academic libraries in the age of cooperation - Cornell University ...



Anne R. Kenney

IDS Project Conference 2011

Context for 21 st Century Collections

Financial crisis

Expanding content

Escalating prices

Networked digital access

User expectations

Common emerging needs

Some Assertions About US Libraries

There is a collective wealth bound up in redundant,

inefficient operations and duplicative collections in

academic libraries.

Many of the things we compete over don’t make our

institutions more competitive.

Our history of collaboration may ironically make it

more difficult to do radical collaboration.

Our staff end up doing more work rather than giving

up doing some things.

“I’d give it to you,

but it’s mine.”

Michael Kenney Hickerson

at age 4

Game Changers in Collection Building

Mass digitization

Post Google

Taking on publishers

Open access

Fair use

Scholarly diaspora

Blurring raw and


Crowd sourcing

Selection trends

Beyond reading

Deep collaboration

Mass Digitization


Hathi Trust

Internet Archive

Digital Public Library

of America


The Online Books Page

Post Google Age

Judge Chin favors opt in rather than opt out ruling

Sept 15 deadline for settlement

Legality of scanning and use w/o explicit permission

of rights holders: searching, snippets, full text

E-book lending restrictions

OP a thing of the past?

Asserting fair use

Fair use

GSU e-reserves case

In-Library eBook Lending Program

Michigan, Wisconsin, Florida, and Illinois on

access to orphan works

Taking on Publishers

Bergstrom, Courant,

McAfee cost study

No more NDAs

No to Big Deals

ARL E-book Licensing


Open Access




Taking on Nature and


Open access is the future and we

will build on the pioneering efforts of

the Public Library of Science so that

scientists will have access to this

literature and the data anywhere

they are. Randy Schekeman

Distinctions Between Cooked

and Raw are Blurring

Scholarly communication, dissemination, publication, and peer

review are disaggregating and dispersing

Alternative forms of scholarship and creative expression defy

old models

Data is big and data management and use requirements are


Beyond reading

Crowd sourcing

Citizen Science,

geneologists, and

Dead Heads

Selection Trends

Archiving web content

Patron driven acquisition

Use based decision making (Walker report)


Deep integration of resources, collections,

services, and expertise

Why Columbia and Cornell?

Major research libraries

New York State

Private Ivies

Similar academic


Record of collaboration

Record of innovation

Budget challenges

Will and interest

2CUL Goals

Initial Focus of Our Work

Collective collections

Backroom functions

Technology infrastructure

Business planning; governance

Collective Collection Challenges

Institutional identity, faculty acceptance

Better sense of overlaps and gaps

Financial restrictions, accounting systems

Delivery mechanisms, legal issues

Outreach/research support for faculty and


Collective Collection Challenges


for shared


2CUL Collective Collections

Focus on global collections

Ensure delivery analogous to

request from offsite storage

Share curatorial staff

Progress to Date

Shared Slavic/Eastern Europe Bibliographer and

Southeast Asia Curator

Shared staffing soon for Latin America, South Asia

Coordinated purchasing plan in China

Joint e-resource licensing negotiations

Collection overlap and use analysis underway

New delivery/access agreements

White Paper on resource sharing in 2015

Collection Overlap in WorldCat:

Columbia and Cornell






37% / 35%





Backroom Functions

Shared technical processing, centers of effort

Collective negotiation with vendors for content

and metadata

Connections with leading libraries in other countries

Backroom Functions Challenges

System of “credits” for

work done on behalf

of others

Standard definitions

of good enough



Shared backend


Progress to Date

Pre-order online form tool in use

Reciprocal cataloging pilot for Korean and Turkishlanguage


Chinese mainland vendor pilot

White Paper on 2CUL Technical Services in 2015

RFP and meeting with 3 LMS vendors in April

Technical Infrastructure

Building local cyberinfrastructures

Bridging Institutional Repositories

Layering services on top

Reimagining academic computing

Progress to Date

Chose not to build a joint archival repository

Business/workflow requirements for e-archives

Web archiving, data management, Vivo

Each party supports HathiTrust, Duraspace Gold

Sponsorship, and Archive-It

Digital preservation report for 2CUL e-journals

Most e-journals not in 3 rd Party Archives

Our analysis indicates that LOCKSS and Portico combine to

preserve only a relatively small percentage of the CULs' e-

journal holdings, for example, less than 15% of Cornell e-

journal holdings as a whole. There is overlap in coverage

between the two services, but both services preserve titles


The overall lack of e-journal publisher participation in

preservation programs such as LOCKSS and Portico offers the

two CULs an opportunity to use their individual or combined

influence with publishers [and third party preservation

programs] to improve the state of e-journal preservation as a


Business Planning

Achieving major integration of operations, services,

collections and resources

Reducing cost of overall library activities to direct

resources to new priorities

Increasing revenues through joint proposals

Offering services to other libraries

Bringing in other parties; building strategic


Progress to Date

Developed process for comparing budgetary

apples to apples across institutional lines

Identified end goal in target for cost avoidance,

savings, redirected savings, and joint investment

Regularly submitting joint grant proposals

Initiated discussions around new service offerings

Contracted with legal/business expert to

investigate suitable collaborative models

Some “Ah Ha” Moments

Bringing two organizations together to perpetuate

traditional library models is not a goal but a dead end

It’s got to be seen as being about more not less

Enabling prerequisites for radical collaboration are key

Appreciating cultural differences and need for face

time—from me and thee to we

Importance of trusted third party at the table

Early wins are needed, but longer-term gains are key

Shared governance, budgetary and legal frameworks

come after not before trust and commitment

"Faced with the

choice between

change and proving

there is no need to

do so, most people

get busy on the


John Kenneth Galbraith

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