Optometrist:2%(Pennsylvania College of Optometry)


Current Statistics for UnderrepresentedMinorities in Medicine• Osteopathic Medicine-Enrollment in US Colleges ofOsteopathic Medicine: 7.8% (2003 Annual Report on Osteopathic Medical Education)• Podiatric Medicine-Enrollment in US Colleges ofPodiatric Medicine: 18%-Current, Practicing D.P.M.: 9%(American Podiatric Medical Association, Unpublished Data)• Veterinary Medicine-Enrollment in US VeterinaryMedical Colleges: 14%-Current, Practicing D.V.M.: 5%(American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges, 2008)


The Problem and Challenges• Health Status Gap• Heart Disease• Stroke• Diabetes• High Blood Pressure• HIV/AIDS19


What factors have affected the lack ofminority presence in health careprofessions?• Decreased number of students• Lack of preparation• Lack of access• Limited exposure20


Impact of underrepresentedproviders on health status• Underrepresented minorities are more likely to:• enter primary care specialties• practice in designated Health Professions ShortageAreas (HPSAs)• be more culturally and linguistically sensitiveSource: Healthy People 2010, USDHHS, 2000.21


Since 1971, developing a diverse health care workforce-one student at a timeWhat is NC-HCAP doing to addressthis shortage?22


NC-HCAP Intervention• Major NC-HCAP Components• K-12 Initiatives• Health Careers Informationand Enrichment (HCIE)Workshops• Parent Workshops• Student Advising Sessions• (Career, College &Academic Advising)• Academic and life skillsdevelopment workshops23


NC-HCAP Intervention• Major NC-HCAPComponents• K-12 Initiatives Continued:• Health ProfessionsPreparation Program• Health ProfessionsForum/InspirationalSpeakers in Science (ISIS)Lecture24


NC-HCAP Intervention• 2. Undergraduate Initiatives:• Science Enrichment Preparation(SEP) Program• Campus-Based Health CareersCenters• NC-HCAP Ambassadors @ UNC• Clinical Health Summer Program• NC Access, Retention andCompletion (NC-ARC) Initiative• Enrichment Seminars• Customized Workshops25


Why inform minority studentsabout opportunities in the healthprofessions?• Respond to changing demographics•• Address shortage issue• Increase population-to-practitioner parity• Create awareness of vast career opportunities• Serve as role models26


Contact InformationKoyah RiveraPre-College Outreach CoordinatorThe North Carolina Health Careers Access ProgramThe University of North Carolina at Chapel Hillkdrivera@unc.edu(919) 966-2264http://nchcap.unc.edu27


Concluding Group Activity• Form a group of 4-5 colleagues.• Now that you’ve heard the information relatedto underrepresented minorities in the healthprofession, come up with 3-4 ways that youas teachers can help more underrepresentedstudents to become educated, trained, andemployed in a health science field.• What can your school and community-atlargedo to impact this issue?

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