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Chapter 03: Green building policy measures for greening social housing

and LBNL, 2006). An element to India’s success

in affordable housing provision is through a variety

of policy mechanisms linked to a large quantity

of publicly owned land. Though there is success,

India has around 109 million slum dwellers

(UN-Habitat, 2011c).

Electricity, oil, coal, biomass and gas are India’s

key end-use energy products; the building sector

mainly consumes electricity (for appliances,

heating/cooling and lighting) and gas/biomass/

oil (for cooking). Primary energy sources for

electricity are dominated by coal which is used to

produce 71% of total electricity while hydro power

produces 14%, natural gas 8%, and diesel and

nuclear each represent 3% (De la Rue du Can et

al., 2009). Since the building sector (domestic and

commercial) accounts for approximately 33% of

electricity consumption and is the fastest growing

sector, it is critical that policies and measures are

put in place to improve energy efficiency in both

new construction as well as existing buildings. In

fact it is estimated that 70% of the building stock

in the year 2030 is yet to be built - a situation that is

fundamentally different from developed countries

such as the UK and US (Kumar, et al., 2010).

Policy Assessment

The Indian building sector is moving towards

controlling its GHG emissions, without

compromising on its development objectives,

through a series of policy and market instruments.

Activities have been undertaken to provide a

policy framework for national energy conservation

activities, disseminate information and knowledge,

facilitate capacity building, pilot demonstration

projects and establish energy efficiency delivery

systems through public-private partnerships

(ABPS Infrastructure Private Limited, 2009).

Key policy interventions:


Provide energy use information: labelling of

appliances, energy use information by units

within industrial sectors


Mandate standards: building codes, sectoral

energy consumption norms in industry, market

mechanisms to promote energy efficiency in



Reduce perceived risk: market transformation

and demand side management, performance

guarantee contracting


Incentives: differential taxation, preference in

government procurement

The Indian Ministry of Housing and Urban

Poverty Alleviation (MoHUPA) has developed

several programmes that aim to increase affordable

housing supply and improve existing slums. In

the private sector, however, one issue in affordable

housing provision is that there is a lack of lowerincome

finance options. Without finance private

developers are unable to sell low-cost housing units

which they are able to produce. Some states in India

require a percentage of a private development to

be allocated to the Economically Weaker Section

(EWS), Haryana for example, requires 20 per cent

of total plots in order to obtain a development

licence (UN-Habitat, 2011c).

Table 3.6 illustrates policy instruments which have

been applied to the Indian building sector.


Green building interventions for social housing

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