• People that have the disease have a weak immune system

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Abayomi-Mariam Are` - Harlem Children Society

In the diagram of the cell cycle:

M - mitosis, G1 - first growth,

S - synthesis, G2 - another growth

At each step of the cycle there is a stop

codon to ensure that the cell cycle is

still proceeding successfully.

A-T occurs when the cell cycle gets to

the synthesis stage and the mutated

p53 protein (ATM) breaks the stop

codon and damaged DNA is produced.

the mutation continuously reproduces

without a stop which results in cancer

and other severe damages to the

immune system.

The ATM protein is a member of the

phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase family of

proteins that respond to DNA damage

by phosphorylating key substrates

involved in DNA repair and/or cell cycle


The mutation of the ATM protein forces

it not to repair itself

A-T is an inherited disease that

occurs on chromosome

number 11q22-q23.

Mutations in ATM prevent cells

from repairing DNA damage,

which may lead to cancer

Ataxia can be caused by birth

trauma, a congenital disorder,

infection, a degenerative

disorder, tumor, exposure to a

toxic substance, or head injury

Autonomic recessive disease,

which means that both parents

must carry the defective gene

and a child must inherit one

defective gene copy from each

parent to develop symptoms

If one gene is inherited cancer

might occur but if 2 genes are

inherited then death might

occur at an early age

Chromosome 11

Symptom screening

High incidence of respiratory infection

Gene analysis

Look for slurred speech and drooling

Look for symptoms such as tiny red

lesions on the face and eyes and

decreasing loss of muscle control

especially in infants ages 1-3

1 in every 40,000 to 1 in every 100,000 people get A-T.

Only 500 people in the United States have this disease,

which is why it is called the orphan’s disease.

Joe Kindregan (to the right) was one of the few patients

of A-T. He is a lucky person to have lived past the age of

9. He has been successful and even played in the

movie, Forces of Nature.

Slurred speech,

Poor coordination,

Lack of stability,

Red spider veins

Lack of muscle control

Irregular growth

Above normal intelligence

Mental intelligence

Difficulty swallowing


Weakening of immune system

Premature death

There is no treatment for A-T.

Injections of gamma globulin,

extracts of human blood that

contain antibodies, may

strengthen the weakened

immune system.

Also taking vitamins can help

strengthen your muscles but

very slowly.

Sometimes there are

treatments that make the

symptoms worse.

Only 500 people in the U.S. have A-T

therefore there is not a lot of research

I hope that scientists will do more research

on the disease so that there can be a cure.




Grand army plaza library

Mrs. McMahon


Ms. L. Ufondu (the best living environment teacher)

Mrs. McMahon (the best HCS teacher)

Ms. Janet Gonzalez

Dr. Brennan

Eric Konadeo

Bronx Community College

My family

Dr. Sat Bhattacharya

Frederick Douglass Academy

Cornell Medical Center

NSF( National Science Foundation)

Biological Science Curriculum

HCS Staff

Redeemed Christian Church of God

My audience

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