UNI VERSITET

mssm.dk

Hent præsentationen her - MSSM

AARHUSUNIVERSITY 6. AUGUST 2012CHALLENGES IN MARITIMECULTURAL COMMUNICATIONUNI VERSITET


AARHUSUNIVERSITYCONTENT› The Study› National culture and the impact on maratime safety1. Power distance2. Uncertainty avoidance3. Individualism› Danes as head-quarter nationals1. Current challenges2. Future oppotunitiesANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 20122


AARHUSUNIVERSITYTHE STUDY› Three vessels:1. ‘Full crew’: Philippines2. ‘Mixed crew’: Danes and Philippines3. ‘Mixed crew’: Danes, Croatians, and Philippines.› Participant observation:› Ten days on board each ship participating as motorman, and ordinaryseaman.› Interviews› Approx. 60 interviews with all crew membersANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 20123


AARHUSUNIVERSITYWHY IS CROSS-CULTURALCOMMUNICATION SO DIFFICULT?ANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 20124


AARHUSUNIVERSITYPOWER DISTANCE – SAFETY ONBOARD› Def. PDI: ‘[...]seeks to demonstrate the extent to which subordinates orordinary employees submit to authority’.› Danes:› Så må man jo, så må jeg jo vide: har du understand eller har du not understand? "not understand" - fint såkom vi så langt, manden har ikke forstået det. Men det er deres måde at være på, det er sku ikke for atsige at nu vil jeg ha nakket overstyrmanden eller ham, det er deres måde, sådan er de sku, det er slet ikkement negativt. Men hvor de slet ikke siger fra, at det har jeg sku ikke forstået. Har man ikke forstået enordre så kan man heller ikke udføre den vel?› Phillipines:› Yes, I like Danish people. They are very good. Especially …but not all. Sometimes they are bad.Some Danish guy are no good… very strict.ANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 20125


AARHUSUNIVERSITYPOWER DISTANCE: SAFETY BETWEENLAND AND SEA› Def. PDI: ‘[...]seeks to demonstrate the extent to which subordinates orordinary employees submit to authority’.› Danes:› Jo, jo men jeg skriver, og jeg opfører mig ordentligt så godt jeg kan. Selvfølgelig gør jeg det,det skal man jo. Man kan jo ikke bare stå og skabe sig, så er der jo ingen der gider høre påen. Men man kan jo godt råbe lidt op.› Phillipines:› But when you are here, and you work for them, then I think they feel that you haveto accept what you are giving and then you have to shut up. Otherwise they willjust put someone else in you place and kick you out. Shut up and say nothing thatis my policyANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 20126


AARHUSUNIVERSITYMANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS› Def. PDI: ‘[...] demonstrate the extent to which subordinates or ordinaryemployees submit to authority’.› Please discuss safety and managerial implications of power distance andhow you would address them..› On board:› Be explicit, and control. However avoid signs of frustration. Accept yourrole as authority.› Land-sea:› Be carefull with two direct and negative remarks via mail or phoneANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 20127


AARHUSUNIVERSITYUNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE: ON BOARD› Def. UAI: ’[…]uncertainty avoidance dimension expresses the degree towhich employees feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity› Danes/Phillipines:› ‘[…]som dansker, håndværker, handsker, på en drejebænk, det er no-go. Menresultatet var jo så at han fik rykket nogle fingre af. Så laver jeg en instruktion ihvordan man bruger den hvor jeg skriver det med handsker og løse ting – sånæste dag er der sgu en der står og gør nøjagtigt det samme.› Indians› Men danskerne er sgu også sådan mere cowboyagtige, bare af sted og så kører viog så får vi tingene løst. Og det er ikke altid til det gode. Men jeg synes at, indernekender godt reglerne men nogle gange ved de ikke hvorfor vi gør det.ANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 20128


AARHUSUNIVERSITYUNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE: SAFETY BETWEENLAND AND SEA› Def. UAI: ’[…]uncertainty avoidance dimension expresses the degreeto which employees feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity’.› Danes/Philippines:› Danskerne og filippinerne ligner lidt hinanden. De kan godt lide de har lidt frihed til at gøre tingene som deselv har lyst til› Indians› The Indians just write extremely long mail, and ask about this and that. They are also very good at thevetting because the know how to write long answers that sounds good in English.ANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 20129


AARHUSUNIVERSITYMANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS› Def. UAI: ’[…]uncertainty avoidance dimension expresses the degreeto which employees feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity› Please discuss safety and managerial implications of uncertaintyavoidance and how you would address them› On board:› Create a learning environment on board. Rules and regulations willseldom work.› Land-sea:› More communication as to reduce uncertainty . Fight for your right atvetting. Improve english skills.ANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 201210


AARHUSUNIVERSITYINDIVIDUALISM AND COLECTIVISM: SAFETY ONBOARD› Def. ICI: ‘Individualist culture highlights personal interests whilecollectivists highlight group interest’› Danes:› Jeg kan godt lide det der med at man bare går og passer sig selv. Det erfilippinerne ikke så meget for. De render altid rundt I store klumpler ude pådækket.› Philipines:› I don’t know if the Danes don’t like us. Sometimes I think they dont evenlike themselves. They never come to sing kareoke, or do something atnight with us.ANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 201211


AARHUSUNIVERSITYINDIVIDUALISM AND COLECTIVISM:SAFETY BETWEEN LAND AND SEA› Def. ICI: ‘Individualist culture highlights personalinterests while collectivists highlight group interest’› Danes:› Det er da klart jeg tænker på hvad de kan gøre for mig inde på land. Så kan detda godt være jeg råber lidt op engang imellem men det er trods alt min karriere.Når de laver en fejl så jeg ikke kan komme hjem så bliver jeg sgu sur› Philipines:› The Danes keep all their anger in their mouth. The Philippines keep theiranger in their hart.ANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 2012


AARHUSUNIVERSITYMANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS› Def. ICI: ‘Individualist culture highlights personal interests whilecollectivists highlight group interest’› Please discuss safety and managerial implications of individuality andcollectivism and how you would address them› On board:› Show interest and never communicate critique publicly – create balance› Land-sea:› Remember that the one you speak with will continuously seek balance,and avoid conflict – Ask for help to help himself. Don’t demand it.ANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 201213


AARHUSUNIVERSITYBREAK!!!! UP NEXT: A NEW DAWNFOR DANISH SAILORSANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 201214


AARHUSUNIVERSITYDANES: ARE WE SPECIAL OR LIKE THEREST?› ‘Jeg tror ikke på vi får danskere mere. Men de har jostadig et aspirant program, men hvor pokker dedanske aspiranter skal hen når de bliver færdige detved jeg ikke’.› THERE IS AMONG THE DANES GREAT UNCERTAINTY ABOUTTHE FUTURE.ANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 201215


AARHUSUNIVERSITYDANES: ARE WE SPECIAL OR LIKE THEREST?› IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CURRENT MARATIMEMANAGEMENT› COMMUNICATION: HQ-SHIP› The special role of the Danes increases the necessityof communication compared to non-DanesANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 201216


AARHUSUNIVERSITYDANES: ARE WE SPECIAL OR LIKE THEREST?› IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CURRENT MARATIMEMANAGEMENT› COMMUNICATION: SHIP-SHIP› There is a tendency to create nationality basedcountry clusters with in the firm impairing sharing ofknow-howANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 201217


AARHUSUNIVERSITYDANES: ARE WE SPECIAL OR LIKE THEREST?› IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CURRENT MARATIMEMANAGEMENT› ANXIETY BASED LEADERSHIP› Filippinerne ser det som værende en direkte konkurrent, der kommer ind.Danskerne har set, at der historisk er kommet mange indere som har besatderes stilling, og danskerne vel vidende at de er meget dyre, så har de dender frygt indbygget.ANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 201218


AARHUSUNIVERSITYDANES: ARE WE SPECIAL OR LIKE THEREST?› VETTING:› ‘Buttom line’ er ligesom at vi vetting mæssigt ikke kanse forskel på om kaptajnen er fra Danmark, Indieneller et andet sted. Det eneste vi kan se forskel på erat Danskerne er meget dyrere. Jeg gør hvad jeg kanmen jeg skal jo også kunne forsvare overforbestyrelsen hvor vi bliver ved med at brugedanskere.ANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 201219


AARHUSUNIVERSITYDISCUSSION› Please discuss what you believe Danish seamen cancontribute with in terms of leadership andcommunication?ANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 201220


AARHUSUNIVERSITYDANES: ARE WE SPECIAL OR LIKE THEREST?› IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CURRENT MARATIMEMANAGEMENT› […]fordi søfartsstyrelsen siger jo også at de kunne godt tænke sig atkomme væk fra denne her compliant struktur. Fordi ISM, altså internationalsafety management system, og alt hvad der foregår til søs, det er rigtigmeget compliants. Og compliants kommer på et eller andet niveau til atvirke begrænsende i stedet for at virke udviklende.ANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 201221


AARHUSUNIVERSITYDANES: ARE WE SPECIAL OR LIKE THEREST?› TIGHT CONTROL HAS A TIPPING POINT:› The problem is that our walls are so full of rules andregulations that nobody notice them anymore. Sowhat are they good for then?ANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 201222


AARHUSUNIVERSITYDANES: DO WE HAVE A FUTURE› TRENDS IN INDUSTRIES AND MULTINATIONALCORPORATIONS:› TREND TOWARDS PUSHING RESPONSIBILITY FROMHEAD QUARTER AND INDUSTRY PLAYERS TOSUBSIDIARIES› FROM TIGHT CONTROL TO (SHARED)RESPONSIBILITYANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 201223


AARHUSUNIVERSITYSUMMING UP!› Leadership is all about managinng relations› In an international environment like the maratimesectors two dimesions seem of specific importance:Culture, and headquarter nationality› REMEMBER THAT EVERY RELATION IS UNIQUEANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 201224


AARHUSUNIVERSITYQUESTIONS?ANDERS KLITMØLLERANKL@ASB.DK6. AUGUST 201225

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines