IHEA Patches, Part I - International Hunter Education Association

HUNTER & SHOOTING SPORTS EDUCATIONJOURNALThe Official Publication of the International Hunter Education Association CONTENTSPublisher: Focus Group Inc.Brian Thurston - John GallaspyExecutive Editor: Dr. David M. KnottsIHEA Editor: Susie KieferProduction Editor: Bob RogersGraphic Design & Production:RMS, LLC Custom PublishingInternational Hunter Education AssociationPublications Committee:Chair, Helen McCracken - WyomingDave Paplawski - AlbertaJohn McKay - Nevada Regional CoordinatorTony Burtt - OregonLes Smith - NevadaDr. David M. Knotts, Ph.D. - MissouriInternational Hunter Education AssociationMission Statement:To continue the heritage of hunting worldwideby developing safe, responsible andknowledgeable hunters.The International Hunter Education Association(IHEA) is an organization involving 65,000 administratorsand volunteer instructors across NorthAmerica, plus cooperators in the shooting sportsindustry and conservation organizations in Canada,Mexico and the United States. The IHEA is affiliatedwith the International Association of Fish and WildlifeAgencies, and its goals are many:• Increase participation in safe responsible hunting;• Further develop the quality and deliveryof hunter education;• Enhance professional skills and standing ofadministrators and instructors;• Improve the image of hunters and hunting; and• Strengthen the leadership role of the IHEA.The Hunter & Shooting Sports Education Journal is theofficial publication of the International Hunter EducationAssociation. It is published three times annually (June,September, February) and distributed to more than 65,000administrators and volunteer instructors in Canada, Mexicoand the United States, that are responsible for educationprograms that total more than three-quarters of a millionnew hunters annually. The purpose of the publication is toincrease the skill and effectiveness of hunter education inadministrators and instructors so they can improve theenthusiasm, safety, ethics and proficiency of their studentsas they embark on lifetime enjoyment of hunting and theshooting sports.The articles and stories contained herein are the opinionsof the authors and not necessarily those of the IHEA,its personnel or publishers. Material contained herein cannotbe copied or reproduced in any form without theexpress permission of the IHEA.Send all editorial, photos, and inquiries to:Hunter & Shooting Sports Education JournalPO Box 490 • Wellington, CO 80549Send all advertising materials to:Focus Group, Inc.1800 Westlake Ave. N., Ste. 206 • Seattle, WA 98109For advertising information, callFocus Group, Inc./OMNI at (206) 281-8520.Contact the IHEA for membership andsubscription information at:PO Box 4903725 Cleveland Ave.Wellington, CO 80549Tel: (970) 568-7954 • Fax: (970) 568-7955Email: • Web site: www.ihea.comHUNTER & SHOOTING SPORTS EDUCATION JOURNALFEATURES22 Answers to What Ifs…? on Wild Animal AttacksDr. David M. Knotts24 Preventing and Responding to Bear and Lion AttacksPatt Dorsey28 Effects of AdrenalineLarry Leigh30 Venison vs. BeefSubmitted by Tom LutzDEPARTMENTS4 President’s Remarks6 EVP Comments7 Letter to the Editor8 My Turn10 Ask the Expert11 Where to Go From Here!12 Bulletin BoardHighlights of 2003 Annual IHEA Conference2002 Winchester Volunteer Instructor AwardA Marriage of ‘Ethic’ ProportionsInstructor Discounts2003 Region 1 Canada, Instructor RendezvousHunter’s Handbook Winners Circle AwardsSafety Alert and Notice20 USFWS21 The Hunting Incident Report21 Education Resources Review32 Teaching 101: Teaching New Shotgun Shooters35 Wild Game Recipes36 The Patch Collector: IHEA Patches, Part I38 Make It/Teach It: Shot SizeCover photo courtesy Chuck Bartlebaugh, Center for Wildlife Information. 40064705Summer 2003 JOURNAL 3

President’s RemarksMac Lang, President IHEALooking ForwardWe begin this column with an important glanceback, to thank those who helped us arrive atthis juncture. We thank the International Association of Fish and WildlifeAgencies; the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the International HunterEducation Association (IHEA) Board, Past President Tim Lawhern, formerExecutive Vice President (EVP) Dr. David Knotts, Wellington staff, committeechairs, coordinators/administrators, the IHEA Foundation Board, industrypartners, organizational partners, instructors, supporters, and students. Weare blessed with a rich history and a labor of love.As we look at the path before us, I am confident that we are doing the rightthings. We should be proud that we are educating hunters, enhancing thequality and delivery options of Hunter Education programs, enhancing the professionalskills and standing of instructors and administrators, improving theimage of hunters and hunting and strengthening the leadership role in huntingand Hunter Education.All of our activities are important, but one group of whom we can be mostproud is the IHEA Foundation Board. Chairman Mark Pentecost and the otherFoundation Board members are helping to secure our immediate and long-termfunding needs. This allows us the luxury of doing the jobs we were hired,elected, appointed, and certified to perform.With the 2003 Vancouver Conference behind us, the IHEA is fortunate tohave new leadership. We look forward to serving with the IHEA Board, EVPEric Nuse, committee chairs and all those in key positions. Let them knowyour ideas and opinions. Communication works in all directions and is vital toour success. If our past performance is any indicator, we have a bright future.On a personal note, I am honored to serve on the IHEA Board. I will striveto live up to the faith you have placed in me. My first Hunter EducationCertificate was dated 1963. I became a volunteer instructor in 1977 whileteaching for the Department of Physical Education and Recreation at WesternKentucky University. In 1982, I was employed by the Kentucky Department ofFish and Wildlife Resources in the position of Hunter Training Officer (HTO).Since 1988, I have worked in the Frankfort office as the HTO Supervisor andHunter Education Administrator. Seven employees work in the Hunter EducationProgram in Kentucky, along with 1100 instructors.As we look through our crystal binoculars into the future, the vision ismuch clearer when focused by the IHEA Mission and Focus Points (goals). Weare here “To continue the heritage of hunting worldwide by developing safe,responsible and knowledgeable hunters.” On the not-too-distant horizon, newtechnologies will be available to us that currently are mysteries. Let us keepthe qualities of the past, such as our traditional courses and our “Investmentsin Volunteers,” and may we have the wisdom and understanding to implementimprovements as they appear.Mac Lang was elected IHEA President at the recent 2003 Annual Conferencein Vancouver, British Columbia. He has served on the IHEA Board for severalterms in the past and, most recently, served as President-Elect.InternationalHunterEducationAssociationMission StatementTo continue the heritage ofhunting worldwide bydeveloping safe,responsible, andknowledgeable huntersThe International HunterEducation Association isan organization involving some65,000 volunteer instructorsacross the country, plus cooperatorsin the shooting sports industry,and conservation organizations,and the 63 State andProvincial Hunter EducationAdministrators in Canada, Mexico,and the United States. IHEA isaffiliated with the InternationalAssociation of Fish and WildlifeAgencies, and its goals are many:• Increase participation in safeand responsible hunting;• Further develop the quality anddelivery of hunter education;• Enhance professional skills andstanding of administrators andinstructors;• Improve the image of huntersand hunting;• Strengthen the leadership roleof the IHEA.The IHEA gratefully acknowledgesBushnell Performance Optics,sponsors of this issue of the Journal.4 JOURNAL Summer 2003

IHEABoard ofDirectorsPresident:Mac LangEmail: (800) 858-1549President Elect:Terry ErwinEmail: Terry.erwin@tpwd.state.tx.usOffice: (800) 792-1112Secretary:Mark BirkhauserEmail: mbirkhauser@state.nm.usOffice: (505) 841-8888 ext. 619Treasurer:Joey RentiersEmail: (800) 277-4301Vice President, Zone I: Robert PaddonEmail rpaddon@bcwf.comOffice: (800) 533-2293 X 2Vice President, Zone II: Lenny ReesEmail: lennyrees@utah.govOffice: (801) 538-4892Vice President, Zone III: Capt. James BellEmail: (770) 784-3068Vice President, Zone IV: Dr. Julio CarreraEmail: maderas@interclan.netOffice: 011-52-841-1057-14Instructor Board Representative, Zone I:Bill BlackwellEmail: bblackwell@bmts.comOffice: (519) 832-5572Instructor Board Representative, Zone II:Dave BauerEmail: (303) 982-3998Instructor Board Representative, Zone IIIJohn SearsEmail: searsjohna@johndeere.comOffice: (641) 683-2308Instructor Board Representative, Zone IV:Marco Antonio GonzalezMexicoIHEA Executive Vice President:Eric NuseEmail: ihea@frii.comOffice: (970) 568-7954IHEA Legal Counsel:Albert RossContact IHEASummer 2003 JOURNAL 5

6 JOURNAL Summer 2003EVP CommentsEric C. Nuse, Executive Vice PresidentA New AdventureOn July 1, I will start anew adventure as yourExecutive Vice President.I'd like to take this opportunity to introduce myselfand lay out my personal goals for the next year.I grew up in Bucks County, Pennsylvania. I startedmy hunting career at age five hunting mice with my dogand a stick. I gradually worked my way up to a homemadebow and arrows stalking cottontails. Next was huntereducation at the local fish and game club, shooting on arifle team at my high school, archery field courses, andearning my Eagle Scout badge. In 1966 I was off to theUniversity of Maine; and four years later, I had my degreein Wildlife Management, leadership experience at AlphaGamma Rho fraternity, field experience with ME InlandFisheries and Game, and the US Forest Service. After ayear with the New Jersey Department of Parks as a treecrew boss I was hired, much to my surprise, as a GameWarden in Vermont.During my 17 years as a field Warden, I was part ofour three-time national champion CO police revolverteam. I also earned my associate degree in CriminalJustice, served on the state employee's bargaining team,was president of the Vermont's Wardens Association, andbecame a 4th degree black belt in Tae Kwon-Do.In 1988 I had the chance to transfer to the HunterEducation Division as a district coordinator and eventuallyended up as the Training Coordinator for the state.Along the way I graduated from the Agency's Leadershipand Management course and became a Certified PublicManager. About this time I became active with the IHEA,attending conferences, serving as the director of the NewAdministrator's Academy and on the Elevated Stand Taskforce.I have five children (a 10 year-old still at home), agreat wife, two Brittanys, and more chickens and catsthan I need. I love to hunt, fish, canoe, hike, camp, andski. Don't ask how many guns I own, or fly rods for thatmatter! But I have to admit I probably spend more timereading than anything else. My interests range fromSenge's The Fifth Discipline to Rat Hunting Man.Over the years I've learned a few things that I hopewill help the IHEA achieve its mission of continuing thehunting heritage worldwide by developing safe, responsibleand knowledgeable hunters.Here is what I believe:• Learning never stops. The more you know the more youknow you don't know.• Organizations have all the expertise and knowledgethey need to solve their problems. The trick is touncover it and find common ground to move forward.• Good people working in poor systems produce poorresults. Ordinary people in excellent systems produceexcellent results.• Planning is like meditation on a large scale. A qualityplanning process will identify important goals, buildalignment, focus efforts, and yield valuable results.• Making assumptions on things that are implicit is notvery good for organizational effectiveness.• Customer service depends on both responsibleproviders and responsible customers.• Open, inclusive and democratic processes work. Theymay be messy and seem slow but they work.• There are lots of ways to skin a cat, but you better besure you are skinning the right cat!What does all this mean for you and the IHEA? Itdepends on where you are in the system.• If you are on the Board of Directors—I challenge you tolearn and fully implement the Carver Policy GovernanceModel. For me to do an excellent job I needclear results-oriented policies, clarity of roles and aclear set of executive limitations policies.• If you are a Coordinator or Administrator—I need yourbrains and your time. I need you to help develop afocused strategic plan that produces added value foryou and your agency. I also need you to serve on committeesand task forces that move us toward accomplishingour mission.• If you are an industry supporter, foundation member,or a conservation partner—I need your know-how andyour financial support. I don't need another boss. Weface a tremendous challenge in reversing the decline inhunters and building support for hunting. By workingtogether to identify common ground, focusing in highleverage activities and putting our money and energywhere our mouths are, we can do a lot!• If you are an instructor, you can demand excellencefrom your agency and your teaching team. All Statesand Provinces should be meeting and exceeding theIHEA basic standards. If your hunter education programis under-funded or under-staffed, you and yourfriends need to stand up and be counted. Basic huntereducation is not enough. We need to build interest in

Letter to the Editorhunting and then provide avenuesfor new hunters to shoot,learn to hunt successfully, andhave the support they need tobecome life-long hunters.Quality, fun, accessible classesare the foundation of our work.What does it mean for the IHEAstaff and me?• We need to be clear whom wework for—and that is the Boardof Directors. They represent themember/owners, and when theyspeak with one voice, we will too.• We will have efficient customerservice; but we will hold you, thecustomer, accountable to help ussupply that high quality service,otherwise it is not sustainable.• I expect results; busy work doesn'tcount; results are the bottomline.• I intend to focus on improvingthe systems, identifying leveragepoints in the system, and gettingresults as defined in board policiesand the strategic plan.• We will have timely, open andclear communications with allour stakeholders and members.• Much of what I do will involvefacilitating, collaborating, buildingpartnerships, and expandingIHEA's circle of influence.Idon't have the answers—butI do have a lot of tools andexperience using them. With yourhelp we can make a difference andtruly move hunter education to thenext level.Note: Eric Nuse was hired bythe IHEA Board on April 15th afterthe position was open to candidatesacross North America. 15 candidatesapplied and 5 were invited tointerview at a meeting on April 15thin Chicago. Eric will be starting fulltime on July 7th at the WellingtonHeadquarters.The Importance of Hunter Educationand the Ten Commandments of Safe Gun Handling…Dear Editor: My husband received a pair of camouflagegloves with a tag on them promoting Hunter’s Safetyand the Ten Commandments of Safe Gun Handling. I just want to thank youfor promoting Hunter’s Safety and making hunters aware of the dangers of notfollowing the rule.Unfortunately, my oldest and only son was killed while hunting with hisfather in 2001. A friend who was hunting in another stand shot my son in thehead as my husband and son waited for him to get out of the deer stand.Seeing the picture of the little boy with his daddy on the tag reminded me of mylittle Dave and his daddy. I believe this is what caught my attention to theIHEA. If the person who shot my son had followed the 10 simple rules of SafeGun Handling, my baby would still be here today. Also if he had followed asimple hunter safety rule of no hunting after dark, my son might still be here.Seeing that someone is promoting hunter’s safety and placing this tag on theirgarments made me feel the need to tell you “thank you.” Maybe someone else’schild, husband or friend will not die because of someone’s carelessness.Editor’s note: The tags that Shelleyrefers to are purchased by major retailersand attached to merchandise beforeshipping worldwide in support of theIHEA mission. Shown right is the tag(front and back) that Shelley noticed onthe product she had purchased. Justrecently, the IHEA updated this hangtag(below, front and back) and is continuingto distribute the 10 Commandments ofSafe Gun Handling message worldwide.--Shelley W. CohenSummer 2003 JOURNAL 7

My TurnMemories… and the Future of Hunter EducationBy Dr. David M. Knotts, former IHEA Executive Vice-PresidentAt some point, everyone hasa tough decision to makein theirrespective careers.My toughest decisionin almost 30years of working inthe field of naturalresources has beento leave the IHEA.Too many weekendson the road, grandchildrento teachhow to hunt and fish, a wife of 33years needing a honey-doer aroundthe house, some minor health concerns,and a dog that knew me wellenough not to bite me when I walkedup the drive, were main components ofthe equation.I will always have fond memoriesof friends and colleagues, and colleaguesthat became friends, who Ihad the pleasure to work with over thepast eight years. Looking back, one alwayslikes to focus on what one perceivesas great accomplishments duringhis or her tenure.Realistically, regardless of accomplishments,there are always challengesand unfinished business, too! Isometimes reflect on a statement myold Army First Sergeant made to mewhen I was given a critical responsibilityin which lives would hang in thebalance. I said, “Top, maybe youshould find someone more qualified.”He replied, “Knotts, I never said youwere the best man for the job, but youare the best I got, so get out there andget it done!” Well, I may not have beenthe best man for the tasks IHEA facedtransitioning from a half-time, onemanoperation with little to no funds,to a full-time staff of four with a Foundationin place committed to assistingthe IHEA develop a sound financialbase. But I did give all I could. As aresult, the organization will alwayshave a place in my heart. These accomplishmentscould not have been8 JOURNAL Summer 2003made without a great staff, Coordinatorswilling to go the extra mile toserve on the Board, or inTask Force Leader, andCommittee Chair positions,Volunteer Instructorswho also gave theirtime to serve on the Boardand head up special projectsincluding: the IHEAAnnual Conference, Rendezvousand YHEC; andour industry partners andsister organizations who have stood byus through thick and thin.It is always healthy to have someonenew come in with a fresh view ofoperations and organization direction.There is a lot of truth to sometimes notbeing able to see the “Forest for theTrees” or the “Trees for the Forest”when working so closely with somethingof the magnitude and as farreachingas the IHEA. The selection ofEric Nuse as the new Executive VicePresident was a wise choice. Eric is agreat thinker, is well respected withinthe hunter education community, andwill have the ability, with the aid of thegood people he surrounds himselfwith, to take the organization to ahigher level.The future of hunter educationwill continue to rest with our volunteers.North America has been blessedwith a rich history of volunteerismunlike anywhere else in the world.Volunteers have been the Scoutmasters,Red Cross trainers, and LittleLeague coaches; but let’s face it, inHunter Education our men andwomen volunteers are getting grayerand have less hair every year. We needto recruit our replacements to ensurethat future hunter education programsmaintain the quality and quantityof instructors we have had to date.Little thought is given to the fact thatHunter Education is the secondlargest government-volunteer programin North America next to volunteer firedepartments.Like the volunteer instructor,Hunter Education Administrators arean essential cog in the wheel. I stated,when I first came on board with theAssociation, that state and provincialhunter education administers are“over worked, under paid and lessappreciated than any other agencyemployee.” However, they are a specialbreed of men and women dedicated topromoting life safety, and maintainingour hunting heritage.For over 50 years, we have deliveredhunter education in some form oranother. The program has had a significantimpact on reducing huntingrelatedaccidents and raising the levelof awareness towards wildlife managementand hunter ethics. It is the programthat will lead the way in maintainingour hunting heritage. Giventhe financial support of the IHEAFoundation, and the commitment ofour volunteer and paid members andstaff, IHEA can provide the leadershipto deal with the challenges of thefuture, but we must not become complacent.We need to lengthen ourstride and be the pace setters that thehunting and shooting sports communityis looking for. ✛Dr. David M. Knotts who has beenthe IHEA Executive Vice-President forthe past eight years has taken a newposition as Conservation Education DivisionChief for the Missouri Departmentof Conservation. During his term withthe IHEA, Dr. Knotts helped to developmany resources that are now availablefor Hunter Education volunteer instructors’use including the IHEA InternetIntroduction to Hunter Education on website.He also helped to establish a formalizedHunter Education program inMexico that meets the current IHEAstandards. His colleagues in Mexicohave named him El Cassador de Pesceor the “Hunter of Fish.”

Ask the Expert?Firearms Handling by Hunters During Warden ContactsQuestion:What should you dowith your firearmwhen approached bya Game Warden in thefield? Unload it orkeep it loaded?Arecent Wisconsin survey was sent out to Conservation Wardens. FiftytwoConservation Wardens responded to the survey for a response rateof 26%. This survey covered North America via the Game Warden Listserver, asurvey of all WI wardens, state patrol, county deputies, and municipal policeagencies.The selections available and response rate to the question atthe left were:1. Always unload Firearm — 0 (One person checked #1 and #3)2. Open the Action — 23. Follow the Law Enforcement Officer’s Instruction — 50Ninety-six percent of the Wisconsin Conservation Wardens thatresponded prefer that hunters practice the rules of firearms safetyand follow the Law Enforcement Officers’ Instructions at the time.Based on this survey the IHEA recommends that you keep the muzzle pointedin a safe direction, and follow the officers’ instructions.Survey Results from Tim Lawhern, Wisconsin Hunter Education AdministratorATTENTION:U.S. VOLUNTEER HUNTEREDUCATION INSTRUCTORS:Liability Insurance is somethingevery volunteer Hunter EducationInstructor should have.All volunteers with a current IHEAVolunteer Instructor Membership areprovided with Volunteer Liability insuranceup to $1 million per occurrence.This policy provides protection for apersonal injury or a property damageliability claim arising out of the performanceof the registered volunteer's dutiessuch as: accusation of misinformationgiven in a course, an accident during alive fire or other field exercise, and allegationsof abuse or sexual harassment.To become a member of the IHEA,simply fill out and return the MembershipApplication on page 38. For more information,call IHEA at 970-568-7954.(Offer currently not available inMexico or Canada)Attention Attention Hunter Education Instructors!Do you have a favorite Wild Game Recipe?The IHEA is putting together a Wild Game Recipe Cookbook thatwill be made available to the public through popular outdoor retailstores in 2004.We are currently soliciting recipes from our Hunter EducationInstructors in Canada, Mexico and theUnited States. If you have a favorite orunusual recipe (or recipes) that you wouldbe willing to share in this publication,please send it (them) along with a shortbiography about yourself (name,state/province, number years as a HunterEducation Instructor) via email to:;or via regular mail to:IHEA, Wild Game Recipes, P.O. Box 490,Wellington, CO 80549Donors who contribute recipes that are chosen to be published inour Wild Game Recipes Cookbook will receive a free copy of the cookbook.Proceeds from sales will go directly into Instructor developmentand IHEA program resources.10 JOURNAL Summer 2003

Where To Go From Here!By George PaulPermission to Hunt Matches Hunters with LandownersPermission To Hunt / has released an online, U.S. map-based systemthat matches hunters and landowners. Permission To Hunt was created with the hunter in mind, buildinga strong hunter community to promote values we all strive to maintain and to support local, state,and national wildlife organizations.The Permission to Hunt mission statement includes:1. Create awareness of our most important natural resource, our land;2. Implement a system to match landowners with sportsmen to utilize the land;3. Introduce a new revenue system for landowner/farmers nationwide;4. Educate landowners and sportsmen to preserve, protect and respect theland and its inhabitants;The online system allowshunters to access the websitewhich stores farmer,rancher, and or landowner information.The hunter is able to search forhunting locations based upon whichspecies he or she is most interested inhunting. Landowners can registertheir land online and specify whichspecies are available to hunt.“Permission To Hunt provides aservice to both landowners and huntersthat will simplify the process ofgetting permission from landowners tohunt, and also provides hunters withunlimited resource for hunting.Anyone with an Internet connectioncan utilize the system, which is veryeasy to use. Hunting private landshould be regarded as privilege, not a“right.” Hunters should respect thelandowners’ wishes, make sure theyclean up spent shell casings, waste,and leave that particular parcel theway it was after they are finishedhunting. As a courtesy, huntersshould also contact the landowner acouple of months prior to opening season,”said George Paul, CEO of PermissionTo Hunt, New London, MN.The service is free for now in conjunctionwith landowners; and oncethe land base is built, hunters canaccess this information for a smallyearly fee of $15.00. Permission ToHunt started with modest goals a coupleof months ago and has made substantialprogress with over 90,000acres signed up. “This started as aregional awareness campaign and hasmoved forward into a credible nationalprogram which has gathered interestfrom the media, local and federalgovernment, and national sportsmenorganizations,” said Paul. Some ofthose groups are as follows:Future plans involve adding troutstreams, snowmobile trails, 4 wheelingtrails, and other outdoor-relatedactivities (i.e., hay rides, apple picking,farm-based bed and breakfasts). Theirultimate goal is to match the over 40-million sportsmen in our countrylooking for outdoor-themed recreationwith the privately owned landownerswhich make up the majority of landownership in our country. The matchingsystem will be a resource utilizedby millions of people to hunt, fish,hike, and plan vacations.“I started this system because myhunting buddies and I were finding itvery difficult to find quality land tohunt; and in adding this system webelieve we will enjoy the new huntingland this online system offers to us forInternational Fish & Wildlife AgenciesCase IH • Safari Club International • Delta WaterfowlFarm And Livestock Directories • DodgeBeef Today • National Farmers OrganizationChicago Farmers Group • National Farmers UnionThe Council • Polaris • University Of Michigan/Agri-TourismNational Young Farmers EducationCongressional Sportsman’s Foundation4-H Shooting Sportsyears to come,” mentioned Paul.For further information contactPaul by email at info@permissiontohunt.comor visit the website Paul is CEO of PermissionTo Hunt, New London, MNSummer 2003 JOURNAL 11

Bulletin BoardHighlights of the 2003 Annual IHEA Conference in Vancouver, B.C.IHEA delegates and Volunteer Hunter Education Instructorsfrom all over North America and Mexico attending the 2003IHEA Conference in Vancouver experienced outstandinghospitality from the Conference host, Robert Paddon and his BCWFvolunteers.Fifty-three of the sixty-six US, Canadian and Mexican IHEAmember agencies were represented by attendees. The guestsattended many educational courses that were on the schedule ofevents, such as the Hunter's Trail, Bear & Cougar Safety, WoundingLoss, and Lesson Plans. Many new friendships were made, andstories were shared as instructors and delegates mingled at theMeet & Greet and Hospitality rooms.Between the numerous meetings, discussions, and workshops,attendees were also able to explore and enjoy the many attractionsand beautiful scenery thatVancouver has to offer. ✛2003 IHEA Board of Directors — (standing left to right)Marco Gonzales, Bob Mayer, Eric Nuse, Robert Paddon,Joey Rentiers, Mark Birkhauser, John Sears, Lenny Rees,Bill Blackwell, (seated left to right) Dr. Julio Carrera,Mac Lang, Terry Erwin, (not pictured) James Bell.Conference attendees were graciously welcomedby the wonderful BCWF volunteerstaff. Shown here left to right are: Jeanand Don Hall (standing), Brian Wade andDave Adams (seated).James Bell andMatt Ortman,HunterEducation CoordinatorsfromGeorgia andOhio, share conversationat thesilent auction.New Executive Vice President Eric Nuse(left) and Marilyn Bentz, newly selectedNational Bowhunter Education Foundation(NBEF) Executive Director. NBEF headquartershave moved to Fort Smith,Arkansas, and Bentz may be contacted at:National Bowhunter Education FoundationP. O. Box 180757, Fort Smith, AR 72918(479)-649-9036 • FAX (479)-649-3098Mbentz@nbef.org12 JOURNAL Summer 20032002 Winchester VolunteerHunter Education Instructorof the Year AwardThis award isselected by WinchesterAmmunition from nominationsthat are submitted by State/ProvincialAdministrators and Coordinators andrecognizes individual volunteer huntereducation instructors that have dedicatedthemselves toward helping the IHEAwith its mission.IHEA Mission: To continue the heritageof hunting worldwide by developingsafe, responsible and knowledgeablehunters.Winchester Volunteer Instructor of the YearAward: left to right, Terry Erwin, TexasHunter Education Coordinator; recipientJan Morris, Missouri Volunteer Instructor;and Rick Flint, Missouri Hunter EducationCoordinator. Jan was recently recognizedfor this award at the 2003 AnnualConference in Vancouver, BC.Winchester Ammunition has chosen Mr. Jan G. Morris of Imperial, Missouri,as the International Hunter Education Association’s 2002 Volunteer Instructor ofthe Year.Jan began teaching Hunter Education for the National Rifle Association in1971 and has worked tirelessly since then to promote safe hunting skills. Lastyear alone, Jan logged over 14,000 miles and 2,500-plus hours, along with considerableout-of-pocket expenses working for hunter education. He was the ChiefInstructor for three hunter education classes and two bowhunter classes, andalso assisted with other training for a total of 19 classes in 2002. He recruitednine new instructors and personally mentored three of them.Jan has served as a board member of the Board of Directors of the MissouriHunter Education Instructor’s Association since 1992 and is currently theirExecutive Officer. He is also the State Coordinator for the NRA’s Youth HunterEducation Challenge (YHEC). Jan also served on the IHEA Board from 1999-2001as a Volunteer Instructor Board Representative.Jan has been recognized by the Missouri Department of Conservation for hiswriting ability. He helped write the new Bowhunter Education Student andInstructor Manual along with revising the Student Hunter Education Manual.He has also written several “Teaching 101” articles Continued to next page

Bulletin Boardfor the IHEA Journal.Winchester’s International Hunter EducationAssociation Volunteer Instructor of the YearProgram began in the late 1980’s. Since moststates require Hunter Education certificationbefore they will license younger hunters, volunteershave been called upon to conduct HunterEducation courses. Seeing the crucial need forinstructors that play a major role in the future ofhunting and shooting sports, Winchester developedthis program to recognize and say “ThankYou” to volunteers who do so much for the sport.Each year, nominations are received for anyonewho has significantly advanced the cause ofsafe hunting on a voluntary basis throughextraordinary service in training or education.Criteria are based on the activities, experience,affiliations, and overall contributions to huntereducation. Most nominees have years of outstandingexperience, and are truly the cream ofthe crop.Winchester is proud to recognize Jan Morriswith the IHEA Volunteer Hunter EducationInstructor of the Year Award. He has shownunselfish dedication to the shooting and huntingsports. ✛IHEA AWARDS & RECOGNITIONS:Several individuals and industries were recognized at theAwards Luncheons, including:2002 Hall Of Fame AwardEdward Augustine, Kansas • William "Bill" Nichols, VirginiaJohn Dodson, Virginia2002 IHEA Volunteer Instructor of the Year,(Sponsored by Winchester Ammunition) - Jan Morris, Missouri2002 Darrell Holt Memorial Award - Terry Bradbery, Virginia2002 IHEA President's Award - Wayne Doyle, Kansas2002 Executive Vice President's Award - Bob Mayer, IHEA StaffSusie Kiefer, IHEA Staff • Micki Hawkins, IHEA Staff2002 Industry Partnership Award - Henry Repeating Arms Co. • Laser Shot, Inc.Outgoing Board Members:IHEA Executive Vice President - Dr. David Knotts, COPresident - Tim Lawhern, WI • President Elect - Mac Lang, KYTreasurer - Joe Huggins, AR • Vice President, Zone II - Helen McCracken, WYInstructor Board Representative, Zone II - Christopher Tymeson, KSNew IHEA Board Members:IHEA Executive Vice President - Eric Nuse, VT • President - Mac Lang, KYPresident Elect - Terry Erwin, TX • Treasurer - Joey Rentiers, SCVice President, Zone II - Lenny Rees, UTInstructor Board Representative, Zone II - Dave Bauer, COA Marriage of ‘Ethic’ Proportions — A Match Made in ConservationIt’s an urban worldwith urban “attitudes,”even downhere in the Missouri Ozarks. Itdoesn’t seem to matter if a townis small, large, or growing—peopleseem to have developed an“urban-think” approach to theland.Urban thinking breeds ashift in how we view the land. Itchallenges the health of ourland ethic. Where once therewas a love for the land and arespect for and wise use of it,there are now opposing forcespitting users of the land againstone another—the consumptivevs. the non-consumptive.Discussions between theseA workshop on “Conservation and the Land Ethic” wasrecently given at the Andy Dalton Shooting Range inMissouri.two groups often tend to become emotionally charged—proponentsof each side passionate about their relationshipwith the land; about their use of the land and its fish, forest,and wildlife resources; about their future with the land.What neither side realizes is that every one consumes—By Regina Knauer, Missouri Department ofConservation SW Regional Outdoor Skills Supervisorwhether it is achievedthrough the telescopicsight of a rifle or throughthe lens on a pair of binoculars.What neither side realizes is thatthey are truly two sides of thesame coin, reflections of eachother, dependent upon eachother’s views and support inorder to have a future with theland.In an effort to bring thesetwo sides closer to an amiableunderstanding, to a tolerance ofeach other, to a breaking downof the barrier of consumptive vs.non-consumptive urban thinking,a workshop was presentedfor teachers at the Andy DaltonRange and Training Center nearWillard, Missouri. The workshop was presented byMissouri Department of Conservation Outreach & Educationand Protection staff. It was offered through SouthwestMissouri State University for one graduate or undergraduatecredit and ran from Continued on page 14Summer 2003 JOURNAL 13

Bulletin BoardINSTRUCTOR DISCOUNTS:Crosman and IHEA Join Forces to Reach Young People with Gun Safety MessageMossberg Makes Special Purchase Program Available to InstructorsThe International Hunter EducationAssociation and Crosman Corporationhave announced the start of a joint programto foster the growth of the sportshootingand gun-safety programs nationwide, using Crosman’s air gunsand the IHEA’s organization of youth shooting activitiy coordinators andcertified trainers. The effort, based on Crosman’s long-standing Educationin Airgun Shooting for Youth (EASY) program, will offer IHEA certifiedinstructors and affiliated clubs and youth program operators aselection of Crosman airguns—three rifle models and one pistol—plus aselection of kit materials needed to start and run a safety and marksmanshiptraining program. Kits may be ordered by qualified IHEAgroups at a substantial discount. In addition, Crosman will donate fivepercent of the cost of each purchase to the IHEA, to be used to supportyouth shooting education programs.For information on this new program, to get prices and descriptionsof the program’s available equipment, or to place an order, qualifiedIHEA participants may contact Brenda Dandino at Crosman, telephone(585) 657-3101 or email her at has a made available a special purchaseprogram for Hunter EducationInstructors. For information on this special program,contact Joe Koziel at (203) 230-5361. ✛Conservation, Continued from page 134 pm-10 pm on a Friday evening, and from 8am-6pm onSaturday.Entitled “Conservation and the Land Ethic,” the workshopincluded training in two areas not normally combined:the Leopold Education Project, and the Missouri HunterEducation Program. Promoted as “a marriage of ethic proportions,”the workshop components proved to be morecompatible than envisioned—a better-than-perfect matchmade in conservation.The Leopold Education Project (LEP) is part of theeducational and outreach program of PheasantsForever, a non-profit organization based in St. Paul,Minnesota. LEP facilitators provide six-hour workshops totrain educators and youth leaders in the use of curriculumand activities based on Leopold’s works in order to enhance,promote, and “create an ecologically literate citizenry so thateach individual might develop a personal land ethic.”[Excerpt from the LEP Mission Statement]Aldo Leopold (1887-1948) has been regarded as awilderness advocate, an ecologist, and the father of conservation.His collection of short essays in A Sand CountyAlmanac (Almanac) has opened the eyes of millions to thebeauty, wonder, and fragility of the land. However, theAlmanac’s seasonal journal entries were actually urgententreaties to recognize the land (and everything living in andon it) as an interdependent community to which we allbelong and for which we are all responsible.Leopold has also been considered the father of gamemanagement, and he would probably scoff at anyone whowould so much as suggest that the health of the land couldexist without management of the fish, forest, and wildliferesources (i.e., that anyone who is an avid bird watcherwould speak against those who harvest the deer that spendtheir days grazing the understory habitat of Missouri songbirds).Jim Posewitz in his book Inherit the Hunt describes14 JOURNAL Summer 2003Leopold as the man who through the Almanac has “told ushow hunters could live in our nation’s future with bothgrace and dignity.”Ah, yes, hunters… which brings us to the other partnerin this workshop relationship—the Missouri Hunter Educationcertification program. Of the six chapters in the currentstudent manual, the most essential and prominentstrand woven throughout is safety, especially in muzzlecontrol. But there are two other essential strands woven abit more subtly throughout—ethics and conservation. Eachof these three strands has a chapter devoted to it, but eachalso provides an inextricable pattern within the entiredesign—and each has strong ties with Leopold’s Almanacessays. Passages were chosen from various essays andread aloud to reinforce and enhance each hunter educationchapter.Land ethic, conservation, and management messageswere easily blended between the two works in such a wayas to make both consumptive and non-consumptive usersof the land understand the role of the other. Waterfowlhunting was discussed, Leopold’s essay on migratory birds,“Back From the Argentine,” was read, time was spentnature journaling and sketching birds flitting to and fromfeeding stations, and bird feeders were built and takenhome.The chapter on firearms use and hunting accidentswas followed by a reading from Leopold’s essay, “SmokyGold”:Between each hanging garden and the creekside is amoss-paved deer trail, handy for the hunter to follow, andfor the flushed grouse to cross—in a split second. The questionis whether the bird and the gun agree on how a second shouldbe split. If they do not, the next deer that passes finds a pairof empty shells to sniff at, but no feathers.Continued on page 18

Bulletin Board2003 Region 1 Canada, Instructor RendezvousPhoto and Story by Bill Blackwell, Ontario Rendezvous Host and IHEA Instructor Board Representative, Zone 1On the weekend of April 11-13, more than 100 afternoon with opening ceremonies. Opening remarks wereinstructors from Region 1 gathered at the presented by Ontario Minister of Natural Resources, theLeslie M. Frost Centre for the first Instructor Honourable Gerry Ouellette, who praised instructors forRendezvous and 12th annual Ontario Hunter EducationInstructor Conference. The Rendezvous/Conference wasco-hosted by IHEA and the Greater Toronto Region HunterEducation Association through an agreement reachedbetween Bill McKittrick, GTR Association President and Billtheir commitment to continuing our hunting heritage byteaching future generations of hunters. He then assistedwith the introduction and opening of the Ontario HunterEducation Hall of Fame which will be housed at the FrostCentre.Blackwell, IHEA Volunteer Director forRegion 1. The 100-plus instructors weretreated to an informative and fun filledweekend that started at 2:00 on FridayAfter taking the time to mingle with instructors andanswer questions, the minister left and the programContinued on page 19Hunter’s s Handbook Winners Circle Awards AAnnouncedThe 11th annual Hunter’s Handbook Winner’s Circle prize drawing was held April 15. Each year students send theirquestionnaire/entries for a chance to win a variety of prizes. The student, his or her instructor, and the state/provincialadministrator all win a like prize. The 15 winners this year were:16 JOURNAL Summer 2003Student Instructor Administrator State PrizeBrent Collins - - - - - - - -Bruce Clark - - - - - - - -Ron Fritz - - - - - - - - - - - - - -ID - - - - - - - - - -Traditions Black Powder RifleJosh Greiser - - - - - - - -Donald Nofziger - - - - -Matt Ortman - - - - - - - - - - -OH - - - - - - - - -Daisy Model 1894Robin Weidman - - - - -Bob Knackel - - - - - - - -Wayne Jones - - - - - - - - - - -NY - - - - - - - - -Mossy Oak coolerWarren Stewart - - - - - -Tom Easterly - - - - - - -Helen McCracken - - - - - - - -WY - - - - - - - - -Mossy Oak coolerJoseph Llawes - - - - - -S. Pomet - - - - - - - - - -Paul Ritter - - - - - - - - - - - - -NJ - - - - - - - - - -Knight & Hale Game CallBobby Hodge - - - - - - -Bill Holiday - - - - - - - - -Phil Neil - - - - - - - - - - - - - -TN - - - - - - - - -Knight & Hale Game CallRichard Fletcher - - - - -Leroy Bishop - - - - - - -Rick Flint - - - - - - - - - - - - - -MO - - - - - - - - -Plano shooters caseScott Perron - - - - - - - -Greg - - - - - - - - - - - - -Nolan David Paplawski - - - -AB, Canada - - -Plano shooters caseBen McGuire - - - - - - -Don Sears - - - - - - - - -Wayne Doyle - - - - - - - - - - -KS - - - - - - - - -Gerber MultiplierMichelle Buri - - - - - - -Dean Finch - - - - - - - -Bill Shattuck - - - - - - - - - - -SD - - - - - - - - -Gerber MultiplierKaitlyn Wiens - - - - - - -Tom Horlick - - - - - - - -Dr. Thomas Baumeister - - - -MT - - - - - - - - -Leupold riflescopeBrandon Dykes - - - - - -George Mountjoy - - - -Mac Lang - - - - - - - - - - - - -KY - - - - - - - - -Streamlight flashlightDaniel Wilkinson - - - - -Earl Weerner - - - - - - -Lance Meek - - - - - - - - - - -OK - - - - - - - - -Bushnell binocularsDanny Mardis, Jr. - - - -Paul Neiman - - - - - - -Keith Snyder - - - - - - - - - - -PA - - - - - - - - - -Cabela’s gift certificatePablo Benavides - - - - -Andrew Samson - - - - -Terry Erwin - - - - - - - - - - - -TX - - - - - - - - - -Brunton compass

Bulletin BoardConservation, Continued from page 14The chapter on hunting traditions and ethics led perfectlyinto Leopold’s essay entitled “Too Early.” After readingit, the teachers were taken outside into the cold, crispblackness of the December night and shown the Orion constellation.Accompanied by the soft, plaintive yelps of coyotesin the distance, Greek myths involving this great starboundhunter were told along with stories of the Greek goddessArtemis, the Lady of Wild Things, and the goddess ofThe workshop also served to put a bit of a kink insome “urban-think” by forging and makingaccessible to educators the link between consumptiveand non-consumptive users of the land.the hunt to whom all wild animals were sacred—a dilemmafor a goddess or the description of a true hunter? Thesemyths should not seem too “Greek to us,” because theirmessages mirror exactly a key concept of the hunter educationchapter: The mark of a truly great hunter is love,respect, and complete knowledge of that which is hunted.Immediately after the concepts of preservation vs. conservationwere tackled in the chapter on the hunterand conservation, Leopold’s “Good Oak” essay was readaloud as participants took turns sawing through a largepiece of oak with an old two-handed saw, noting along theway the annual rings and the history to which this good oakhad been witness.Dinner was cooked entirely in Dutch ovens, a cookingmethod commonly used by the Leopold family and referencedseveral times in the Almanac. On Saturday afternoon,the hunter education chapter on firearms was coveredand excerpts from Leopold’s “Red Legs Kicking” wereread. Following this, the group proceeded to the trap andskeet fields to experience firearms first hand and to practicenewly acquired muzzle control skills.All participants passed the hunter certification test withflying colors; and considering their overwhelmingly positiveevaluation responses and their nature journal entries (submittedas part of their grade), it would seem that one of theworkshop’s key objectives had been met—to increase participantawareness of the importance and impact of consumptiveand non-consumptive use of Missouri’s resources.Each participant left with a hunter education certificate;copies of A Sand County Almanac; Posewitz’s BeyondFair Chase book and video; the LEP Activity Guide and LEPTask Cards for use in their classrooms; various firearmsafety booklets; brochures and ammunition charts fromboth Remington and Winchester; a nature journal; Dutchoven recipes, information, and curriculum; language arts,math, and physics lesson plans dealing with firearms; andplans for building a Leopold-designed bench. Staff at theDalton Range had built one of these benches for demonstrationpurposes, and a lucky teacher took it home.The main goal of this workshop, “to marry” twoseemingly unlike bodies of curriculum, wasachieved. However, this workshop also served to put a bitof a kink in some “urban-think” by forging and makingaccessible to educators the link between consumptive andnon-consumptive users of the land. Simply put, it was amatch made in conservation—conservation education, thatis. ✛Safety Alerts & Notices: CVA Recall NoticeIn 1997, Connecticut Valley Arms, Inc., voluntarily implemented a recall of in-line muzzleloading rifles manufacturedin 1995 and 1996. If you currently own or possess a CVA Inline rifle with a 95 or 96 serial number, or you purchased one or gaveit or sold it to another person, and the barrel has not been replaced, you should contact a Company representative immediately bycalling the customer service number below:1-770-449-4687 — (8:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EST)sample serial #61-13-xxxxxx-95sample serial # 61-13-xxxxxx-96To identify the rifle, read the serial number on the barrel opposite the firing bolt. The only CVA rifles subject to the voluntaryrecall are in-line models with serial numbers ending with the last two digits of 95 or 96.No other firearm models within the CVA product line are affected by the voluntary recall.Blackpowder Products, Inc. purchased the assets of Connecticut Valley Arms, Inc. in May, 1999. Blackpowder Products, Inc.assumed no liability for any product manufactured or sold prior to January 1, 1998. Blackpowder Products, Inc. is continuing theConnecticut Valley Arms, Inc. recall, and will cover all reasonable related shipping charges. Please do not return your in-life riflebefore contacting a Company Representative at the above customer service number.18 JOURNAL Summer 2003WARNING — CONTINUATION OF 1997 RECALLDO NOT USE CVA IN-LINE RIFLES WITH 1995 OR 1996 SERIAL NUMBERSSERIOUS INJURY MAY RESULT

Bulletin BoardCanadian Rendezvous,Continued from page 16resumed with Wayne Jones, program director of New YorkState and chairperson of the IHEA Internet task force, introducingthe IHEA Internet program. Wayne did an excellentjob in dispelling fears that the Internet program was not away to replace instructors but rather a tool to augmentexisting programs and assist students.been teaching for over 35 years. Several other instructorsthen received service awards from the MNR and OFAH. Dr.David Knotts was presented with a framed MNR print,depicting a rising speckled trout, in appreciation of the relationshipthe MNR enjoyed with Dr. Knotts while he was EVPof IHEA. Bill Blackwell, IHEA volunteer rep for Region 1,then presented Dr. Knotts with a gift of handmade filletingknives on behalf of the IHEA Board of Directors.Following dinner, Dr. David Knotts spoke on the ChildProtection in Hunter Education classes which was followedby a presentation by Bev Robson on Harassment andOntario’s Human Rights Code. Both subjects sparked a lotof interest and questions from the audience.Members of the GTR Association conference committeewere very diligent in securing donated items for the instructorprize and auction table. Every instructor went homewith a prize, and the auction that followed netted somemuch-needed funds for the hunter education program.Following the formal program instructors retired to ameet-and-greet session and started taking part in aHunter’s Challenge which consisted of quizzes, silhouetteidentification, range estimation, and shooting skills usingthe Laser Shot system.On Saturday the rendezvous continued with Al Stewartspeaking on the Future Hunter/Future Hunter EducationInstructor. Al presented his views and then the instructorsbroke into five groups to address five questions Al had giventhem. The results of the break-out groups were compiled byAl and presented back to the group in the afternoon session.The last presenter of the morning was Oliver Barriault whogave an excellent and informative presentation on BearAwareness. Besides teaching hunter education and theCanadian Firearms Course, Oliver delivers the Bear Awarenessprograms to many Northern Ontario schools.Saturday afternoon was filled with four presentations.Charlie Todesco, an MNR Conservation Officer, spoke on theMoose Watch program, Brent Patterson a MNR Biologistspoke on Chronic Wasting Disease. Following a break, GaryMartin a MNR Enforcement Specialist, spoke on The Hunterand Conservation Officer Relationship. The afternoon sessionended with Al Stewart providing feedback on the morningbreakout sessions. Following some break time instructorsand guests were treated to an excellent dinner followedby our keynote speaker, Dr. David Knotts, who spokeon the IHEA, its mission and five focus areas.The evening program continued with the presentationof Life Memberships to the Greater Toronto Region HunterEducation Association to Irvine Cochrane, who has been aninstructor in the area for 45 years, and Fred Bell who hasSunday morning sessions were divided into four separaterooms, and instructors moved from one session to thenext. The topics were program-specific for Ontario. DoriaCialella and Tammy Gunter presented the new examinationform that will be coming out, while Fred Bell and Joe Reidintroduced the new student-written test. Pat Hogan led asession on teaching tips, and the future of the hunter edprogram in Ontario was led by Tom Cumby of the MNR.Final updates on the program were given by Joe Reid,MNR program coordinator; Pat Hogan, OFAH programadministrator; and Bill Blackwell, Chair of the HunterEducation Provincial Advisory Committee.Future hunter education instructors JonathanMcKittrick and Patrick Blackwell, who were attending andassisting with all the running, setting-up, and Hunter’sChallenge, were presented with tokens of appreciation for alltheir help.As a token of appreciation for all their work and planning,Rendezvous/Conference co-hosts Bill Blackwell andBill McKittrick were presented with OFAH 75th Anniversarywatches by Pat Hogan and Joe Reid.Conference Chair Bill McKittrick thanked all the instructorsfor attending, all the speakers and facilitators fortheir presentations and assistance, the Frost Centre staff forall their help and excellent meals, the MNR for providinguser days at the center and the IHEA for its participationand support of the Rendezvous/Conference. Each participantwas presented with a Rendezvous Certificate from theIHEA. The Rendezvous/Conference, from all reports, wasan overwhelming success and enjoyed by all. ✛Summer 2003 JOURNAL 19

USFWSBy John F. Organ, Ph.D.Northeast Region USFWS SponsorsHunter and Trapper Education CoursesThe USFWS Northeast Region Wildlife Division of Federal Aid recently sponsored several Hunter Educationcourses as part of the Massachusetts Hunter Education Program featuring Trapper Education as part of their curriculum.Regional Director Dr. Mamie A.Parker welcomed students tothe Northeast Regional Office inHadley, Massachusetts, on Saturday,November 16, for the beginning of aMassachusetts Trapper EducationCourse. Quoting poet Maya Angelou,Dr. Parker told the students andinstructors. “When you learn, teach…When you get, give… And then pass iton and on and on…”The coursewas the 4th in aseries offeredby the RegionalOffice as part ofMassachusettsWildlife’s HunterEducationProgram. Acore group ofRegional Officeand field stationvolunteer Jayson examine a cageSteve Farino and soninstructors trap.has been developedand, combined with volunteerinstructors from the public, hasoffered courses in Basic HunterEducation, Bow Hunter Education,and Trapper Education to the generalpublic and Fish and Wildlife Servicestaff. A course on Black PowderEducation is being planned for thespring. Basic Hunter Education andTrapper Educationare mandatory forfirst-time huntersand trappers inMassachusetts.During May,the first home studyBasic Hunter EducationCourse offeredin Massachusettswas conductedas an experimentfor Massachusetts20 JOURNAL Summer 2003Dale Crandall demonstrates a water setfor a foothold trap in the Regional Officepond.Wildlife to National Wildlife Refugeseasonal personnel who would berequired to handle firearms and conductpredator control as part of theirduties. The home- study course providedthe opportunity to conduct moreextensive field activities and observestudent behavior, including live fire,because less time was needed for lecture.Plans for the future includeadopting the home study format formost Basic Hunter Education coursesoffered at the RegionalOffice.The core of all coursesis emphasis on safety,ethics, and responsibility.Responsibility includesresponsibility to society,responsibility to the resource,and responsibilityto the perpetuation of ourenormously successfuland unique North AmericanModel of WildlifeConservation that wasdeveloped by hunterssuch as Theodore Roosevelt.Volunteer instructors from theService’s Regional Office include EdChristoffers, Jaime Geiger, GeorgeHaas, Tom Healy, Alex Hoar, DeeMazzarese, Paul O’Neil, John Organ,and Bill Zinni. Bud Oliveira, DaveNicely, and Stephanie Koch (EasternMalcolm Speicher demonstratesa dirt-hole set with afoothold trap.Susan Langlois of MassWildlife demonstrateshow to set a Hancock beavertrap.John Benedetto demonstratesthe proper way toskin a beaver.Massachusetts NWR), Barry Parrish(Conte NFWR), and Janet Kennedy(Parker River NWR) have also volunteeredas instructors. Volunteerinstructors from the public includeJohn Benedetto, James Benoit, DaleCrandall, Robert Destromp, RodgersMadison, Trina Moruzzi (MassWildlife),Kevin Richardson (retiredUSFWS), Richard Slabinski, MalcolmSpeicher, and Al Wilbur. SusanLanglois, administrator of the MassachusettsHunter EducationProgram, has participated in allfour courses offered to date. Accordingto Langlois, “There is a large demandfor the mandated Hunter andTrapper Education courses in thestate, and the courses offered at theFish and Wildlife Service office aremeeting a critical need for thisdemand in theHadley/Amherstarea. The Fish andWildlife Serviceinstructor team,along with othervolunteers, havebeen very generouswith their time andexpertise and helppromote the importanceof conductingCont. to next page

The Hunting Incident ReportAnother case of not identifying your target…By Pete Lester, Hunter Education Administrator, New Hampshire Fish & Game DepartmentOn November 10, 2002, two brothers, aged 43and 38, were hunting deer during NewHampshire’s primitive firearm season in Errol.The weather was sunny and clear, and both men had huntedthese woods for many years.They were part of party of four, allfamily, and were participating in a deerdrive. The two brothers were dressed forthe weather but were not wearing anarticle of blaze orange clothing; in factthey were both wearing camouflagecoats.The two brothers were using smallportable radios, which is legal in NH, tocommunicate with each other duringthe drive. The elder brother and soonto-bevictim was tracking some deer andradioed to his younger brother to getready. The younger brother positionedhimself where he thought the deer would cross. He wassure that, given the radio report from his brother, that somedeer were coming.Shortly after, he heard some noise and saw movement.Certain that he could see antlers, he fired a shot. The 50 caliberprojectile struck his brother in the abdomen at range ofless than 100 yards.The victim was transported by his family members/hunting partners to a local hospital where he underwentLESSONS LEARNED:This is a classic case of a shooter failing to properly identify a target. It may also be acase where the shooter was put into an overly anxious state of mind by the radio report thatdeer were coming his way. Oftentimes, the mind will play tricks completing the picture ofwhat we want or expect to see based on partial information (sights and sounds).Communication often saves lives, but there is risk that information can “overcharge” a situationby creating undue excitement and expectations.The use of hunter orange may have prevented this incident, but a mindset of “alwaysexpect to see a person” is paramount to safety whenever a hunter hears a noise or seesmovement. IDENTIFY YOUR TARGET AND WHAT’S BEYOND! ✛emergency surgery. The victim survived the shooting, but itwas certainly a traumatic event, especially considering thatone of the family members/hunting partners present wasthe victim’s 10-year-old son.Cont. from previous pageCourse graduates Dee Howe, MariaCienciwa, Elizabeth Mackay, and TomHowe display their course patches.these activities in a safe, responsible,and ethical manner.”Plans are to offer at least onecourse annually in Basic Hunter Education,Bow Hunter Education, TrapperEducation, and Black Powder Education.These courses have furtheredthe Service’s objectives of servingthe local community, deliveringpositive messages on natural resourceconservation, and reconnecting to ourtraditional conservation partners. ✛John F. Organ, Ph. D., is WildlifeProgram Chief, Division of FederalAid USFWS.Education Resources ReviewBACK BY POPULAR DEMAND2nd Edition - January 2003FOR THE YOUNG HUNTER(A Primer on Hunting Ethics)THE BOOK CONTAINS THE FOLLOWING:A Father’s Advice to His SonCompanions • DogsEquipmentOutdoor LoreGunmanshipYou, The HunterA Code for Young HuntersAppendix A - The IHEAAppendix B - The Boone & Crockett ClubAvailable as a 21-page PDF-Mailer. Requires Acrobat Reader.On the IHEA website www.ihea.comSummer 2003 JOURNAL 21

Answers to What Ifs…?on Wild Animal AttacksLYLE K. WILLMARTH PHOTOIn an active classroomwhere there is a lot ofinteraction and discussionwith the students,it is not unusualfor some one toask one of the famous “What do you doif…?” questions. One of those questionsbeing asked more frequently is,“what do you do if you are attacked bya wild animal such as bear or a mountainlion?”IHEA has had a number ofinquiries from instructors as to how tobest answer these questions, and wesubmit the following as backgroundinformation for your use. Some ofthese questions may or may not bedirectly related to course curriculum,and instructors have to exercise care to not get off on tangents. Sometimes, it isbest to ask the student to meet with you over the break and discuss the topic inquestion, especially if it does not have direct relevance to the course. However,we should remember that the purpose of the Hunter Education program is toeducate, and we should capitalize on “Teachable Moments.”By Dr. David M. Knotts,Chief, Conservation Education,Missouri Department of Conservation,Former IHEA Executive Vice President22 JOURNAL Summer 2003BackgroundUnfortunately, the number ofbear/lion incidents with humans,including fatal attacks, in NorthAmerica is on the increase. One studyon human/lion incidents reportedthat there have been more attacks onhumans by lions in the last decadethan there has been in the previous100 years. This human/wild animalconfrontation is partially due to anincrease in populations of bear andlion from the east coast to the westcoast of North America, as well asaround communities with largeurban/wild land interface. Animalsborn or raised near people lose theirnatural fear and become more tolerantof humans compared to animals bornin the remote wild. This tolerance, orloss of fear, accounts for much of theproblem encounters. Wildlife managersalso attribute the high numberof incidents to the large increase ofhunters and non-hunters participatingin remote back-country activities

One study on human/lion incidents reportedthat there have been more attacks on humansby lions in the last decade than there has beenin the previous 100 years.where incidents occur when individualsstumble upon a feeding lion or runhead-on into a grizzly with cubs. Inthese situations, the animals are generallyjust as surprised as you are, butinstinct kicks in and they are going todefend their food, their young, or theirterritory.It goes without saying; preventionis probably the best antidote for a bearattack. However, there is the joke thatgoes "An experienced hiker tells ayoung backpacking couple, when inbear country, they should wear awhistle and blow it frequently andhang small bells on their hats to let abear know they are in the area to preventsurprises. The couple complies,and once on the trail, they see bearscat here and there containing bellsand whistles." Jokes aside, the recommendedprevention methods do work,but once in a while, a bear or lion simplydoes not play by the rules, and forwhatever reason, decides to comeafter you. Again, “What do you doif…?”Bear pepper spray is probably thesafest, effective deterrent. Bear sprayaffects the eyes, nose, throat andlungs of the bear. However, its effectivenesscan be impacted by wind,rain and temperature. Be sure you areusing bear pepper spray registered bythe EPA as such and not a personaldefense spray. Personal defensesprays may not have sufficient concentrationsto thwart a bear attack. Itis illegal to sell personal defense sprayas a bear spray. The spray must containone to two percent capsaicin andrelated capsaicinoids. Capsaicin andcapsaicinoids are the active ingredientsthat cause rapid eye irritationand difficulty in breathing. The netweight must be at least 7.9 ounces or225 grams, and the spray durationmust be a minimum of six secondsfrom a distance of at least least 25feet.To use, point the canister downwardand spray a defensive blast at anaggressive or attacking bear about 40feet away. If the bear continues tocharge, keep spraying until the bearbacks off. Leave the area immediately,but do not run.While there is littlescientific evidence, professionalwildlife managersand conservationofficers have knockedaggressive mountainlions back with the bearpepper spray.Experts recommendthat you carry abackup can in the eventyou are charged bymore than one bear,encounter more thanone incident, or to compensatefor wind orother conditions weakeningthe effect of thespray. For more informationon bear peppersprays, contact theCHUCK BARTLEBAUGH PHOTOCenter for Wildlife Information atwww. a firearm is carried for beardefense, a shotgun is the preferredtool. Wally Baumann, Field OperationsSupervisor, Chief FirearmsOffice in Ontario, recommends the followingbased on intensive studies ofcurrent research and reports of bearattacks. First, the load sequence in apump or semi-automatic shotgunshould be buckshot, (12 or 9 pellets),buckshot, and slug.While some bear experts argueContinued on page 29Summer 2003 JOURNAL 23

Preventing and Respondingto Bear and Lion AttacksBy Patt Dorsey,Colorado Hunter EducationAdministratorPATT DORSEY PHOTOLYLE K. WILLMARTH PHOTO24 JOURNAL Summer 2003What if you encountered a bear or lion while out in thewoods? Would you know how to respond?Few hunters ever see a bear or mountain lion, althoughhunters enjoy North America’s wildlands. One reasonmany of us hunt is for the excitement it creates. You participatein the natural world as another predator. Yet, bears and lions make usnervous.Predation is what hunting is all about! Bear and lion encounters are rare andmost often positive. Hunters can predict, avoid, or handle most encounters withoutconflict. This article provides information on dealing with bearsand lions while hunting.Encounters with LionsMountain lions once ranged from coast to coast in NorthAmerica, and across the Americas. Today, they are more restrictedin range. However, chance encounters between lions and peopleoccur where deer, lions, and people share habitat. “Of the 300-400 mountain lion encounters reported in California eachyear, few are on National Forest land,” explained Steve Torres,Senior Biologist for California Game & Fish Department.Torres advises hunters meeting lions, “Don’t be immediatelyfearful, but know how to behave.”• The best advice is “Stop. Don’t run. Running may triggeran attack,” explained Linda Sweanor, Cougar Biologist,Hornacker Institute.• Slowly back away. Leave the lion with an escape route.Do not approach it. “Most of the time, if you’re not a directthreat and the cougar can get out of there, it will,” relatedSweanor.• Look at the cougar and do not lose sight of it. “Lionsare secretive. Once a lion has been seen, it has lost its advantage,”said Torres.• Be vocal. Yell loudly to appear a strong opponent. (Donot scream or yell in a high pitched voice. Screams sound likeinjured animals.)• If you are hunting with a partner, stand together. Pickup any small children and keep larger children behind you.• Make yourself appear as large as possible. Remainstanding. Raise your jacket, backpack, hunting rifle or bowover your head.• If predatory behavior continues, prepare to defendyourself. Have rocks, sticks, pepper spray, and other weaponsready.Continued on page 26

Bear & Lion AttacksContinued from page 24CHUCK BARTLEBAUGH PHOTO26 JOURNAL Fall 2002In September 1996, Steve Murphymet a mountain lion while huntingbighorn sheep in Colorado. “I heardthe lion before I saw it—it sounded likean alley cat only deeper and heavier.”Murphy did not see anything until thecat appeared on the fallen tree in frontof him. Without losing sight of the cat,Murphy could not back out the way hecame. He backed another direction asthe cat approached, “hissing and withher hair all fuzzed up,” Murphy said.He kept backing until he backed into aclump of trees. He yelled, but themountain lion crept toward him.Murphy shot the lion at 14 feet withhis bow.Sweanor and Torres do not downplaythe possibility of defending yourselfin an attack. However, both havescientific data and personal experiencesto show that attacks are extremelyrare. Sweanor has handledcougars 396 times. She has placedradio-collars on kittens at den sitesand recalled only one potential threat.A lion approached within three feet ofher husband. “My husband beat ayucca stem on the ground to frightenthe lion. It ran off when the yuccabroke in half,” she acknowledged.Bear EncountersBear encounters are often precipitatedby human behaviors. They differfrom mountain lion encounters, whichhappen by chance. Black bears live inevery state and habitat in NorthAmerica, with the exception of extremedesert areas.Grizzly bears live in Alaska,Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, and thenorthwestern Canadian provinces andterritories. Many of the rules for bearconflict avoidance and managementare the same for grizzlies and blacks. AIf you hunt in bear or lion country, get more information:• Most wildlife agencies publish bear and lion brochures,available at no charge.• Go on-line or call. You can find links to wildlife agencies• Log on to for additional informationon bear safety awareness.• Learn more about bears. Take the State of Montana’s bearidentification course. It is fun, free and available on-line at• Mountain Lion Alert by Steven Torres and Bear Aware by BillSchneider are short books, small enough to fit in a shirtpocket.few are different. Many are misunderstood.“The number-one cause of bearencounters resulting in property damageor human injury is poorly storedfood or garbage,” said Mark Bruscino,who works in the Wyoming GrizzlyRecovery Zone for Wyoming Game andFish.Tom Beck, a Colorado researcheragreed. Beck has hunted in some ofColorado’s best black bear habitat for26 years and has never had a bearproblem. He stores his food in locking,steel barrels and always puts up twotents: a cook tent and a sleep tent,even if he is alone. “I do not cook orstore any food in my sleeping tent,”Beck said.Bruscino added, “Bears aresmart. They are long-lived animalsthat depend on learning to survive.They learn where to find elk calves inthe spring and where to find berries inthe fall.” Bears that learn to find foodaround people continue to foragearound people. He struggles with peoplethat do not take his recommendationsto heart. “I tell them, maybe youdon’t care if a bear gets your food, butyou’re creating a problem for someoneelse. Ultimately, a problem bear endsup dead.”Grizzlies and black bears consumea lot of plants, carrion andinsects. However, they are opportunisticand will eat game meat. Still, encountersin the field are uncommon.“Hunters harvest about 50,000 elkand 45,000 deer each year in Coloradoalone, and fewer than 10 incidentsoccur each year with bears at carcasses,”revealed Beck. Most incidentsoccur when hunters leave game in thefield and bears discover it during thenight.The easiest solution is to get yourgame out of the field immediately. Ifthat is not possible, follow these suggestionsto help protect you and youranimal.• Separate the gut pile from the

Grizzlies and black bears consume a lot of plants,carrion and insects. However, they are opportunisticand will eat game meat.… Most incidents occur whenhunters leave game in the field and bears discover itduring the night.CHUCK BARTLEBAUGH PHOTOmeat. Bruscino explained “Bears seemto prefer the heart, lung and liver.Drag either the meat or the gut piledownhill, the farther apart the better.”• Leave something with humanscent, like a sweaty T-shirt, with themeat.• Cover the meat with pineboughs or logs to reduce the odor.Place the carcass where you can see itfrom a distance. Place a stick with flaggingon top.• When retrieving your meat thenext morning, do not go in at firstlight. Wait until visibility is better.Take time watching the carcass from adistance. If the pole with the flaggingmoved during the night, be extra cautious.• Make your presence known.Reduce the chance of surprising abear. If possible, approach upwind, sothe wind carries your scent over thecarcass. Beck added, “There is no reasonto be quiet, your elk or deer isalready dead. If there is a bear feedingon that carcass, it may stand up, givingyou the opportunity to see it.”Bruscino has lots of experiencewith grizzly and blackbears at livestock carcasses. He adviseshunters to avoid encounters at carcassesby maintaining a safe distanceand acting in a manner that does notthreaten bears. “We don’t advise peopleto haze a bear off a carcass. But, inmy experience, the bear leaves once itknows you are there.” If the bear doesnot leave or has consumed most of thecarcass, most states will issue you asecond tag. Be sure to read the regulationsand know how to contact a gamewarden, before you hunt.Bruscino endorses EPA-approvedpepper sprays, advising hunters inbear or lion country to carry and usesprays according to the instructions.“If a bear spent a lot of time sizing meup, I’d have my pepper spray out of theholster and I’d back up slowly,” saidBruscino. Shooting a bear may escalatethe situation to a dangerous andunnecessary level. Bears usually livelong enough to attack their shooters.Bears frequently bluff charge. If abear charges, do not run and do notclimb a tree! Beck explained, “Peoplewho run from a bear can expect twothings. One, the bear will chase themand two, the bear will catch them.”Some grizzlies can climb trees, andhunters are discouraged from climbingtrees.People falsely believe that theyshould curl up in a ball if a bearcharges. This is not the case. If a blackor grizzly bear charges, stand yourground. Be prepared for an actualattack.In the event of a bear attackrespond correctly depending on severalspecific factors: Is the bear a grizzlyor black? Was the attack the result ofan encounter or was the bear in camp?• If attacked by a black bear—fight back.• If attacked by a grizzly bear asthe result of a chance encounter—play dead. Curl into a ball. Cover yourneck and head with your hands and“People who run from a bear can expect twothings. One, the bear will chase them andtwo, the bear will catch them.” -- Tom Beckarms. Stay tucked and do not moveuntil you are sure the bear is gone.• If attacked by a grizzly bear incamp—fight back. Playing dead willNOT work in this situation as the bearhas made a conscious choice to attackyou. Punch, slap or use any objectavailable as a weapon.Hunting memories come frombeing with friends, improvingyour outdoor skills and being anatural predator. Most of us will neverencounter a bear or a mountain lion,but being prepared provides the bestoutcome for all the predators on thehunting grounds. ✛Summer 2003 JOURNAL 27

Effectsof AdrenalineBy Larry Leigh,Yukon HunterEducaton CoordinatorShooting at running deer or elk is not considered ethicaland is also not a safe hunting practice. Another good reasonfor not shooting at running game may also be that itcan affect the quality of your meat. It has been shown thatthe flavor and quality of your wild game may be impactedby the adrenaline level in the animal at the time of its demise. Larry Leigh,Hunter Education Coordinator from the Yukon responds below to the concernsregarding the effect of adrenaline on venison.QUICK KILL BENEFITS: Meat QualityThere are four major benefits to achieving every hunter’sgoal of a quick (one-shot, preferably) kill. They are:• The animal does not suffer unnecessarily.• The animal does not escape.• The animal does not flee to a swamp, river or over a cliff.• The meat is better quality.Unfortunately, some hunters believe a one-shot kill includeshitting the animal once and then refusing to shoot it again whileit staggers around for some time before falling down and dying.PHOTO COURTESY NORTH CAROLINA WILDLIFE RESOURCES COMMISSION28 JOURNAL Summer 2003It is often said, and I cannot find anyone to disagree, that ananimal that is stressed or traumatized, as it would be from a gunshotwound (or other serious injury), often needs more marinadeto be nearly as tasty at the dinner table than one which dies veryquickly from one well placed shot (or two quick shots if necessary).In areas where deer are hunted with hounds, the sameaffect seems apparent in the taste as a result of stress and overheatingduring the chase. To me this is very apparent when thismeat can be compared to the meat from a deer that has beenkilled while just going about its daily business and unaware ofthe hunter.I have been unable to find any scientific reports on this topicbut a typical “hunter opinion based on experience” comes fromSteve Adams of the Alaska Volunteer Hunter Education Associationwho offers, “With 50 years of big game hunting under my

elt, I can tell you that, given identicalfield and subsequent care, the meat ofthe quick-kill animal will be far superiorto the one that has been chaseddown to finish it off.”Further information comes fromLarry Lewis also from Alaska. “I’veeaten quite a bit of meat from“stressed out” animals over the years,as I’m sure most people that eat meathave. (Have you ever been to a slaughterhouseand seen the stress levels inthe cattle, pigs or sheep? They knowsomething bad for them is going on atthe end of the chute.)“Meat can be a little tough fromthe lactic acid that builds up during astressful period in the animal during afight-or-flight response, but it’s all edible.The lactic acid build-up in themuscle tissue inhibits fiber breakdownduring the aging process. Meatfrom an animal that was not killedimmediately or that was killed whileaware of and reacting to danger(stress) may need to be aged longer,cooked slower for longer periods oftime, or used as ground meat. It mayalso have a stronger or “gamey” taste.”Cool, clean and dry are the “buzzwords” of meat care in the field. It maybe that cooling the meat quickly iseven more important when the animalhas been severely stressed by runninghard or having been wounded (orboth), causing it to heat up.In areas of the north or southernareas during fall and winter, it is easierto chill the meat more quickly. Weoften (even with a quick kill) put themeat right into a clear, fast-movingcreek for up to an hour to remove allheat from the muscles. It is then hungor laid out on rocks or willows whileall the water runs off and, of course,we do not allow it to get wet again.I strongly believe that we shouldcontinually emphasize the importanceof shot placement, stalking skills, andthose other attributes that typify thetrue hunters among us. ✛What Ifs…Continued from page 23that a slug should be the first round,Wally points out that a slug is alonger- range projectile and can effectivelykill a bear out to 100 yards. Atthis range, the bear does not present athreat and should not be shot at. Onthe other hand, as Baumann'sresearch indicates, most bear encountersoccur within a limited distance(less than 20 yards) and in a timeframe measured in seconds.Under these conditions, wherethe hair is already standing on theback of your neck and your adrenalineis pumping out by the quart, the averageperson will have limited ability indispatching a bear with a single projectile(slug), most frequently missingthe bear altogether. Baumann pointsout, “Most shooters may be able to hita nice quiet deer standing broadsideto you, but things change when youare on the menu!"The 9 -12 SSG type buckshot isvery effective at close range for eitherstopping or turning a charging bear. Ifa follow-up shot is needed, you havethe second round of buckshot followedby the slug. At this point, thebear should be down, and the shootercan finish the animal off with the slug.Then there are those who chooseto use a handgun for bear protection.Baumann's research indicates a preferenceof a revolver over a semi-automatic.There has been a case wherethe bear is on top of a victim, and itsweight depressed the barrel of thesemi-auto sufficiently to prevent triggerpull and subsequent firing of thehandgun. Revolvers are preferred asthey do not experience this type ofproblem. Calibers should be .357 orgreater, and ball ammo is more effectivethan hollow or soft-point rounds.The latter tend to break up when theystrike a bone, while the ball ammo willremain solid and break the bone thuscrippling and/or continue penetratingand, hopefully, hitting a vital organ ofthe animal.The principles governing the useof a shotgun or handgun as protectionduring a bear attack applies to mountainlions as well. A lion is a muchsmaller target—maybe too small formost hand gunners—therefore a shotgunwould be the overall preferredfirearm.You must be aware of the lawsgoverning the respective protectivetool you select. Bear pepper spray maybe illegal to possess under certain circumstancesand is not allowed on airlines,even in packed luggage. Manyjurisdictions have prohibitions on carryinga handgun for any reason withoutproper permitting, and firearms,in general, are not allowed in state,provincial, or national parks. If thebear happens to be a grizzly, you canguarantee the incident will be investigatedand the facts will be determined.So, don't shoot any bear or lionjust for the fun of it thinking you canget away with telling an Outdoor Life"It Happened to Me" story. Plus, youcertainly will not be allowed to keepthe animal. The carcass will becomethe property of the governing jurisdiction,and you may end up in jail.Report any incident of aggressiveanimal behavior to the authoritieswhether you had to use protectivemeasures or not. You may save the lifeof next person bumping into that animal.In spite of the wild, adventurousvisions this article may conjure up,don't become paranoid of the wild outdoors,but do take precautions and beprepared. ✛Summer 2003 JOURNAL 29

Venison vs. BeefControversy has long raged about the relative quality of venisonand beef as gourmet foods. Some people say that venison istough, with a strong “wild” taste.Others insist that venison is tender and that the flavor is delicate.To try and resolve this issue once and for all,a blind taste test was conducted by a certified research groupto determine the truth of these conflicting assertions.First, a high-choice Holstein steer was selectedand led into a swamp approximately a mile and a halffrom the nearest road.It was then shot several times in various locations throughoutthe carcass.After most of the entrails were removed,the carcass was dragged over rocks and logs, through mud and dust,thrown into the back of a pickup truck bedand transported through rain and snow approximately 100 milesbefore being hung in a tree for several days.During the aging period the temperature was maintained atbetween 25 and 60 degrees.Next the steer was dragged into the garage and skinnedout on the floor.(PLEASE NOTE: Strict sanitary precautions were observed throughoutthe processing within the limitations of the butchering environment.For instance, dogs were allowed to sniff at the steer carcass,but were chased out of the garage if they attempted to lick the carcassor bite hunks out of it. Cats were allowed in the garage,but were always immediately removed from the cutting table.)Next, half a dozen inexperienced but enthusiastic individuals workedon the steer with meat saws, cleavers and dull knives. The result was 200pounds of scrap, 375 pounds of soup bones, four bushels of meat scrapsfor stew and hamburger, two roasts and a half a dozen steaks that werean inch and a half thick on one end and an eighth of an inch on the other.The steaks were then fried in a skillet with one pound of butter and threepounds of onions. After two hours of frying, the contents of the skillet wereserved to three blindfolded taste panel volunteers who were asked if theywere eating venison or beef.Author UnknownSubmitted by New York OfficerTom LutzEvery one of the panel members was sure they were eating venison.One of the volunteers even said it tasted exactly like the venisonhe had been eating at the hunting camp for the last 27 years.The results of this trial showed conclusively that there is no differencebetween the taste of beef and venison.30 JOURNAL Summer 2003

Summer 2003 JOURNAL 31

Teaching 101Teaching New Shotgun ShootersIntroducing a newcomer or a “newbee” to shotgun shootingstarts with a good “UNDERSTANDING.”It’s this understanding that takes a “newbee” to success.Let’s start with Understanding Ammunition: How is it manufactured, how does itwork, and which shotgun shell should be used for which task?Example: Let’s assume you will be introducing the shooter to clay targets.• Clay targets do not require large shot or lots of powder — known as “lite.”• Lite has 2¾ drams of powder and one ounce of #8 shot in a twelve gauge.• Some instructors like to use ammunition marked “low recoil” in 1 ounce of#8 shot.Understanding How the Shotgun WorksInstructors should cover how the gun is loaded and how it works. Also, howto hold a gun while transporting it to and from the shooting location is VERYimportant. Hold the muzzle up and carry it higher than your head.By Ed Augustine,Kansas Volunteer Instructor and PastIHEA Instructor Board RepresentativeUnderstanding How to Fit the Gun to the ShooterMost store-purchased “off-the-shelf” guns come with a 14¼ inch trigger pull,or a measurement from the center of the trigger to the middle of the butt placeon the stock. That’s great if you are a 165 pound adult male, but if you are smallerit is not going to be comfortable and will not result in success for the shooter.A good recommendation, for “newbees” or women or girls of smaller stature,would be guns that have been shortened to 12½ or 13 inches. This puts the facein the proper place on the stock, which means that the form will be more comfortablewith better target visibility.Suggestion: a twelve gauge semi-automatic, such as a Remington 1100 or1187. They are not really fancy and will do about anything you want to do, eitherfor recreational shooting or hunting.Understanding the Proper Shooting PositionProper foot placement is the most important, and most overlooked, element ofshooting form. Think of it as the foundation of the house. If the basement wallsare not plumb, straight, and erect—everything above it to the chimney will needadjustments. Nothing will fit correctly and no matter what you do—you can’t fixit! So let’s get the feet placement correct!• For right-handed shooters, picture a clock on the ground. (One with hands, not digital.) The left footshould point at 12 o’clock and the right foot at 2 o’clock with 6 to 8 inches between the heels. Giveit a try—12 o’clock points at where you will point the gun and where you will break the target. It isalso the center of your “Zone of Fire.” Keep the feet from moving from now on. Next we will positionthe arms.• Again, assuming the shooter is a right-handed, right-eye-dominant person, stand erect and holdyour arms out in front at shoulder height. Move the left hand to the right elbow and the right handto the left elbow.• Take the gun and place it on the right shoulder in the pocket developed when the arms came up.Remember to keep the arms and elbows level with the shoulders. You should place the top of thebutt stock at the top of the shoulder with the muzzle elevated to about 45 degrees.• Next instruct the shooter to place his or her head on the stock and look down the barrel.This should32 JOURNAL Summer 2003UNDERSTANDING:• Ammunition• How the ShotgunWorks• How to Fit theGun to the Shooter• The ProperShooting Position• Proper TargetSelectionERIC NUSE PHOTO

hang the cheekbone on the comb “top” of the gunstock and have thehead properly placed.• Place the left hand on the forearm and the right hand on the grip.• Now slowly lower the gun to horizontal while hunching the right shoulderup a bit, making sure the right elbow remains level with your shoulder.Instructors should now assist the shooter and ask themto move their body forward without moving their feet. Thisresults in the shooter’s left knee barely bending and theywill have about 60 percent of their weight on the front or leftfoot. Now have them move back and forward so that theweight transfer can be felt and learned.Standing with the weight forward allows swinging toeither the left or right smoothly and the pivot can be feltclear to the ankles—as it should be. Each joint of the bodyfrom the ankles up can contribute to the smooth swingwithout straining any muscles to overcome bad foot placement.Note: Make sure the shooter doesn’t spread his or herfeet too far apart as in a baseball stance, just six to eightinches will do.Have the shooter practice this several times until itbecomes a natural stance. As you approach the time toactually shoot, you will want each step along the way to bemastered and understood before you go onto the next step.Proper Target SelectionAt this stage, success is everything. The target shouldbe fun to shoot at and easy to hit. More important is themental picture of the target and the gun muzzle when theshot is taken so that the target breaks. A good selection isto shoot an incoming target. In the field, this would be likea dove coming into a pond, or a duck as it prepares to plopinto the decoys.Use a battery operated, remote-controlled trap for thispractice—placed about 60 yards in front of the shooter.They are easy to use, portable, and allow you to practiceanywhere safety permits.• Adjust the trap to toss a target toward the shooter, rising about 20 feet as ittravels, to land about 10 feet in front of the shooter. The shot is called a “blotshot.”• As the target is thrown from the trap, the shooter swings the gun up andunder the target until the muzzle “blots” out the target. Then bang it andkeep swinging the gun, and pieces fall to the ground.• Sometimes the shooter wants to ride the target before shooting. Rememberthe target is coming closer all the time, and the shot pattern is less the closeryou shoot. Rule of thumb: As the shot leaves the shotgun muzzle, theshot spreads out about one inch for each yard that it travels. So 3 yards—3 inches, 10 yards—10 inches, 20 yards—20 inches, and 30 yards—30inches. So don’t let the shooter wait until the shot gets “righter.” Get the gunswinging and bang the target—the sooner, the better.Next, is to shoot the same target twice. “How can we dothat if we broke it?” you ask. Well, maybe you did. If so,there are pieces still in the air. The range we desire is in the30 to 40 yard area, which is where the shot pattern is reallyworking for you, whether it is clay targets, quail or pheasanttargets.Instructors: A good way to get the shooter to do this isin the instruction presented at the first shot. Tell the “newbee,“If you do the things that you were taught, I guaranteethat you will be breaking targets with confidence by thethird shot and you will be able to break PIECES by the fifthshot.” It is important to get the eyes searching “out there”for the target or piece, NOT looking down the barrel or,heaven forbid, aiming, but seeing the object then movingthe gun until the muzzle touches the target and, bang, successhappens. Most “newbees” are eager to do what you askand will do well if they are not overloaded with details andif what they are asked to do falls within their capabilities.This is kind of sneaking up on the shooting methodcalled the Swing Through method.Here is how this works:If we could hook up a series of cameras and electricalgizmos to the body of a good Swing Through shooter, wewould see the following sequence of events.• As the target is first seen, the shooter starts the gun in motion to come tothe proper shooting stance.• Next the shooter starts swinging the gun along the path of the target, frombehind it. The shooter must swing faster as the target is moving in order tocatch up to it.• At that time, the brain sends a signal to the finger to operate the trigger. Itresponds while the gun is now pointed ahead of the target.• Now, the mechanical thing happens in the gun causing the shell to performits function, all the time the gun is still moving.• Finally the shot leaves the muzzle and flies out at about 1200 feet per secondto seek and destroy the target. And, again, the gun and, therefore, themuzzle keep swinging on the same plane as the target, following the bird ortarget all the way to the ground.Of course, all this takes place in less than the blink ofan eye so we really can’t see it happen in real life, but thegizmos we mentioned earlier could and, in fact, have recordedall of this.This is just a long way of saying, that if we swing to andthrough the target, lead takes care of itself. Make sense?We hope so because it’s the basis for hitting any flyingobject, be it bird or clay. The faster it flies, the faster youmust swing, simple as that!No coaching please by saying “you are shooting behindit.” Rather, coach by saying, “swing faster.”Next bring the trap in and place it to throw outgoing targets,again keeping them “hittable.” Don’t let them get toohigh, just nice, and outgoing, like a quail bursting fromcover and streaking away. As the shooter gains confidenceand is able to pepper these, move the shooter to the left thenthe right to get an angle shot. Again, the Swing Throughmethod comes into play. Inform your shooters to be preparedto make a serious investment in sporting toys, jacket,shells, bags, re-loaders, etc., because the “understanding”is now complete and satisfaction will follow.One other thing!If you have the good fortune to be with a new shooterwhen he or she breaks their first target—STOP for amoment and retrieve that empty shell, make a big dealabout presenting that shell to them—for it is truly a trophyand the first of many happy memories to come! ✛Summer 2003 JOURNAL 33

34 JOURNAL Summer 2003

Wild Game RecipesBear RoastUse a roast that does not have a large amount of fat onor in it, such as a sirloin tip.In a large bowl, mix 1 packet of onion soup mix1-2 bottles of beer or 1 bottle wine (red or white)2 - 4 cups of water (cover roast to marinade)1/2 teaspoon each dry mustard, garlic powder, parsley flakes2 Bay leavesPeppercorns to taste1 Tablespoon meat tenderizerBill & Rose BlackwellJournal, Summer 2003Mix ingredients in a bowl, add roast and let marinate overnight ( 12 hours )Place roast and 1/2 - 3/4 the marinade in a roasting pan. Cover and cook at 300degrees until cooked to desired taste (20 minutes a pound). Remove roast whendone, remove fat off top, and thicken sauce for gravy.Bill & Rose Blackwell, Port Elgin, OntarioCatch It•Cook It•Eat ItBear StewIngredients:4 lbs. meat, cubed1 onion4 Tbsp. Oil1 stick chopped celery3 chopped carrots1 cup diced turnip3 cubed potatoesMethod:1 bay leaf3 Tbsp. frozen peas1 clove diced garlic1 cup beef broth or consommé10 oz. tomato sauce2 Tbsp. Worcestershire sauce1 cup fresh sliced mushroomsLarry LeighJournal, Summer 2003Aboutbear meat:Dredge the meat in flour and brown in oil. Add all the ingredients except thepotatoes, peas, and mushrooms and cook for 1 ½ to 2 hours. Now add the potatoes,cook for 20 minutes, add the mushrooms and peas and cook for 5 minutes. Dropdumplings by spoonfuls on top and cook, uncovered, for 10 minutes. Then cover andcook for 10 minutes longer.Bear Stew recipe from the Yukon Bear, Bacon and Boot Grease recipes book;contributed by Larry Leigh, Yukon Hunter Education Coordinator.• Meat quality, if the animal is carefully fielddressed and correctly cooked, can be excellent. Theflavor resembles pork and venison combined. It is veryrich meat.• Berry-fed bears have the best flavor. Mid to latefall and early spring bears are usually the best choice.Fall bears gorge on berries before denning; spring bearsfeed on over-wintered cranberries uncovered by meltingsnow.• The nutritive value of bear meat surpasses thatof commercially produced beef. As with other wildgame, it is high in protein, minerals and vitamins whilelow in fat and calories as compared with beef.• All bear meat, like domestic pork, must be wellcooked to make it safe for human consumption. Followstandard pork cooking procedures.www.totallywildseasonings.comCatch It, Cook It, Eat Itis sponsored by“Totally Wild Seasonings”Summer 2003 JOURNAL 35

The Patch CollectorIHEA Patches, Part IThe following are patches from IHEA. The original name of the organizationwas the North American Association of Hunter Safety Coordinators(NAAHSC).Membership patches. Not long after theAssociation was formed, the long name(NAAHSC) was shortened to the HunterEducation Association. The next membershippatch introduced with this nameincluded the three flags of the U.S., Canada,and Mexico. One of the designs included thewording, Associate Member. Finally, thename was changed to the InternationalHunter Education Association. The firstpatch with this wording abbreviatedAssociation. The current design (lower right)includes the full wording of the name.NAAHSC patches. These are the first twopatches issued by NAAHSC showing onlytwo of the North American flags. TheAssociate Member patch was availableto individuals who paid a small membershipfee.By Jan MorrisInvestigatorpatch. For thepast severalyears, IHEA incooperation withCentral MissouriState University,in Warrensburg,Missouri, hosts theHunting Incident Investigation Academy.This every-other-year academy isdesigned for state and provincialhunter education staff or law enforcementpersonnel for training in huntingincident investigations. This patchwas first issued in 2000.Academy patches. The original academypatches were marked both NRA and NAAHSC.The lighter green patch also had a matchingdecal. The Instructor Academy patch included all3 flags and the word International. The Administratorpatch is currently being used for theIHEA Administrator’s Academy which is heldevery other year.Youth Challenge Patch.In 1993 and 1994, theNational Rifle Associationpostponed their International Youth Hunter EducationChallenge (YHEC) events due to various circumstances.IHEA made the decision to offer a YouthChallenge event called the North American HunterEducation Invitational (NAHEI) in North Carolina. Thispatch was issued to participants in that one-and-onlyIHEA event.36 JOURNAL Summer 2003Advanced Training. IHEA created this patch that is currentlyavailable to states and provinces to denote AdvancedInstructor Training. The Missouri Hunter Education Instructor’sAssociation distributed this patch to graduates oftheir advanced instructor workshops in the late 1990’s. Thispatch is still currently available from IHEA.Anniversarypatches. In 1997, IHEA issued apatch commemorating the 25thAnniversary of the Association. Again,in 2002, IHEA issued a patch commemorating30 years. In 1999, in conjunctionwith the annual conferencein Buffalo, New York, IHEA issued apatch marking 50 years (1949 -1999)of hunter education. (More next issue.)Author Jan Morris is a formerIHEA Board member, avid patch collector,and Executive Officer for theMissouri Hunter Education Instructor’sAssociation. He can be reached or P.O. Box 38,Imperial, MO 63052.

IHEA INSTRUCTOR RESOURCESIHEA INSTRUCTOR RESOURCESNew! Set of 11 TeachingResource PostersSet of 11 Posters$3.00/set + S&H30 th AnniversaryIHEA T-ShirtAttractive Ash GrayShirt withHunter Green Design$10.00/each + S&HIHEA1972-2002“Safe Huntingis no Accident!”• Collectibles• Teaching Aids• Resource Materials• Incentives and AwardsFor a complete Supply Service catalog,call us at (970) 568-7954, or send aself-addressed stamped envelope to:IHEA Supply Services,P.O. Box 490, Wellington, CO 80549✔ Check out IHEA Supply on the Web:http/www.ihea.comSizes available:Large and XLarge(while supply lasts!)NEW Video Resource!IHEA “Where To Go From Here!” ©Approximately 8 minutesA Recruitment & Retention ResourcePresented by the IHEAProduced by OHEC/Mark LaBarbera$6.00/each, + S&HCall (970) 568-7954 for a completeSupply Service catalog!IHEA Hats!$8.00/each+ S&HHat Colors:Gray with Black embroidered trimBlack/Gold trimBlack/Silver trimNavy Blue/Silver trimForest Green/Black trimBurgundy/Gold trim“SAFE HUNTING IS NO ACCIDENT!”Limited Edition30 th Anniversary IHEA Knifewith engraved display case$65.00/each + S&H30 thAnniversaryIHEA Patch &Lapel Pin$3.00/each + S&HNEW for2003!IHEA Endowment - 10 Commandments of Firearm SafetyLimited Edition Commemorative Patch/Lapel Pin Order FormPlease PrintName: ______________________________________________________________________________________________Address: ____________________________________________________________________________________________City: ________________________________Province/State ____________________Postal Code __________________Phone: ( ) ______________________Fax: ( ) ____________________E-mail: ______________________Indicate # patch(es) to order @ $10.00 ea.: ❏ 2000, Qty ______ ❏ 2001, Qty _______ ❏ 2002, Qty _______Indicate # pin(s) to order @ $5.00 ea.: ❏ 2000, Qty ______ ❏ 2001, Qty _______ ❏ 2002, Qty _______Method of Payment: ❏ Check - Amount Enclosed: $______________________________________________________❏ MasterCard ❏ Visa Card # ____________________________________Expiration Date: __________________Signature____________________________________________________________________________________________❏ Please send additional information on the IHEA Hunter Education Endowment.Mail to: IHEA, P.O. Box 490, Wellington, CO 80549, or call (970) 568-7954

Make It/Teach ItShot SizePurpose: To show the relationship between shot sizeand the distance the shot will travel.This is a very interactive and interesting exercise to students of all ages and makes for a great activity that canbe done outside during a scheduled break. It is desirable to have discussed the relationship between shot sizeand number of pellets in a given load in class prior to this exercise. You will need to prepare, ahead of time, four smallpaper cups that will be marked:#9 Shot (will contain regular sand) #4 Buckshot (will contain small rocks)#7-1/2 Shot (will contain small gravel) Slug (will contain one big rock)Ask for a volunteer (preferably a young student) tocome forward beside you facing the group. Explain that heor she is going to demonstrate the distance that shot ofvarious sizes will travel. Pour the student a small handfulof sand that you explain is similar to #9 shot. Have thestudent turn away from the group at a 90-degree angleand make a horizontal throw simulating a shot from ashotgun.Discuss with the group the distance the shot traveledand what use the shot size might have in hunting andclay target sports.Next, pour the student a small handful of the smallgravel representing #7-1/2 shot and have them make ahorizontal throw in the same direction as before. Thegroup should be able to see that the small gravel will travelfarther than the sand. Reinforce the distance traveledand uses of the shot size.Next, pour the student a handful of small rocks representing#4 buck shot and have the student makeanother throw. Distance will be farther but fewer shot(rocks) will be sent downrange.Finally, hand the student one egg-size rock that canbe thrown in the same horizontal manner. The rock willtravel the longest distance of all shot sizes.Teaching points are:1. The relationship between shot size and distance the shot will travel.2. That as shot sizes increase, pellet number decreases in a given load.3. That shot size must be matched to the target size and the distance the shot will be taken. ✛This exercise was submitted by Texas Hunter Education Instructor, Ricky J. Linex.Please PrintIHEA Instructor Membership ApplicationName: ____________________________________________________________________Address __________________________________________________________________City______________________________________________________________________State ________________________________________Zip ________________________Phone: ( ) ______________________________ Fax: ( ) ________________E-mail: __________________________________________________________________InstructorMembership FeeDonation toIHEA ResourceDevelopment FundTotal Payment$ ________ 25.00$ ________$ ________Method of Payment (US funds only): ❏ Check/Money Order ❏ MasterCard ❏ Visa ❏ New Membership ❏ Renewal MembershipCard Number: __________________________________________________ Expiration Date: __________________________________________________Name on Card: __________________________________________________Signature:________________________________________________________Mail to: IHEA, P.O. Box 490, Wellington, CO 80549, or call (970) 568-7954. For online application, visit JOURNAL Summer 2003

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