Wi-Fi and LTE Coexistence

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Neville Meijers, Vice PresidentMay 2015Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.Wi-Fi and LTECoexistence©2013-2015 QUALCOMM TECHNOLOGIES, INC AND/OR ITS AFFILIATED COMPANIES. ALL RIGHTSRESERVED.1

Licensed spectrum is the foundation to1000xHigher efficiencyFor both licensed &unlicensed spectrum(LTE Advanced and Wi-Fi)More spectrumMore licensed spectrum is the top priorityUse unlicensed spectrum opportunisticallyMore small cells• LTE - Wi-Fi aggregationfor carrier Wi-FiLTE-U for new small cells2

Making best use of unlicensed spectrum for1000xLTE - Wi-Fi Link Aggregationfor carrier Wi-FiUnlicensed2.4 & 5 GHzWi-FiLinkAggregationLicensed400MHz to3.8GHzAlso non-collocatedLTE and Wi-FiBoth solutionswill coexist—even in theLTE Anchor• Seamless userexperience• Unified networkUnlicensed5 GHz LTE-UCarrierAggregationsame network• Best performancewith deepestintegration—LTE-ULTE in unlicensed spectrum (LTE-U)for new small cellsLTE-U in 3GPP Rel 13 is referred to as Licensed Assisted Access (LAA)3

Operator’s assets determine solution:— many will do bothDeeper aggregation and better performanceWi-FiLTE-ULTE - Wi-FiLink AggregationLTE in unlicensedspectrum (LTE-U)Seamless userexperienceUnified networkBetter capacityand coverageBoth solutions will co-exist even in the same networkNotes: Aggregation at modem-level (PDCP level) is a R13 candidate, (dual connectivity defined in R12 for licensed) ; LTE-U based on R10 for certain countries, defined as LAA R13 for4other countries

Non-collocatedWi-Fi(Even with less-thanideal backhaul)LTEMacro/PicoLTE - Wi-Fi (non-collocated)Link AggregationLive Demonstration5

Ensuring fair coexistence betweenLTE-U and Wi-FiMinimum requirementsGoing above and beyond minimum requirementsSpectrum regulationsStandards & specificationsConformance testing• Power and emission levels• Additional channel occupancylimits: Listen Before Talk (LBT)required in Europe and Japan• LTE-U R10 for USA, China,Korea, India and other markets– With dynamicchannelselection & CSAT 1 forfair coexistence• LTE-U R13 LAA 2 for Europe,Japan and beyond– Modified waveform for LBT• Coexistence and fairness test• Expected to be more rigorousthan Wi-Fi testing today• Still allowing fordifferentiation6

LTE-U is a good neighbor – not adverselyaffecting Wi-FiUsing adaptive duty cycle (CSAT) for fair coexistenceWi-Fi AveragethroughputWi-Fiperformanceimproved7 Wi-Fi + 1 Wi-Fi 7 Wi-Fi + 1 LTE-U 6 Wi-Fi + 2 LTE-U 4 Wi-Fi + 4 LTE-UIncreasingLTE-UpenetrationCSAT - Carrier Sensing Adaptive Transmission7

LTE-U R13 LAALive DemoOperator 1Operator 2All sitesLTE +Wi-FiNote: The data rates shown are only for the unlicensed spectrum, with only control and signaling traffic going over licensed spectrum8

LTE-U R13 LAALive DemoOperator 1Operator 2Operator 1:still on Wii-FiWi-Fi performancenot adverselyaffectedOperator 2:One site changedto LTE-U~ 2x ImprovementNote: The data rates shown are only for the unlicensed spectrum, with only control and signaling traffic going over licensed spectrum9

Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. (QTI)advances LTE-U ecosystemIndustry’s first small cell SoCs with LTE-U support, from QTIFSM99xx SoCs for enterprise and metro small cells – available 2H CY15Helping operators make the best use of all available spectrumFSM99xx also supports concurrent 3G/4G operation, dual-carrier 4G with carrier aggregation,and hosted Wi-Fi.Industry’s first RF transceiver with LTE-U for mobile devicesExtending QTI’s RF leadership in LTE AdvancedQTI’s WTR3950 is the first 28nm RF for single-chip Cat 6 carrier aggregation – available 2H CY15Optional WTR4905 transceiver, to support up to 3x20 MHz CA across licensed &unlicensed bandsProven Coexistence with Wi-FiQTI over the air testing not only proved co-existence between multiple LTE-U and Wi-Fi accesspoints, but also revealed that LTE-U can actually improve Wi-Fi performance under extremeload conditions.QTI solutions exceed minimum requirements with standard and pre-standard coex features− Dynamic Channel Selection, Listen Before Talk (LBT), Carrier Sensing Adaptive Transmissions (CSAT),etc.10

Summary: making best use ofunlicensed spectrum for 1000x1• LTE - Wi-Fi linkaggregationfor carrier Wi-FiLTE-U in 5GHz fornew small cells3LTE-UWi-FiLTE-U is a goodneighbor:coexists fairlywith Wi-Fi2≥1xWi-Fi>2xLTE-U• Improvedcoverage andcapacity; createsa unified networkfor all spectrum4• Strong industrysupport for LTE-U, and LTEWi-Ficonvergence;both will coexist11

Thank youFollow us on:For more information on Qualcomm Atheros, visit us at:www.qca.qualcomm.comAll data and information contained in or disclosed by this document is confidential and proprietary information of Qualcomm Atheros, Inc. and all rights therein areexpressly reserved.By accepting this material the recipient agrees that this material and the information contained therein is to be held in confidence and in trust and will not be used,copied, reproduced in whole or in part,nor its contents revealed in any manner to others without the express written permission of Qualcomm Atheros, Inc.© 2013 Qualcomm Atheros, Inc. Qualcomm is a registered trademark of QUALCOMM Incorporated. Atheros is a registered trademark of Qualcomm Atheros, Inc. Allother registered and unregistered trademarks are the property of QUALCOMM Incorporated, Qualcomm Atheros, Inc., or their respective owners and used withpermission. Registered marks owned by QUALCOMM Incorporated and Qualcomm Atheros, Inc. are registered in the United States and may be registered in othercountries.Qualcomm VIVE, Qualcomm StreamBoost, Qualcomm Hy-Fi, Qualcomm IZat, Qualcomm Ethos, Qualcomm Skifta, are products of Qualcomm Atheros, Inc.12

What do we mean by “The Licensed and Unlicensed Spectrum Marriage”?−Aggregation of licensed spectrum and unlicesed spectum− Two ways to do this− At link level with PDCP aggregation at the modem where LTE and WiFi are aggregated, or− At a deeper level where an LTe licensed anchor is aggregated with LTE in unlicensed spectrum. The TLE in unlicensedspectrum is the secondary carrier – either downlink only or both uplink and downlink. It is designed to fairly coexist withWiFIWhat are LAA and LTE-U?−LTE-U is the aggregation of an LTE carrier in licensed spectrum with LTE in unlicensed spectrum. In the US, China, India,Korea and some other markets,Why should wi-fi providers be interested in or concerned about sharing spectrum with cellularoperators?−−−−Regulatory complianceFair sharingCo-existenceIndustry complianceWill cellular “crowd out” the established wi-fi users?− 500MHz or more in most countries− Where cellular uses traditional WiFI access points or does LAA/LTE-U they still use the medium and share itwith other WiFi only usersWhat are the technical and business threats?− Don’t see this as a threat – this is unlicensed spectrum. Any technology can be used in this band so long as itshares the medium fairly which the cellular industry plan to doCould wi-fi providers leverage the opportunity to create cellular-like services?−WiFi could leverage the opportunity using licensed spectrum. QC is investigating the feasibility of a standalone versionof LTE-UWhat should the WBA be doing, what role should it play here?13

Expanded background to the question themes:Stepping back from assumptions first; there’s increasing talk about how services cancoexist and operate between licensed and license-exempt spectrum, but what’s in itfor the wi-fi service providers? Why should they be concerned about this? What arethe benefits, and what are the potential problems?Is it a good move to combine licensed and license-exempt spectrum? We appear tobe accepting that it is, but why?−Not enough spectrum, need to use it efficiently, LTE designed from the start with mobility, QoS, high efficiencyand security in mindThis is a rapidly evolving business area, but already we appear to be freely using, andindeed interchanging, the terms LAA and LTE-U, at least when we talk about the plansof cellular operators. What do they really mean? Are they the same thing? And howwill they impact on wi-fi providers?− Essentially they are the same thing but use different coexistence mechanisms – CSAT and LBTEarlier this month, the US FCC issued a public notice, seeking comment on the use ofLTE-U and LAA technologies in its 3.5GHz band, and others, and how they will coexistwith other technologies, including Wi-Fi. There do appear to be unansweredquestions about whether cellular will overwhelm other unlicensed use of spectrum.Are these concerns well-founded? If the cellular operators are talking 40 and 80MHzchannels for LAA, then with 2-4 operators they be claiming 50% or more of the Wi-Fispectrum. True?− Not if they deploy fair sharing and coexistence mechanisms which are inherent in the design of LTE-U and LAA14

Expanded background to the question themes:And what about interference? Verizon and T-Mobile US have announced they plan todeploy LTE-U in 3.5GHz and 5GHz bands in 2016 and has started, or are about to start,tests, intended to convince Wi-Fi proponents that LTE transmissions in unlicensedspectrum won't unduly affect other users of the bands. What’s the likely outcome?−QC has already done numerous over the air test including public demos at MWC, showing that LTE-U and LAAfairly coexists with WiFiAs well as technical concerns, there is also the potential for anti-competitive behaviorif LTE-U is both proprietary to licensed carriers and can dominate unlicensedbandwidth in busy areas. Again, is this a fair concern? And if so, what needs to bedone? Is the LTE-U Forum trying to lock-out WiFi-first providers and innovative cableoperators, as certain public interest groups fear?− LTE-U is not proprietary – a spec has been published and any vendor can build products to support it.There’s another factor at play here. WiFi has a unique nature; it is inherently verydifferent to cellular and is used very differently by customers. Is there a danger that wewill erode that special nature, and impose cellular-like practices and operations onWiFi services?− No the two can co-exist and will serve different needsOn the other hand, LTE-U techniques could enable wi-fi first operators and cablecompanies to offer cellular-like services, thereby competing with cellular. Surely not asituation the cellular operators want to encourage (I refer to the 3GPP WF documentdoing the rounds from last monthhttp://portal.3gpp.org/ngppapp/CreateTdoc.aspx?mode=view&contributionId=637628 ). But is this something wi-fi operators would like?This is the WBA’s event. How therefore, can the WBA play a role in reconciling15

fast CSAT + CTS2S feature(aka LAA – Licensed Assisted Access).16

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